Science.gov

Sample records for contextual human factors

  1. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  2. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  3. Contextual Factors in Children's Social Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsch, Andrea; Keane, Susan P.

    1994-01-01

    Two steps in the social information process model were assessed for socially accepted and rejected children by verbal responses to stories embedded in computer games. Attributions of intent and aggressive problem solutions were correlated with contextual factors (interpersonal context, outcome of game, and story type) and with sex and social…

  4. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S. PMID:25441326

  5. Consequences of Contextual Factors on Clinical Reasoning in Resident Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have…

  6. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  7. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  8. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    PubMed

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions. PMID:22660988

  9. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  10. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  11. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

  12. Personal and Contextual Factors in the Construction of Acting Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahia, Sara; Janeiro, Isabel; Duarte, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    This research seeks to explore personal and contextual factors that form the basis of formulating and implementing vocational choices in acting careers. The twenty eight student actors that participated in the study were asked to write an auto-biographical description of personal factors and educational opportunities they recognised as decisive…

  13. Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

    2008-01-01

    Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

  14. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  15. Contextual Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Ansah, Evelyn; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. Methods Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. Results Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01–2.01; P-value <0.05) while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29–3.61; P-value <0.01). In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57–0.96; P-value <0.05). Conclusion This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants. PMID:25360709

  16. The Effects of Contextual and Personal Factors on Young Adolescents' Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Matthews, Yanique T.; Montesino, Mario; Arango, Liza; Preece, Krystle K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the proposal that (a) contextual and personal factors affect the endorsement of social goals during early adolescence and (b) contextual factors and social goals may change over time. Self-reports of classroom contextual factors (i.e., promotion of performance goals, social interaction, and mutual respect) and personal…

  17. Contextual Factors, Indoor Tanning, and Tanning Dependence in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan D.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Munshi, Teja; Manne, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study's purpose was to investigate the association of contextual factors such as cost, tanning accessibility, regulations, or marketing and indoor tanning or tanning dependence. Methods One hundred thirty-nine college-aged female indoor tanners completed a questionnaire between 2009 and 2011. Results Higher scores on tanning dependence and assessment in the spring/summer (versus the fall/winter) were associated with more frequent indoor tanning in the last 30 days (ps < .05). More frequent indoor tanning, greater session length, and more trouble paying for tanning were associated with higher scores on tanning dependence (ps < .05). Conclusions Public health research and practice could benefit from attention to such contextual factors as tanning cost and regulations regarding session length. PMID:25741682

  18. Moderating effects of personal and contextual factors in age discrimination.

    PubMed

    Perry, E L; Kulik, C T; Bourhis, A C

    1996-12-01

    The researchers explored personal and contextual factors that inhibit or facilitate the use of older worker stereotypes in a selection context. The authors suggest that older worker stereotypes are more likely to be used and influence applicant evaluations when raters are biased against older workers, when raters do not have the cognitive resources to inhibit the use of age-associated stereotypes, or when applicants apply for age-incongruent jobs. The researchers explored the extent to which raters differing in older worker bias make discriminatory decisions about young or old individuals applying for age-typed jobs under conditions of high- and low-cognitive demands. A laboratory study was conducted with 131 undergraduate students who evaluated applicants in a simulated employment context. Results indicated that older worker bias, cognitive busyness, and job age-type interact to affect the extent to which applicant age plays a role in selection decisions. PMID:9019121

  19. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  20. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  1. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  2. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  3. Individual and Contextual Factors of Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth Perinatally Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV−infected (PHIV+), HIV−affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV− caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV− youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV− youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22694193

  4. The price of access: capitalization of neighborhood contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of neighborhood context on health behavior have not considered that the health benefits of context may be ‘capitalized’ into, or included in, higher housing values. This study examines the associations of better neighborhood context with neighborhood housing values. Methods We use the third wave of Add Health (2000-2001) to estimate the association of neighborhood contextual variables and housing values first across then within income types. This is a census block group-level analysis. Results We find that neighborhood context, especially access to fruit and vegetable outlets, is capitalized into, or associated with, higher housing values. Fast food and convenience store access are associated with lower housing values. Capitalization differs by income quartile of the neighborhood. Even those in the poorest neighborhoods value access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and those in the wealthier neighborhoods value activity resources. All neighborhood incomes types place negative value on fast food access and convenience store access. Conclusions Access to health-related contextual attributes is capitalized into higher housing prices. Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is valued in neighborhoods of all income levels. Modeling these associations by neighborhood income levels helps explain the mixed results in the literature on the built environment in terms of linking health outcomes to access. PMID:23927010

  5. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  6. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  7. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  8. The Influence of Contextual Factors on the Sustainability of Professional Development Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how contextual factors influenced the sustainability of outcomes from a 3-year, state-funded professional development program that provided science assistance for K-2 teachers in small, rural school districts. The research used a case-study approach with a purposive sample of five elementary schools that varied in…

  9. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  10. Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  12. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  13. Understanding and Interpreting Japanese NP1 "wa" NP2 "da" Sentences: Mechanism and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contextual factors that affect the understanding and interpretation of one Japanese topicalized construction, NP[subscript 1] wa NP[subscript 2] da sentences, by native speakers of Japanese. The construction allows two possibilities in the relation between the NP[subscript 1] and the NP[subscript 2]. When the two…

  14. The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

  15. Individual and Contextual Factors Influencing Special Education Teacher Learning in Literacy Learning Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Mary T.; Lauterbach, Alexandra A.; Dingle, Mary P.; Boardman, Alison G.; Urbach, Jennifer E.; Leko, Melinda M.; Benedict, Amber E.; Park, Yujeong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, researchers operated from cognitive and situated perspectives to understand how individual qualities and contextual factors influenced elementary special education teachers' learning in a multifaceted professional development (PD) project, Literacy Learning Cohort, focused on word study and fluency instruction. Grounded theory…

  16. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  17. Understanding the Contextual Factors that Influence School Counselors' Multicultural Diversity Integration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer-Williams, Catherine L.; Jay, Michelle L.; Evans, Kathy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the contextual factors that influence a school counselor's decision to actively integrate multicultural diversity in his/her work. Through using the Integrating Multicultural Diversity Questionnaire (IMDQ) the effectiveness of multicultural diversity training, the types of multicultural diversity practices that are used with…

  18. Physician, Patient and Contextual Factors Affecting Treatment Decisions in Older Adults with Cancer: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tariman, J. D.; Berry, D. L.; Cochrane, B.; Doorenbos, A.; Schepp, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review physician, patient, and contextual factors that affect treatment decision-making in older adults diagnosed with cancer and relate these factors to theoretical models of decision-making. Data Sources PubMed (1966-April 2010), PsycINFO (1967-April 2010) and CINAHL (1982-April 2010) databases were searched to access relevant medical, psychological and nursing literature. Data Synthesis Physician factors in treatment decisions include physician personal beliefs and values, expertise, practice type, perception of lowered life expectancy, medical factors, power, and communication style. Patient factors include personal beliefs and values, ethnicity, decisional control preferences, previous health-related experience, perception of the decision-making process, and personal factors. Contextual factors include availability of caregiver, lack of insurance, poor financial status, and geographical barrier. The interplay of physician, patient, and contextual factors are not well understood. Existing models of decision-making are not sufficient to explicate TDM process in older adults diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions Clinical studies in older adult patient population using a longitudinal and prospective design are needed to examine real-time interplay of patient, physician, and contextual factors and to better understand how these divergent factors influenced actual treatment decisions. Implications for Nursing Oncology nurses can advocate for a patient’s autonomy during TDM by coaching them to seek evidence-based discussion of various treatment options, benefits and risks assessments, and truthful discussion of the probability of success for each treatment option from their physicians. Oncology nurses must promote an informed treatment decisions that are consistent with a patient’s personal preference and values within the limits of the patient’s personal contexts. PMID:22201670

  19. Contextual and Individual Factors Influencing Periodontal Treatment Needs by Elderly Brazilians: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dalazen, Chaiane Emilia; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; dos Santos, Mara Lisiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between periodontal treatment needs by elderly Brazilians and contextual as well as individual variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the need for clinical periodontal treatment, based on National Oral Health Survey (SB Brasil 2010) data on the presence of dental calculus, shallow (3–5 mm) and deep (≥ 6 mm) periodontal pockets, and gingival bleeding in elderly people (n = 7,619). The contextual variables included the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), income inequality (Gini Index) and coverage of the municipal population by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams.<0} The individual variables were sex, income, education level and self-reported skin color. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) between periodontal treatment needs and the contextual as well as individual variables. Results Gingival bleeding was found in 20.7% of the elderly analyzed (n = 1,577), dental calculus in 34% (n = 2,590), shallow periodontal pockets in 15.6% (n = 1,189), and deep periodontal pockets in 4.2% (n = 320). Individual factors were correlated with all the outcomes assessed. Sex was a protective factor in regard to gingival bleeding (OR = 0.87; CI95% 0.76–1.00), dental calculus (OR = 0.86; CI95% 0.75–0.99), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.69; CI95% 0.60–0.80) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.58; CI95% 0.45–0.74). It was found that fewer women needed treatment. Elderly people who self-reported having nonwhite skin had higher chances of needing periodontal treatment. Skin color was a risk factor for gingival bleeding (OR = 1.32; CI95% 1.14–1.53), dental calculus (OR = 1.32; CI95%1.14–1.54) and shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 1.27; CI95% 1.09–1.49). Education level was associated with the presence of dental calculus (OR = 0.77; CI95% 0.66–0.89), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.86; CI

  20. Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

  1. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Contextual Dependency of Subjective Values: Converging Evidence from Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J.; Bouret, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. PMID:25653384

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. PMID:25653384

  3. Contextual Factors in the Health of People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Siantz, Elizabeth; Nicasio, Andel; Guarnaccia, Peter; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    People living with serious mental illness (SMI) have shorter life expectancies than the general population. We examined how contextual factors influence the physical health of this population. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and participant observations with stakeholders from six behavioral health organizations. We found that consumers’ avoidance of overt disagreement during medical visits, their mistrust of medical institutions, and cultural variations in body image influenced the clinical encounter. Mental health providers’ ambivalence about intervening in consumers’ physical health, primary care providers’ misattribution of physical symptoms to mental disorders, and providers’ stigmatization of consumers shaped clinical encounters. Consumers’ diets were shaped by food environments and social norms associated with traditional diets. Internal and external factors impacted consumers’ physical activity. In this article, we illustrate the importance of considering contextual factors in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at improving the physical health of people with SMI. PMID:24966198

  4. Contextual Factors in the Health of People With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Siantz, Elizabeth; Nicasio, Andel; Guarnaccia, Peter; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-06-25

    People living with serious mental illness (SMI) have shorter life expectancies than the general population. We examined how contextual factors influence the physical health of this population. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and participant observations with stakeholders from six behavioral health organizations. We found that consumers' avoidance of overt disagreement during medical visits, their mistrust of medical institutions, and cultural variations in body image influenced the clinical encounter. Mental health providers' ambivalence about intervening in consumers' physical health, primary care providers' misattribution of physical symptoms to mental disorders, and providers' stigmatization of consumers shaped clinical encounters. Consumers' diets were shaped by food environments and social norms associated with traditional diets. Internal and external factors impacted consumers' physical activity. In this article, we illustrate the importance of considering contextual factors in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at improving the physical health of people with SMI. PMID:24966198

  5. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  6. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  7. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  8. Individual and Contextual-Level Factors Associated with Continuity of Care for Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guada, Joseph; Phillips, Gary; Ranbom, Lorin; Fortney, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined rates of conformance to continuity of care treatment guidelines and factors associated with conformance for persons with schizophrenia. Subjects were 8,621 adult Ohio Medicaid recipients, aged 18–64, treated for schizophrenia in 2004. Information on individual-level (demographic and clinical characteristics) and contextual-level variables (county socio-demographic, economic, and health care resources) were abstracted from Medicaid claim files and the Area Resource File. Outcome measures captured four dimensions of continuity of care: (1) regularity of care; (2) transitions; (3) care coordination, and (4) treatment engagement. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the association between individual and contextual-level variables and the four continuity of care measures. The results indicated that conformance rates for continuity of care for adults with schizophrenia are below recommended guidelines and that variations in continuity of care are associated with both individual and contextual-level factors. Efforts to improve continuity of care should target high risk patient groups (racial/ethnic minorities, the dually diagnosed, and younger adults with early onset psychosis), as well as community-level risk factors (provider supply and geographic barriers of rural counties) that impede access to care. PMID:23689992

  9. Anchoring contextual analysis in health policy and systems research: A narrative review of contextual factors influencing health committees in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir

    2015-05-01

    Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its

  10. Context Matters: The Experience of 14 Research Teams in Systematically Reporting Contextual Factors Important for Practice Change

    PubMed Central

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L.; Waitzman, Norman J.; Cronholm, Peter F.; Halladay, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, David L.; Solberg, Leif I.; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Wise, Christopher G.; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K.; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A.; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E.; Parchman, Michael L.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. METHODS Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. RESULTS The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research. PMID:23690380

  11. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  12. Contextual Factors Influencing U.S. College Students' Decisions to Drink Responsibly

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study qualitatively (n = 13—convenience) explored contextual factors influencing decisions to drink responsibly, and quantitatively (n = 729—random) assessed the prevalence of these factors and whether they varied as a function of sex and binge-drinking status. Data were collected in 2007 among Texas college students. The constant comparison model was used to analyze the qualitative data, while one-way ANOVAs and logistic regression were employed to assess the quantitative data. Effect sizes are reported for all significant ANOVA interactions. Psychometric properties are supplied for all quantitative scales. Implication and limitations are noted, and future research directions discussed. PMID:22662910

  13. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  14. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203

  15. Organizational citizenship behavior and social loafing: the role of personality, motives, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Tan, Min Li

    2008-01-01

    The present study integrates the literature on social loafing and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors examined the roles of personality, motives, and contextual factors in influencing the work behaviors of OCB and social loafing. In a sample of 341 individuals working in project groups, with data collected over 3 time periods, the authors found that conscientiousness was negatively related to social loafing. They also found the known positive relation of OCB with conscientiousness. Felt responsibility was negatively related to social loafing. The authors found no significant relations between social loafing and OCB motives. PMID:18350846

  16. Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Collins, David; Ogilvie, Kristen; Grube, Joel; Johnson, Knowlton

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697). The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities. PMID:22564464

  17. Domestic Dogs Use Contextual Information and Tone of Voice when following a Human Pointing Gesture

    PubMed Central

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the ‘context’ condition as opposed to the ‘no context’ condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice. PMID:21765904

  18. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  19. Autonomic Functioning Moderates the Relations between Contextual Factors and Externalizing Behaviors among Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Bubier, Jennifer L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Breiner, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has identified various child-specific and contextual risk factors associated with externalizing behaviors, there is a dearth of literature examining child × context interactions in the prospective prediction of externalizing behaviors. To address this gap, we examined autonomic functioning as a moderator of the relation between contextual factors (i.e., neighborhood cohesion and harsh parental behaviors) and externalizing behaviors. Participants were an ethnic minority, inner-city sample of first through fourth grade children (N = 57, 50% male) and their primary caregivers who participated in two assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results indicated that baseline sympathetic functioning moderated the relation between (a) neighborhood cohesion and externalizing behaviors and (b) harsh parental behaviors and externalizing behaviors. Post-hoc probing of these interactions revealed that higher levels of neighborhood cohesion prospectively predicted (a) higher levels of externalizing behaviors among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, and (b) lower levels of externalizing behaviors among children with attenuated baseline sympathetic functioning. In addition, among children with heightened baseline sympathetic functioning, higher levels of harsh parental behaviors prospectively predicted higher levels of externalizing behaviors. PMID:19685985

  20. Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on ‘limited prosocial emotions’ (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10–12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10–12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10–12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10–12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  1. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  2. The Influence of Contextual Factors on the Sustainability of Professional Development Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated how contextual factors influenced the sustainability of outcomes from a 3-year, state-funded professional development program that provided science assistance for K-2 teachers in small, rural school districts. The research used a case-study approach with a purposive sample of five elementary schools that varied in instructional time in science several years after the funding period. The primary data sources were teacher surveys and interviews conducted 2 and 3 years after the end of the professional development program. The findings highlight variations across schools and the influence of principal support, resources, collegial support, personal commitment, and external factors. The research holds practical implications for enhancing long-term sustainability of professional development outcomes in science education.

  3. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    PubMed

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma. PMID:26184704

  4. [Alcohol consumption in men punished for intimate partner violence: individual and contextual factors].

    PubMed

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided. PMID:23487276

  5. Correlates for legal help-seeking: contextual factors for battered women in shelter.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M

    2009-01-01

    Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214

  6. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation. PMID:14669890

  7. College Students’ Drinking Motives and Social-Contextual Factors: Comparing Associations across Levels of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143

  8. College students' drinking motives and social-contextual factors: Comparing associations across levels of analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions' drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking-social and conformity motives-showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking-enhancement and coping motives-demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future microlongitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25546143

  9. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  10. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  11. Personal and contextual factors predicting patients' reported quality of life: exploring congruency with Betty Neuman's assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hinds, C

    1990-04-01

    The search for factors which influence seriously ill people's quality of life continues to generate both interest and research. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 87 patients with lung cancer who ranged between the ages of 38 and 82 years. The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether relationships existed between patients' preferences for illness-related information, their satisfaction with family functioning, their level of learned resourcefulness and their reported quality of life. This paper focuses on the results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis which identified seven factors, namely, prognosis, surgery, current radiotherapy, performance status, self-control skills (learned resourcefulness), preference for information and age-group, which accounted for 30% of explained variance in patients' reported quality of life. No single factor contributed a substantial amount of the variance in this sample's reported quality of life. This observation suggests differences in people's perceptions of these factors and their importance to them. These results support a conclusion that people's evaluation of their quality of life is subjective, changeable and depends on the circumstances they face. Congruence between the assumptions underlying Neuman's health care system model, and the personal and contextual nature of these seven factors in patients' quality of life are explored. These findings are relevant for practice. PMID:2341691

  12. The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Methods Data from 27,878 ZCTA5s in the contiguous United States without an extreme change in the number of 6 types of food stores/services (supermarkets, small-size grocery stores, convenience stores, fresh/specialty food markets, carry-out restaurants, and full-service restaurants) were used. ZCTA5s’ contextual factors were from the 2000 Census. Numbers of food stores/services were derived from the Census Business Pattern databases. Linear regression models assessed contextual factors’ influences (racial/ethnic compositions, poverty rate, urbanization level, and foreign-born population%) on 1-year changes in food stores/services during 2000–2001, adjusted for population size, total business change, and census regions. Results Small-size grocery stores and fresh/specialty food markets increased more and convenience stores decreased more in Hispanic-predominant than other areas. Among supermarket-free places, new supermarkets were less likely to be introduced into black-predominant than white-predominant areas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30-0.92). However, among areas without the following type of store at baseline, supermarket (OR = 0.48 (0.33-0.70)), small-size grocery stores (OR = 1.32 (1.08-1.62)), and fresh/specialty food markets (OR = 0.70 (0.53-0.92)) were less likely to be introduced into areas of low foreign-born population than into areas of high foreign-born population. Higher poverty rate was associated with a greater decrease in supermarket, a less decrease in small-size grocery stores, and a less increase in carry-out restaurants (all p for trends <0.001). Urban areas experienced more increases in full

  13. Japanese Encephalitis Risk and Contextual Risk Factors in Southwest China: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatial and Spatiotemporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing; Cao, Mingqin; Feng, Hai-Huan; Fan, Heng; Chen, Fei; Feng, Zijian; Li, Xiaosong; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is valuable to study the spatiotemporal pattern of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and its association with the contextual risk factors in southwest China, which is the most endemic area in China. Using data from 2004 to 2009, we applied GISmapping and spatial autocorrelation analysis to analyze reported incidence data of JE in 438 counties in southwest China, finding that JE cases were not randomly distributed, and a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal model identified the east part of southwest China as a high risk area. Meanwhile, the Bayesian hierarchical spatial model in 2006 demonstrated a statistically significant association between JE and the agricultural and climatic variables, including the proportion of rural population, the pig-to-human ratio, the monthly precipitation and the monthly mean minimum and maximum temperatures. Particular emphasis was placed on the time-lagged effect for climatic factors. The regression method and the Spearman correlation analysis both identified a two-month lag for the precipitation, while the regression method found a one-month lag for temperature. The results show that the high risk area in the east part of southwest China may be connected to the agricultural and climatic factors. The routine surveillance and the allocation of health resources should be given more attention in this area. Moreover, the meteorological variables might be considered as possible predictors of JE in southwest China. PMID:24739769

