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1

Promoting urinary continence in older women.  

PubMed

Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

Bardsley, Alison

2014-10-22

2

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a)...

2011-04-01

3

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a)...

2010-04-01

4

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a)...

2012-04-01

5

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a)...

2014-04-01

6

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a)...

2013-04-01

7

The mechanisms of continence in the Indiana pouch: a video-urodynamic study.  

PubMed

The ileocecal reservoir (Indiana pouch) is a large volume, low pressure continent reservoir well suited for urinary diversion. The mechanism of continence is believed to be the result of several factors, including the natural ileocecal valve resistance, resistance produced by the plication of the ileal segment and normal peristalsis of the ileum. We report the results of a video-urodynamic study in patients with an Indiana pouch, aimed at establishing the factors that contribute to continence and their relative significance. Video-urodynamic studies clearly demonstrate that continence in this type of urinary reservoir is dependent upon a synergism of the aforementioned factors in combination with the low intraluminal pressure of the detubularized bowel. Video-urodynamic studies offer an objective demonstration of the reservoir dynamics and its continence mechanisms, and provide an insight into the possible etiology of incontinence. Such studies also offer an objective means for critical comparison of the different continent urinary reservoirs. PMID:2329613

Juma, S; Morales, A; Emerson, L

1990-05-01

8

Urinary Calculi as a Late Complication of the Indiana Continent Urinary Diversion: Comparison with the Kock Pouch Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAlthough urinary calculi have been frequent late complications of the Kock continent urinary diversion, they have not been regarded as significant problems in patients with the Indiana pouch because of the lack of foreign material present. However, stones developed in a significant percentage of our patients with an Indiana pouch. We investigated the characteristics of stone formation in patients with

Akito Terai; Tomohiro Ueda; Yoshiyuki Kakehi; Toshiro Terachi; Yoichi Arai; Yusaku Okada; Osamu Yoshida

1996-01-01

9

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a)...

2013-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a)...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a)...

2014-04-01

12

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a)...

2010-04-01

13

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a)...

2012-04-01

14

A novel technique for endoscopic management of stones in a continent urinary reservoir.  

PubMed

Urinary stones are a well-established complication of lower urinary tract reconstruction in children and can be managed through an open, percutaneous, or transurethral endoscopic approach for their surgical removal. For children with no urethral access, it is not generally advised to pursue an endoscopic approach through a catheterizable channel. In this study, we describe a safe and effective technique for the endoscopic management of stones through a catheterizable channel in a child with a continent urinary reservoir. PMID:24726150

Vasudevan, Vinaya; Strine, Andrew C; Kaefer, Martin

2014-06-01

15

Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about the seven continents in this project. This project addresses 3rd Grade Social Studies CORE, Standard 6: Students will use map skills to analyze the influence of physical features on the building of communities in the United States. Objective 1: Examine maps and globes. Indicator a: Identify oceans and continents of the world. Today we\\'re going to be going an adventure to the seven different continents. We\\'ll be able to see many exciting things and learn about the things that make each of these continents unique. First we\\'ll be visiting each continent to learn interesting facts. While you are learning about each ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-11-06

16

Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described.

Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-05-01

17

Postoperative outcomes after continent versus incontinent urinary diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare outcomes of patients undergoing continent or incontinent urinary diversion after pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies. Methods Data on patients who underwent pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1993 and December 2010 were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was used and statistical significance was P < 0.05. Results A total of 133 patients were included in this study. The mean age at exenteration was 47.6 (range, 30–73) years in the continent urinary diversion group and 57.2 (range, 27–86) years in the incontinent urinary diversion group (P < 0.0001). Forty-six patients (34.6%) had continent urinary diversion, and 87 patients (65.4%) had incontinent urinary diversion. The rates of postoperative complications in patients with continent and incontinent urinary diversion, respectively, were as follows: pyelonephritis, 32.6% versus 37.9% (P = 0.58); urinary stone formation, 34.8% versus 2.3% (P < 0.001); renal insufficiency, 4.4% versus 14.9% (P = 0.09); urostomy stricture, 13.0% versus 1.2% (P = 0.007); ureteral (anastomotic) leak, 4.4% versus 6.9% (P = 0.71); ureteral (anastomotic) stricture, 13.0% versus 23% (P = 0.25); fistula formation, 21.7% versus 19.5% (P = 0.82); and reoperation because of complications of urinary diversion, 6.5% versus 2.3% (P = 0.34). Among patients with continent urinary diversion, the incidence of incontinence was 28.3%, and 15.2% had difficulty with self-catheterization. Conclusion There were no differences in postoperative complications between patients with continent and incontinent conduits except that stone formation was more common in patients with continent conduits. PMID:23480870

Urh, Anze; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Westin, Shannon; Frumovitz, Michael; Nick, Alpa M.; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana L.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

2014-01-01

18

Spatial distribution of vaginal closure pressures of continent and stress urinary incontinent women.  

PubMed

Clinically the strength of the contraction of the female pelvic floor is qualitatively evaluated by vaginal tactile palpation. We therefore developed a probe to enable the quantitative evaluation of the closure pressures along the vagina. Four force sensors mounted on the four orthogonal directions of an intra-vaginal probe were used to measure the vaginal pressure profile (VPP) along the vaginal wall. Clinical experiments on 23 controls and 10 patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were performed using the probe to test the hypothesis that the strength of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, imposed by voluntary contraction, is related to urinary continence. The results show that VPPs, characterized in terms of pressure distribution on the anterior and posterior vaginal walls, are significantly greater than those in the left and right vaginal walls. When the PFM contracted, the positions of the maximum posterior pressures in continent females and SUI patients were 0.63+/-0.15 cm and 1.19+/-0.2 cm proximal from their peak points of anterior pressure, which are 1.52+/-0.09 cm and 1.69+/-0.13 cm proximal from the introitus of vagina, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that the maximum posterior vaginal pressures of the controls were significantly greater than those of the SUI patients both at rest (continent: 3.4+/-0.3 N cm(-2), SUI: 2.01+/-0.36 N cm(-2), p<0.05) and during PFM contraction (continent: 4.18+/-0.26 N cm(-2), SUI: 2.25+/-0.41 N cm(-2), p<0.01). In addition, the difference between the posterior and anterior vaginal walls is significantly increased when the controls contract the PFM. By contrast, there are no significant differences in the SUI group. The results show that the VPP measured by the prototype probe can be used to quantitatively evaluate the strength of the PFM, which is a clinical index for the diagnosis or assessment of female SUI. PMID:17978426

Peng, Qiyu; Jones, Ruth; Shishido, Keiichi; Omata, Sadao; Constantinou, Christos E

2007-11-01

19

Five Year Continence Rates, Satisfaction and Adverse Events of Burch Urethropexy and Fascial Sling Surgery for Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize continence, satisfaction, and adverse events in women at least 5 years after a Burch urethropexy or fascial sling with longitudinal follow-up of randomized clinical trial participants at least 5 years post-operatively. Methods 482 (73.6520 (79.4%) of 655 women participated in a randomized surgical trial comparing efficacy of the Burch and sling treatments enrolled in this long-term observational study. Urinary continence status was assessed yearly for a minimum of five years postoperatively. Continence was defined as no urinary leakage on a three-day voiding diary and no self-reported stress incontinence symptoms AND no stress incontinence surgical retreatment. Results Incontinent participants were more likely to enroll in the follow-up study than continent patients (85.5% vs. 52.2%), regardless of surgical group (p <0.0001). Overall the continence rates were lower in the Burch urethropexy group than in the fascial sling group (p=0.002). The continence rates at five years were 24.1% (95% CI 18.5% to 29.7%) compared to 30.8% (24.7% to 36.9%), respectively. Satisfaction at 5 years was related to continence status and higher in women undergoing a sling (83% vs. 73%, p=0.04). Satisfaction declined over time (P=0.001) and remained higher in the sling group (p=0.03). The two groups had similar adverse event rates (10% Burch vs.9 % sling) and similar numbers of participants with adverse events (23 Burch vs. 22 sling). Conclusions Continence rates in both groups declined substantially over five years, yet most women reported satisfaction with their continence status. Satisfaction was higher in continent women and those who underwent fascial sling, despite the voiding dysfunction associated with this procedure. PMID:22341290

Brubaker, L; Richter, H. E.; Norton, P. A.; Albo, M.; Zyczynski, H. M.; Chai, T. C.; Zimmern, P.; Kraus, S.; Sirls, L.; Kusek, J. W.; Stoddard, A.; Tennstedt, S.; Gormley, E. Ann

2013-01-01

20

Patient Related Factors Associated with Long-Term Urinary Continence After Burch Colposuspension and Pubovaginal Fascial Sling Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine pre-and post-operative patient-related factors associated with continence status up to 7 years post-surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods Women randomized to Burch colposuspension or fascial sling surgery and assessed for the primary outcome of urinary continence two years post-procedure were eligible to enroll in a prospective observational study. Survival analysis was used to investigate baseline and post-surgery factors on subsequent risk of SUI defined as self-report of SUI symptoms, incontinence episodes on a 3-day diary or surgical retreatment. Results Seventy four percent (482/655) of women who participated in the randomized trial were enrolled in the follow-up study. Urinary continence rates decreased over a period of two to seven years post-operatively from 42% to 13% in the Burch group and from 52% to 27%, in the sling group, respectively. Among the baseline factors included in the first multivariable model age (p=0.03) prior SUI surgery (p=0.02), menopausal status (0.005), urge index (0.006), assigned surgery (p=0.01) and recruiting site (p=0.02) were independently associated with increased risk of incontinence. In the final multivariable model including baseline and post-operative factors, Burch surgery (p=0.01), baseline variables of prior UI surgery (p=0.04), menopausal status (p=0.03) and post-surgery urge index (p<0.001), were each significantly associated with greater risk of recurrent urinary incontinence. Conclusion Pre- and postoperative urgency incontinence symptoms, Burch urethropexy, prior SUI surgery and menopausal status were negatively associated with long-term continence rates. More effective treatment of urgency UI in patients who undergo SUI surgery may improve long-term overall continence status. PMID:22704099

Richter, Holly E.; Brubaker, Linda; Stoddard, Anne M.; Xu, Yan; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Norton, Peggy; Sirls, Larry T.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Chai, Toby C.; Zimmern, Philippe; Gormley, E. Ann; Kusek, John W.; Albo, Michael E.

2013-01-01

21

[Secondary malignancies in urinary diversions].  

PubMed

In contrast to ureterosigmoidostomy no reliable clinical data exist for tumor risk in different forms of urinary diversion using isolated intestinal segments.In 44 German urological departments, operation frequencies, indications, patient age, and operation dates of the different forms of urinary diversion, operated between 1970 and 2007, could be registered. The secondary tumors up to 2009 were registered as well and related to the numbers of the different forms of urinary diversions resulting in tumor prevalences.In 17,758 urinary diversions 32 secondary tumors occurred. The tumor risk in ureterosigmoidostomy (22-fold) and cystoplasty (13-fold) is significantly higher than in other continent forms of urinary diversion such as neobladders or pouches (p<0.0001). The difference between ureterosigmoidostomy and cystoplasty is not significant, nor is the difference between ileocecal pouches (0.14%) and ileal neobladders (0.05%) (p=0.46). The tumor risk in ileocecal (1.26%) and colonic neobladders (1.43%) is significantly higher (p=0.0001) than in ileal neobladders (0.5%). Of the 16 tumors that occurred following ureterosigmoidostomy, 16 (94%) developed directly at the ureterocolonic borderline in contrast to only 50% following urinary diversions via isolated intestinal segments.From postoperative year 5 regular endoscopic controls of ureterosigmoidostomies, cystoplasties, and orthotopic (ileo-)colonic neobladders are necessary. In ileocecal pouches, regular endoscopy is necessary at least in the presence of symptoms or should be performed routinely at greater intervals. Following neobladders or conduits, only urethroscopies for urethral recurrence are necessary. PMID:22476801

Kälble, T; Hofmann, I; Thüroff, J W; Stein, R; Hautmann, R; Riedmiller, H; Vergho, D; Hertle, L; Wülfing, C; Truß, M; Roth, S; von Rundstedt, F C; Albers, P; Gschwend, J; Herkommer, K; Humke, U; Spahn, M; Bader, P; Steffens, J; Harzmann, R; Stief, C G; Karl, A; Müller, S C; Waldner, M; Noldus, J; Kleinschmidt, K; Alken, P; Kopper, B; Fisch, M; Lampel, A; Stenzel, A; Fichtner, J; Flath, B; Rübben, H; Juenemann, K P; Hautmann, S; Knipper, A; Leusmann, D; Strohmaier, W; Thon, W F; Miller, S; Weingärtner, K; Schilling, A; Piechota, H; Becht, J E; Schwaibold, H; Bub, P; Conrad, S; Wenderoth, U; Merkle, W; Rösch, W; Otto, T; Ulshöfer, B; Westenfelder, M

2012-04-01

22

Anterior repair using Bologna procedure: Long-term results on stress urinary continence  

E-print Network

the classification of Stameyiii : grade I for women who lose urine only with coughing, sneezing, or lifting heavy the standing position, grade III for those who are totally incontinent in the upright position. Urge urinary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Complications, Urinary Continence, and Oncologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Single-Surgeon Experience for the First 100 Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial learning curves of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with regard to complications, urinary continence, and oncologic outcome. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. All 100 patients underwent LRP performed by the same urologist at one institution. Results: Mean operating time (208.4 ± 48.6?min), estimated blood loss (495.8 ± 436.5?mL), allogeneic blood transfusion rate (0%), and intraoperative complications diminished with surgical experience. Positive margin rate varied greatly among pathological stage (positive margin rates: pT2 = 20.5%; pT3 = 63.0%). A trend towards reduction of positive surgical margins in pT2 cases was apparent with increasing experience. Intraoperative and early complications occurred in 2.0% of patients. In all patients, 85.9% used none or no more than one pad per 24?h at 6 months postoperatively. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence was seen in only 2 patients. Conclusions. In the present series of 100 patients, our retrospective evaluation confirms that LRP provides satisfactory results. PMID:22110991

Imamoto, Takashi; Goto, Yusuke; Utsumi, Takanobu; Fuse, Miki; Kawamura, Koji; Kamiya, Naoto; Naya, Yukio; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kondo, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

2011-01-01

24

Discovery of a rare ileocecal plasmacytoma.  

PubMed

Here we report the discovery of an extramedullary ileocecal plasmacytoma, a rare entity reported only ?60 times in the literature. This finding occurred during management of a patient who had sustained an occult perforation during diagnostic colonoscopy. We explored the patient finding a large ileocecal perforation, and thus a right hemicolectomy was performed. Interestingly, the pathology of the mass was consistent with an extramedullary plasmacytoma, which is a very rare gastrointestinal diagnosis. We end by summarizing the presentation and work-up of extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:24876398

Gabriel, Emmanuel M; Savu, Michelle

2014-01-01

25

Discovery of a rare ileocecal plasmacytoma  

PubMed Central

Here we report the discovery of an extramedullary ileocecal plasmacytoma, a rare entity reported only ?60 times in the literature. This finding occurred during management of a patient who had sustained an occult perforation during diagnostic colonoscopy. We explored the patient finding a large ileocecal perforation, and thus a right hemicolectomy was performed. Interestingly, the pathology of the mass was consistent with an extramedullary plasmacytoma, which is a very rare gastrointestinal diagnosis. We end by summarizing the presentation and work-up of extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:24876398

Gabriel, Emmanuel M.; Savu, Michelle

2014-01-01

26

Continent vesicovaginal fistula.  

PubMed

Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and vagina and represents the most frequent type of fistula in the urinary tract. The most common cause in Brazil is iatrogenic fistula, secondary to histerectomia. Classically these women present continuous urinary leakage from the vagina and absence of micturition, with strong negative impact on their quality of life. We present a case of totally continent vesicovaginal fistula, with a follow-up of 11 years with no complications. PMID:23579756

Toledo, Luís Gustavo Morato de; Santos, Victor Espinheira; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Gourlat; Vedovato, Bruno César; Fucs, Moacyr; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

2013-01-01

27

Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that we can measure the motion of the Earth's continental plates by using sensitive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers from space. If we follow that motion backwards in time, we can predict where the plates came from. The fact that the Eastern "corner" of South America appears to fit exactly into the "corner" of Africa led Alfred Wegener to suggest that the continents drifted. Mineral deposits which are very similar at corresponding places on the two continents lend credence to that view. In this exercise students take a map of the Earth as it might have looked 94 million years ago and measure the average speed of separation of these two continents over time to find out how fast the plates are moving.

28

The effect of bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, or combination training on urodynamic parameters in women with urinary incontinence. Continence Program for Women Research Group.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three conservative interventions: pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, or both, on urodynamic parameters in women with urinary incontinence. Two hundred four women with genuine stress incontinence (GSI) or detrusor instability with or without GSI (DI +/- GSI) participated in a two-site trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, or both. Patients were stratified based on severity of urinary incontinence, urodynamic diagnosis, and treatment site, then randomized to a treatment group. All women underwent a comprehensive standardized evaluation including multi-channel urodynamics at the initial assessment and at the end of 12 weeks of therapy. Analysis of covariance was used to detect differences among treatment groups on urodynamic parameters. Post-treatment evaluations were available for 181 women. No differences were found among treatments on the following measurements: maximum urethral closure pressure, mean urethral closure pressure, maximum Kegel urethral closure pressure, mean Kegel urethral closure pressure, functional urethral length, pressure transmission ratios, straining urethral axis, first sensation to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and the MCC minus FSV. The effect of treatment did not differ by urodynamic diagnosis. Behavioral therapy had no effect on commonly measured urodynamic parameters. The mechanism by which clinical improvement occurs remains unknown. Neurourol. Urodynam. 18:427-436, 1999. PMID:10494113

Elser, D M; Wyman, J F; McClish, D K; Robinson, D; Fantl, J A; Bump, R C

1999-01-01

29

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

30

Availability of selected amino acids in sorghum grain and corn determined in ileocecal cannulated finishing pigs  

E-print Network

Pigs (December 1972) Robert Arnold Easter, B. S. (Agricultural Education) Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. T. D. Tanksley, Jr. A procedure for the surgical insertion of an indwelling, re- entrant cannula across the ileocecal juncture has been... Pigs (December 1972) Robert Arnold Easter, B. S. (Agricultural Education) Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. T. D. Tanksley, Jr. A procedure for the surgical insertion of an indwelling, re- entrant cannula across the ileocecal juncture has been...