  14. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

  15. Schools as Sanctuaries: A Systematic Review of Contextual Factors Which Contribute to Student Retention in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Eva; Salmon, Nancy; Murphy, Carol-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Early school leaving is an international concern. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review is aimed to gather marginalised young peoples' perceptions concerning contextual factors that contributed to and interfered with their decisions to stay in alternative education.…

  16. Contextual Risk Factors as Predictors of Disruptive Behavior Disorder Trajectories in Girls: The Moderating Effect of Callous-Unemotional Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) features may delineate a severe and persistent form of conduct problems in children with unique developmental origins. Contextual risk factors such as poor parenting, delinquent peers, or neighborhood risk are believed to influence the development of conduct problems primarily in children with…

  17. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  18. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  19. Contextual conditioning enhances the psychostimulant and incentive properties of d-amphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Learned associations between drugs and the places they are used are critical to the development of drug addiction. Contextual conditioning has long been studied in animals as an indirect measure of drug reward, but little is known about the process in humans. Here, we investigated de novo contextual conditioning with d-amphetamine in healthy humans (n = 34). Volunteers underwent four conditioning sessions conducted in two testing rooms with double-blind, alternating d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo administration. Before conditioning procedures began, they rated the two rooms to examine pre-existing preferences. One group (Paired, n = 19) always received d-amphetamine in their least preferred room and placebo in the other during conditioning sessions. Another group (Unpaired, n = 15) received d-amphetamine and placebo in both rooms. Subjective drug effects were monitored at repeated times. At a separate re-exposure test, preference ratings for the drug-associated room were increased among the Paired group only, and more subjects in the Paired than the Unpaired group switched their preference to their initially least preferred room. Also, ratings of d-amphetamine drug liking independently predicted room liking at test among the Paired group only. Further, Paired group subjects reported greater stimulation and drug craving after d-amphetamine on the second administration, relative to the first. This study supports preliminary findings that humans, like animals, develop a preference for a place associated with d-amphetamine that is related to its subjective effects. These findings also suggest that experiencing d-amphetamine in a consistent environment produces context-dependent changes in its subjective effects, including an enhanced rewarding efficacy and abuse potential. PMID:22129527

  20. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. PMID:26854497

  1. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  2. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980

  3. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  4. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    using the results for chapters two and three to identify aspects of engagement and learning in science. These findings motivate a set of variables and analytic approach that is undertaken in chapter four. Specifically, the questions how engagement influences experiences in ninth grade science and students' interest in pursuing a career in STEM using the HSLS:09 data. This multifaceted study contributes to the conceptualization of student engagement, and will help bring clarity to the relationship among engagement, context, and long-term outcomes in science. Engagement is more than being on-task or paying attention, but is a condition influenced by many factors including student background, the learning context of the classroom, teacher characteristics, and the features of instruction. Understanding this relationship between engagement and contextual factors is helpful in uncovering teacher actions and instructional activities that may elicit higher engagement in science classes. These findings highlight the importance of science instruction using more cognitively-demanding activities, such as problem-based learning.

  5. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  6. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  7. Contextual Factors Among Indiscriminate or Large Attacks on Food or Water Supplies, 1946-2015.

    PubMed

    Brainard, Julii; Hunter, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    This research updates previous inventories of malicious attacks on food and water and includes data from 1946 through mid-2015. A systematic search of news reports, databases, and previous inventories of poisoning events was undertaken. Incidents that threatened or were intended to achieve direct harm to humans and that were either relatively large (more than 4 victims) or indiscriminate in intent or realization were included. Agents could be chemical, biological, or radionuclear. Reports of candidate incidents were subjected to systematic inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as validity analysis (not always clearly undertaken in previous inventories of such attacks). We summarize contextual aspects of the attacks that may be important for scenario prioritization, modelling, and defensive preparedness. Opportunity, and particularly access to dangerous agents, is key to most realized attacks. The most common motives and relative success rate in causing harm were very different between food and water attacks. The likelihood that people were made ill or died also varied by food or water mode and according to motive and opportunity for delivery of the hazardous agent. Deaths and illness associated with attacks during food manufacture and prior to sale have been fewer than those in some other contexts. Valuable opportunities for food defense improvements are identified in other contexts, especially food prepared in private or community settings. PMID:26889577

  8. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Immigrant Youth Feeling Unsafe in School: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J; Crosby, Shantel; Jozefowicz, Debra M Hernandez; Lee, Jeoung Min; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing proportion of immigrant youth in U.S. school districts, no studies have investigated their perceptions of their school. This study examines factors associated with perceptions of school safety among immigrant youth within individual, family, peer, and school contexts. Data were drawn from Wave II of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (n = 4288) and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. African-Americans, females, and youth with limited English proficiency were more likely to perceive their school as unsafe. Youth who reported that family cohesion was important and those who had close friends perceived their school as safe. Also, those who experienced illegal activities in school reported feeling unsafe. Assessment and intervention in schools needs to consider individual and contextual factors associated with perceptions of school safety. Additional research is needed to examine individual and contextual factors related to immigrant youths' perceptions of school. PMID:26137983

  9. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    PubMed

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  10. Personal and Contextual Factors in the Escalation of Driving after Drinking Across the College Years

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2014-01-01

    College students continue to drive after drinking at alarmingly high rates. Age trends suggest that driving after drinking increases from late adolescence across the college years, largely mirroring trends in binge drinking. Relatively little research, however, has examined change over time in driving after drinking among college students or tested whether some students might be at greater risk of escalations in driving after drinking. Using a sample of 1,833 non-abstaining students who completed surveys for 7 semesters across the college years, we tested whether personal (i.e., age of drinking onset, gender, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking) and contextual (i.e., college residence) factors were associated with changes in driving after drinking. Using latent growth curve modeling, we found significant individual differences in rates of change in driving after drinking. Male students and students who began drinking earlier in life increased in driving after drinking more rapidly, whereas living in on-campus housing was associated with time-specific decreases in driving after drinking. These results demonstrate the value of considering driving after drinking from a longitudinal perspective and suggest possible avenues toward preventing the public health consequences of intoxicated driving. PMID:22229535

  11. Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine "helping," "joining in," and "doing nothing" when witnessing cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. PMID:24838667

  12. Individual and contextual factors associated with patterns of aggression and peer victimization during middle school.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Amie F; Farrell, Albert D

    2013-02-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of aggressive and victimized youth, and to examine social-cognitive and environmental factors that differ across these subgroups. Participants were a predominantly African-American (i.e., 68 %) sample of 502 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (45 % male, Mean age = 12.6 years) attending three urban public middle schools, who completed self-report measures of aggression, victimization, and associated individual and contextual factors. LCA identified four classes of adolescents representing non-victimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized youth, and well-adjusted youth. Class differences were found on measures of beliefs supporting fighting, beliefs against fighting, perceived effectiveness of inept nonviolent responses to conflict, behavioral intentions to engage in aggressive and nonviolent behavior, self-efficacy for nonviolent behavior, and peer and parental support for aggression and nonviolence. For example, within the two classes of victimized youth, aggressive-victims reported greater intentions to engage in physical aggression and inept nonviolent behavior, and were more likely to agree with beliefs supporting the use of instrumental and reactive aggression, and beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary compared to predominantly victimized youth. These findings emphasize the importance of developing preventive interventions that target the specific needs of distinct subgroups of adolescents. PMID:23160659

  13. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems

    PubMed Central

    LENGUA, LILIANA J.; BUSH, NICOLE R.; LONG, ANNA C.; KOVACS, ERICA A.; TRANCIK, ANIKA M.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8–12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children’s adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children’s level of effortful control. For children lower in effortful control, socioeconomic risk was related to significantly higher initial levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and decreases over time. However, children lower in effortful control had higher levels of problems at all three time points than children higher in effortful control. Maternal risk was associated with increases in internalizing for children lower in effortful control, and environmental risk was related to increases in internalizing and externalizing problems for children lower in effortful control, but not those higher in effortful control. Children who were lower in effortful control appeared to experience more adverse effects of contextual risk than those higher in effortful control, suggesting that interventions aimed at improving children’s effortful control might serve to protect children from increased risk of adjustment problems associated with contextual risk factors. PMID:18423092

  14. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Bush, Nicole R; Long, Anna C; Kovacs, Erica A; Trancik, Anika M

    2008-01-01

    Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8-12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children's adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children's level of effortful control. For children lower in effortful control, socioeconomic risk was related to significantly higher initial levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and decreases over time. However, children lower in effortful control had higher levels of problems at all three time points than children higher in effortful control. Maternal risk was associated with increases in internalizing for children lower in effortful control, and environmental risk was related to increases in internalizing and externalizing problems for children lower in effortful control, but not those higher in effortful control. Children who were lower in effortful control appeared to experience more adverse effects of contextual risk than those higher in effortful control, suggesting that interventions aimed at improving children's effortful control might serve to protect children from increased risk of adjustment problems associated with contextual risk factors. PMID:18423092

  15. Personal and contextual factors influencing the use of constructivist practices in the secondary science internship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles Joseph

    This dissertation reports a study that focused on the personal and contextual factors that influenced twelve student teachers' use of constructivist practices during their internship. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of twelve practicing secondary science interns during 1998 and 1999. Data came from researcher's direct observation of intern teaching practice. Data also came from the words of the participants through interviews, reflective pieces, and the documents of the internship. Results from this study revealed three major factors consistently influencing intern use of constructivist practices: (a) personal history informing beliefs and practices, (b) content and pedagogical understanding, and (c) cooperating teacher interpretation of the curriculum and associated pacing regime. How interns learned and liked science best as students formed early beliefs about how to best learn and teach science. With adequate content and pedagogical understanding, interns were able to explore more constructivist ways of teaching their curriculum. Interns had the most freedom in implementing constructivist practices under cooperating teachers who viewed the curriculum conceptually and taught at a slower pace. Principals and state mandated testing influenced this view. The minor or negligible influences on intern use of constructivist practices in most cases in this study included: (a) classroom management and student behavior, (b) interns' view of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, and (c) availability of resources. Results were used to construct a model explaining intern use of constructivist practices in this study. Interns with beliefs about teaching and learning science that included constructivist practices were able to fulfill their personal role identities as teachers under two main conditions: (a) adequate content and pedagogical understanding and (b) conceptual based curriculum with less restrictive pacing

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  17. Contextual Risk Factors as Predictors of Disruptive Behavior Disorder Trajectories in Girls: The Moderating Effect of Callous-Unemotional Features

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) features may delineate a severe and persistent form of conduct problems in children with unique developmental origins. Contextual risk factors such as poor parenting, delinquent peers, or neighborhood risk are believed to influence the development of conduct problems primarily in children with low levels of CU features. However, longitudinal studies examining the moderating effect of CU features on the relation between contextual risk factors and conduct problems trajectories in girls are rare. Methods Growth curve analysis was conducted using five annual measurements of ODD/CD behaviors in a community sample of 1233 girls aged 7–8 at study onset. The relation between contextual risk factors in multiple domains (i.e., family, peer, community) and trajectories of ODD/CD behaviors across time were examined for girls with differing levels of CU features. Results Growth curve analysis indicated that CU features were associated with chronically high levels of ODD/CD symptoms over time. Low levels of parental warmth were also associated with chronically high levels of ODD/CD, and this effect was particularly pronounced for girls with high CU features. Exposure to harsh parenting was associated with higher ODD/CD behaviors for girls in childhood regardless of their level of CU features, but this effect dissipated over time. Conclusions Girls with elevated CU features who are exposed to low levels of parental warmth seem to exhibit particularly severe ODD/CD symptoms and should be targeted for intensive intervention in childhood. PMID:20735513

  18. Supporting and promoting personhood in long term care settings: contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Elena O; Anderson, Ruth A; Calkin, Joy; Chu, Charlene H; Corazzini, Kirsten N; Dellefield, Mary E; Goodman, Claire

    2012-12-01

    The need for personhood-focused long-term care (LTC) is well-documented. A myriad of sociocultural, political, nursing/professional and organisational contexts facilitate or hinder registered nurses (RNs)' capacity to ensure personhood-focused LTC. Complexities derive from the countless interrelated aspects of these contexts, blurring clear distinctions of causality, responsibility and accountability. Context-related complexities were highlighted at a recent international conference attended by invited experts in LTC leadership from six countries (Canada, USA, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand and Sweden). The group was convened to explore the value and contributions of RNs in LTC (McGilton, , International Journal of Older People Nursing 7, 282). The purpose of this paper is to expand the discussion of personhood-focused care beyond RNs, to contexts that influence the RN's capacity to ensure personhood-focused practices are embedded in LTC settings. Consistent with key topics covered at the international conference, we selected four major contexts for discussion in this paper: (i) sociocultural, (ii) public policy/financing/regulation, (iii) nursing/professional and (iv) organisational. For each context, we provide a brief description, literature and examples from a few countries attending the conference, potential impact on personhood-focused practices and RN strategies to facilitate personhood-focused care. The knowledge gained from attending to the influence of contextual factors on the RN's role in facilitating personhood-focused practices provides critical insights and directions for interventions aimed to maximise RN role effectiveness in LTC. In practice, understanding linkages between the various contexts offers indispensable insight for LTC nurse leaders charged with managing day-to-day operations and leading quality improvement initiatives that promote personhood-focused practices. PMID:23164251

  19. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  20. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  1. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  2. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  3. Contextual Factors in the Activation of First Hypotheses: Expert-Novice Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobus, Pie P. M.; And Others

    The role of contextual information in the generation of early hypotheses during the clinical interview was studied with expert and novice medical diagnosticians: 18 experienced family physicians versus 5 new physicians and 12 final-year medical students. The 18 experts and 17 novices were presented with 32 short case histories each presented on…

  4. Predicting Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: Parent and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola

    2011-01-01

    We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…

  5. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    settlements. Conclusion Although the literature on neighborhood and health is increasing, little attention has been paid to criteria for demarcating neighborhoods. The proposed method is well-structured, available in open-access software, and easily reproducible, so we expect that new experiments will be conducted to evaluate its potential use in other settings. The method is thus a potentially important contribution to research on intra-urban differentials, particularly concerning contextual factors and their implications for different health outcomes. PMID:20587046

  6. ICF-based functional components and contextual factors as correlates of perceived quality of life for youth with chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Virginia; DeWit, David; Miller, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based functional components and contextual factors associated with perceived quality of life (QOL) for youth with chronic conditions from the perspective of youth and parents. Method: Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study examining predictors of changes in perceived QOL for youth with chronic conditions. 439 youth aged 11–17 (and one of their parents) completed a questionnaire. Standardized tools were used to measure youth functioning, contextual factors and perceived QOL. Multivariate linear regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic and health information, were conducted to explore correlations among youth functioning/contextual factors and youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL. Results: Significant (p ≤ 0.05) negative correlates with both youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included pain/other physical symptoms and emotional symptoms. Significant factors positively correlated with youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included school productivity and spirituality. Other significant positive correlates of youth perspectives were family social support and school belongingness/safety. Family functioning was positively correlated, and youth social anxiety and environmental barriers were negatively correlated, with parent perceptions of youth QOL. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of factors upon which services aimed at improving perceived QOL of youth with chronic conditions could be based. Implications for Rehabilitation This study supports the utility of clinicians assessing the QOL of youth with chronic conditions in terms of youths' and their families' perspectives. This is the first study to identify key factors that impact perceived QOL at one point in time across a group of youth with chronic conditions, offering clinicians a main starting-point for considering youths' strengths and needs and the

  7. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  8. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  9. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  10. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  11. Exploring the Links Between Macro-Level Contextual Factors and Their Influence on Nursing Workforce Composition

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2012-01-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to healthcare human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between non-nursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries. PMID:22513839

  12. Quantifying contextuality.

    PubMed

    Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; Kłobus, W; Wójcik, A

    2014-03-28

    Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

  13. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior

  14. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  15. Contextual Determination of Human Thinking: About Some Conceptual and Methodological Obstacles in Psychology Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses some conceptual and methodological obstacles that one encounters when analyzing the contextual determination of thinking in psychology. First, we comment upon the various representations of the "cognitive" individual that have been formed over the years--from the epistemic subject to the psychological subject, and…

  16. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  17. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  18. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2]. PMID:26568974

  19. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-12-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2]. PMID:26568974

  20. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  1. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  2. Unraveling the Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Affective States and Contextual Factors in Parkinson’s Disease: A Feasibility Study of the Experience Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Kuijf, Mark L.; Van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; van Os, Jim; Leentjens, Albert F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Parkinson's disease (PD), the complex relationship between motor symptoms, affective states, and contextual factors remains to be elucidated. The Experience Sampling Method provides (ESM) a novel approach to this issue. Using a mobile device with a special purpose application (app), motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors are assessed repeatedly at random moments in the flow of daily life, yielding an intensive time series of symptoms and experience. The aim of this study was to study the feasibility of this method. Method We studied the feasibility of a five-day period of ESM in PD and its ability to objectify diurnal fluctuations in motor symptom severity and their relation with affect and contextual factors in five PD patients with motor fluctuations. Results Participants achieved a high compliance, with 84% of assessment moments completed without disturbance of daily activities. The utility of the device was rated 8 on a 10-point scale. We were able to capture extensive diurnal fluctuations that were not revealed by routine clinical assessment. In addition, we were able to detect clinically relevant associations between motor symptoms, emotional fluctuations and contextual factors at an intra-individual level. Conclusions ESM represents a viable and novel approach to elucidate relationships between motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors at the level of individual subjects. ESM holds promise for clinical practice and scientific research. PMID:26962853

  3. Contextual and Community Factors Associated with Youth Access to Cigarettes through Commercial Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines contextual and community level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by 4 confederate buyers (2 males and 2 females) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licensing and cigarette tax were included. Results Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an ID. At the community level, higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African Americans were associated with increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licensing were associated with retailer asked for ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets whereas smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco. PMID:23092887

  4. Contextual factors in substance use: a study of suburban and inner-city adolescents.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; D'Avanzo, K

    1999-01-01

    Objectives in this research were to examine contextual differences in correlates of substance use among high school students. The focus was on two broad categories of adjustment indices: personal psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) and behaviors reflecting social competence (academic achievement, teacher-rated classroom behaviors, and peer acceptance or rejection). Associations between drug use and each of these constructs were examined in two sociodemographically disparate groups: teens from affluent, suburban families (n = 264), and low socioeconomic status adolescents from inner-city settings (n = 224). Results indicated that suburban youth reported significantly higher levels of substance use than inner-city youth. In addition, their substance use was more strongly linked with subjectively perceived maladjustment indices. Comparable negative associations involving grades and teacher-rated behaviors were found in both groups, and among suburban males only, substance use showed robust positive associations with acceptance by peers. Results are discussed in terms of developmental perspectives on adolescent deviance, contextual socializing forces, and implications for preventive interventions and treatment. PMID:10624729

  5. Corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor antagonism in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupts contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned fear to a predator odor.

    PubMed

    Asok, Arun; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-08-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays a critical role in fear and anxiety. The BNST is important for contextual fear learning, but the mechanisms regulating this function remain unclear. One candidate mechanism is corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) acting at CRF type 1 receptors (CRFr1s). Yet, there has been little progress in elucidating if CRFr1s in the BNST are involved in different types of fear (conditioned and/or unconditioned). Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of antalarmin, a potent CRFr1 receptor antagonist, injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and into the dorsolateral BNST (LBNST) during single trial contextual fear conditioning or exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin disrupted unconditioned freezing to TMT. In contrast, ICV and LBNST antalarmin disrupted the retention of contextual fear when tested 24h later. Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin affected baseline or post-shock freezing-indicating antalarmin does not interfere with the early phases of contextual fear acquisition. Antalarmin did not (1) permanently affect the ability to learn and express contextual fear, (2) change responsivity to footshocks, or (3) affect the ability to freeze. Our findings highlight an important role for CRFr1s within the LBNST during contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned predator odor fear. PMID:27153520

  6. INFORMING INTERVENTIONS: THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PREDICTION OF SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Sevelius, Jae M.; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Hart, Stacey L.; Schwarcz, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies contextual factors that predict risky sexual behavior among 153 transgender women who participated in a structured survey soliciting information on demographics, substance use, HIV status, risk behaviors, and other health and psychosocial factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors. Inconsistent condom use was associated with stimulant use, unstable housing, and recruitment site. Substance use during sex was associated with unstable housing and stimulant use. Sex work was associated with hormone use, gender confirming surgeries, and younger age. When developing interventions for transgender women, it may be useful to focus on predictors of risk behavior rather than predictors of current HIV status (i.e., race/ethnicity as “risk factor”), because these behaviors are the target of interventions aimed at sexual risk reduction. Implications include potential benefits of context-specific interventions, structural interventions addressing barriers to housing and health care, and culturally specific substance abuse treatment programs for transgender women. PMID:19397434

  7. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  8. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byme, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current Shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. Training efforts in FY07 strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center operations. Beginning in January 2008, the training research effort will include team training prototypes and tools. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  9. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin; Sandor, Aniko

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 08 (FY08) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: (1) Risk associated with poor task design (2) Risk of error due to inadequate information (3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design

  10. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  11. Contextualizing Gay-Straight Alliances: Student, Advisor, and Structural Factors Related to Positive Youth Development Among Members

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig. D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Mathew P.