Easter, Robert Arnold

2012-06-07

31

Continence and micturition: An anatomical basis.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence remains an important clinical problem worldwide, having a significant socio-economic, psychological, and medical burden. Maintaining urinary continence and coordinating micturition are complex processes relying on interaction between somatic and visceral elements, moderated by learned behavior. Urinary viscera and pelvic floor must interact with higher centers to ensure a functionally competent system. This article aims to describe the relevant anatomy and neuronal pathways involved in the maintenance of urinary continence and micturition. Review of relevant literature focusing on pelvic floor and urinary sphincters anatomy, and neuroanatomy of urinary continence and micturition. Data obtained from both live and cadaveric human studies are included. The stretch during bladder filling is believed to cause release of urothelial chemical mediators, which in turn activates afferent nerves and myofibroblasts in the muscosal and submucosal layers respectively, thereby relaying sensation of bladder fullness. The internal urethral sphincter is continuous with detrusor muscle, but its arrangement is variable. The external urethral sphincter blends with fibers of levator ani muscle. Executive decisions about micturition in humans rely on a complex mechanism involving communication between several cerebral centers and primitive sacral spinal reflexes. The pudendal nerve is most commonly damaged in females at the level of sacrospinous ligament. We describe the pelvic anatomy and relevant neuroanatomy involved in maintaining urinary continence and during micturition, subsequently highlighting the anatomical basis of urinary incontinence. Comprehensive anatomical understanding is vital for appropriate medical and surgical management of affected patients, and helps guide development of future therapies. Clin. Anat. 27:1275-1283, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24615792

Shah, Adarsh P; Mevcha, Amit; Wilby, Daniel; Alatsatianos, Anton; Hardman, John C; Jacques, Steven; Wilton, Joanne C

2014-11-01

32

POTENCY, CONTINENCE AND COMPLICATION RATES IN 1,870 CONSECUTIVE RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe update results in a series of consecutive patients treated with anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy regarding recovery of erections, urinary continence and postoperative complications.

WILLIAM J. CATALONA; GUSTAVO F. CARVALHAL; DOUGLAS E. MAGER; DEBORAH S. SMITH

1999-01-01

33

Comparing the Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will examine a map and globe to compare the physical features of continents. They will play the GeoSpy continents game and manipulate an online map to compare the climates of different continents. Students will conclude by writing paragraphs comparing and contrasting two continents.

34

Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers’ propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for incontinent elderly residents were asked how they perceived urinary incontinence (UI), how it

Cara Tannenbaum; Danielle Labrecque; Christiane Lepage

2005-01-01

35

Colonic Metastases from Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Lung Presenting as an Ileocecal Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare aggressive type of lung cancer that uncommonly metastasizes to the bowel, leading to bleeding, perforation, obstruction, and rarely intussusception. Serving as a lead point, metastatic lesions in the bowel may precipitate intussusception and require immediate surgical intervention. We present a rare case of colonic metastases from a primary lung malignancy, causing ileocecal intussusception in a 57-year old male. PMID:21991496

Rashid, Sadat; Rajan, Dhyan; Jacob, Robin; Dahl, Keith; Prasad, Apsara; Singh, Jaspreet; Siddiqui, Ghulam; Sasthakonar, Venkatesh; Freedman, Lester; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Takeshige, Umeko; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

2011-01-01

36

Continents on the Move  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents information about the use of satellites and laser beams to measure the movement of continents in order to confirm the Theory of Plate Tectonics. It explains that observatories are established on two continents and that by knowing the fixed location of the satellite, scientists can calculate the travel time of the laser beam to each observatory and triangulate to arrive at the distance between the observatories. They can then compare the most recent distance to the distance from a year before, and calculate how far the continents have moved during that time

37

Urinary Diversion Practice Patterns Among Certifying American Urologists  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate trends in urinary diversion usage and surgeon characteristics in the utilization of incontinent and continent urinary diversions using data from American Board of Urology. Methods Annualized case log data for urinary diversions were obtained from the American Board of Urology for urologists certifying or recertifying, from 2002 to 2010. We evaluated the association between surgeon characteristics and the use of any urinary diversion or the type of urinary diversion. Results Of 5,096 certifying or recertifying urologist case logs examined, 37% (n=1,868) performed any urinary diversions. The median number was 4 per year (IQR 2–6),4% (n=222) performed ?10 per year. On multivariable analysis, younger urologists, those self-identified as oncologists or female urologists, certifying in more recent years, in larger practice areas, or outside of the Northeast region of the United States were more likely to perform any urinary diversions. Only 9% (n=471) of the total cohort performed any continent urinary diversions. The likelihood of performing any continent urinary diversions increased with the number of urinary diversions (p <0.0001), and as the volume of urinary diversions increased, the proportion of these made up by continent urinary diversions also increased (p <0.0005). Surgeons in private practice settings or located in the Northeast were less likely to perform continent urinary diversions. Conclusion A minority of urologists performs any urinary diversions, and continent urinary diversions are most frequently performed by high volume surgeons. The type of urinary diversion a patient receives may depend, in part, on the characteristics of their surgeon. PMID:23009870

Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Poon, Stephen A.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lowrance, William T.; Garg, Tullika; Herr, Harry W.; Donat, S. Machele; Dalbagni, Guido; Bochner, Bernard H.; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

2013-01-01

38

Earthquakes Within Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

Stein, Seth

39

A Continent Revealed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Continent Revealed presents the findings of the European Geotraverse (EGT)--a unique study of the tectonic evolution of the continent of Europe and the first comprehensive cross section of the continental lithosphere. The project produced maps and geologic profiles, along a 250 kilometer wide swath stretching 4600 kilometers from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, which form a three dimensional picture of the structure, properties, and composition of the continental lithosphere of Europe in an atlas format. Many of the data that comprise the maps are also presented on an compact disc (ROM). The discussion volume, the maps, and a booklet containing gravity, electric, and magnetic field data constitute the complete boxed set. The paperback discussion volume is also available separately.

Blundell, D. J.; Freeman, R.; Mueller, Stephan

1992-11-01

40

Urinary Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

41

Pathophysiology of urinary incontinence in murine models.  

PubMed

Urethral closure mechanisms under stress conditions consist of passive urethral closure involving connective tissues, fascia and/or ligaments in the pelvis and active urethral closure mediated by hypogastric, pelvic and pudendal nerves. Furthermore, we have previously reported that the active urethral closure mechanism might be divided into two categories: (i) the central nervous control passing onto Onuf's nucleus under sneezing or coughing; and (ii) the bladder-to-urethral spinal reflex under Valsalva-like stress conditions, such as laughing, exercise or lifting heavy objects. There are over 200 million people worldwide with urinary incontinence, a condition that is associated with a significant social impact and reduced quality of life. Therefore, basic research for urinary continence mechanisms in response to different stress conditions can play an essential role in developing treatments for stress urinary incontinence. It has been clinically shown that the etiology of stress urinary incontinence is divided into urethral hypermobility and intrinsic sphincter deficiency, which could respectively correspond to passive and active urethral closure dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the representative stress urinary incontinence animal models and the methods to measure leak point pressures under stress conditions, and then highlight stress-induced urinary continence mechanisms mediated by active urethral closure mechanisms, as well as future pharmacological treatments of stress urinary incontinence. In addition, we introduce our previous reports including sex differences in urethral closure mechanisms under stress conditions and urethral compensatory mechanisms to maintain urinary continence after pudendal nerve injury in female rats. PMID:23126617

Koike, Yusuke; Furuta, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Honda, Mariko; Naruoka, Takehito; Asano, Koji; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

2013-01-01

42

Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls. PMID:24373039

Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

2013-12-01

43

Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This background information on Alfred Wegener discusses his idea of continental drift. It explains how he came to the conclusion that the continents split apart as outlined in his 1915 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans. The site also provides information about his death in 1930 only a year after the final revision of his book.

44

Evolution of continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continents evolve from ocean basins through a complex series of events. The early stages involve development of greenstone belts, island arcs, marginal basins, etc. These diverse assemblages are swept together during orogenic events, and during this process it is common that continental fragments and other exotic blocks, possibly from considerable distances, may be incorporated in the final agglomeration. The event that causes stabilization (cratonization) is intrusion of post-orogenic, silicic, plutonic rocks, which weld the various fragments into a shield. Shield uplift commonly occurs a few tens of millions of years after stabilization. The process of shield formation has occurred throughout geologic history at different places on the earth, and it is possible to recognize places currently at different stages of the evolutionary pattern. Four examples discussed in this paper are: (1) the Archean craton of southern India; (2) the late Proterozoic/ early Phanerozoic craton of northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula; (3) the portion of the western United States west of inferred Precambrian basement; and (4) the eastern Caribbean, which is considered to be just starting its progress toward continental character. The evolutionary process requires continual increment of lithophilic elements into upper mantle source regions for the shield-forming assemblages. This compositional change may result from continual differentiation of lithophile elements out of the lower mantle, which must be considered as having an essential role in the formation of continental crust.

Rogers, John J. W.

1984-06-01

45

Urinary Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

46

[Non continent urinary transcutaneous derivation to cure recurrent vesicostomy prolapse].  

PubMed

Vesicostomy prolapse is a frequent complication of an unusual surgical technique in adult patients. We have described a surgical technique to repair a vesicostomy prolapse using subcutaneous tubulisation of thick cutaneous flap taken off the abdominal wall. This technique could help surgeons to cure prolapse of vesicostomy in case of impossible intraperitoneal approach. PMID:19945672

Stainier, A; Di Gregorio, M; Tombal, B

2009-12-01

47

Predictors of Urinary and Fecal Continence Status After Stroke  

E-print Network

mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions for this condition. 30 Stroke Stroke is caused by an acute disruption of the blood supply to the brain. This may be due to either ischemic or hemorrhagic factors. When symptoms are caused.... These variables were assessed at the initial baseline enrollment for KCSS. This examination was performed within 14 days of the acute stroke. Stroke type was determined based on the vascular etiology of the event (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Stroke location...

Griebling, Tomas Lindor

2008-07-29

48

Microbiomes of unreactive and pathologically altered ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughter pigs.  

PubMed

Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

2014-01-01

49

Anatomy and Histology of the Lower Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of\\u000a the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in\\u000a the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence,

Wisuit Pradidarcheep; Christian Wallner; Noshir F. Dabhoiwala; Wouter H. Lamers

50

Colonoscopy evaluation after short-term anti-tuberculosis treatment in nonspecific ulcers on the ileocecal area  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of colonoscopy follow-up after short-term anti-tuberculosis treatment in patients with nonspecific ulcers on ileocecal areas being suspicious of tuberculous colitis. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the colonoscopic findings before and after short term anti-tuberculosis treatment in 18 patients with nonspecific ulcers on the ileocecal area and compared them with 7 patients of confirmed tuberculous colitis by acid-fast bacilli or caseating granuloma on colonic biopsy. RESULTS: Mean duration for short-term follow-up was 107.3 d with combined chemotherapy containing isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Seven patients with tuberculous colitis showed complete healing of active ulcers after short-term medication. After short-term anti-tuberculosis treatment, follow-up colonoscopy findings divided 18 patients with nonspecific ulcers into two groups by ulcer state. One is the “suspicious tuberculous colitis group” showing healing of ulcers and erosions and another is the “suspicious inflammatory bowel disease group” showing active ulcers with or without aggravation of the lesion. Finally, all 9 of the “suspicious tuberculous colitis group” were diagnosed as tuberculous colitis showing no recurrence of ulcers after termination of 9 mo of anti-tuberculosis medication. Patients of the “suspicious inflammatory bowel disease group” were finally diagnosed as Crohn’s disease or nonspecific colonic ulcers during long-term follow up. CONCLUSION: Follow-up colonoscopy shows a healing stage ulcer or scarring change without an active ulcer with just 2 mo to 3 mo of medication in patients with tuberculous colitis. Colonoscopy follow-up after short term anti-tuberculosis trial in patients with nonspecific ulcers on the ileocecal area is valuable in making early differential diagnosis of tuberculous colitis. PMID:18763289

Park, Young Sook; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Lee, Han Hyo; Jo, Yun Ju; Song, Moon Hee; Kim, Nam In; Lee, Jun Seok

2008-01-01

51

Mountain building processes during continent continent collision in the Uralides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1990's the Paleozoic Uralide Orogen of Russia has been the target of a significant research initiative as part of EUROPROBE and GEODE, both European Science Foundation programmes. One of the main objectives of these research programmes was the determination of the tectonic processes that went into the formation of the orogen. In this review paper we focus on the Late Paleozoic continent-continent collision that took place between Laurussia and Kazakhstania. Research in the Uralides was concentrated around two deep seismic profiles crossing the orogen. These were accompanied by geological, geophysical, geochronological, geochemical, and low-temperature thermochronological studies. The seismic profiles demonstrate that the Uralides has an overall bivergent structural architecture, but with significantly different reflectivity characteristics from one tectonic zone to another. The integration of other types of data sets with the seismic data allows us to interpret what tectonic processes where responsible for the formation of the structural architecture, and when they were active. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the changes in the crustal-scale structural architecture indicate that there was significant partitioning of tectonothermal conditions and deformation from zone to zone across major fault systems, and between the lower and upper crust. Also, a number of the structural features revealed in the bivergent architecture of the orogen formed either in the Neoproterozoic or in the Paleozoic, prior to continent-continent collision. From the end of continent-continent collision to the present, low-temperature thermochronology suggests that the evolution of the Uralides has been dominated by erosion and slow exhumation. Despite some evidence for more recent topographic uplift, it has so far proven difficult to quantify it.

Brown, D.; Juhlin, C.; Ayala, C.; Tryggvason, A.; Bea, F.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Carbonell, R.; Seward, D.; Glasmacher, U.; Puchkov, V.; Perez-Estaun, A.

2008-08-01

52

Overview on the lower urinary tract.  

PubMed

This chapter overviews our current knowledge on the subject of the urinary tract, whose fundamental role is to transport urine from the kidneys and then store it at low pressure in the lower urinary tract until it can be voided at a socially convenient time. Current understanding of lower urinary tract function and dysfunction is summarized, with reference to anatomy, innervation, and function. The importance of the neurological system in the normal function of the lower urinary tract is emphasized, with a brief overview of the consequence of neural injury at different levels within the central nervous system. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms is discussed with particular reference to the currently recommended terminology advocated by the International Continence Society and The International Urogynaecological Association. PMID:21290219

Chapple, Christopher

2011-01-01

53

Study of brain responses to changes in bladder continence and micturition using near infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of how changes in urinary bladder continence and micturition affect brain activity is important for understanding brain mechanisms. It was reported the experimental results by PET that increased brain activity related to increasing bladder volume was seen in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), in the midline pons, in the mid-cingulate cortex and bilaterally in the front lobe area. Increased

Cho-Pei Jianga; Chia-Wei Sun; Yuh-Ping Tonga; Chen-Li Chengb

2004-01-01

54

Extended Diaper Wearing: Effects on Continence in and out of the Diaper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this…

Tarbox, Rachel S. F.; Williams, W. Larry; Friman, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

55

to Explore the DARK CONTINENTS  

E-print Network

KEEN MINDS to Explore the DARK CONTINENTS of Disease #12;#12;KEEN MINDS to Explore the DARK by David N. Louis and Robert H. Young Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston #12 General Hospital Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School Robert B. Colvin, M.D. Former Pathologist

Mootha, Vamsi K.

56

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

57

The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. PMID:23658862

Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong

2013-01-01

58

Urinary Retention  

MedlinePLUS

... Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2011. 4 Mevcha A, ... of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. [ Top ] What are ...

59

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

60

Continents and Oceans on a Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seven continents and four oceans and basic features found on a map? 1. Your teacher will pass out this graphic organizer. As you learn use this organizer to write down all the continents, oceans, and three basic features found on maps. Graphic organizer. 2. Look at this map and on your graphic organizer write down all seven continents. Continents Map. 3. Go to this website and ...

Houghton, Ms.

2010-11-04

61

Continent women have better urethral neuromuscular function than those with stress incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study is to describe urethral neuromuscular function using concentric needle electromyography (EMG) in stress incontinent (SUI) and asymptomatic women. Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, we recruited SUI and asymptomatic women without urinary incontinence. Participants underwent quantitative urethral EMG and urodynamic testing. Results Sixty-seven women (37 SUI, 30 continent) with mean±SD age of 44±12 years participated. Nearly all EMG parameters showed significant differences between continent and SUI women consistent with better motor unit recruitment in continent women. Continent women had larger-amplitude, longer-duration motor unit action potentials (MUP) with increased turns and better MUP recruitment during bladder filling (P<.05). Increasing age was inversely correlated with nearly all MUP parameters (P<.05), suggesting MUP to be consistent with neuropathy. Conclusions We found significant differences in multiple MUP parameters in urethral sphincter between continent and stress incontinent women, suggesting continent women have better urethral innervation. We also found significant neuropathic MUP changes with advancing age, regardless of continence status. PMID:21979386

Mueller, Elizabeth; Brubaker, Linda

2012-01-01

62

Neuromuscular Characterization of the Urethra in Continent Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe quantitative urethral function parameters in a racially diverse group of continent women. Materials and Methods Following Institutional Review Board approval, we recruited women without urinary incontinence from the community. To be considered continent, participants answered “never” to the first six questions on the stress subscale of the Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging urinary incontinence (MESA) questionnaire. Participants all underwent quantitative concentric urethral electromyography (EMG) and urodynamic testing (UDS). Results Thirty-one women with a mean±SD age of 39±14 years underwent EMG and UDS. The cohort was racially diverse with 13 Caucasians (43%), 13 African Americans (43%), and 4 Hispanics (14%). Body mass index (BMI) (P=.12, .06), age (P=.40, .64), and vaginal parity (P=.53, .76) did not differ by race or ethnicity. We did not detect differences in any EMG parameter by race, ethnicity or vaginally parity. A mean (range) of 30 motor unit action potential analysis (MUP) (10-55) were identified and analyzed in Multi-MUP analysis and 14 (8-21) were identified and analyzed in IP analysis. On average, 37±20% MUPs were polyphasic. Age significantly correlated with several measures of urethral sphincter function. Increasing age was inversely correlated with interference analysis (IP) turns (?.57, p=.001), IP amplitude (r=?.43, p=.02), IP turns/amplitude (r=?.54, p=.003), maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCP) (r=?.41, p=.04). Similarly, MUCP correlated with IP amplitude (r=.38, p=.04). Conclusions This urethral neuromuscular function data on the largest cohort of continent women fully characterized with quantitative urethral EMG demonstrates significant neuropathic MUP changes with advancing age. PMID:22453105

Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth; Brubaker, Linda

2011-01-01

63

[Anatomic principles of urinary incontinence].  