    2014-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict wellbeing? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% white; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served, training, control) and contextual factors (overall support or advocacy, outside support for the GSA) that predicted purpose, mastery, and self-esteem were tested. In multilevel models, GSA support predicted all outcomes. Racial/ethnic minority youth reported greater wellbeing, yet lower support. Youth in GSAs whose advisors served longer and perceived more control and were in more supportive school contexts reported healthier outcomes. GSA advocacy also predicted purpose. Ethnographic notes elucidated complex associations and variability in how GSAs operated. PMID:25176579

  12. The relationship between the quality of cooperative learning, students' goal preferences, and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Hijzen, Daphne; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This study examined relationships between the quality of cooperative learning (CL) and students' goal preferences and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom. Subjects were 1,920 students in secondary vocational schools. The study focused on four different types of goals: social support, belongingness, mastery, and superiority goals. It was found that social support goals had the strongest relation with the quality of CL. Further we found that the quality of CL was best predicted by a combination of social support goals, evaluations of the extent that students were taught cooperation skills, perception of teacher monitoring behavior, and the availability of academic and emotional peer support. Female students' preferences for mastery and social goals were stronger than those of male students, whereas male students had a stronger preference for superiority goals. Program type functioned as a moderator variable within the relation of students' superiority/ individuality goals and the quality of CL. PMID:16433658

  13. Contextualizing gay-straight alliances: student, advisor, and structural factors related to positive youth development among members.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P; Gray, Mary L; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R; Shaw, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served, training, control), and contextual factors (overall support or advocacy, outside support for the GSA) that predicted purpose, mastery, and self-esteem were tested. In multilevel models, GSA support predicted all outcomes. Racial/ethnic minority youth reported greater well-being, yet lower support. Youth in GSAs whose advisors served longer and perceived more control and were in more supportive school contexts reported healthier outcomes. GSA advocacy also predicted purpose. Ethnographic notes elucidated complex associations and variability as to how GSAs operated. PMID:25176579

  14. Investigating the Interpersonal and Contextual Factors Govern Saudi Lecturers' Motivation in Creating Innovative Blended Learning Environment That Web 2.0-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghanmi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining success in higher education within an ever-changing landscape largely depends on academics' motivation to cope with it. Essentially, this study aims to explore the interpersonal and contextual factors that govern the introduction of blended learning in a Saudi context. A collective case study approach was employed with Self-…

  15. Characteristics of Systems and Leadership in K-12 Public School Educational Technology Programs: Understanding Data Use, Decision Making, and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case research study examines how leaders use data to inform decisions related to technology use, including how they use enGauge program evaluation data, identifies leadership practices and related contextual factors present in four K-12 public school districts. This research study examines the questions: What are the…

  16. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  17. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Parent and Family Contextual Factors that Impact Community Mental Health Services for Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…

  18. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  19. Individual and Contextual Factors Influencing Engagement in Learning Activities after Errors at Work: A Replication Study in a German Retail Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicher, Veronika; Mulder, Regina H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study is to identify relevant individual and contextual factors influencing learning from errors at work and to determine if the predictors for learning activities are the same for the domains of nursing and retail banking. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional replication study was carried out in…

  20. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  1. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Pre-Kindergarten Teachers' Responsiveness to the MyTeachingPartner Coaching Intervention.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amy M; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; DeCoster, Jamie; Hamre, Bridget K; Downer, Jason T; Williford, Amanda P; Pianta, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    With research findings indicating positive associations between teacher-child interaction quality and children's development and learning, many professional development efforts now focus on improving the ways in which teachers interact with children. Previous work found that MyTeachingPartner (MTP), a web-mediated coaching intervention, improved teachers' classroom interactions with children, and further analysis found that improvement in teachers' interactions was mediated by their responsiveness to the MTP intervention. The current study assessed how teacher characteristics, including demographics, beliefs, and psychological factors, as well as contextual characteristics related to multiple measures of teachers' responsiveness to MTP. Findings show that related factors vary across the different indicators of responsiveness. Specifically, the psychological factors of anxiety and readiness to change related to multiple indicators of responsiveness. Further, readiness to change and self-efficacious beliefs moderated the associations between classroom poverty and responsiveness. Study findings provide new insights into key teacher characteristics that might identify teachers in need of intervention adaptation or support to ultimately increase overall responsiveness. PMID:25433821

  2. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  3. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: The mediating role of social and contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M.; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. PMID:25462602

  4. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  5. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  6. Protective Factors for Children of Alcoholics: Parenting, Family Environment, Child Personality, and Contextual Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lisa C.; Chassin, Laurie

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors that would ameliorate the risk for substance abuse problems among children of alcoholics (COA), and to explore mechanisms of protection, particularly the Stress-Buffering model. Protective factors for children of alcoholics were examined in a controlled study (N=386). Three possible models are…

  7. Social contextual factors and tobacco use among Indian teachers: Insights from the Bihar School Teacher’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Eve M.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Stoddard, Anne; Gupta, Prakash; Mathur, Neha; Lando, Harry; Aghi, Mira; Shulman, Laura; Viswanath, Vish; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use within India has significant effects on the global burden of tobacco-related disease. As role models and opinion leaders, teachers are at the forefront of tobacco control efforts, yet little is known about their own tobacco use. This study examines the association between factors in the social environment and tobacco use among teachers in Bihar, India. The study was based on the Bihar School Teachers’ Study baseline survey. Seventy-two Bihar government schools (grades 8–10) were randomly selected for the study and all school personnel were invited to complete the survey in June/July in 2009 and 2010. We assessed the relation between social contextual factors and current smoking/smokeless tobacco use by fitting a series of logistic regression models. After controlling for clustering of teachers in schools and other covariates, our results showed teachers with one or more coworkers who used tobacco were twice as likely to be smokeless tobacco users as teachers with no co-workers who used tobacco. Teachers who reported rules prohibiting smoking at home were significantly less likely to smoke than teachers without such rules. Older male teachers also had significantly greater odds of smoking/using smokeless tobacco. These findings provide direction for future interventions targeting the social context. PMID:25657167

  8. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  9. Resisting Smoking When a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a smoking best friend, initiation was predicted by trouble at school, household access, poorer grades and delinquency, whereas escalation was predicted by depressive symptoms. There was little evidence that the examined individual difference factors moderate the association between gaining a smoking best friend and increased adolescent smoking. Results point to the challenges of identifying factors that may lead adolescents to be more or less susceptible to the influence of pro-smoking friends. PMID:22389575

  10. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  11. Individual and Contextual Factors for Bullying and Peer Victimization: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivolo, Alana M.; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.

    2011-01-01

    The Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is committed to preventing youth violence. For the past decade, DVP has supported research on risk and protective factors associated with youth interpersonal violence and the development and evaluation of prevention programs. This commentary addresses…

  12. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers' parenting practices in the postdeployment environment.

    PubMed

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S

    2015-08-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  13. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Patterns of Aggression and Peer Victimization during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…

  14. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  15. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  16. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  17. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  18. Contextual Factors and Vocational Interests in South Asian Americans' Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    Examining vocational interests is a central component of career counseling; yet, little research has investigated structural differences for specific subpopulations or the role of cultural factors on vocational interests. The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of interests, congruence between expressed and measured interests, and…

  19. Resisting Smoking when a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…

  20. A Global Study on the Influence of Neighborhood Contextual Factors on Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Sangowawa, Adesola; Yu, Chunyan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study uses data collected as part of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study to: 1) compare the perceptions of neighborhood-level factors among adolescents across five different urban sites; 2) examine the associations between factors within the physical and social environments; and 3) examine the influence of neighborhood-level factors on two different health outcomes -- violence victimization in the past 12 months and ever smoked. Methods Across five urban sites (Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai), 2320 adolescents aged 15-19 years completed a survey using ACASI technology. To recruit adolescents, each site used a respondent-driven sampling method, which consisted of selecting adolescents as ‘seeds’ to serve as the initial contacts for recruiting the entire adolescent sample. All analyses were conducted with Stata 13.1 statistical software, using complex survey design procedures. To examine associations between neighborhood-level factors, as well as among our two outcomes, violence victimization and ever smoked, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Across sites, there was great variability in how adolescents perceived their neighborhoods. Overall, adolescents from Ibadan and Shanghai held the most positive perceptions about their neighborhoods, while adolescents from Baltimore and Johannesburg held the poorest. In New Delhi, despite females having positive perceptions about their safety and sense of social cohesion, they had the highest sense of fear, as well as the poorest perceptions about their physical environment. The study also found that one of the most consistent neighborhood-level factors across sites and outcomes was witnessing community violence, which was significantly associated with smoking among adolescents in New Delhi and Johannesburg, and with violence victimization across nearly every site except Baltimore. No other neighborhood-level factor exerted

  1. Childhood parental loss and adult psychopathology: effects of loss characteristics and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H; Ross, Nicole S; Carpenter, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood parental death and childhood parental separation are linked to lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders after controlling for related risk factors. Participants were 105 individuals from the community, including a group with separation/desertion from a parent, a group with childhood parental death, and a matched control group whose parents remained married and living together. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression, family psychiatric history, childhood maltreatment, and childhood parental relationships. Participants with separation/desertion and those with parental death were significantly more likely than the control subjects to report the subsequent onset of symptoms of a depressive or anxiety disorder. These effects were not fully explained by parental relationships or childhood maltreatment. However, in the group with parental separation only, family history of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for the apparent effect of parental separation. These findings indicate that parental death may be a specific risk factor for depressive and anxiety disorders. For parental separation/desertion, our results highlight the overriding influence of risk factors that commonly co-occur with this form of parental loss. PMID:19069576

  2. Motivators and Barriers to Latinas’ Participation in Clinical Trials: The Role of Contextual Factors

    PubMed Central

    London, Laricca; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Song, Minna; Nagirimadugu, Ankita; Luta, Gheorghe; Sheppard, Vanessa B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Latinas are underrepresented in clinical trials despite the rise in Hispanic population. This study examines the factors associated with Latinas’ willingness to participate in preventive breast cancer randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Methods Women self-identifying as Latina, over age 40, with no prior history of breast cancer were eligible. Using the Behavior Model for Vulnerable Populations, we administered a survey (n=168) to assess predisposing (e.g., knowledge), enabling (e.g., trust) and need factors (e.g., risk perception). Intention to participate was defined using a lenient (maybe, probably or definitely) and a stringent criterion (probably and definitely). Chi-square tests and logistic regression models examined the associations of predisposing, enabling, and need factors with women’s intentions to participate in RCTs. Results Most participants (74.9%) were monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrants. Most (83.9%) reported willing to participate in clinical trials using the lenient definition (vs. 43.1% under the stringent definition). Using the lenient definition, the odds of willing to participate in RCTs were significantly lower for unmarried women (OR=.25, 95% CI=.08–.79) and those with lower cancer risk perceptions (OR=.20, 95% CI=.06–.63), while being significantly higher for women with lower language acculturation (OR=6.2, 95% CI=1.8–20.9). Using the stringent definition, women who did not endorse a motivation to enroll to help family members (if they had cancer) had significantly lower odds to report intent (OR=.33, 95% CI=.13–.86). Conclusion Many RCTs may have limited generalizability due to the low representation of minorities. Culturally targeted interventions that address the importance of family for Latinos may ultimately increase their participation in RCTs. PMID:25433203

  3. Contextual factors and alcohol consumption control policy measures: the AMPHORA study background.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    Drinking alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in European cultural and economic history, and European consumption trends have varied over time during the decades following WW II. How and why such consumption patterns have changed, and what are the roles that societies' transformations play in these changes are the AMPHORA project's focus. Preventive alcohol consumption control policies have been developed for a long time; during different eras, in different ways and in different countries. How have and do formal policies affect such changes? These questions stimulated a group of 40 researchers from 12 European countries and 14 institutions to investigate the interactions between selected socio-demographic and economic factors, alcohol control policy measures, alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm that occurred in 12 European countries between 1960 and 2008. PMID:24963555

  4. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  5. Seclusion and the importance of contextual factors: An innovation project revisited.

    PubMed

    Boumans, Christien E; Egger, Jos I M; Bouts, Richard A; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seclusion rates between psychiatric facilities cannot be adequately explained by patient characteristics alone and there is a growing awareness of the influence of 'cultural' and staff factors on the use of seclusion. In this study, staff variables as well as seclusion parameters were investigated during the implementation of an innovation project, against the background of an institutional program to reduce the use of coercive measures. The results demonstrate the impact of confidence within the team, staffing level and communication with the patient on nurses' decisions on seclusion. The importance of the organizational context is further illustrated by the negative effects of organizational instability on nurses' attitudes and decision making with respect to seclusion, and on seclusion rates. A reduction in the use of seclusion was achieved after the implementation of the innovation project; however, during a period of organizational turmoil, the work engagement scores of staff decreased and the use of seclusion increased. The results of this study show the vulnerability of innovations within the continuously changing organizational context of mental health care. PMID:25846558

  6. Human factors and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.

    1996-11-01

    A case study was presented in the 1994 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC, 94) which discussed the importance of investigating human factors in the design of a high integrity protection system (HIPS) to be installed on an offshore high pressure gas platform, (SPE reference ADSPE 80). This paper will follow up on the design changes, installation and operation of the HIPS with emphasis on practical implications as a result of improper integration of human factors in the system reliability and risk assessment studies.

  7. Impact of Contextual Factors on the Effect of Interventions to Improve Health Worker Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mickan, Sharon; Willcox, Merlin; Roberts, Nia; Bergström, Anna; Mant, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Africa bears 24% of the global burden of disease but has only 3% of the world’s health workers. Substantial variation in health worker performance adds to the negative impact of this significant shortfall. We therefore sought to identify interventions implemented in sub-Saharan African aiming to improve health worker performance and the contextual factors likely to influence local effectiveness. Methods and Findings A systematic search for randomised controlled trials of interventions to improve health worker performance undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa identified 41 eligible trials. Data were extracted to define the interventions’ components, calculate the absolute improvement in performance achieved, and document the likelihood of bias. Within-study variability in effect was extracted where reported. Statements about contextual factors likely to have modified effect were subjected to thematic analysis. Interventions to improve health worker performance can be very effective. Two of the three trials assessing mortality impact showed significant reductions in death rates (age<5 case fatality 5% versus 10%, p<0.01; maternal in-hospital mortality 6.8/1000 versus 10.3/1000; p<0.05). Eight of twelve trials focusing on prescribing had a statistically significant positive effect, achieving an absolute improvement varying from 9% to 48%. However, reported range of improvement between centres within trials varied substantially, in many cases exceeding the mean effect. Nine contextual themes were identified as modifiers of intervention effect across studies; most frequently cited were supply-line failures, inadequate supervision or management, and failure to follow-up training interventions with ongoing support, in addition to staff turnover. Conclusions Interventions to improve performance of existing staff and service quality have the potential to improve patient care in underserved settings. But in order to implement interventions effectively, policy

  8. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  9. Human factors in underwater systems.

    PubMed

    Crosson, D

    1993-10-01

    Applications of human factors to undersea engineering and the relationship to aerospace science are explored. Cooperative ventures include the TEKTITE underwater habitat and development of better procedures to prevent decompression sickness. Other research involved the use of alternate gases in diving systems, remote-operation vehicles, and diving system tests. PMID:11541030

  10. Inner City Human Factors Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Albert R.

    This evaluation examines the degree to which human factors support, relate to, or impede the successful achievements of Polaroid's Inner City mission to provide on-the-job training for the career development of disadvantaged workers. The program is cited as a model for industry-based career education. Background information is provided on the…

  11. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  12. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual factors on the death inquiry

  13. Contextual Specificity of Extinction of Delay but Not Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grillon, Christian; Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Chavis, Chanen

    2008-01-01

    Renewal of an extinguished conditioned response has been demonstrated in humans and in animals using various types of procedures, except renewal of motor learning such as eyeblink conditioning. We tested renewal of delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in a virtual environment in an ABA design. Following acquisition in one context (A, e.g., an…

  14. Optimizing human factors in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpit; Ankola, Anil V.; Hebbal, Mamata

    2013-01-01

    Occupational health hazards among dental professionals are on a continuous rise and they have a significant negative overall impact on daily life. This review is intended to provide the information regarding risk factors and to highlight the prevention strategies for optimizing human factors in dentistry. Risk factors among dentists are multifactorial, which can be categorized into biomechanical and psychosocial. To achieve a realistic target of safety and health at work, prevention is clearly the best approach; therefore, musculoskeletal disorders can be reduced through proper positioning of dental worker and patient, regular rest breaks, general good health, using ergonomic equipment, and exercises designed to counteract the particular risk factors for the dental occupation. However, substantial evidences are still required to elucidate the potential risk factors and to formulate effective prevention programs. PMID:23946745

  15. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  16. On the Role of Linguistic Contextual Factors for Morphosyntactic Stabilization in High-Level L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartning, Inge; Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Hancock, Victorine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer contextual linguistic explanations for morphosyntactic deviances (MSDs) in high-level second language (L2) French (30 nonnative speakers vs. 10 native speakers). It is hypothesized that the distribution of formulaic sequences (FSs) and the complexity of information structure will influence the occurrence of…

  17. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  18. The Relative Effects of Environmental, Internal and Contextual Factors on Organizational Learning: The Case of Hong Kong Schools under Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack; Pang, S. K. Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Path analyses of information from 780 Hong Kong elementary and 1,197 secondary teachers in the midst of national reforms indicated that internal school conditions (transformational leadership, supportive culture, flexible structure) promoted organizational learning and change. External and contextual conditions provided incentives and motivation…

  19. Factors Influencing Choices of Contextualized versus Traditional Practices with Children and Adolescents Who Have Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Heather; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') use of contextualized practices (i.e., functional, personally relevant, nonhierarchical, and collaborative) compared with traditional practices (i.e., clinical, generic, hierarchical, and expert driven) with school-age children and adolescents with traumatic…

  20. Homo floresiensis Contextualized: A Geometric Morphometric Comparative Analysis of Fossil and Pathological Human Samples

    PubMed Central

    Baab, Karen L.; McNulty, Kieran P.; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism (“cretinism”) and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo. PMID:23874886

  1. Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; McNulty, Kieran P; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism ("cretinism") and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo. PMID:23874886

  2. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  3. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  4. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process. PMID:11537619

  5. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Egner, Lars E; Lugo, Ricardo G; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient’s positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient’s emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients’ expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. PMID:26586970

  6. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Egner, Lars E; Lugo, Ricardo G; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments. PMID:26586970

  7. Human factors and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Handyside, James; Suresh, Gautham

    2010-03-01

    Human factors analysis (HFE) presents a formidable contribution to quality improvement (QI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The science behind the fundamental principles concerning the design of work systems that match the needs of the people who work in them is sound and is applied widely in other safety critical situations. Early application of HFE in NICUs has shown the usefulness of these methods for frontline teams working to improve quality, reliability, and safety. The inclusion of human factors considerations in the design of structure and process has the potential to improve outcomes for patients and families and to improve the comfort and usability of work systems for providers who work in them. New technologies and continual change must be informed and designed through the application of HFE methods and principles to realize the full potential of QI. PMID:20363451

  8. Human factors in incident reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

  9. Client and therapist views of contextual factors related to termination from psychotherapy: A comparison between unilateral and mutual terminators

    PubMed Central

    WESTMACOTT, ROBIN; HUNSLEY, JOHN; BEST, MARLENE; RUMSTEIN-MCKEAN, ORLY; SCHINDLER, DWAYNE

    2010-01-01

    Contextual variables potentially influencing premature termination were examined. Clients (n = 83) and therapists (n = 35) provided parallel data on early working alliance, psychotherapy termination decision (unilateral vs. mutual), clients’ reasons for termination, and barriers to treatment participation. When clients unilaterally ended therapy, therapists were only partially aware of either the extent of clients’ perceived improvements or their dissatisfaction. When termination was mutually determined, there were no differences between client and therapist ratings of termination reasons. Although working alliance and barriers to treatment participation were rated as lower in the context of unilateral termination by clients and therapists, all clients rated the early alliance and barriers to treatment more highly than did therapists. Results have implications for understanding premature termination and suggest future research examining the utility of therapist feedback regarding contextual variables in terms of retaining clients in therapy. PMID:20560091

  10. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Parent and Family Contextual Factors that Impact Community Mental Health Services for Children with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family factors in children’s mental health services; however, stakeholders differed in reports of which factors were most salient. Specifically, clinicians endorsed most factors as being equally salient, while parents described a few salient factors, with parental stress and inadequate social support being the most frequently discussed. These qualitative data further elucidate the context of community services and have implications for evidence-based practice implementation and improving community care. PMID:21170419

  11. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  12. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  13. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  14. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  15. Human factors in space telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Howard, R. D.; Oliveria, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of interfacing a human with a teleoperation system, for work in space are discussed. Much of the information presented here is the result of experience gained by the M.I.T. Space Systems Laboratory during the past two years of work on the ARAMIS (Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems) project. Many factors impact the design of the man-machine interface for a teleoperator. The effects of each are described in turn. An annotated bibliography gives the key references that were used. No conclusions are presented as a best design, since much depends on the particular application desired, and the relevant technology is swiftly changing.

  16. The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition. PMID:24608366

  17. The Impact of Personal Background and School Contextual Factors on Academic Competence and Mental Health Functioning across the Primary-Secondary School Transition

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten - Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten - Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten - Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition. PMID:24608366

  18. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  19. Human Factors Checklist: Think Human Factors - Focus on the People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy; Stelges, Katrine; Barth, Timothy; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Dischinger, Charles; Kanki, Barbara; Kramer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A quick-look Human Factors (HF) Checklist condenses industry and NASA Agency standards consisting of thousands of requirements into 14 main categories. With support from contractor HF and Safety Practitioners, NASA developed a means to share key HF messages with Design, Engineering, Safety, Project Management, and others. It is often difficult to complete timely assessments due to the large volume of HF information. The HF Checklist evolved over time into a simple way to consider the most important concepts. A wide audience can apply the checklist early in design or through planning phases, even before hardware or processes are finalized or implemented. The checklist is a good place to start to supplement formal HF evaluation. The HF Checklist was based on many Space Shuttle processing experiences and lessons learned. It is now being applied to ground processing of new space vehicles and adjusted for new facilities and systems.

  20. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  1. Prefrontal neuronal circuits of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rozeske, R R; Valerio, S; Chaudun, F; Herry, C

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, numerous studies have provided a clear understanding of the neuronal circuits and mechanisms involved in the formation, expression and extinction phases of conditioned cued fear memories. Yet, despite a strong clinical interest, a detailed understanding of these memory phases for contextual fear memories is still missing. Besides the well-known role of the hippocampus in encoding contextual fear behavior, growing evidence indicates that specific regions of the medial prefrontal cortex differentially regulate contextual fear acquisition and storage in both animals and humans that ultimately leads to expression of contextual fear memories. In this review, we provide a detailed description of the recent literature on the role of distinct prefrontal subregions in contextual fear behavior and provide a working model of the neuronal circuits involved in the acquisition, expression and generalization of contextual fear memories. PMID:25287656

  2. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  3. Mental Health of Early Adolescents from High-risk Neighborhoods: The Role of Maternal HIV and Other Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng Shiun; Valentin, Cidna; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of maternal HIV infection, as well as other individual, family, and contextual factors on the mental health of inner-city, ethnic minority early adolescents. Methods Participants included 220 HIV-negative early adolescents (10–14 years) and their mothers, half of whom were HIV-infected. Individual interviews were conducted regarding youth depression, anxiety, externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, as well as a range of correlates of youth mental health guided by a modified version of Social Action Theory, a theoretical model of behavioral health. Results Although the HIV status of mothers alone did not predict youth mental health, youth knowledge of mother's HIV infection and mother's overall health were associated with worse youth mental health outcomes, as were contextual, self-regulation, and family interaction factors from our theoretical model. Conclusions There is a need for family-based mental health interventions for this population, particularly focusing on parent–child relationships, disclosure, and youth self-esteem. PMID:18250092

  4. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

  5. Coping with mental health issues: subjective experiences of self-help and helpful contextual factors at the start of mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Lier, Haldis Ø.; Borg, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Self-help strategies and various contextual factors support recovery. However, more in-depth knowledge is needed about how self-help strategies and supportive environments facilitate the recovery process. Aims: To explore what individuals who have recently been referred to a specialist Community Mental Health Center experience as helpful and what they do to help themselves. Method: Ten service users participated in in-depth interviews within a collaborative-reflexive framework. A hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was used. Results: Participants described a variety of helpful strategies and environmental supports. Four relevant main themes were identified: helpful activities, helpful people and places, self-instruction and learning about mental problems and medication and self-medication. Conclusions: The process of recovery is initiated before people become users of mental health services. This study confirms that recovery takes place within the person’s daily life context and involves the interplay of contextual factors, such as family, friends, good places, work and other meaningful activities. The coping strategies reported may represent an important focus for attention and clinical intervention. PMID:26484831

  6. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  7. Trends in human factors research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A

    1982-06-01

    As just described, NIOSH's ongoing and new activities offer varied approaches and opportunities for gaining insights into human factor and ergonomic aspects of workplace hazards and their control. They represent a blend of surveillance work (re, the prevalence survey of chronic trauma risk), in-depth studies of known workplace problems emphasizing undue physical and psychological job demands and their consequences (re, stress from machine-paced work and musculoskeletal problems from repeated lifting), first evaluations of the consequences of new technology (re, use of video display terminals), and finally problem-solving efforts (re, the evaluation and field testing of the work practice guide for reducing lifting hazards and control technology assessment). Taken together, these efforts signal an important new commitment by NIOSH in making workplaces safe for our working men and women. PMID:6896907

  8. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  9. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM. PMID:23955101

  10. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  11. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  12. The Unfortunate Human Factor: A Selective History of Human Factors for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews moments in the history of human factors that are especially relevant to the field of technical communications. Discusses human factors research that is applicable to technical communications. Focuses on qualitative usability research, minimalism, and human activity interface design. (HB)

  13. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  14. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  15. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  16. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  17. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  18. Sexual risk-taking among high-risk urban women with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse: mediating effects of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use. PMID:20390778

  19. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  20. Human factors error and patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T; Beatty, P C W

    2002-08-01

    A wide range of studies have shown that human factors errors are the major cause of critical incidents that threaten patient safety in the medical environments where patient monitoring takes place, contributing to approximately 87% of all such incidents. Studies have also shown that good cognitively ergonomic design of monitoring equipment for use in these environments should reduce the human factors errors associated with the information they provide. The purpose of this review is to consider the current state of knowledge concerning human factors engineering in its application to patient monitoring. It considers the prevalence of human factors error, principles of good human factors design, the effect of specific design features and the problem of the measurement of the effectiveness of designs in reducing human factors error. The conclusion of the review is that whilst the focus of human factors studies has, in recent years, moved from instrument design to organizational issues, patient monitor designers still have an important contribution to make to improving the safety of the monitored patient. Further, whilst better psychological understanding of the causes of human factors errors will in future guide better human factors engineering, in this area there are still many practical avenues of research that need exploring from the current base of understanding. PMID:12214768

  1. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  2. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Fiscal year 1989 descriptions of technical accomplishments in seven sections are presented: automation and robotics; communications; computer sciences; controls and guidance; data systems; human factors; and sensor technology.

  3. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Mciver, Duncan E.; Dibattista, John D.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Wallgren, Ken; Sokoloski, Marty; Wasicko, Dick

    1985-01-01

    This report contains FY 1984/85 descriptions and accomplishments in six sections: Computer Science and Automation, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, Sensor Technology, and Communications.

  4. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  5. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  6. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  7. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  8. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  9. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  10. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  11. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  12. Exploring the interaction of personal and contextual factors during the induction period of science teachers and how this interaction shapes their enactment of science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Yavuz

    The first years of teaching are demanding as the novice works to gain a degree of familiarity in her/his professional work. It is during this period that many teachers decide to leave the teaching profession or move away from the reform-minded beliefs and practices acquired during their teacher preparation programs. To understand what happens during induction requires a focus on both the cognitive and contextual issues related to science teaching. The goal of this qualitative, multi-case study was to describe the induction experiences of two reform-minded first year science teachers and the strategies they used to negotiate contradictions embedded the context of schooling. Using the frame of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, in this research I focused on changes in science teachers' personal and professional identities, self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment, the manner in which these factors shaped science teaching practices, and beliefs and practices shaped and were shaped by the context of the novices' work. Data included a year of participant observations, surveys, open-ended questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and mediating artifacts such as lesson plans and assignments. Identities and dispositions of these teachers played significant role their attempts to become competent members of their school communities, attempts that influenced and were influenced by their teaching self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment. Mild contradictions in the system allowed for the refinement of reform-minded science teaching practices, while extreme contradictions in the system served to change one teacher's goals and prevented his successful enactment of science education reform. Findings indicated that the successful enactment of reform-minded practice depends not just on contextual factors related to schools, or just on individual factors associated with science teaching. Instead, personal and contextual factors interact to shape a novice's first

  13. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  14. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  15. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  16. Exploring the Contextual Factors Related to Transfer of Learning in a High School Implementation of the eMINTS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Truly impacting teacher practices is a challenge for educational professional development (PD) providers. Typically, little attention is paid to the factors within the environment to which the educators return and how those factors will impact participants' ability to integrate what they have learned into their teaching practices. Even for…

  17. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.

  18. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth. PMID:22956337

  19. Human factors certification: A useful concept?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Alistair

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers what is involved in certification processes and their relation to human factors aspects of systems. It derives from recognition of a lack of understanding of the processes and purposes of certification. This was encountered when attempting to address the workshop topic by integrating an understanding of human factors with the observed processes of certification. The paper considers what human factors (HF) certification might be and then develops a simple model of the elements of a certification process. It then tries to relate these elements to the needs of the aviation communities and other parties with an interest in the certification of advance aviation technologies.

  20. Summary report of the Human Factors Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced visibility as a human factors problem was studied in terms of the number of lives lost and cost of aircraft accidents and incidents. Human factors in flight through turbulence in detection and avoidance techniques, pilot and crew procedures for handling workloads and distractions caused by turbulence, and aircraft handling techniques for safe flights through turbulence are investigated. Education and training were reviewed in icing problems on aircraft. Pilots failure to recognize and detect wind shear in severe storms is examined. The pilots avoidance of lightning is discussed from the human factors point of view.

  1. Nutritional factors in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Giovannucci, E

    1999-01-01

    A variety of external factors interacting with genetic susceptibility influence the carcinogenesis process. External factors including oxidative compounds, electrophilic agents, and chronic infections may enhance genetic damage. In addition, various hormonal factors which influence growth and differentiation are critically important in the carcinogenic process. Diet and nutrition can influence these processes directly in the gastrointestinal tract by providing bioactive compounds to specific tissues via the circulatory system, or by modulating hormone levels. Differences in certain dietary patterns among populations explain a substantial proportion of cancers of the colon, prostate and breast. These malignancies are largely influenced by a combination of factors related to diet and nutrition. Their causes are multifactorial and complex, but a major influence is the widespread availability of energy-dense, highly processed and refined foods that are also deplete in fiber. These dietary patterns in combination with physical inactivity contribute to obesity and metabolic consequences such as increased levels of IGF-1, insulin, estrogen, and possibly testosterone. These hormones tend to promote cellular growth. For prostate cancer, epidemiologic studies consistently show a positive association with high consumption of milk, dairy products, and meats. These dietary factors tend to decrease 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D, a cell differentiator, and low levels of this hormone may enhance prostate carcinogenesis. While the nutritional modulation of growth-enhancing and differentiating hormones is likely to contribute to the high prevalence of breast, colorectal, prostate, and several other cancers in the Western world, these cancers are relatively rare in less economically developed countries, where malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract are quite common. The major causes of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are likely related to various food practices or preservation

  2. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  3. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall. PMID:27145228

  4. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  5. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  6. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee (Editor); Hood, Ray (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin (Editor); Sokoloski, Martin M. (Editor); Jenkins, James P. (Editor); Smith, Paul H. (Editor); Dibattista, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The FY 1987 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained for seven areas: automation and robotics, communications systems, computer sciences, controls and guidance, data systems, human factors, and sensor technology.

  7. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Sokoloski, Martin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 descriptions of technical accomplishments is presented in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications Systems, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  8. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. Methods. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Results. Partner’s problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. Conclusions. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions. PMID:26378858

  9. [Human factor and occupational standardization].

    PubMed

    Rozenblat, V V

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of work is a complex social and biologic task including two independent but associated aspects. The first one is technical and economic regulation orientated to work results, and the second one, ergonomic, considers influence of work on human body. Regulation of work and consumption is based on a compromise between those two aspects. Ergonomic regulation covers such characteristics of work, as load and intensity, jeopardy and hazard, lack of attractiveness and prestige, therefore 3 subunits of ergonomic regulation are physiologic, hygienic and psychologic. Physiologic regulation is designed to set maximal allowable load (by restricting extremely high and low values which harm health) and optimum one (to improve physical and psychic abilities, activate resources for functional efforts). PMID:7728429

  10. Human factors simulation in construction management education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-06-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management be taught effectively? Although simulations are applied in construction management education, they have not incorporated human factors sufficiently. The focus on human factors as part of the simulation of construction management situations increases students' learning effectiveness within a cross-cultural teaching setting. This paper shows the development of discrete-event human factors in construction management simulation. A description of the source code is given. Learning effectiveness in a cross-cultural education setting was analysed by evaluating data obtained through student questionnaire surveys. The mean score obtained by the students using the simulator was 32% better than those not exposed to the simulator. The spread of results was noticeably greater for the students not exposed to the simulator. The human factors simulation provides an effective means to teach students the complexities and dynamics of interpersonal relationships in construction management.

  11. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B. )

    1990-02-06

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M{sub r} 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin.

  12. Environmental Design: Focusing on Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In designing schools, planners must use the criteria of health and safety, performance, comfort, and aesthetics to create a humanized physical environment that stimulates interest and provides motivation for learning and teaching. The human factors in design are sense of place, ownership, community, presence comfort, security, aesthetics,…

  13. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  14. Bereaved Adults' Evaluations of Grief Management Messages: Effects of Message Person Centeredness, Recipient Individual Differences, and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rack, Jessica; Burleson, Brant; Bodie, Graham; Holmstrom, Amanda; Servaty-Seib, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies grief management strategies that bereaved adults evaluate as more and less helpful, assesses whether the person centeredness of these strategies explains their helpfulness, and determines whether strategy helpfulness varies as a function of demographic, personality, and situational factors. Participants (105 bereaved young…

  15. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  16. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  17. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  18. The motion commotion: Human factors in transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, A. E., Jr. (Editor); Rosen, R. L. (Editor); Gibson, J. D. (Editor); Crum, R. G. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The program for a systems approach to the problem of incorporating human factors in designing transportation systems is summarized. The importance of the human side of transportation is discussed along with the three major factors related to maintaining a mobile and quality life. These factors are (1) people, as individuals and groups, (2) society as a whole, and (3) the natural environment and man-made environs. The problems and bottlenecks are presented along with approaches to their solutions through systems analysis. Specific recommendations essential to achieving improved mobility within environmental constraints are presented.

  19. Bereaved adults' evaluations of grief management messages: effects of message person centeredness, recipient individual differences, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Rack, Jessica J; Burleson, Brant R; Bodie, Graham D; Holmstrom, Amanda J; Servaty-Seib, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies grief management strategies that bereaved adults evaluate as more and less helpful, assesses whether the person centeredness of these strategies explains their helpfulness, and determines whether strategy helpfulness varies as a function of demographic, personality, and situational factors. Participants (105 bereaved young adults) assessed the helpfulness of 16 grief management strategies; these strategies were coded for their degree of person centeredness. Strategy person centeredness was strongly correlated with helpfulness. Strategy helpfulness varied as a function of participant gender and the disruptiveness of the decedent's death, but not as a function of need for cognition or decedent closeness. PMID:18767235

  20. Predicting alcohol use across adolescence: Relative strength of individual, family, peer, and contextual risk and protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Jones, Damon E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined developmental changes in the relative influence of risk and protective factors (RPFs) across individual, family, peer, school, and community domains on adolescent alcohol use. Using longitudinal data from two independent samples, multivariate cross-lagged models were used to estimate the unique influence of each RPF on subsequent changes in recent alcohol use between early to late adolescence. The results supported the hypothesis that the influence of Individual Risk would increase during this developmental period. However, less consistent evidence was found concerning developmental changes among the other domains. Whereas the influence arising from Family Protection diminished during adolescence, the influence of Family Risk, School Protection, and Community Protection did not vary. The influence of Peer Risk showed a nonlinear pattern across adolescence, peaking during the middle adolescent years. The results of this study support a developmental approach to adolescent alcohol use and emphasize the need for prevention strategies that account for these developmental changes. PMID:22390336

  1. Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Van Minh, Hoang; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Thu Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Van Dung, Do

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had ‘timely immunization completion’ (2000–2011) and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Design Secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), which sampled women aged 15–49 from the 1999 Vietnamese Population and Housing Census frame, were analyzed. Multilevel analysis using Poisson regression was undertaken. Results Proportions of children under five who had timely immunization completion were low, especially for HBV dose 2 and HBV dose 3, which decreased between 2000 and 2011. Among seven vaccines used in the National Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 2000, 2006, and 2011, measles dose 1 had the highest timely immunization completion at 65.3%, 66.7%, and 73.6%, respectively, and hepatitis B dose 1 had the lowest at 17.5%, 19.3%, and 45.5%, respectively. Timely immunization completion was less common among children whose mothers had relatively less household wealth, were from ethnic minorities, lived in rural areas, and had less education. At the community level, the child's region of residence was the main predictor of timely immunization completion, and the availability of hospital delivery and community prenatal care in the local community were also determinants. Conclusion The EPI should include ‘timely immunization completion’ as a quality indicator. There should also be greater focus and targeting in rural areas, and among women who have relatively low education, belong to minority groups, and have less household wealth. Further research on this topic using multilevel analysis is needed to better understand how these factors interact. PMID:26950555

  2. Individual and contextual factors influencing patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy care in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Musheke, Maurice; Bond, Virginia; Merten, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite the relatively effective roll-out of free life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector clinics in Zambia since 2005, and the proven efficacy of ART, some people living with HIV (PLHIV) are abandoning the treatment. Drawing on a wider ethnographic study in a predominantly low-income, high-density residential area of Lusaka, this paper reports the reasons why PLHIV opted to discontinue their HIV treatment. Methods Opened-ended, in-depth interviews were held with PLHIV who had stopped ART (n = 25), ART clinic staff (n = 5), religious leaders (n = 5), herbal medicine providers (n = 5) and lay home-based caregivers (n = 5). In addition, participant observations were conducted in the study setting for 18 months. Interview data were analysed using open coding first, and then interpreted using latent content analysis. The presentation of the results is guided by a social-ecological framework. Findings Patient attrition from ART care is influenced by an interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors. While improved corporeal health, side effects and need for normalcy diminished motivation to continue with treatment, individuals also weighed the social and economic costs of continued uptake of treatment. Long waiting times for medical care and placing “defaulters” on intensive adherence counselling in the context of insecure labour conditions and livelihood constraints not only imposed opportunity costs which patients were not willing to forego, but also forced individuals to balance physical health with social integrity, which sometimes forced them to opt for faith healing and traditional medicine. Conclusions Complex and dynamic interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors coalesces to influence patient attrition from ART care. Consequently, while patient-centred interventions are required, efforts should be made to improve ART care by extending and establishing flexible ART