PubMed

The morphological fundamentals of urinary continence are still subject to controversy. This was the reason for a renewed examination of the sphincter musculature of the lower urinary tract. This study included 50 male and 15 female autopsy specimens. The organs of the lower urinary tract including the neighboring organs had been removed in their entirety and histologically reprocessed en bloc as a complete series of sections. We were able to demonstrate that the internal sphincter or m. sphincter vesicae is represented as a circular, distinct structure which elliptically embraces the internal urethral orifice. Lamellas of the detrusor are not involved in the formation of the internal sphincter. In females and males, the external sphincter consists of a striated and a smooth muscular part (m. sphincter urethrae transversostriatus et glaber). In transverse sections, the muscle has a horseshoe shape. It is completely separated by connective tissue from the musculature of the pelvic floor. A deep transverse perineal muscle does not exist. The histological findings were used for the construction of a digital three-dimensional model of the anatomy of the lower urinary tract. Computer animations of the model with integrated original histologies were generated and stored as a computer video on a CD-ROM attached to this journal. PMID:11405132

Dorschner, W; Stolzenburg, J U; Neuhaus, J

2001-05-01

64

Magnetic Reversals and Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief review of the role of polar reversals in the development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics from the old continental drift concept of Alfred Wegener. It describes the physical difference between the continents and the ocean floor and also the surprising order of the magnetic bands on the ocean floor and how this led to the idea of sea-floor spreading as postulated by Fred Vines and Drummond Matthews in 1962. The author then goes into more detail and gives examples of Plate Tectonics.

Stern, David

65

The Functional Anatomy of the Female Pelvic Floor and Stress Continence Control System  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an overview of the functional anatomy of the structures responsible for controlling urinary continence under stress. The stress continence control system can be divided into two parts: the system responsible for bladder neck support, and the system responsible for sphincteric closure. Age- and injury-related changes in each of these systems are discussed. Understanding the pathophysiology of incontinence on the anatomical level will help to lead to identification of specific defects, thereby allowing better individualized treatment for the incontinent patient. PMID:11409608

Ashton-Miller, James A.; Howard, Denise; DeLancey, John O. L.

2005-01-01

66

[Urinary bilharziasis].  

PubMed

A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem. PMID:1492630

Gigase, P L

1992-01-01

67

To A Continent A Reference Guide  

E-print Network

American continent. High in Glacier National Park, water falling on Triple Divide Peak flows into three-Headwaters To A Continent A Place in the Hydrologic Cycle The Historical Significance of Water in Montana Water Availability You Can Protect Water Quality Watershed Profiles Missouri River Basin Yellowstone River Basin Columbia

Dyer, Bill

68

Urinary schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is the second most common socio-economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria, affecting about 240 million residents of developing countries. In Africa, it predominantly manifests as urogenital disease, and the main infective agent is Schistosoma hematobium. Endemicity is propagated by poor socio-economic status and environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization. Recreational swimming is a potent medium for the spread of disease in children and adolescents. Most affected individuals are asymptomatic. The male and female worms are equipped with an extraordinary capacity for immune evasion and are able to co-habit for several decades within the pelvic venous plexus. Eggs deposited in the bladder wall resist elimination by type 1 T lymphocytes. Instead, they are sustained by pro-fibrogenic encapsulation (as modulated by type 2 helper cells). Progressive bladder disease results in obstructive uropathy and predisposes to (mostly) squamous cell carcinoma. Schistosomal glomerulopathy manifests as a clinical spectrum of asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrosis and/or nephritic syndrome. Findings on renal biopsy may be influenced by co-morbidity with Salmonella bacteria, amyloidosis and hepatitis C infection. Potentially fatal Katayama fever and spinal radiculopathy may ensue in tourists visiting an endemic zone. Early detection by urine microscopy is hampered by low urinary excretion rates of the parasite eggs. Although useful in travelers with newly acquired disease, the results of the serological antibody assay may be false positive in residents of an endemic zone. Cystoscopy, however, may be invaluable. Due to its safety, effectiveness and once-daily dosing, praziquantel is the drug of choice. An integrated approach that includes mass chemotherapy, environmental health programs and public health education is the most cost-effective preventive strategy. PMID:24469437

Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

2014-11-01

69

Mid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system  

E-print Network

Mid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system approach Mian Liu University of MissouriMian Liu, University of Missouri Seth Stein, Northwestern University #12;Earthquakes result from suddenEarthquakes result from sudden slip on fault planesp p San Andreas Fault 1906 San

70

Temperature Beneath Continents as a Function of Continent Size and Convective Wavelength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling studies have demonstrated that mantle global warming can occur in response to the aggregation of supercontinents, possibly leading to large scale melting and associated continental breakup. Such feedback calls for a recipe describing how continents help to regulate the thermal evolution of the mantle. Here we use 3D spherical mantle convection models with continents to quantify variations in subcontinental temperature as a function of both continent size and convective wavelength. Through comparison to a simple analytical boundary layer model, we show that larger continents beget warming of the underlying mantle, with heating compounded by the formation of broader convection cells associated with the biggest continents. Our results hold well for purely internally heated and partially core heated models with Rayleigh numbers of 105 to 107 containing continents with sizes ranging from that of Antarctica to Pangea. Results from a time dependent model with multiple, mobile continents of various sizes suggests that the tendency for temperatures to rise with continent size persists on average over time scales of billions of years. This model could provide a standard against which to measure theories of continental driven thermal events, such as proposed flood basalts of the Archean.

Phillips, B. R.; Coltice, N.

2008-12-01

71

Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract infections. ... taking warfarin, check with your doctor before using cranberry juice to prevent urinary tract infections. Your doctor ...

72

Lifestyle factors and continence status: Comparison of self-report data from a postal survey in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare health and lifestyle factors of people with and without urinary incontinence (UI).Design: A postal survey was undertaken that represents the first of a 3-stage project designed to evaluate the health interventions of primary health care teams and continence advisory services on patient outcomes related to UI.Setting and Subjects: Two random samples of adult populations (N = 12,529)

Brenda Roe; Helen Doll

1999-01-01

73

OxyContin and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioids are a commonly abused class of drugs. OxyContin® abuse, a long-acting oxycodone derivative, has been increasingly identified as a potent narcotic resulting in drug dependence, overdose and even death. Use during pregnancy may result in withdrawal symptoms in the neonate. However, detection of the drug and its metabolites needs special methods in order to initiate appropriate therapy.

Rakesh Rao; Nirmala S Desai

2002-01-01

74

Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

2005-01-01

75

African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

Lindow, Megan

2009-01-01

76

Lack of psychological resilience: an important correlate for urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study evaluated medical conditions, level of physical functioning, and psychological health as correlates of urinary continence\\u000a (UI) for four different age groups of women. Survey questions from the 1996 MIDUS survey were used in three domains of health:\\u000a medical conditions, physical functioning, and psychological health. Mean questionnaire scores or prevalence percentages for\\u000a individual and total medical conditions, physical functioning,

Margaret G. Jamison; Alison C. Weidner; Audrey A. Romero; Cindy L. Amundsen

2007-01-01

77

Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

Bakula, Stanislaw

2014-01-01

78

Efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary incontinence following prostate cancer surgery.  