  3. The Influence of Compositional and Contextual Factors on Non-Receipt of Basic Vaccines among Children of 12-23-Month Old in India: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Daouda; Trottier, Helen; Malvy, Denis; Johri, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Background Children unreached by vaccination are at higher risk of poor health outcomes and India accounts for nearly a quarter of unvaccinated children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate compositional and contextual determinants of non-receipt of childhood vaccines in India using multilevel modelling. Methods and Findings We studied characteristics of unvaccinated children using the District Level Health and Facility Survey 3, a nationally representative probability sample containing 65 617 children aged 12–23 months from 34 Indian states and territories. We developed four-level Bayesian binomial regression models to examine the determinants of non-vaccination. The analysis considered two outcomes: completely unvaccinated (CUV) children who had not received any of the eight vaccine doses recommended by India’s Universal Immunization Programme, and children who had not received any dose from routine immunisation services (no RI). The no RI category includes CUV children and those who received only polio doses administered via mass campaigns. Overall, 4.83% (95% CI: 4.62–5.06) of children were CUV while 12.01% (11.68–12.35) had received no RI. Individual compositional factors strongly associated with CUV were: non-receipt of tetanus immunisation for mothers during pregnancy (OR = 3.65 [95% CrI: 3.30–4.02]), poorest household wealth index (OR = 2.44 [1.81–3.22] no maternal schooling (OR = 2.43 [1.41–4.05]) and no paternal schooling (OR = 1.83 [1.30–2.48]). In rural settings, the influence of maternal illiteracy disappeared whereas the role of household wealth index was reinforced. Factors associated with no RI were similar to those for CUV, but effect sizes for individual compositional factors were generally larger. Low maternal education was the strongest risk factor associated with no RI in all models. All multilevel models found significant variability at community, district, and state levels net of

  4. A Community-Based Oral Health Intervention in Navajo Nation Head Start: Participation Factors and Contextual Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lucinda L; Quissell, David O; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Johs, Nikolas; George, Carmen; Smith, Vong; Toledo, Nikola; Thomas, Jacob; Albino, Judith E

    2016-04-01

    Successful interventions require consistent participation by intended recipients. We utilized mixed methods to describe participation of 518 parent-child dyads enrolled in a randomized cluster trial of a 2-year oral health intervention for Head Start (HS) families across Navajo Nation delivered by native Community Oral Health Specialists (COHS). We quantitatively assessed factors that contributed to participation and qualitatively examined barriers and strategies. The intervention offered fluoride varnish (FV) and oral health promotion (OHP) activities for two cohorts (enrolled in 2011, N = 286, or 2012, N = 232) of children in the HS classrooms and OHP for parents outside the classroom. Child participation was good: FV: 79.7 (Cohort 1) and 85.3 % (Cohort 2) received at least 3 of 4 applications; OHP: 74.5 (Cohort 1) and 78.4 % (Cohort 2) attended at least 3 of 5 events. Parent participation was low: 10.5 (Cohort 1) and 29.8 % (Cohort 2) attended at least three of four events. Analysis of survey data found significant effects on parent participation from fewer people in the household, Cohort 2 membership, greater external-locus of control, and a greater perception that barriers existed to following recommended oral health behaviors. Qualitative analysis of reports from native field staff, COHS, community members, and the research team identified barriers (e.g., geographic expanse, constraints of a research trial) and suggested strategies to improve parent participation (e.g., improve communication between COHS and parents/community). Many challenges to participation exist when conducting interventions in rural areas with underserved populations. Working with community partners to inform the development and delivery of interventions is critical. PMID:26467679

  5. Contextual factors and weight change over time: a comparison between U.S. Hispanics and other population sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, S Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing interest in understanding the role of social and physical contexts in influencing health behaviors and outcomes. This is especially true for weight, which is considered to be highly dependent on environmental factors. The evidence linking neighborhood characteristics to weight in the United States, however, is mixed. Many studies in this area are hampered by cross sectional designs and a limited scope, insofar as they investigate only one dimension of neighborhood context. It is also unclear to what extent neighborhood characteristics account for racial/ethnic disparities in weight. Using longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), we compare patterns of weight change between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups in order to evaluate whether we observe a pattern of unhealthy assimilation in weight among Hispanic immigrants and to identify differences in the rate at which different groups gain weight over time. We also explore the extent to which patterns of weight change are related to a wider range of community characteristics. We find that weight increases across all groups between the two study waves of L.A. FANS and that the increases are significant except for Asians/Pacific Islanders. With respect to differences in the pace of weight change, second and higher generation Hispanic women and black men gain weight more rapidly than their first generation Hispanic counterparts. Although the evidence presented indicates that first generation Hispanics gain weight, we do not find evidence for convergence in weight since the U.S.-born gain weight at a more rapid rate. The inclusion of community-level variables does not alter the relationships between the race, ethnicity, and immigrant generation categories and weight change. Of the six types of community characteristics considered, only collective efficacy is consistently and significantly associated with weight change

  6. Space operations and the human factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  7. Human factors analysis of plans and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmi, L.

    1991-04-01

    The study of comprehension and retention of print material is a part of what writers call human factors. Some human factors are common knowledge to writers of plans and procedures, but many are not. Federal orders provide some guidance, but that guidance is usually limited to content or order of presentation and does not include style. Style is important in influencing understanding and remembering the content. A writing style that helps produce clear, easily understood plans and procedures is always valuable but it is particularly important for radiological emergency response documents. The procedures are often referred to during emergencies when the emergency staff is under stress and sometimes fatigued by extended work days. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the human factors (format, sequence of topics, and writing style) that should be considered to make plans and procedures more easily used, understood, and remembered.

  8. Human factors of the high technology cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid advance of cockpit automation in the last decade has outstripped the ability of the human factors profession to understand the changes in human functions required. High technology cockpits require less physical (observable) workload, but are highly demanding of cognitive functions such as planning, alternative selection, and monitoring. Furthermore, automation creates opportunity for new and more serious forms of human error, and many pilots are concerned about the possibility of complacency affecting their performance. On the positive side, the equipment works as advertized with high reliability, offering highly efficient, computer-based flight. These findings from the cockpit studies probably apply equally to other industries, such as nuclear power production, other modes of transportation, medicine, and manufacturing, all of which traditionally have looked to aviation for technological leadership. The challenge to the human factors profession is to aid designers, operators, and training departments in exploiting the positive side of automation, while seeking solutions to the negative side. Viewgraphs are given.

  9. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  10. Information sciences and human factors overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  11. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  12. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  13. Human factors engineering and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Densmore, Emily M

    2006-12-01

    The pediatric population has features different from those of adults and that are dynamic during the pediatric age range. Pediatric-specific issues result in potential risks for harm during medical care. Basic and applied human factors research has resulted in improvements in the performance of health adults and those adults who have functional limitations. Future work should focus on systematically understanding the human factors needs of children with the goal of redesigning systems of health care to optimize the safety of children and the performance of their care providers. PMID:17126685

  14. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  15. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  16. Molecular structural studies of human factor VIII.

    PubMed

    McKee, P A; Andersen, J C; Switzer, M E

    1975-01-20

    Neither normal nor hemophilic factor VIII protein enters a 5% sosium dodecyl sulfate gel; on reduction, however, a single 195 000-molecular-weight peptide is observed. Hemophilic and normal factor VIII contain carbohydrate and appear identical in subunit molecular weight, electrical charge, and major antigenic determinants. Thrombin activation and inactivation of factor VIII does not detectably change the subunit molecular weight. Trypsin causes similar activity changes and obviously cleaves the factor VIII subunit. Human plasmin destroys factor VIII procoagulant activity and degrades the factor VIII subunit to 103 000-, 88 000-, and 17 000-molecular-weight peptides. Both normal and hemophilic factor VIII as well as thrombin-inactivated factor VIII support ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Purified factor VIII chromatographed on 4% agarose in 1.0 M sodium chloride shows no dissociation of the procoagulant activity from the void volume protein. Gel chromatography on 4% agarose in 0.25 M calcium chloride results in a procoagulant activity peak removed from the void volume protein; both peaks contain protein which does not enter a 5% SDS gel, but on reduction a 195 000-molecular-weight subunit band is observed for each. Both the void volume protein peak and the procoagulant activity peak from the 0.25 M calcium chloride-agarose gel column support ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. After removal of calcium, a small amount of procoagulant activity is present only in the void volume peak. These data suggest that both the procoagulant and von Willebrand activities are on the same molecule. Thus our previous conclusion remains the same: human factor VIII is a large glycoprotein composed of identical 195 000-molecular-weight subunits jointed by disulfide bonds and is responsible for both antihemophilic and von Willebrand activities in human plasma. PMID:122889

  17. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  18. The Resistance of Renewal to Instructions that Devalue the Role of Contextual Cues in a Conditioned Suppression Task with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour appears to reflect context-dependent learning. The present research used a conditioned suppression task with humans to examine whether instructions concerning the context could influence renewal. Pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) were made in one context,…

  19. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H G; Helmreich, R L; Scheidegger, D

    1994-12-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale. PMID:7740192

  20. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  1. Human and Mechanical Factors in Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, M. J.; Hubbard, R. P.

    Analysis of the human and mechanical factors inherent in ergometry suggest many strategies for the improvement of experiments related to exertion. The resistive principles of gravitation, friction, elasticity, viscosity, magnetism, and inertia used in ergometers impose different restraints on experiments. The suitability of different resistive…

  2. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  3. Applications of Human Factors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The main question for human factors practitioners is to determine if the user population can be accommodated within a design. Given the wide range of variables feeding into a design, just one of which is human factors, oftentimes designers will have restrictions that may potentially impact the level of accommodation. This paper focuses on two case studies where there have been impacts at the design level that may be detrimental to the ability of the design to meet certain criteria. The studies use novel approaches to determine what, if any, changes in population accommodation levels have occurred and what factors are important when manipulating the design in the future. The results of these studies provide a backbone for future analyses when working with design considerations.

  4. Dissemination Strategies to Improve Implementation of the PHS Smoking Cessation Guideline in MCH Public Health Clinics: Experimental Evaluation Results and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-01-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…

  5. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Methods Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013–February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Results Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Conclusions Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization

  6. Toxicity profiling of water contextual zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human oral and gastrointestinal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Marcella; Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Fan, Rongli; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Leong, David Tai

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in water supply due to environmental release of ENPs as the by-products contained within the effluent of domestic and industrial run-off. The partial recycling of water laden with ENPs, albeit at ultra-low concentrations, may pose an uncharacterized threat to human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three prevalent ENPs: zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide over a wide range of concentrations that encompasses drinking water-relevant concentrations, to cellular systems representing oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Based on published in silico-predicted water-relevant ENPs concentration range from 100 pg/L to 100 µg/L, we detected no cytotoxicity to all the cellular systems. Significant cytotoxicity due to the NPs set in around 100 mg/L with decreasing extent of toxicity from zinc oxide to silver to titanium dioxide NPs. We also found that noncytotoxic zinc oxide NPs level of 10 mg/L could elevate the intracellular oxidative stress. The threshold concentrations of NPs that induced cytotoxic effect are at least two to five orders of magnitude higher than the permissible concentrations of the respective metals and metal oxides in drinking water. Based on these findings, the current estimated levels of NPs in potable water pose little cytotoxic threat to the human oral and gastrointestinal systems within our experimental boundaries. PMID:24930694

  7. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  8. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23317835

  9. Space human factors publications: 1980-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Katherine J.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 year cummulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the NASA Space Human Factors Program of the Life Science Division is provided. The goal of this program is to understand the basic mechanisms underlying behavioral adaptation to space and to develop and validate system design requirements, protocols, and countermeasures to ensure the psychological well-being, safety, and productivity of crewmembers. Subjects encompassed by this bibliography include selection and training, group dynamics, psychophysiological interactions, habitability issues, human-machine interactions, psychological support measures, and anthropometric data. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk.

  10. Critical Questions for Space Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Bagian, Tandi

    2000-01-01

    Traditional human factors contributions to NASA's crewed space programs have been rooted in the classic approaches to quantifying human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations in the environment of interest, and producing recommendations and standards for the selection or design of mission equipment. Crews then evaluate the interfaces, displays, or equipment, and with the assistance of human factors experts, improvements are made as funds, time, control documentation, and weight allow. We have come a long way from the early spaceflight days, where men with the ' right stuff were the solution to operating whatever equipment was given to them. The large and diverse Shuttle astronaut corps has impacted mission designs to accommodate a wide range of human capabilities and preferences. Yet with existing long duration experience, we have seen the need to address a different set of dynamics when designing for optimal crew performance: critical equipment and mission situations degrade, and human function changes with mission environment, situation, and duration. Strategies for quantifying the critical nature of human factors requirements are being worked by NASA. Any exploration-class mission will place new responsibilities on mission designers to provide the crew with the information and resources to accomplish the mission. The current duties of a Mission Control Center to monitor system status, detect degradation or malfunction, and provide a proven solution, will need to be incorporated into on-board systems to allow the crew autonomous decision-making. The current option to resupply and replace mission systems and resources, including both vehicle equipment and human operators, will be removed, so considerations of maintenance, onboard training, and proficiency assessment are critical to providing a self-sufficient crew. As we 'move in' to the International Space Station, there are tremendous opportunities to investigate our ability to design for autonomous

  11. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  12. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  13. The space station: Human factors and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

  14. The role of human factors in telehealth.

    PubMed

    Demiris, George; Charness, Neil; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Ben-Arieh, David; Washington, Karla; Wu, John; Farberow, Bonne

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the field of human factors (HFs) and its role in telehealth. We discuss HF concepts and methodologies that affect the design, implementation, and evaluation of telehealth applications and provide examples from numerous application areas that highlight the significance of HF principles and methodologies. We also provide recommendations for inclusion of HFs in telehealth system design and evaluation, and discuss resulting implications for system designers, practitioners, vendors, and policy makers. PMID:20420540

  15. Analog environments in space human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of what has been learned from space analog environments, which mimic such significant features of space as isolation, confinement, risk, and deprivation; emphasis is placed on the especially successful environments constituted by extended submarine research, undersea habitats, and Antarctic station wintering. Attention is also given to the advantages and limitations of the use of analog environments for space human factors research, and possibilities for such research efforts' management.

  16. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  17. Isolation of human serum spreading factor.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D W; Silnutzer, J

    1983-10-25

    Serum spreading factor (SF) was isolated from human serum by a four-step procedure employing affinity chromatography on glass beads, concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-agarose, and heparin-agarose. The final product was purified approximately 260-fold from the starting material and was maximally active in assays of cell spreading-promoting activity at 300 ng/ml. The isolated human SF preparation consisted of two proteins of apparent molecular weights approximately 65,000 (SF65) and 75,000 (SF75). Both SF65 and SF75 have been shown previously to exhibit cell spreading-promoting activity and to bind monoclonal antibody to human serum SF. PMID:6630199

  18. Human factors in modern traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Noy, Y I

    1997-10-01

    Traffic systems are undergoing enormous change with the advent of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Although productivity and quality of mobility are emerging interests, safety remains the predominant preoccupation of ITS human factors. It should be evident that while intelligent technologies may have the potential to improve traffic safety, they also have the potential to adversely affect it. Ultimately, the effect on safety depends on the specific technologies that are invoked and the manner in which they are incorporated within the vehicle as well as within the larger road transportation system. Current automotive developments can be characterized as technology-centred solutions rather than user-centred solutions. Greater effort must be directed at understanding and accommodating the human element in the road transportation system in order that future transportation objectives can be achieved. There is a need to expand the scope of traditional human factors to include macro-level effects as well as to place greater emphasis on understanding human interactions with other elements of the system. There is also increasing recognition of the urgent need for systematic procedures and criteria for testing the safety of ITS prior to large-scale market penetration. PMID:9339139

  19. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue. PMID:27234806

  20. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  1. Factors Underlying Contextual Variations in the Structure of the Self: Differences Related to SES, Gender, Culture, and "Majority/Nonmajority" Status during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bukowski, William M.; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Carmago, Gina; Mayman, Shari B.; Adams, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine contextual variations in the structure of the "self" in a sample of 918 lower- and upper-middle class early adolescents (M age = 10.37 years, SD = 1.19) from a "majority" cultural context (i.e., Barranquilla in the Caribbean region of Colombia) and a "nonmajority" context (i.e., Montreal, Quebec, Canada). It…

  2. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. PMID:26466179

  3. A parametric analysis of factors affecting acquisition and extinction of contextual fear in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, K. Matthew; Maughan, DeeAnna K.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral analyses of genetically modified and inbred strains of mice have revealed neural systems and molecules that are involved in memory formation. Many of these studies have examined memories that form in contextual fear conditioning, in which an organism learns that a particular context signals the occurrence of a footshock. During fear extinction, nonreinforced exposure to the context results in the loss of the conditioned fear response. The study of extinction has been instrumental for behavioral and molecular theories of memory. However, many of the transgenic, knockout, and inbred strains of mice that have been widely studied in memory have behavioral deficits in contextual fear conditioning, which makes the study of extinction in these mice particularly challenging. Here we explore several strategies for studying extinction in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, two strains known to differ in contextual fear conditioning. First, we attempt to equate performance prior to extinction through several extensive conditioning protocols. Second, we examine extinction in subsets of mice matched for initial levels of context conditioning. Third, we examine within-strain effects of variables known to affect extinction. Differences between the strains persisted across extensive conditioning and extinction protocols, but both strains were sensitive to session duration and context manipulations during extinction. We describe the implications of our results for behavioral and neurobiological approaches to extinction, and we examine the general challenges in studying extinction in subjects that differ in learning or performance prior to extinction. PMID:22465469

  4. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on contextual learning issues. "Learning to Learn Strategies of Successful Real Estate Professionals: Implications for Learning in the Workplace" (Margot B. Weinstein) describes a multicase study in which a model called the Individual Learning System was used to identify the strategies and resources…

  5. Personalized Contextual Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voltz, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    This article explains the combination of instructional practices called personalized contextual instruction (PCI) and illustrates its implementation by a general education teacher, a special education teacher, and a paraprofessional working together in a multiage primary inclusive classroom. The PCI approach incorporates individual learning…

  6. Contextually Based Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocher, J. Michael; Armfield, Shadow W.; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Tucker, Gary; Willis, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail a study of a three-year professional development project designed to increase in-service teachers' classroom technology integration. Participants engaged in learning activities that modeled technology integration from a contextually based perspective that included technology, and pedagogical and content…

  7. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  8. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  9. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  10. Contextual Variability in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

  11. Preview Search and Contextual Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodsoll, John P.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998) within the preview paradigm (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Contextual cuing was shown with a 10-item letter search but not with more crowded 20-item displays. However, contextual learning did occur in a preview procedure in which 10 preview items were followed by…

  12. Semantic Relationships between Contextual Synonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Xian-mo

    2007-01-01

    Contextual synonym is a linguistic phenomenon often applied but rarely discussed. This paper is to discuss the semantic relationships between contextual synonyms and the requirements under which words can be used as contextual synonyms between each other. The three basic relationships are embedment, intersection and non-coherence. The requirements…

  13. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  14. Hypoxia Potentiates the Radiation-Sensitizing Effect of Olaparib in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenografts by Contextual Synthetic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanyan; Verbiest, Tom; Devery, Aoife M.; Bokobza, Sivan M.; Weber, Anika M.; Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Hammond, Ester M.; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors potentiate radiation therapy in preclinical models of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying radiosensitization in vivo are incompletely understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of hypoxia on radiosensitization by the PARP inhibitor olaparib in human NSCLC xenograft models. Methods and Materials NSCLC Calu-6 and Calu-3 cells were irradiated in the presence of olaparib or vehicle under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. In vitro radiosensitivity was assessed by clonogenic survival assay and γH2AX foci assay. Established Calu-6 and Calu-3 subcutaneous xenografts were treated with olaparib (50 mg/kg, daily for 3 days), radiation (10 Gy), or both. Tumors (n=3/group) were collected 24 or 72 hours after the first treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA9]), vessels (CD31), DNA double strand breaks (DSB) (γH2AX), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3 [CC3]). The remaining xenografts (n=6/group) were monitored for tumor growth. Results In vitro, olaparib showed a greater radiation-sensitizing effect in Calu-3 and Calu-6 cells in hypoxic conditions (1% O2). In vivo, Calu-3 tumors were well-oxygenated, whereas Calu-6 tumors had extensive regions of hypoxia associated with down-regulation of the homologous recombination protein RAD51. Olaparib treatment increased unrepaired DNA DSB (P<.001) and apoptosis (P<.001) in hypoxic cells of Calu-6 tumors following radiation, whereas it had no significant effect on radiation-induced DNA damage response in nonhypoxic cells of Calu-6 tumors or in the tumor cells of well-oxygenated Calu-3 tumors. Consequently, olaparib significantly increased radiation-induced growth inhibition in Calu-6 tumors (P<.001) but not in Calu-3 tumors. Conclusions Our data suggest that hypoxia potentiates the radiation-sensitizing effects of olaparib by contextual

  15. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  16. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3

    PubMed Central

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M.; Smith, Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23623729

  17. Human factors for pleasure in product use.

    PubMed

    Jordan, P W

    1998-02-01

    Traditionally, human factors have tended to concentrate on making products 'usable'--focusing on utilitarian, functional product benefits. This paper reports an interview-based study looking at the issue of 'pleasure' in product use. The study was a 'first pass' at addressing the hedonic and experiential benefits and penalties associated with product use, and at identifying the properties of a product that influence how pleasurable or displeasurable it is to use. Feelings associated with using pleasurable products included security, confidence, pride, excitement and satisfaction. Displeasurable products, meanwhile, were associated with feelings that included annoyance, anxiety, contempt and frustration. The properties of products that were salient in terms of influencing the level of pleasure/displeasure with a product included features, usability, aesthetics, performance and reliability. Responses to questions investigating behavioural correlates to pleasure in product use suggested that pleasurable products were used more regularly and that future purchase choices would be affected by the level of pleasure in product use. It is concluded that the issue of pleasure in product use involves more than usability alone. As the user's representative in the product creation process, the human factors specialist should consider many other factors in order to ensure that the user's experience of product use is maximised. PMID:9769086

  18. Space human factors discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive areas of behavior, performance, and human factors. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas, and identifies technological priorities. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and Exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters program offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area.