PubMed

The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

Rajkowska-Labon, El?bieta; Baku?a, Stanis?aw; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sliwi?ski, Zbigniew

2014-01-01

79

Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy - experience of the last 100 cases  

PubMed Central

Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a recognized treatment method of organ-confined prostate cancer. Among post-surgery complications, urinary incontinence is a major one. The aim of this study was to determine the incontinence rate after RP and to analyze factors that might affect it. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 132 RP's were performed at Warsaw Cancer Center. A questionnaire to assess the condition before and after RP was developed by the authors and sent to all treated patients. The questionnaire focused on health status information, function in urinary domain, rate of returning to “normal” activity level as before RP and satisfaction from the treatment. The median age of patients was 62 years. Out of 132 patients 102 subjects (77.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Of all responders, 35 patients (34.3%) reported total urinary continence after RP. After RP 35(34.3%) patients reported total urinary continence and in 55(53.9%) patients urinary incontinence of medium degree was present. In 12 (11.8%) patients significant urinary incontinence developed. The most common cause of urine dripping (82% of patients with any degree of urinary incontinence) was associated with abdominal muscle pressure. No statistically significant association between urinary incontinence and adjuvant radiotherapy after RP or the surgeon performing the RP was found (>0.79, >0.803). Radical prostatectomy carries a certain risk of complications. We observed an 88.2% rate of significant (total and moderate degree) urinary continence. The adjuvant radiotherapy and surgeons, who performed the RP, did not affect the rate of incontinence. PMID:24578896

Szymanski, Michal; Wolski, Jan Karol; Nadolski, Tomasz; Kalinowski, Tomasz; Demkow, Tomasz; Peczkowski, Piotr; Pilichowska, Malgorzata; Ligaj, Marcin; Michalski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

80

Plate tectonics: Calling card of a ghost continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where continents break apart, new ocean basins are formed. The discovery of ancient continental minerals on a young, volcanic island suggests that parts of the Indian Ocean floor may be underlain by fragments of a long-lost continent.

Mac Niocaill, Conall

2013-03-01

81

Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

Rey, Patrice F.; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

2014-09-01

82

Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.  

PubMed

Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

2014-09-18

83

Urinary Catheter Management  

PubMed Central

After colorectal resection surgery, early urinary catheter removal has been promoted as a part of the national Surgical Care Improvement Project. However, the decrease in urinary tract infection expected with this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk for urinary retention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to summarize the evidence for and against early postoperative urinary catheter removal. For nonpelvic colorectal resection, the evidence supports removal of the catheter on postoperative day 1 for patients who are not at high risk for urinary retention, including patients with thoracic epidurals. For mid-to-low rectal surgery, the risk of urinary retention is increased, and catheter removal on day 3 to day 6 is recommended; however, the exact timing of removal cannot be recommended based on current studies. PMID:24436671

Hendren, Samantha

2013-01-01

84

Urinary incontinence in women.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

2014-01-01

85

Estrogen therapy and urinary incontinence: what is the evidence and what do we tell our patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of estrogen associated with menopause has been considered as a factor responsible for the increasing urinary incontinence prevalence in women as they age. Indeed, incontinence is commonly categorized as a symptom of urogenital atrophy. The presence of alpha and beta estrogen receptors throughout the urogenital tract suggests that estrogen has a role in the continence mechanism, and many observational

L. Elaine Waetjen; Peter L. Dwyer

2006-01-01

86

Bladder, bowel and bones—skeletal changes after intestinal urinary diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired bone metabolism following urinary diversion through intestinal segments has always been a controversial subject of unclear clinical relevance. Whereas the perpetuated pathophysiological considerations seem conclusive in theory, the role of acidosis and malabsorption is less clear in animal experimentation and, even more so, in the clinical reality of modern continent diversion. In hardly any of the available contemporary case

Alexander Roosen; Elmar W. Gerharz; Stefan Roth; Christopher R. J. Woodhouse

2004-01-01

87

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? SUI is a type of urinary incontinence . With SUI, a woman leaks urine when she ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists f AQ • What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? • What causes SUI? • What nonsurgical ...

88

Neurogenic urinary retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

A. G. Herbaut

1993-01-01

89

Burn resuscitation on the African continent.  

PubMed

A survey of members of the International Society of Burn Injuries (ISBI) and the American Burn Association (ABA) indicated that although there was difference in burn resuscitation protocols, they all fulfilled their functions. This study presents the findings of the same survey replicated in Africa, the only continent not included in the original survey. One hundred and eight responses were received. The mean annual number of admissions per unit was ninety-eight. Fluid resuscitation was usually initiated with total body surface area burns of either more than ten or more than fifteen percent. Twenty-six respondents made use of enteral resuscitation. The preferred resuscitation formula was the Parkland formula, and Ringer's Lactate was the favoured intravenous fluid. Despite satisfaction with the formula, many respondents believed that patients received volumes that differed from that predicted. Urine output was the principle guide to adequate resuscitation, with only twenty-one using the evolving clinical picture and thirty using invasive monitoring methods. Only fifty-one respondents replied to the question relating to the method of adjusting resuscitation. While colloids are not available in many parts of the African continent on account of cost, one might infer than African burn surgeons make better use of enteral resuscitation. PMID:24560434

Rode, H; Rogers, A D; Cox, S G; Allorto, N L; Stefani, F; Bosco, A; Greenhalgh, D G

2014-11-01

90

Treatment of recurrent stress urinary incontinence in women: comparison of treatment results for different surgical techniques  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is still no consensus on which surgical technique is the most effective for female recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Aim To compare the long-term treatment outcomes of Burch colposuspension operation, transobturator tape implantation (TOT) and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures performed for female recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Material and methods A retrospective study was performed on 45 women operated on for recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Depending on the surgical approach, the patients were divided into three groups: group I (n = 19) – Burch colposuspension operation, group II (n = 16) – TOT, and group III (n = 10) – TVT operation was performed. The treatment results were assessed using the UDI-6 (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and IIQ-7 (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) short form questionnaires. We included one additional question: Is the patient satisfied with the treatment outcome? We classified the urinary continence results after surgery as good when patients were cured or improved, and as bad when the treatment failed. Results Good urinary continence results were observed in 84.2% of patients in group I, 93.8% of patients in group II, and 90% of patients in group III. 68.4% of patients in group I, 81.3% of patients in group II, and 90% of patients in group III were satisfied with the treatment outcomes. Conclusions Burch colposuspension operation, TOT and TVT procedures performed for the female recurrent stress urinary incontinence treatment are effective and show similar good urinary continence results and similar number of patients satisfied with the treatment outcomes. PMID:25097693

Barisiene, Marija; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Januska, Gediminas

2014-01-01

91

Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... channels. Healing begins with the pathologist’s diagnosis. Pathologists are core members of your patient care team. (continued from ... oncologists, radiologists and others. What kinds of treatments are ... most common treatment for urinary bladder adenocarcinoma is surgery, which ...

92

Urinary incontinence - injectable implant  

MedlinePLUS

Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

93

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a)...

2012-04-01

94

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320 Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a)...

2013-04-01

95

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

96

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320 Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a)...

2012-04-01

97

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

98

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

99

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a)...

2011-04-01

100

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a)...

2010-04-01

101

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320 Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a)...

2014-04-01

102

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

103

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a)...

2013-04-01

104

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320 Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a)...

2010-04-01

105

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320 Nonimplanted electrical continence device. (a)...

2011-04-01

106

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a)...

2014-04-01

107

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

108

[Recurrent urinary tract infection].  

PubMed

Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

2014-09-01

109

Endopelvic fascia preservation during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Does it affect urinary incontinence?  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Urinary incontinence has a significant impact on the quality of life after radical prostatectomy. This study aimed to determine whether preserving the endopelvic fascia influences subsequent urinary incontinence. Material and methods. Consecutive patients (n = 138) who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer between October 2010 and June 2012 with a minimum of 1 year follow-up were retrospectively analysed. The subjects were divided into two groups: the non-preserved endopelvic fascia group (nPE group) and the preserved endopelvic fascia group (PE group). Continence was defined as not using any pads and having no urine leakages. Continence rates at set time-points after RALP were compared using the chi-squared test. Continence recovery rates were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Prognostic factors of incontinence were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results. The age, body mass index, preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate volume, estimated blood loss, mean operative time, Gleason score and pathological stage were not significantly different between the two study groups. The continence rate of the nPE group and PE group was 88.4% and 97.1%, respectively, at 12 months after surgery (p = 0.049), which was also significant according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p < 0.001). Preservation of endopelvic fascia was the only significant prognostic factor for urinary incontinence (p = 0.002, hazard ratio = 1.867) according to the multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Endopelvic fascia preservation during RALP significantly enhances postoperative continence and is related to the speed of recovery of continence. PMID:25008957

Kwon, Se Yun; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Bup Wan; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kwon, Tae Gyun

2014-12-01

110

The innervation of the muscles of continence.  

PubMed Central

Electrophysiological evidence is presented that suggests that the innervation of the human puborectalis muscle differs from that of the external anal sphincter muscle. The latter is innervated by branches of the pudendal nerves, and the former by direct branches of the sacral plexus that enter the muscle from its pelvic surface. The striated urinary sphincter musculature also receives a dual innervation. The periurethral component is innervated by perineal branches of the pudendal nerves and the intramural portion by a different pathway, probably consisting of supralevator branches derived from the pelvic nerves. These findings are relevant to understanding the embryological derivation of these muscles and have practical importance in the surgery of this region of the body, particularly in the treatment of incontinence. PMID:3947015

Snooks, S. J.; Swash, M.