  19. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  20. Vestibular reactions to spaceflight: human factors issues.

    PubMed

    Young, L R

    2000-09-01

    Vestibular function, along with other sensory systems influencing spatial orientation, can have a profound influence on the ability of astronauts to function effectively. Beyond the well-known problems of space motion sickness, vestibular effects can influence astronaut well-being and performance during all phases of a space mission. This paper discusses some of the major vestibular reactions affecting human factors encountered in all space missions, and covers them chronologically in the following sequence: launch, early on-orbit, late on-orbit, EVA, artificial gravity, re-entry, and post-landing. PMID:10993318

  1. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2012-01-01

    At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events. PMID:23087629

  2. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  3. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  4. Generalizing Contextual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourrat, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    Okasha, in Evolution and the Levels of Selection, convincingly argues that two rival statistical decompositions of covariance, namely contextual analysis and the neighbour approach, are better causal decompositions than the hierarchical Price approach. However, he claims that this result cannot be generalized in the special case of soft selection and argues that the Price approach represents in this case a better option. He provides several arguments to substantiate this claim. In this paper, I demonstrate that these arguments are flawed and argue that neither the Price equation nor the contextual and neighbour partitionings sensu Okasha are adequate causal decompositions in cases of soft selection. The Price partitioning is generally unable to detect cross-level by-products and this naturally also applies to soft selection. Both contextual and neighbour partitionings violate the fundamental principle of determinism that the same cause always produces the same effect. I argue that a fourth partitioning widely used in the contemporary social sciences, under the generic term of 'hierarchical linear model' and related to contextual analysis understood broadly, addresses the shortcomings of the three other partitionings and thus represents a better causal decomposition. I then defend this model against the argument that because it predicts that there is some organismal selection in some specific cases of segregation distortion then it should be rejected. I show that cases of segregation distortion that intuitively seem to contradict the conclusion drawn from the hierarchical linear model are in fact cases of multilevel selection 2 while the assessment of the different partitionings are restricted to multilevel selection 1. PMID:27230419

  5. Preimplantation factor (PIF) promotes human trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Moindjie, Hadia; Santos, Esther Dos; Loeuillet, Laurence; Gronier, Héloise; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Barnea, Eytan R; Vialard, François; Dieudonne, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-11-01

    Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a peptide secreted by viable mammalian embryos. Moreover, it can be detected in the circulation of pregnant women. Recently, it was shown that PIF promotes invasion in trophoblast cell lines in vitro. Successful human embryo implantation depends on a deep and highly controlled invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in the maternal endometrium. Trophoblast invasion is regulated in part by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and integrin expression. The present study demonstrates the presence of PIF in early pregnancy and characterizes its effects on primary human trophoblast invasion. At the fetomaternal interface, intense PIF labeling by immunohistochemistry was present during early gestation in villous trophoblasts and EVTs. A decrease of labeling was observed at term. Furthermore, PIF significantly promoted invasion of human EVT isolated from first-trimester placenta. The proinvasive regulatory effect of PIF in EVT was associated with 1) increased MMP9 activity and 2) reduced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression. PIF also regulated alpha v and alpha 1 integrin mRNA expressions. Last, the proinvasive effect of PIF appeared to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and Janus-kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathways. In summary, this work describes the direct, positive effect of PIF on the control of human trophoblastic cell invasion by modulation of MMP/TIMP balance and integrin expression. Moreover, these results suggest that PIF is involved in pathological pregnancies characterized by insufficient or excessive trophoblast invasion. PMID:25232018

  6. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  7. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS. PMID:22212067

  8. Human factors in Spacelab - Crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    At NASA-Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Flight Experiments Project Office two payloads for the Shuttle Spacelab are currently in development. The first payload, Spacelab-3, will launch in November 1984. Unique life sciences hardware designed to support animals in 0-g will fly for the first time. Flight crew training sessions for the Spacelab-3 astronauts began in June 1982. Human factors involvement is extensive. A thorough understanding of both the 1-g and 0-g environments is necessary. The weightlessness of the space environment creates special conditions; e.g., the time required for a 1-g laboratory experiment significantly increases in 0-g. The transportation of objects in 0-g uses different techniques than on earth. These considerations, plus others, are incorporated into the design of the Spacelab-3 crew training program.

  9. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  10. Human factors technology for America's space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is initiating a space human factors research and technology development program in October 1982. The impetus for this program stems from: the frequent and economical access to space provided by the Shuttle, the advances in control and display hardware/software made possible through the recent explosion in microelectronics technology, heightened interest in a space station, heightened interest by the military in space operations, and the fact that the technology for long duration stay times for man in space has received relatively little attention since the Apollo and Skylab missions. The rationale for and issues in the five thrusts of the new program are described. The main thrusts are: basic methodology, crew station design, ground control/operations, teleoperations and extra vehicular activity.

  11. Human factors of first-line security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1998-04-01

    Human inspection of security features is based on a cycle of actions: the development and execution of a strategy, and the observation and evaluation of results. These actions aim at establishing the state of the object: genuine or fake. These actions require knowledge, which is either in the head (memorized) or in the world (provided by the object). It is argued that knowledge in the world is most suitable for adequate inspection of first line security features. In contrast, knowledge in the head cannot be relied on, unless standardization is consistently implemented. From the action cycle five pertinent questions ensue. How easily can the user: (1) determine and understand the function of the device? (2) tell what actions are possible? (3) execute the actions? (4) observe the results? (5) compare the observed results with the expected results? A set of generic design rules is derived, involving the function of the device, the execution of a strategy, and the evaluation of the result. A number of first line security features is evaluated from this human factors point of view. These comprise substrate embedded features (watermark, windowed thread), features added to the ink (iridescent pigment), printed features (intaglio, small lettering, see-throughs, latent images), and post-printed features (iridescent foils). It is concluded that many current security features do not meet basic ergonomic design rules. However, iridescent optically variable devices tend to have a potential to meet these requirements.

  12. On contextuality in behavioural data.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V; Cervantes, Víctor H; Zhang, Ru; Jones, Matt

    2016-05-28

    Dzhafarovet al.(Dzhafarovet al.2016Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A374, 20150099. (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0099)) reviewed several behavioural datasets imitating the formal design of the quantum-mechanical contextuality experiments. The conclusion was that none of these datasets exhibited contextuality if understood in the generalized sense proposed by Dzhafarovet al.(2015Found. Phys.7, 762-782. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9882-9)), while the traditional definition of contextuality does not apply to these data because they violate the condition of consistent connectedness (also known as marginal selectivity, no-signalling condition, no-disturbance principle, etc.). In this paper, we clarify the relationship between (in)consistent connectedness and (non)contextuality, as well as between the traditional and extended definitions of (non)contextuality, using as an example the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequalities originally designed for detecting contextuality in entangled particles. PMID:27091164

  13. Scene-based contextual cueing in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target, which could appear in 1 of 4 locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of 4 scenes was consistently paired with 1 of 4 possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of 4 different scenes was randomly paired with the same 4 possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  14. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Many structural failures have occasionally been attributed to human factors in engineering design, analyses maintenance, and fabrication processes. Every facet of the engineering process is heavily governed by human factors and the degree of uncertainty associated with them. Factors such as societal, physical, professional, psychological, and many others introduce uncertainties that significantly influence the reliability of human performance. Quantifying human factors and associated uncertainties in structural reliability require: (1) identification of the fundamental factors that influence human performance, and (2) models to describe the interaction of these factors. An approach is being developed to quantify the uncertainties associated with the human performance. This approach consists of a multi factor model in conjunction with direct Monte-Carlo simulation.

  15. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  16. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  17. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  18. Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Micky P; Knott, David S; Moss, Michael A; Clegg, Chris W; Horton, Robin P

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains. PMID:18096132

  19. Towards viable, useful and usable human factors design guidance.

    PubMed

    Burns, C M; Vicente, K J; Christoffersen, K; Pawlak, W S

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors relevant to producing effective human factors design guidance, using the Engineering Data Compendium (EDC) as a research vehicle. A series of three exploratory experiments focusing on the factors that affect the usability, usefulness and viability of human factors handbooks was conducted. The results of these studies were interpreted in the context of the process by which the EDC was developed, leading to the following recommendations: (a) human factors guidance should be organized in a manner that is stepped in context; (b) human factors guidance should be based on an explicit requirements analysis; (c) the calibration of designers' perceptions of the cost of obtaining human factors information must be improved; (d) organizational policies must be changed to induce more effective information search behaviour. PMID:9414371

  20. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  1. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  2. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  3. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a

  4. Applying a Comprehensive Contextual Climate Change Vulnerability Framework to New Zealand's Tourism Industry.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    Conceptualisations of 'vulnerability' vary amongst scholarly communities, contributing to a wide variety of applications. Research investigating vulnerability to climate change has often excluded non-climatic changes which may contribute to degrees of vulnerability perceived or experienced. This paper introduces a comprehensive contextual vulnerability framework which incorporates physical, social, economic and political factors which could amplify or reduce vulnerability. The framework is applied to New Zealand's tourism industry to explore its value in interpreting a complex, human-natural environment system with multiple competing vulnerabilities. The comprehensive contextual framework can inform government policy and industry decision making, integrating understandings of climate change within the broader context of internal and external social, physical, economic, and institutional stressors. PMID:24805920

  5. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  6. Contextualization of Physics and Astronomy Through Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Yasemin; Gurel, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the need for enriched learning environments in science education through the integrated setting of a physics course that is included in the training program for physics teachers. The participants are researchers, prospective physics teachers, civil defence volunteers and astronomers as collaborators. In this course an approach is adopted to incorporate indoor and outdoor settings in the same process to support one another with the purpose of contextualizing physics through nature. In the heart of the course is experience and observation, particularly in nature, in the form of a residential camp. Nature is a setting where students are faced with the sky and a telescope and do sky observations throughout the night. The part of the course involving astronomy is based on this engagement with the problems that arise from the topic of sky and telescope and are brought into the class in ill-structured form as a result of experience and observation. Within this thesis, the data gathered in two consecutive years, 2008 and 2009, are evaluated qualitatively. The problems were formed around a core experience but with the same core experience, problems varied from year to year depending on the human factor within the experience, namely the different characteristics of different people in different conditions, and environmental factors; geography and weather conditions, and the increasing experience of the researchers. Furthermore IYA2009 was also effective on the program of the course in 2009. Through this thesis prospective physics teachers’ participation in astronomy was broadened and it resulted in the formation of new knowledge, better understanding and led to the advancement of the use of astronomy in physics education. It is consistent with the inclusion of astronomy in new secondary and high school physics curriculum in our country as well.

  7. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  8. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  9. A Voice-Radio Method for Collecting Human Factors Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; And Others

    Available methods for collecting human factors data rely heavily on observations, interviews, and questionnaires. A need exists for other methods. The feasibility of using two-way voice-radio for this purpose was studied. The data collection methodology consisted of a human factors analyst talking from a radio base station with technicians wearing…

  10. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    PubMed

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions. PMID:26630829

  11. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  12. NASA: Model development for human factors interfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an intensive literature review in the general topics of human error analysis, stress and job performance, and accident and safety analysis revealed no usable techniques or approaches for analyzing human error in ground or space operations tasks. A task review model is described and proposed to be developed in order to reduce the degree of labor intensiveness in ground and space operations tasks. An extensive number of annotated references are provided.

  13. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  14. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  16. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n = 19) and internet escorts (n = 13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD = 42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not

  17. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  18. Contextual emergence of mental states.

    PubMed

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    2015-11-01

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a non-reductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description. PMID:26018611

  19. Contextual determinants of pain judgments.

    PubMed

    Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Roy, C; Catchlove, R; Sullivan, M J L

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of variations in contextual features of a physically demanding lifting task on the judgments of others' pain. Healthy undergraduates (n=98) were asked to estimate the pain experience of chronic pain patients who were filmed while lifting canisters at different distances from their body. Of interest was whether contextual information (i.e., lifting posture) contributed to pain estimates beyond the variance accounted for by pain behavior. Results indicated that the judgments of others' pain varied significantly as a function of the contextual features of the pain-eliciting task; observers estimated significantly more pain when watching patients lifting canisters positioned further away from the body than canisters closest from the body. Canister position contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain estimates even after controlling for observers' use of pain behavior as a basis of pain estimates. Correlational analyses revealed that greater use of the contextual features when judging others' pain was related to a lower discrepancy (higher accuracy) between estimated and self-reported pain ratings. Results also indicated that observers' level of catastrophizing was associated with more accurate pain estimates. The results of a regression analysis further showed that observers' level of catastrophizing contributed to the prediction of the accuracy of pain estimates over and above the variance accounted for by the utilisation of contextual features. Discussion addresses the processes that might underlie the utilisation of contextual features of a pain-eliciting task when estimating others' pain. PMID:18701219

  20. Pigeons exhibit contextual cueing to both simple and complex backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-05-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con. PMID:24491468

  1. Human Factors in Library Administration. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Neil

    Intended for the beginning or inexperienced supervisor, this continuing education course syllabus presents basic information on the development of human relations skills, particularly in the areas of leadership, communication, conflict, and motivation. Role playing situations set in various types of medical libraries are also outlined to provide…

  2. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis.

  3. Human Factors Standards and implementation plan for waste management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is dedicated to assuring safety and public confidence by conducting a thorough assessment and upgrade of its nuclear policies and procedures. To ensure that DOE field operations protect the health and safety of employees, the general public and the environment, new operational procedures, standards, and implementation plans are both required and forthcoming from DOE Headquarters, NE-74. Part of this effort requires the establishment and integration of human factors engineering design standards and implementation methods to reduce the probability of human error, human injury and radiological exposure. Human Factors professionals work to assure that technology is designed and utilized safely and efficiently to serve the needs and capabilities of the people who must use this technology. The primary goal of human factors engineering is to ensure compatibility and congruence between the people, equipment, tasks, procedures and training so as to minimize human error and assure that ``total systems performance and reliability`` are achieved.

  4. Influence of individual and social contextual factors on changes in leisure-time physical activity in working-class populations: results of the Healthy Directions–Small Businesses Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Anne; Bennett, Gary G.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2012-01-01

    Background As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program Project, we sought to address disparities reflected in social class and race/ethnicity by developing and testing a behavioral intervention model that targeted fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, multivitamin intake, and physical activity in working-class, multiethnic populations. Methods This paper examined the associations between change in leisure-time physical activity and individual and social contextual factors in participants employed in small businesses (n = 850) at both baseline and at 18-month final. Results In bivariate analyses, age, language acculturation, social ties, and workplace social capital were significantly associated with physical activity at final. In multivariable analyses, being younger and having high language acculturation were significantly associated with greater leisuretime physical activity at final; high workplace social capital was significantly associated with a decline in physical activity at final. Conclusion These findings have implications for understanding factors that are integral to promoting change in physical activity among working-class, multiethnic populations. PMID:22806257

  5. Human factor design of habitable space facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1987-01-01

    Current fundamental and applied habitability research conducted as part of the U.S. space program is reviewed with emphasis on methods, findings, and applications of the results to the planning and design of the International Space Station. The discussion covers the following six concurrent directions of habitability research: operational simulation, functional interior decor research, space crew privacy requirements, interior layout and configuration analysis, human spatial habitability model, and analogous environments research.

  6. Phosphorylation Stoichiometries of Human Eukaryotic Initiation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Andaya, Armann; Villa, Nancy; Jia, Weitao; Fraser, Christopher S.; Leary, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors are the principal molecular effectors regulating the process converting nucleic acid to functional protein. Commonly referred to as eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors), this suite of proteins is comprised of at least 25 individual subunits that function in a coordinated, regulated, manner during mRNA translation. Multiple facets of eIF regulation have yet to be elucidated; however, many of the necessary protein factors are phosphorylated. Herein, we have isolated, identified and quantified phosphosites from eIF2, eIF3, and eIF4G generated from log phase grown HeLa cell lysates. Our investigation is the first study to globally quantify eIF phosphosites and illustrates differences in abundance of phosphorylation between the residues of each factor. Thus, identification of those phosphosites that exhibit either high or low levels of phosphorylation under log phase growing conditions may aid researchers to concentrate their investigative efforts to specific phosphosites that potentially harbor important regulatory mechanisms germane to mRNA translation. PMID:24979134

  7. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention. PMID:10604182

  8. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  9. Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as

  10. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  11. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, S; Tschan, F; Semmer, N K; Howell, M D; Marsch, S

    2010-01-01

    Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field. PMID:21063563

  12. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Overview: Human Factors Issues in Space Station Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of human factors issues in space station architecture. The status of the space station program is given. Habitability concerns such as vibroacoustics, lighting systems, privacy and work stations are discussed in detail.

  14. Crucial factor: human. Safely extending the human presence in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garshnek, V.; Nicogossian, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    The concept of advanced manned space missions has captured the interest and imagination of spacefaring nations. However, the physiological and psychological effects of space flight increase in magnitude and significance in the 'extended time-in-space' context. The unencumbered weightless condition enjoyed during short flights might compromise crew productivity upon return to a gravity field and extremely effective countermeasures may be essential. Missions remote from Earth require careful consideration of the medical facilities, psychological support and life support needed. The author discusses pressing issues that must be resolved before the visions of bolder human missions can be realistically fulfilled.

  15. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  16. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  17. Human factors and medication errors: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather; Morrison, Paul

    2014-12-15

    Human beings are error prone. A significant component of human error is flaws inherent in human cognitive processes, which are exacerbated by situations in which the individual making the error is distracted, stressed or overloaded, or does not have sufficient knowledge to undertake an action correctly. The scientific discipline of human factors deals with environmental, organisational and job factors, as well as human and individual characteristics, which influence behaviour at work in a way that potentially gives rise to human error. This article discusses how cognitive processing is related to medication errors. The case of a coronial inquest into the death of a nursing home resident is used to highlight the way people think and process information, and how such thinking and processing may lead to medication errors. PMID:25492790

  18. The first recombinant human coagulation factor VIII of human origin: human cell line and manufacturing characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Casademunt, Elisabeth; Martinelle, Kristina; Jernberg, Mats; Winge, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Maya; Biesert, Lothar; Knaub, Sigurd; Walter, Olaf; Schröder, Carola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Since the early 1990s, recombinant human clotting factor VIII (rhFVIII) produced in hamster cells has been available for haemophilia A treatment. However, the post-translational modifications of these proteins are not identical to those of native human FVIII, which may lead to immunogenic reactions and the development of inhibitors against rhFVIII. For the first time, rhFVIII produced in a human host cell line is available. Aim We describe here the establishment of the first human production cell line for rhFVIII and the manufacturing process of this novel product. Methods and results A human cell line expressing rhFVIII was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 F cells transfected with an FVIII expression plasmid. No virus or virus-like particles could be detected following extensive testing. The stringently controlled production process is completely free from added materials of animal or human origin. Multistep purification employing a combination of filtration and chromatography steps ensures the efficient removal of impurities. Solvent/detergent treatment and a 20 nm pore size nanofiltration step, used for the first time in rhFVIII manufacturing, efficiently eliminate any hypothetically present viruses. In contrast to hamster cell-derived products, this rhFVIII product does not contain hamster-like epitopes, which might be expected to be immunogenic. Conclusions HEK 293 F cells, whose parental cell line HEK 293 has been used by researchers for decades, are a suitable production cell line for rhFVIII and will help avoid immunogenic epitopes. A modern manufacturing process has been developed to ensure the highest level of purity and pathogen safety. PMID:22690791

  19. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  20. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  1. Factors influencing human leukocyte adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stepniewicz, W; Tchórzewski, H; Luciak, M

    1983-01-01

    Studies were performed on factors influencing leucocyte adherence in vitro. Blood condensation was found to increase leukocyte adherence. Addition of heparin, dextran or ethanol caused a significant reduction of white blood cell count in blood samples in comparison with blood mixed with sodium EDTA or ACD solution. This suggests the existence of two granulocyte subpopulations; viz, rapidly adhering and slowly adhering. Heparin enhanced granulocyte adherence, while dextran and ethanol decreased it. Five-day storage of ACD blood led to a decrease in granulocyte adherence, while addition of heparin or histamine to ACD blood prevented this change to occur. The glucose concentration of 1,000 mg/dl augmented granulocyte adherence, while higher glucose concentrations induced its progressive fall below the control values. There was no significant change of lymphocyte adherence during the experiments. PMID:6194070

  2. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  3. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  4. Coagulation Factor XIIIa Substrates in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajsen, Camilla Lund; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J.; Scavenius, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a transglutaminase with a well defined role in the final stages of blood coagulation. Active FXIII (FXIIIa) catalyzes the formation of ϵ-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds between specific Gln and Lys residues. The primary physiological outcome of this catalytic activity is stabilization of the fibrin clot during coagulation. The stabilization is achieved through the introduction of cross-links between fibrin monomers and through cross-linking of proteins with anti-fibrinolytic activity to fibrin. FXIIIa additionally cross-links several proteins with other functionalities to the clot. Cross-linking of proteins to the clot is generally believed to modify clot characteristics such as proteolytic susceptibility and hereby affect the outcome of tissue damage. In the present study, we use a proteomic approach in combination with transglutaminase-specific labeling to identify FXIIIa plasma protein substrates and their reactive residues. The results revealed a total of 147 FXIIIa substrates, of which 132 have not previously been described. We confirm that 48 of the FXIIIa substrates were indeed incorporated into the insoluble fibrin clot during the coagulation of plasma. The identified substrates are involved in, among other activities, complement activation, coagulation, inflammatory and immune responses, and extracellular matrix organization. PMID:24443567

  5. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peacocke, M.; Yaar, M.; Mansur, C.P.; Chao, M.V.; Gilchrest, B.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. The authors have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and they suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin.

  6. Probabilistic Simulation of the Human Factor in Structural Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Singhal, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    The formal approach described herein computationally simulates the probable ranges of uncertainties for the human factor in probabilistic assessments of structural reliability. Human factors such as marital status, professional status, home life, job satisfaction, work load, and health are studied by using a multifactor interaction equation (MFIE) model to demonstrate the approach. Parametric studies in conjunction with judgment are used to select reasonable values for the participating factors (primitive variables). Subsequently performed probabilistic sensitivity studies assess the suitability of the MFIE as well as the validity of the whole approach. Results show that uncertainties range from 5 to 30 percent for the most optimistic case, assuming 100 percent for no error (perfect performance).

  7. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Singhal, Surendra N.

    1994-09-01

    The formal approach described herein computationally simulates the probable ranges of uncertainties for the human factor in probabilistic assessments of structural reliability. Human factors such as marital status, professional status, home life, job satisfaction, work load, and health are studied by using a multifactor interaction equation (MFIE) model to demonstrate the approach. Parametric studies in conjunction with judgment are used to select reasonable values for the participating factors (primitive variables). Subsequently performed probabilistic sensitivity studies assess the suitability of the MFIE as well as the validity of the whole approach. Results show that uncertainties range from 5 to 30 percent for the most optimistic case, assuming 100 percent for no error (perfect performance).

  8. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Does the subjectivity of the response perspective threaten the contextual validity of inferences?

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, Gerald R; Nolte, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective: On-going evidence is required to support the validity of inferences about change and group differences in the evaluation of health programs, particularly when self-report scales requiring substantial subjectivity in response generation are used as outcome measures. Following this reasoning, the aim of this study was to replicate the factor structure and investigate the measurement invariance of the latest version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, a widely used health program evaluation measure. Methods: An archived dataset of responses to the most recent version of the English-language Health Education Impact Questionnaire that uses four rather than six response options (N = 3221) was analysed using exploratory structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis appropriate for ordered categorical data. Metric and scalar invariance were studied following recent recommendations in the literature to apply fully invariant unconditional models with minimum constraints necessary for model identification. Results: The original eight-factor structure was replicated and all but one of the scales (Self Monitoring and Insight) was found to consist of unifactorial items with reliability of ⩾0.8 and satisfactory discriminant validity. Configural, metric and scalar invariance were established across pre-test to post-test and population sub-groups (sex, age, education, ethnic background). Conclusion: The results support the high level of interest in the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, particularly for use as a pre-test/post-test measure in experimental studies, other pre–post evaluation designs and system-level monitoring and evaluation. PMID:26770785

  9. Control by Contextual Stimuli in Novel Second-Order Conditional Discriminations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Martinez, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen undergraduates participated in studies designed to examine the factors that produce transfer of contextual functions to novel stimuli in second-order conditional discriminations. In Study 1, participants selected comparison B1 given sample A1 and comparison B2 given sample A2 in a matching-to-sample procedure. Contextual stimuli X1 or X2…

  10. Organization of the gene for human factor XI

    SciTech Connect

    Asakai, R.; Chung, D.W.; Davie, E.W.

    1987-05-01

    Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent) is a plasma glycoprotein that participates in the contact phase of blood coagulation. The gene for human factor XI has been isolated from two human genomic libraries using a full length cDNA as a hybridization probe. Four overlapping recombinant lambda phage containing the entire human factor XI gene have been isolated and characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting and selective DNA sequencing. The gene for human factor XI is 25 kilobases in length and consists of 15 exons. The introns divide the coding sequence into segments that encode recognizable domains in the protein. Thus, exon I codes for the 5' noncoding region; exon II codes for the signal peptide of 18 amino acids. The following 8 exons (exon III to exon X) encode the 4 tandem repeats that constitute the heavy chain of factor XIa. The location of the introns and the junction type are strictly conserved in each of these repeats. Exon XI codes for the connecting peptide and exons XII, XIII, XIV and XV code for the light chain of factor XIa that contains the catalytic triad of the serine protease. The location of the introns and the junction types in this region of the gene are identical to those in the corresponding regions of the genes for human tissues plasminogen activator and porcine urokinase.

  11. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  12. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  13. Extracting contextual information in digital imagery: applications to automatic target recognition and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Clay D.; Sajda, Paul; Pearson, John C.

    1996-02-01

    An important problem in image analysis is finding small objects in large images. The problem is challenging because (1) searching a large image is computationally expensive, and (2) small targets (on the order of a few pixels in size) have relatively few distinctive features which enable them to be distinguished from non-targets. To overcome these challenges we have developed a hierarchical neural network (HNN) architecture which combines multi-resolution pyramid processing with neural networks. The advantages of the architecture are: (1) both neural network training and testing can be done efficiently through coarse-to-fine techniques, and (2) such a system is capable of learning low-resolution contextual information to facilitate the detection of small target objects. We have applied this neural network architecture to two problems in which contextual information appears to be important for detecting small targets. The first problem is one of automatic target recognition (ATR), specifically the problem of detecting buildings in aerial photographs. The second problem focuses on a medical application, namely searching mammograms for microcalcifications, which are cues for breast cancer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggests that the hierarchical architecture improves the detection accuracy for both the ATR and microcalcification detection problems, reducing false positive rates by a significant factor. In addition, we have examined the hidden units at various levels of the processing hierarchy and found what appears to be representations of road location (for the ATR example) and ductal/vasculature location (for mammography), both of which are in agreement with the contextual information used by humans to find these classes of targets. We conclude that this hierarchical neural network architecture is able to automatically extract contextual information in imagery and utilize it for target detection.

  14. A Spatial Classifier for Multispectral Data Using Contextual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Connectivity describes the spatial relationship among pixels. A spatial classifier which employs the sigma probability concept of the Gaussian distribution and a type of contextual information connectivity of the pixels, is studied in this paper. This spatial classifier attempts to replicate the kind of spatial synthesis done by the human analyst during visual interpretation or to capture the spatial relationships inherent in an aerial photograph. Several classification results of the Landsat TM data using this classifier with different window sizes for capturing the contextual information are illustrated and compared.

  15. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  16. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  17. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  18. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  19. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  20. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  1. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  2. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in

  3. Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2003-01-01

    Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…

  4. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  5. Contextual Poverty, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. One of the strongest factors that impacts nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast food restaurants within particular regions markedly impact the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to impact CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  6. Inducible forebrain-specific ablation of the transcription factor Creb during adulthood induces anxiety but no spatial/contextual learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Miriam A.; Inta, Dragos; Luoni, Alessia; Elkin, Hasan; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Riva, Marco A.; Gass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) is an activity-dependent transcription factor playing a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and emotional behavior. However, the impact of Creb ablation on rodent behavior is vague as e.g., memory performance of different Creb mutant mice depends on the specific type of mutation per se but additionally on the background and learning protocol differences. Here we present the first targeted ablation of CREB induced during adulthood selectively in principal forebrain neurons in a pure background strain of C57BL/6 mice. All hippocampal principal neurons exhibited lack of CREB expression. Mutant mice showed a severe anxiety phenotype in the openfield and novel object exploration test as well as in the Dark-Light Box Test, but unaltered hippocampus-dependent long-term memory in the Morris water maze and in context dependent fear conditioning. On the molecular level, CREB ablation led to CREM up regulation in the hippocampus and frontal cortex which may at least in part compensate for the loss of CREB. BDNF, a postulated CREB target gene, was down regulated in the frontal lobe but not in the hippocampus; neurogenesis remained unaltered. Our data indicate that in the adult mouse forebrain the late onset of CREB ablation can, in case of memory functionality, be compensated for and is not essential for memory consolidation and retrieval during adulthood. In contrast, the presence of CREB protein during adulthood seems to be pivotal for the regulation of emotional behavior. PMID:25505876

  7. Contextual Knowledge Reduces Demands on Working Memory during Reading

    PubMed Central

    Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jason A.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title which supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs) along with knowledge, working memory span, and age are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors. PMID:17225514

  8. A human factors methodology for real-time support applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, E. D.; Vanbalen, P. M.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    A general approach to the human factors (HF) analysis of new or existing projects at NASA/Goddard is delineated. Because the methodology evolved from HF evaluations of the Mission Planning Terminal (MPT) and the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room (ERBS MOR), it is directed specifically to the HF analysis of real-time support applications. Major topics included for discussion are the process of establishing a working relationship between the Human Factors Group (HFG) and the project, orientation of HF analysts to the project, human factors analysis and review, and coordination with major cycles of system development. Sub-topics include specific areas for analysis and appropriate HF tools. Management support functions are outlined. References provide a guide to sources of further information.

  9. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  10. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  11. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  12. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  13. Contextual Influences on Korean College Students' Vocational Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Bora; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the effect of contextual factors on vocational identity (VI) level in each VI status, originated by Marcia ("Handbook of adolescent psychology." Wiley, New York, 1980)'s identity status. This is an attempt to integrate status approach and dimension approach of VI development by finding within-status difference of…

  14. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  15. Human factors - Man-machine symbiosis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeri W.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between man and machine in space is studied. Early spaceflight and the goal of establishing a permanent space presence are described. The need to consider the physiological, psychological, and social integration of humans for each space mission is examined. Human factors must also be considered in the design of spacecraft. The effective utilization of man and machine capabilities, and research in anthropometry and biomechanics aimed at determining the limitations of spacecrews are discussed.

  16. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  17. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care. PMID:20511333

  18. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  19. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  20. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  1. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  2. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  3. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1998-01-01

    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  4. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  6. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    A formal approach is described in an attempt to computationally simulate the probable ranges of uncertainties of the human factor in structural probabilistic assessments. A multi-factor interaction equation (MFIE) model has been adopted for this purpose. Human factors such as marital status, professional status, home life, job satisfaction, work load and health, are considered to demonstrate the concept. Parametric studies in conjunction with judgment are used to select reasonable values for the participating factors (primitive variables). Suitability of the MFIE in the subsequently probabilistic sensitivity studies are performed to assess the validity of the whole approach. Results obtained show that the uncertainties for no error range from five to thirty percent for the most optimistic case.

  7. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  8. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  9. A 24-residue presequence localizes human factor B to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Belogrudov, Grigory I

    2007-05-01

    We reported previously that the human factor B precursor is a 215-amino acid polypeptide, the first 40 amino acid residues of which function as a mitochondrial targeting presequence [G.I. Belogrudov, Y. Hatefi, J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 6097-6103]. Confocal microscopy of live HEK293 cells, transiently transfected with factor B constructs tagged at the C-terminus with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that either a 40- or 25-residue presequence localized factor B to mitochondria. Indirect immunofluorescent labeling of fixed, permeabilized HEK293 cells that were transiently transfected with a construct lacking a presequence, showed diffuse, intracellular staining that was consistent with targeting of ectopically expressed factor B to cellular compartments distinct from the mitochondria. Mutants in which either Met(-25) or both Met(-25)/Met(-24) residues of the presequence were deleted exhibited decreased or undetectable levels, respectively, of the GFP-tagged factor B. The factor B presequence alone was shown to target a reporter polypeptide GFP to mitochondria. Our studies, therefore, demonstrate that a 24-residue presequence is sufficient to localize factor B to mitochondria, and suggest that the human factor B precursor is a 199-amino acid polypeptide. PMID:17359931

  10. Circuitry and dynamics of human transcription factor regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Neph, Shane; Stergachis, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Alex; Sandstrom, Richard; Borenstein, Elhanan; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The combinatorial cross-regulation of hundreds of sequence-specific transcription factors defines a regulatory network that underlies cellular identity and function. Here we use genome-wide maps of in vivo DNaseI footprints to assemble an extensive core human regulatory network comprising connections among 475 sequence-specific transcription factors, and to analyze the dynamics of these connections across 41 diverse cell and tissue types. We find that human transcription factor networks are highly cell-selective and are driven by cohorts of factors that include regulators with previously unrecognized roles in control of cellular identity. Moreover, we identify many widely expressed factors that impact transcriptional regulatory networks in a cell-selective manner. Strikingly, in spite of their inherent diversity, all cell type regulatory networks independently converge on a common architecture that closely resembles the topology of living neuronal networks. Together, our results provide the first description of the circuitry, dynamics, and organizing principles of the human transcription factor regulatory network. PMID:22959076

  11. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  12. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  13. The importance of residues 195-206 of human blood clotting factor VII in the interaction of factor VII with tissue factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Kazim, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that human and bovine factor VII exhibit 71% amino acid sequence identity. In the present study, competition binding experiments revealed that the interaction of human factor VII with cell-surface human tissue factor was not inhibited by 100-fold molar excess of bovine factor VII. This finding indicated that bovine and human factor VII are not structurally homologous in the region(s) where human factor VII interacts with human tissue factor. On this premise, the authors synthesized three peptides corresponding to regions of human factor VII that exhibited marked structural dissimilarity to bovine factor VII; these regions of dissimilarity included residues 195-206, 263-274, and 314-326. Peptide 195-206 inhibited the interaction of factor VII with cell-surface tissue factor and the activation of factor X by a complex of factor VIIa and tissue factor half-maximally at concentrations of 1-2 mM. A structurally rearranged form of peptide 195-206 containing an aspartimide residue inhibited these reactions half-maximally at concentrations of 250-300 {mu}M. In contrast, neither peptide 263-274 nor peptide 314-326, at 2 mM concentration, significantly affected either factor VIIa interaction with tissue factor or factor VIIa-mediated activation of factor X. The data provide presumptive evidence that residues 195-206 of human factor VII are involved in the interaction of human factor VII with the extracellular domain of human tissue factor apoprotein.

  14. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve. PMID:23397805

  15. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  16. Biological characterization of human fibroblast-derived mitogenic factors for human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, G; Yada, Y; Morisaki, N; Kimura, M

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the paracrine linkage between human fibroblasts and melanocytes in cutaneous pigmentation, we studied the effects of human fibroblast-derived factors on the proliferation of human melanocytes. In medium conditioned for 4 days with human fibroblast culture, factors were produced that markedly stimulated DNA synthesis of human melanocytes. The stimulatory effect was higher in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from aged skin than in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from young skin, and was interrupted by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, such as tyrphostin, genistein and herbimycin, but not by inhibitors of protein kinases C and A, such as H-7 and phloretin. The conditioned medium was also capable of activating mitogen-activated protein kinase of human melanocytes, with old fibroblasts being more effective than young ones. Analysis of factors released into the conditioned medium revealed that levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) were increased in old-fibroblast-conditioned medium compared with young-fibroblast-conditioned medium. In contrast, levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were similar in both media. When the conditioned medium was treated with HGF antibody with or without SCF antibody, the increase in DNA synthesis by human melanocytes was decreased to 20% of the elevated level, whereas antibodies to bFGF had no effect. Analysis of the medium conditioned for 4 days after cytokine application demonstrated that, of the cytokines tested, interleukin 1alpha and tumour necrosis factor alpha are highly effective in stimulating HGF secretion by old fibroblasts. HGF and SCF, but not bFGF, were markedly increased in culture medium in the presence of IL-1alpha, and this stimulatory effect was confined to young human fibroblasts. These findings suggest that SCF and HGF derived from human fibroblasts may play a part in regulating cutaneous pigmentation during inflammation and aging. PMID:9494091

  17. The Human Factor: A Key to Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzies, Paula; Hare, Isadora

    This document contends that efforts designed to determine how schools can educate children for the nation of tomorrow, by focusing primarily on curriculum issues, instruction, and teachers, may have overlooked the interpersonal factors which contribute to excellence and those human and social forces which may interfere with the attainment of…

  18. Critical Human Factors in Emerging Library Technology Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Discusses new services that academic librarians are offering to users involving digital data, such as geographic information systems laboratories and electronic text centers. Suggests that human factors, such as management, organizational climate among the staff, and the development of a user community will determine the success or failure of the…

  19. Some Human Factors Issues in Bringing Jobs to Confined Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Charles

    This paper explores several human factors and other issues associated with taking jobs to disabled persons using computer-telecommunications technology and systems. General concepts of the transportation communications tradeoff are discussed. Legal and institutional dimensions of handicapped employments are addressed. A variety of research and…

  20. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  1. Interviewer as Instrument: Accounting for Human Factors in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.

    2006-01-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug,…

  2. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  3. Investigation of Multiple Human Factors in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Huang, Pei-Ren; Shih, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of personalized learning systems have been developed and they mainly focus on learners' prior knowledge. On the other hand, previous research suggested that gender differences and cognitive styles have great effects on student learning. To this end, this study examines how human factors, especially gender differences…

  4. Axiological Measurement of Human Value Factors in Mental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard; Mattsson, Jan

    Modern behavioral research focuses on the possibility of a direct measurement of value preferences, which are conceived as important causal variables of behavior. A method and procedure for the measurement and representation of human value factors is presented. The thesis was studied that valuation results from an active inquiring agent whose…

  5. Contextual factors multiplex to control multisensory processes.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Matusz, Pawel J; Sanabria, Daniel; Murray, Micah M

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) within an electrical neuroimaging framework to provide insights regarding the interaction between multisensory processes and stimulus probabilities. Specifically, we identified the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms by which the proportion of temporally congruent and task-irrelevant auditory information influences stimulus processing during a visual duration discrimination task. The spatial position (top/bottom) of the visual stimulus was indicative of how frequently the visual and auditory stimuli would be congruent in their duration (i.e., context of congruence). Stronger influences of irrelevant sound were observed when contexts associated with a high proportion of auditory-visual congruence repeated and also when contexts associated with a low proportion of congruence switched. Context of congruence and context transition resulted in weaker brain responses at 228 to 257 ms poststimulus to conditions giving rise to larger behavioral cross-modal interactions. Importantly, a control oddball task revealed that both congruent and incongruent audiovisual stimuli triggered equivalent non-linear multisensory interactions when congruence was not a relevant dimension. Collectively, these results are well explained by statistical learning, which links a particular context (here: a spatial location) with a certain level of top-down attentional control that further modulates cross-modal interactions based on whether a particular context repeated or changed. The current findings shed new light on the importance of context-based control over multisensory processing, whose influences multiplex across finer and broader time scales. PMID:26466522

  6. Task duration in contextual interference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter J K

    2002-12-01

    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  7. The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones. PMID:19958542

  8. An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.

  9. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  10. Radioimmunoassay of factor V in human plasma and platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, P.B.; Eide, L.L.; Bowie, E.J.W.; Mann, K.G.

    1982-07-01

    Homogeneous, single-chain human factor V was used to develop a double antibody competition radioimmunoassay to measure factor V concentrations in plasma and platelets. Standard curves were constructed that allow for the detection of as little as 20 ng factor V/ml of plasma. Normal factor V concentrations range from 4 to 14 ..mu..g/ml of plasma with an average value of 7.0 +/- 2.0 ..mu..g/ml (n = 64). No correlation was observed between antigen levels and age or sex. The radioimmunoassay data are consistent with factor V clotting assays, providing freshly drawn plasma is used in the bioassay. Radioimmunoassay of washed platelets indicate that 0.63-1.93 ..mu..g of factor V is present per 2.5 X 10/sup 8/ platelets (6412-14128 molecules of factor V per platelet). When normalized to individual hematocrits and platelet count, the data indicated that platelets contribute approximately 18%-25% of the factor V found in whole blood. In addition, two individuals with functionally deficient factor V were examined and found to be deficient in both antigen and activity.

  11. Rapid prototyping and the human factors engineering process.

    PubMed

    Beevis, D; Denis, G S

    1992-06-01

    Rapid prototyping or 'virtual prototyping' of human-machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator 'in the loop' without the effort and cost associated with conventional man-in-the-loop simulation. Advocates suggest that rapid prototyping is compatible with conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the VAPS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human-machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems development, rather than to detailed design. PMID:15676861

  12. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  13. Contextual Influences on Financial Behavior: A Proposed Model for Adult Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an ecological model that highlights the importance of considering multiple contextual influences on behavior as well as other factors that may impact learning when designing research and practice aimed at enhancing financial capability.

  14. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Otto, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevity”) in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures. PMID:26366022

  15. Improving the human factors of software with CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of CLIPS has transformed a conventional graduate course on the human factors of software. Previously, the class centered on lectures and discussions of a mix of ideas for improving the user-friendliness of software. By using CLIPS, the course can focus instead on teaching students to build three rule-based projects in CLIPS for improving the human factors of software. For the first project, students construct a friendly CLIPS front-end to existing software. For the second project students build a CLIPS expert system to help comply with user-interface guidelines. Alternatively, students may build an expert system to assist in detecting discrepancies between user-interfaces and guidelines. For the third project, students use CLIPS to implement a GOMS Model Methodology to assess the human performance impacts of given user-interfaces. Feedback on the projects from the students' colleagues and superiors in the workplace confirm the effectiveness of this CLIPS project-oriented approach to teaching the human factors of user-computer systems. Future refinements are described. Suggestions for those wishing to try this approach are outlined.

  16. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    SciTech Connect

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  17. Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01

    Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

  18. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  19. Real-life contextual manifestations of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as its predominant philosophies. Analysis of these interview transcripts yielded 220 wisdom incidents that fall into five categories of wisdom. Results of the present study suggests that in real life, wisdom most likely is manifested through: 1) striving for common good by helping others and contributing to society; 2) achieving and maintaining a satisfactory state of life; 3) deciding and developing life paths; 4) resolving difficult problems at work; and 5) insisting on doing the right thing when facing adversity. PMID:19266867

  20. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  1. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  2. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  3. Defining human insulin-like growth factor I gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Aditi; Alzhanov, Damir; Rotwein, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays an essential role in controlling somatic growth and in regulating multiple physiological processes in humans and other species. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a conserved, secreted 70-amino acid peptide, is a critical mediator of many of the biological effects of GH. Previous studies have demonstrated that GH rapidly and potently promotes IGF-I gene expression in rodents and in some other mammals through the transcription factor STAT5b, leading to accumulation of IGF-I mRNAs and production of IGF-I. Despite this progress, very little is known about how GH or other trophic factors control human IGF1 gene expression, in large part because of the absence of any cellular model systems that robustly express IGF-I. Here, we have addressed mechanisms of regulation of human IGF-I by GH after generating cells in which the IGF1 chromosomal locus has been incorporated into a mouse cell line. Using this model, we found that physiological levels of GH rapidly stimulate human IGF1 gene transcription and identify several potential transcriptional enhancers in chromatin that bind STAT5b in a GH-regulated way. Each of the putative enhancers also activates a human IGF1 gene promoter in reconstitution experiments in the presence of the GH receptor, STAT5b, and GH. Thus we have developed a novel experimental platform that now may be used to determine how human IGF1 gene expression is controlled under different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27406741

  4. Tissue factor expression during human and mouse development.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, T.; Flössel, C.; Mackman, N.; Bierhaus, A.; Kasper, M.; Albrecht, S.; Sage, E. H.; Iruela-Arispe, L.; Grossmann, H.; Ströhlein, A.; Zhang, Y.; Nawroth, P. P.; Carmeliet, P.; Loskutoff, D. J.; Müller, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the adult organism the cellular distribution of tissue factor (TF) expression corresponds to biological boundary layers forming a hemostatic barrier ready to activate blood coagulation after tissue injury. Whether TF expression might also play a role in development is unknown. To determine the significance of TF in ontogenesis, we examined the pattern of TF expression in mouse development and compared it with the distribution of TF in human post-implantation embryos and fetuses of corresponding gestational age. At early embryonic periods of murine (6.5 and 7.5 pc) and human (stage 5) development, there was strong expression of TF in both ectodermal and entodermal cells. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TF mRNA and protein were expressed widely in epithelial areas with high levels of morphogenic activity during organogenesis. Staining for TF was seen during ontogenetic development in tissues such as epidermis, myocardium, bronchial epithelium, and hepatocytes, which express TF in the adult organism. Surprisingly, during renal development and in adults, expression of TF differed between humans and mice. In humans, maturing stage glomeruli were stained for TF whereas in mice, TF was absent from glomeruli but was present in the epithelia of tubular segments. In neuroepithelial cells, there was a substantial expression of TF. Moreover, there was robust TF expression in tissues such as skeletal muscle and pancreas, which do not express it in the adult. In contrast, expression of the physiological ligand for TF, factor VII, was not detectable during early stages of human embryogenesis using immunohistochemistry. The temporal and spatial pattern of TF expression during murine and human development supports the contention that TF serves as an important morphogenic factor during embryogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8686734

  5. Human factors and ergonomics as a patient safety practice

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Xie, Anping; Kianfar, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches to patient safety have addressed five different domains: usability of technology; human error and its role in patient safety; the role of healthcare worker performance in patient safety; system resilience; and HFE systems approaches to patient safety. Methods A review of various HFE approaches to patient safety and studies on HFE interventions was conducted. Results This paper describes specific examples of HFE-based interventions for patient safety. Studies show that HFE can be used in a variety of domains. Conclusions HFE is a core element of patient safety improvement. Therefore, every effort should be made to support HFE applications in patient safety. PMID:23813211

  6. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  7. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  8. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  9. Factors regulating interaction between trophoblast and human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, C; Bulletti, C; Polli, V; Ciotti, P M; Prefetto, R A; Galassi, A; Di Cosmo, E

    1991-01-01

    Implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction. Disturbances of this process are responsible for pregnancy failure after both in vivo and in vitro fertilization. The endometrium provides the implanting embryo with a unique substratum where the embryo communicates with biochemical signals, attaches itself, penetrates and grows without blood circulation. The highly proliferative phase of the cytotrophoblast, during early human embryogenesis, may be due to endogenous production of growth factors that may establish autocrine/short range paracrine stimulator loops which explain the tumor-like properties of these tissues. Endometrial BM penetration and stroma invasion may be due to the proteolytic capability of the human embryo. It is suggested that collagenase and the urokinase-like plasminogen activator are responsible for this activity. To clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in human embryo implantation several models are suggested: culture of blastocysts, culture of endometrial cells, and endometrial explant co-culture. Human blastocysts cultured with whole perfused human uteri make it possible to recognize some aspects of the entire implantation process and give us the possibility of improving the benefits provided by new technologies in reproductive medicine and reducing embryonic loss at an early stage. PMID:2064179

  10. Human Factors Evaluations of Two-Dimensional Spacecraft Conceptual Layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Much of the human factors work done in support of the NASA Constellation lunar program has been with low fidelity mockups. These volumetric replicas of the future lunar spacecraft allow researchers to insert test subjects from the engineering and astronaut population and evaluate the vehicle design as the test subjects perform simulations of various operational tasks. However, lunar outpost designs must be evaluated without the use of mockups, creating a need for evaluation tools that can be performed on two-dimension conceptual spacecraft layouts, such as floor plans. A tool based on the Cooper- Harper scale was developed and applied to one lunar scenario, enabling engineers to select between two competing floor plan layouts. Keywords: Constellation, human factors, tools, processes, habitat, outpost, Net Habitable Volume, Cooper-Harper.

  11. Collaborating with human factors when designing an electronic textbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, J.A.; Zadoks, R.I.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    The development of on-line engineering textbooks presents new challenges to authors to effectively integrate text and tools in an electronic environment. By incorporating human factors principles of interface design and cognitive psychology early in the design process, a team at Sandia National Laboratories was able to make the end product more usable and shorten the prototyping and editing phases. A critical issue was simultaneous development of paper and on-line versions of the textbook. In addition, interface consistency presented difficulties with distinct goals and limitations for each media. Many of these problems were resolved swiftly with human factors input using templates, style guides and iterative usability testing of both paper and on-line versions. Writing style continuity was also problematic with numerous authors contributing to the text.

  12. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  13. Contextual dissonance effects: nature and causes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M

    1977-08-01

    Contextual consonance or dissonance refers to the concordance of, or the discrepancy between, the individual's social characteristics and those of the population by which he is surrounded. Although a number of advantageous consequences have been shown to issue from contextual dissonance, self-esteem is not one of them. This article seeks to account for the deleterious effect of contextual dissonance on self-esteem by examining the nature of dissonant communications environments, dissonant cultural environments, and dissonant comparison reference groups. PMID:887692

  14. Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2011-09-23

    In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  15. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  16. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  17. Motogenic substrata and chemokinetic growth factors for human skin cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Denyer, Morgan; Britland, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular matrix remodelling and accurate spatio-temporal coordination of growth factor expression are two factors that are believed to regulate mitoses and cell migration in developing and regenerating tissues. The present quantitative videomicroscopical study examined the influence of some of the principal components of extracellular matrix and several growth factors that are known to be expressed in dermal wounds on three important facets of human skin cell behaviour in culture. Keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts (and myofibroblast controls) exhibited varying degrees of substrate adhesion, division and migration depending on the composition of the culture substrate. Substrates that are recognized components of transitional matrices generally accentuated cell adhesion and proliferation, and were motogenic, when compared with serum-treated control surfaces, whereas components of more stable structures such as basement membrane had less influence. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and α fibroblastic growth factor (αFGF) all promoted cell proliferation and were chemokinetic to dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). PDGF, EGF and KGF, but not TGFβ or αFGF, all enhanced proliferation of dermal keratinocytes. The same growth factors, and in addition KGF, all stimulated motility in keratinocytes, but TGFβ and αFGF again had no effect. Developing a better understanding of the interdependency of factors that control crucial cell behaviour may assist those who are interested in the regulation of histogenesis and also inform the development of rational therapeutic strategies for the management of chronic and poorly healed wounds. PMID:16011545

  18. The development of human factors research objectives for civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, T. J.

    1970-01-01

    Human factors research programs which would support civil aviation and be suitable for accomplishment by NASA research centers are identified. Aviation problems formed the basis for the research program recommendations and, accordingly, problems were identified, ranked and briefly defined in an informal report to the project monitor and other cognizant NASA personnel. The sources for this problem foundation were literature reviews and extensive interviews with NASA and non-NASA personnel. An overview of these findings is presented.

  19. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  20. Simulation: moving from technology challenge to human factors success.

    PubMed

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J; Kilkenny, Caroline; White, Mark D; Bech, Bo; Lonn, Lars; Bello, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used. PMID:21913055

  1. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  2. Growth hormone releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in human milk.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Amarant, T; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1986-03-28

    The presence of immunoreactive growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) in human milk has been demonstrated. By using sequential high performance liquid chromatography, it has been shown that most of the immunoreactivity co-elutes with the synthetic, hypothalamic-like, GRF (1-40). The concentrations of GRF detected (between 152 and 432 pg GRF/ml milk) exceed several fold its values in plasma. PMID:3083812

  3. Simulation: Moving from Technology Challenge to Human Factors Success

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Derek A.; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J.; Kilkenny, Caroline; White, Mark D.; Bech, Bo; Lonn, Lars; Bello, Fernando

    2012-06-15

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used.

  4. SARDA HITL Preliminary Human Factors Measures and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human factors data collected during the SARDA HITL Simulation Experiment include a variety of subjective measures, including the NASA TLX, questionnaire questions regarding situational awareness, advisory usefulness, UI usability, and controller trust. Preliminary analysis of the TLX data indicate that workload may not be adversely affected by use of the advisories, additionally, the controller's subjective ratings of the advisories may suggest acceptance of the tool.

  5. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  6. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  7. A human factors approach to range scheduling for satellite control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Aitken, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    Range scheduling for satellite control presents a classical problem: supervisory control of a large-scale dynamic system, with unwieldy amounts of interrelated data used as inputs to the decision process. Increased automation of the task, with the appropriate human-computer interface, is highly desirable. The development and user evaluation of a semi-automated network range scheduling system is described. The system incorporates a synergistic human-computer interface consisting of a large screen color display, voice input/output, a 'sonic pen' pointing device, a touchscreen color CRT, and a standard keyboard. From a human factors standpoint, this development represents the first major improvement in almost 30 years to the satellite control network scheduling task.

  8. Lessons from the battlefield: human factors in defence anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S J; Whittle, C L; Mahoney, P F

    2010-07-01

    Anaesthetists in the Defence Medical Services spend most of their clinical time in the National Health Service and deploy on military operations every 6-18 months. The deployed operational environment has a number of key differences particularly as there is more severe trauma than an average UK hospital and injury patterns are mainly due to blast or ballistics. Equipment may also be unfamiliar and there is an expectation to be conversant with specific standard operating procedures. Anaesthetists must be ready to arrive and work in an established team and effective non-technical skills (or human factors) are important to ensure success. This article looks at some of the ways that the Department of Military Anaesthesia, Pain and Critical Care prepares Defence Anaesthetists to work in the deployed environment and focuses on the importance of human factors. This includes current work in the field hospital in Afghanistan and also preparing to work for the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. We highlight the importance of human factors with reference to the type of case mix seen in the field hospital. We also detail the current pre-deployment training package, which employs multiple educational tools including high-fidelity simulation. PMID:20551025

  9. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  10. Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the United States and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance.

  11. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  12. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo ); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi ); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  13. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  14. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  15. Novel factors modulating human β-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, J; Kulkarni, R N

    2016-09-01

    β-Cell dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is accompanied by a progressive loss of β-cells, and an understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) that regulate β-cell mass will enable approaches to enhance hormone secretion. It is becoming increasingly recognized that enhancement of human β-cell proliferation is one potential approach to restore β-cell mass to prevent and/or cure type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While several reports describe the factor(s) that enhance β-cell replication in animal models or cell lines, promoting effective human β-cell proliferation continues to be a challenge in the field. In this review, we discuss recent studies reporting successful human β-cell proliferation including WS6, an IkB kinase and EBP1 inhibitor; harmine and 5-IT, both DYRK1A inhibitors; GNF7156 and GNF4877, GSK-3β and DYRK1A inhibitors; osteoprotegrin and Denosmab, receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) inhibitors; and SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor. These studies provide important examples of proteins and pathways that may prove useful for designing therapeutic strategies to counter the different forms of human diabetes. PMID:27615134

  16. Transcription factor induction of human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pol, Suyog U; Haberman, Alexa K; Wang, Chunming; O'Bara, Melanie A; Sim, Fraser J

    2014-07-15

    Human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) specification and differentiation occurs slowly and limits the potential for cell-based treatment of demyelinating disease. In this study, using FACS-based isolation and microarray analysis, we identified a set of transcription factors expressed by human primary CD140a(+)O4(+) OPCs relative to CD133(+)CD140a(-) neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Among these, lentiviral overexpression of transcription factors ASCL1, SOX10, and NKX2.2 in NPCs was sufficient to induce Sox10 enhancer activity, OPC mRNA, and protein expression consistent with OPC fate; however, unlike ASCL1 and NKX2.2, only the transcriptome of SOX10-infected NPCs was induced to a human OPC gene expression signature. Furthermore, only SOX10 promoted oligodendrocyte commitment, and did so at quantitatively equivalent levels to native OPCs. In xenografts of shiverer/rag2 animals, SOX10 increased the rate of mature oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment. Thus, SOX10 appears to be the principle and rate-limiting regulator of myelinogenic fate from human NPCs. PMID:24982138

  17. Transcription factor induction of human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Pol, Suyog U.; Haberman, Alexa K.; Wang, Chunming; O’Bara, Melanie A.; Sim, Fraser J.

    2014-01-01

    Human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) specification and differentiation occurs slowly and limits the potential for cell-based treatment of demyelinating disease. In this study, using FACS-based isolation and microarray analysis, we identified a set of transcription factors expressed by human primary CD140a+O4+ OPCs relative to CD133+CD140a− neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Among these, lentiviral overexpression of transcription factors ASCL1, SOX10, and NKX2.2 in NPCs was sufficient to induce Sox10 enhancer activity, OPC mRNA, and protein expression consistent with OPC fate; however, unlike ASCL1 and NKX2.2, only the transcriptome of SOX10-infected NPCs was induced to a human OPC gene expression signature. Furthermore, only SOX10 promoted oligodendrocyte commitment, and did so at quantitatively equivalent levels to native OPCs. In xenografts of shiverer/rag2 animals, SOX10 increased the rate of mature oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment. Thus, SOX10 appears to be the principle and rate-limiting regulator of myelinogenic fate from human NPCs. PMID:24982138

  18. Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

  19. Aflatoxins as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Wogan, G N

    1992-04-01

    On a global basis, primary liver cancer (PLC) is a very prevalent form of cancer. Wide variation of PLC incidence in different areas of the world suggests the involvement of environmental factors in its etiology. Two major classes of risk factors have been identified. Extensive evidence indicates the importance of infection by the hepatitis B virus as a major risk factor for PLC. Because many organic chemicals induce liver cancer in experimental animals, those to which human exposure is known to occur are also of interest with respect to their possible involvement as risk factors for PLC. Particular emphasis has been placed on aflatoxins because of the frequency with which they occur as food contaminants, together with their potency as liver carcinogens for a large number of experimental animals, including subhuman primates. Other mycotoxins, notably sterigmatocystin and fumonisin, also are relatively potent carcinogens for the liver of animals, but little is known about human exposure to them. Epidemiological surveys carried out over the past 25 years in Asia and Africa have revealed a strong statistical association between aflatoxin ingestion and PLC incidence. The combined experimental and epidemiological evidence has led to designation of aflatoxins as human carcinogens according to International Agency for Cancer Research criteria. Collectively, current evidence strongly suggests that PLC is of multifactorial origin, with probable interactions between viral and chemical agents in populations concurrently exposed to both classes of risk factors. Recently developed methods that permit individual monitoring of aflatoxin exposure, hepatitis B virus infection, and genetic damage caused by these agents are being applied in the design of molecular and biochemical epidemiological studies of the etiology of the disease. Application of this methodology may contribute to elucidation of the relative importance of interacting etiological agents in different populations

  20. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Anthony S.; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F.; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui’one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March – August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents’ role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes’ “risk and enabling environment” heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention. PMID:22647562