1986-01-01

111

Preferential Rifting of Continents: A Source of Displaced Terranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifling of continents, we compare the total strength of different lithospheres by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of 3. Also, a thickened crust can

Gregory E. Vink; W. Jason Morgan; Wu-Ling Zhao

1984-01-01

112

OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

113

Systems analysis of the transcriptional response of human ileocecal epithelial cells to Clostridium difficile toxins and effects on cell cycle control  

PubMed Central

Background Toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) are Clostridium difficile's principal virulence factors, yet the pathways by which they lead to inflammation and severe diarrhea remain unclear. Also, the relative role of either toxin during infection and the differences in their effects across cell lines is still poorly understood. To better understand their effects in a susceptible cell line, we analyzed the transciptome-wide gene expression response of human ileocecal epithelial cells (HCT-8) after 2, 6, and 24 hr of toxin exposure. Results We show that toxins elicit very similar changes in the gene expression of HCT-8 cells, with the TcdB response occurring sooner. The high similarity suggests differences between toxins are due to events beyond transcription of a single cell-type and that their relative potencies during infection may depend on differential effects across cell types within the intestine. We next performed an enrichment analysis to determine biological functions associated with changes in transcription. Differentially expressed genes were associated with response to external stimuli and apoptotic mechanisms and, at 24 hr, were predominately associated with cell-cycle control and DNA replication. To validate our systems approach, we subsequently verified a novel G1/S and known G2/M cell-cycle block and increased apoptosis as predicted from our enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study shows a successful example of a workflow deriving novel biological insight from transcriptome-wide gene expression. Importantly, we do not find any significant difference between TcdA and TcdB besides potency or kinetics. The role of each toxin in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, an important function of cells in the intestinal epithelium, is characterized. PMID:22225989

2012-01-01

114

Icy Continent Mapped from Space with RADARSAT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientists released images from the first high-resolution radar map of Antarctica. Taken over a period of eighteen days in 1997 by a NASA-launched Canadian satellite called RADARSAT, the images have revealed a number of amazing features never seen before. The most important of these is a complex network of ice streams, huge rivers of ice that move ice and snow from the continent's interior to the sea, some moving up to 3,000 feet and one system that sends up to 19 cubic miles of ice to the sea each year. Another hidden feature imaged by RADARSAT was Lake Vostok, a massive fresh water lake laying two miles beneath the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. This site, hosted by NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio, offers a fascinating and often beautiful virtual tour of Antarctica, divided into fifteen stops, featuring images of varying resolution and QuickTime movies. Users can also read the official press release and learn more about the RADARSAT mission with provided links. For further resources on RADARSAT and Antarctica, see the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering.

115

Muscle derived stem cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) for rhabdosphincter regeneration\\u000a and to review the early clinical experiences with its application in patients with stress urinary incontinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In anatomical and functional studies of the human and animal urethra, the middle urethral contained rhabdosphincter is critical\\u000a for maintaining continence. Transplanted stem cells have the

Marc C. Smaldone; Michael B. Chancellor

2008-01-01

116

Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology. Although Doug cannot now write the synthesis of the INDEPTH-3 results from central Tibet, nor lead the final INDEPTH-4 campaign across the northern margin of Tibet that he was already planning, our picture of Tibet, and hence of all continent-continent collisions, has changed and grown far richer as a result of his efforts. Among other things, INDEPTH has traced the top of the Indian plate descending beneath the Himalaya, located the likely limit of penetration of Indian mantle beneath central Tibet, and amassed considerable evidence for widespread melt within the Tibetan crust. The first observation, identification of the suture in an active collision, was a natural outgrowth of Doug's earlier contributions to the geometry of the Applachians and Ouachitas. The second observation directly relates to Doug's interest in the evolution of the deep crust/uppermost mantle in old orogens through delamination. The last observation, that melt is widespread in Tibet, was perhaps the most surprising result of the INDEPTH surveys, and the one that Doug used to greatest effect in his synthesis of deformation and crustal evolution around the Tertiary Indus-Tsangpo suture. Doug's articulate and enthusiastic arguments on the inferred role of low viscosity of the middle crust of the Tibetan plateau have been widely echoed in the latest generation of models by many authors that appeal to the flow of crustal material outwards from the central plateau to its southern and eastern margins. This emphasis on crustal mobility in young continent-continent collisions is already influencing our interpretations of ancient orogens.

Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

2002-12-01

117

Urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the experimental production of an ascending chronic infection of urinary tract in rats is described. The traumatic action caused by a stainless steel cylinder filled with a suspension ofP. mirabilis, the slowing-down of the elimination of germs by the urine and the induction of a water diuresis by 5% glucose in the drinkingwater, were suitable in producing

S. Rosini; D. Benetti

1972-01-01

118

[Urinary catheter biofilm infections].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

Holá, V; R?zicka, F

2008-04-01

119

Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

120

Mantle dynamics of continent-wide tilting of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia is distinctive in that during the Cenozoic it experienced first order, broad-scale vertical motions unrelated to normal orogenic processes. The progressive continent-wide tilting down to the northeast is attributed to the horizontal motion of the continent over subducted slabs. We use plate tectonic reconstructions and a model of mantle convection to quantitatively link the geological evolution of the continent to mantle convection. The passage of slabs beneath the Southwest Pacific since 50 Ma is modeled numerically, and the results are compared to geologic observations of anomalous topography. Models show that Australia undergoes a 300 m northeast downward tilt as it approaches and overrides subducted slabs between Melanesia and the active margin along the Loyalty and proto-Tonga Kermadec subduction systems. This pattern of dynamic subsidence is consistent with observations of continent wide tilting and may indicate that during the Cenozoic Australia moved northward away from a relatively hot mantle anomaly presently located beneath Antarctica.

Dicaprio, L.; Gurnis, M.; Muller, R. D.

2009-12-01

121

Genetic Diversity of Cylindrospermopsis Strains (Cyanobacteria) Isolated from Four Continents  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of Cylindrospermopsis strains (cyanobacteria) was examined using mainly the 16S-23S internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequences. Strains were grouped in three clusters: (i) America, (ii) Europe, and (iii) Africa and Australia. These results suggested a recent spread of Cylindrospermopsis across the American and European continents from restricted warm refuge areas instead of exchanges between continents. On the other hand, they also suggested a recent colonization of Australia by African strains. PMID:15691973

Gugger, Muriel; Molica, Renato; Le Berre, Brigitte; Dufour, Philippe; Bernard, Cecile; Humbert, Jean-Francois

2005-01-01

122

Diagnosis of urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician's office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying possible reversible causes. If no reversible cause is identified, then the incontinence is considered chronic. The next step is to determine the type of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, mixed, or functional) and the urgency with which it should be treated. These determinations are made using a patient questionnaire, such as the 3 Incontinence Questions, an assessment of other medical problems that may contribute to incontinence, a discussion of the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life, a review of the patient's completed voiding diary, a physical examination, and, if stress incontinence is suspected, a cough stress test. Other components of the evaluation include laboratory tests and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. If the type of urinary incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent urinary tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered. PMID:23668444

Khandelwal, Christine; Kistler, Christine

2013-04-15

123

A new injectable bulking agent for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind study of Durasphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the safety and effectiveness of Durasphere compared with bovine collagen in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD).Methods. This multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was composed of 355 women diagnosed with SUI due to ISD and used a standardized pad test and the Stamey continence grade as the primary endpoints. The

Deborah Lightner; Carlos Calvosa; Roger Andersen; Ira Klimberg; C. Gilberto Brito; Jeffrey Snyder; Donald Gleason; David Killion; James Macdonald; A. U Khan; Ananias Diokno; Larry T Sirls; Daniel Saltzstein

2001-01-01

124

Continent-scale linearity of kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism, mid-continent North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cretaceous-Tertiary kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism in mid-continent North America extends along a N40°W linear trend from Louisiana to Alberta, and occurs in at least four different pulses (?109-85, 67-64, 55-52, and less than 50 Ma). The lack of spatial age progressions of magmatism consistent with motion of North America over a fixed hot spot, the presence of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic and trace-element compositions that show a temporal evolution from lithospheric to asthenospheric melt-sources, and the orientation of the magmatic belt parallel to the western subduction margin of the North American plate, suggest that this linear zone is the surface expression of mantle melting related to the subduction system. We propose that fragmentation of Farallon and Kula plates opened slab windows perpendicular to their convergence direction. In this model, sheet-like mantle upwellings were induced along slab-window margins, and these upwellings underwent low-degree partial melting to produce highly alkalic magmas along the trend parallel to, but ?2000 km east of, the convergent margin. The N40°W trend may reflect melting associated with penetration of the mantle transition-zone by the downgoing oceanic plate(s).

Duke, Genet Ide; Carlson, Richard W.; Frost, Carol D.; Hearn, B. C.; Eby, G. Nelson

2014-10-01

125

A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic continents were geochemically isolated from the hydrosphere/atmosphere and mantle systems, and did not contribute significantly to the sedimentary records. 2/ These continents evolved under the possibly episodic drive of plate tectonic processes, and certainly also under the drive of the density inversion imposed by the greenstone/TTG stratigraphy. Thébaud and Rey (2013) emphasized that sagduction was able to drive crustal-scale deformation in the interior of continents, away from plate margins. Since this process occurred on flooded continents, an infinite fluid reservoir was available to feed crustal-scale hydrothermal circulations promoting the formation of craton-wide metal deposits in the interior of continents, far away from their margins. 3/ During the Neoarchean, the geochemical coupling between continents and the ocean/atmosphere and mantle systems grew stronger as continents slowly emerged and became mechanically strong enough to support mountain belts and orogenic plateaux. This coupling could have controlled the major environmental changes at the Archean-Proterozoic transition.

Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

2013-12-01

126

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... What can patients do to help prevent a CAUTI? Resources for healthcare professionals What is a urinary ... What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs ...

127

Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

Zhang, Y.

2009-12-01

128

Prosthetic urinary sphincter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (inventors)

1981-01-01

129

[Characteristics of urinary incontinence in the elderly].  

PubMed

Geriatric patients are defined as being over 70 years of age and are vulnerable due to multimedication and multimorbidity. The typical incontinence type in geriatric patients is the overactive bladder syndrome as a result of anatomical alterations and the influence of conditions which typically occur in the elderly, e.g. diabetes mellitus, vaginal atrophy, constipation, neurological affections and dementia. This multimorbidity leads to multimedication but many pharmaceutical compounds aimed at indications of diseases distant from the urinary tract can also influence the continence situation. This has been proven for cardiac medications, such as alpha-blockers and diuretics, neurological drug therapy and analgesics. Diagnostic investigations in geriatric patients are usually non-invasive and include geriatric assessment to quantify incontinence symptoms but invasive diagnostic tools are required if the primary therapy fails or an operative intervention is planned. Pharmacotherapy considers the special requirements of the very old patient with cognitive impairment and vulnerability due to falls or delirium. In the group of anticholinergic drugs, trospium chloride seems to be the favorite substance to treat this group of patients because this hydrophilic compound is considered to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore minimizes the risk of side effects in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:25228458

Wiedemann, A; Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R

2014-10-01

130

[Management of urinary incontinence after orthotopic urinary diversion].  

PubMed

Orthotopic urinary diversion (OUD) is performed in almost half of all radical cystectomies. This review presents an overview of the incidence, pathophysiology, and management of urinary incontinence (UI) after OUD. Daytime and nighttime UI are reported in up to 15% and 45% of cases after OUD, respectively. UI after OUD is more frequent in women. Stress incontinence is the most common reason for daytime urinary leakage, while an absent vesicourethral reflex with reduced external sphincter muscle tone is associated with nighttime UI. Conservative management has limited therapeutic value in UI after OUD. Surgical approaches include adjustable and nonadjustable slings as well as the ProACT® system in mild stress UI. Implantation of the artificial urinary sphincter system AMS 800® is the standard treatment for stress UI after OUD. Very limited data exist regarding results after implantation of newer artificial urinary sphincter systems such as the FlowSecure® and the Zephyr® ZSI 375 after OUD. PMID:22476800

Soave, A; Dahlem, R; Rink, M; Ahyai, S; Fisch, M

2012-04-01

131

Urinary stones and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Urinary stones, renal and bladder, are common in the general population of the United States. The pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and therapeutic interventions can contribute to the development of kidney stones usually secondary to malabsorption. Knowledge of these effects is important when caring for patients with urinary stones and intestinal disease. PMID:16438252

Hanson, Karen

2005-12-01

132

Development and structure of a maritime continent thunderstorm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The evaluation of a maritime continent thunderstorm complex (Hector) occurring over Bathurst and Melville Islands north of Darwin, Australia (12° S, 131° E) is investigated primarily using Doppler radar data. Thunderstorm formation follows the development of sea breeze circulations and a period of shallow non-precipitating convection. Evidence exists for initiation of long-lived and organised convection on the sea breeze

T. D. Keenan; B. Ferrier; J. Simpson

1994-01-01

133

Choosing and using disposable body-worn continence pads.  

PubMed

Disposable, body-worn pads are the product most commonly chosen to contain and absorb urine and faeces (Pomfret, 2000). The cost to the NHS of supplying continence pads has been estimated at 80 million pounds per annum (Euromonitor, 1999) and is a huge financial burden on local services. PMID:16052946

Gilbert, Rachel

134

Managing Continous Data Feed with Subscriber/Publisher Pattern  

E-print Network

] of the MVC framework to maintain continous data feed. Motivation Our application scenario is one of providing of the Smalltalk fame Model­View­Controller (MVC) framework [2]. The MVC is a rather complex design construct. The Observer pattern is an essential sub­component to implement the more general MVC design construct

Schmidt, Douglas C.

135

Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering  

PubMed Central

Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

2008-01-01

136

Accuracy of Urinary Urea Nitrogen for Predicting Total Urinary Nitrogen in Thermally Injured Patients. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimations of total urinary nitrogen from measured urinary urea nitrogen are commonly used in calculating nitrogen balance. Recently published studies suggest the urinary urea nitrogen/total urinary nitrogen relationship is in constant and total urinary ...

E. A. Milner, W. G. Cioffi, A. D. Mason, W. F. McManus, B. A. Pruitt

1993-01-01

137

Sources of human urinary epinephrine.  

PubMed

The kidney is a likely source for some urinary epinephrine (E) since adrenalectomized animals and humans continue to excrete urinary E and the human kidney contains E synthesizing enzymes. We studied subjects during an intravenous infusion of 3H-E to determine the fraction of urinary E derived from the kidney. Eight normal subjects (CON) and 5 older, heavier hypertensives (OHH) ate a light breakfast along with ascorbic acid supplementation and had intravenous and arterial lines placed. They received an infusion of 3H-E and had an oral water load. During the final hour of 3H-E infusion, urine and arterial blood samples were collected for 3H-E and E levels. After the 3H-E infusion was abruptly discontinued, arterial blood samples were collected to measure 3H-E kinetics. The total body clearance of 3H-E was about 2,500 ml/min from plasma and clearance of 3H-E to urine was about 170 ml/min. CON had plasma E levels of 43 +/- 4 pg/ml. Their predicted rate of clearance of E from plasma to urine of 7,471 +/- 865 pg/min was less than (P = 0.018) the actual urinary E excretion of 15,037 +/- 2,625 pg/min. Thus, 43 +/- 9% of urinary E in CON was apparently derived from renal sources and not filtered from blood. Among OHH 85 +/- 4% of urinary E was derived from the kidney, significantly (P < 0.01) different from CON. The OHH also produced much more urinary E than predicted from plasma 3H-E clearance into urine (P = 0.03). A major fraction of urinary E is not filtered from the blood stream but is apparently derived from kidney. A small fraction of urinary E may be derived from E stored in nerve endings along with norepinephrine, but this probably represents less than 2% of urinary E. Renal cleavage of E sulfate into E may be another potential source of urinary E. Some, and perhaps most, urinary E not filtered from the bloodstream is derived from renal N-methylation of norepinephrine as the human kidney has two enzymes capable of converting norepinephrine to E. In conclusion, a major portion of urinary E is derived from the kidney and not filtered from the bloodstream. This is an important factor in the interpretation of urine E levels. Renal E could alter renal blood flow, electrolyte reabsorption, and renin release prior to excretion into urine. PMID:8995750

Ziegler, M G; Aung, M; Kennedy, B

1997-01-01

138

Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building  

SciTech Connect

Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

1982-05-10

139

Commissioning continence services--turning policy into action.  

PubMed

Incontinence of urine and faeces is a major issue in health care today. The financial cost is enormous with the NHS purchasing an annual 80 m Pounds worth of absorbent products alone (Euromonitor, 1999). But the financial cost is only part of the equation. Incontinence also has a considerable impact on the quality of life of those who experience it. The nature and impact on quality of life varies among individuals. However, where expert services are available cure rates can exceed 50 per cent (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). This suggests that specialist continence services have a vital role to play in helping patients improve their incontinence or manage their continence problems more effectively. PMID:15176280

Thomas, Sue

2004-05-18

140

Excisional hemorrhoidal surgery and its effect on anal continence  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of anal cushions in hemorrhoidectomy and its effect on anal continence of the patients. METHODS: Seventy-six consecutive patients (33 men and 43 women) with a mean age of 44 years were included. They underwent Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy because of symptomatic third- and fourth-degree hemorrhoids and failure in conservative treatment for years. Wexner score was recorded and liquid continence test was performed for each patient before and two months after operation using the techniques described in our previous work. The speed-constant rectal lavage apparatus was prepared in our laboratory. The device could output a pulsed and speed-constant saline stream with a high pressure, which is capable of overcoming any rectal resistance change. The patients were divided into three groups, group A (< 900 mL), group B (900-1200 mL) and group C (> 1200 mL) according to the results of the preoperative liquid continence test. RESULTS: All the patients completed the study. The average number of hemorrhoidal masses excised was 2.4. Most patients presented with hemorrhoidal symptoms for more than one year, including a mean duration of incontinence of 5.2 years. The most common symptoms before surgery were anal bleeding (n = 55), prolapsed lesion (n = 34), anal pain (n = 12) and constipation (n = 17). There were grade III hemorrhoids in 39 (51.3%) patients, and grade IV in 37 (48.7%) patients according to Goligher classification. Five patients had experienced hemorrhoid surgery at least once. Compared with postoperative results, the retained volume in the preoperative liquid continence test was higher in 40 patients, lower in 27 patients, and similar in the other 9 patients. The overall preoperative retained volume in the liquid continence test was 1130.61 ± 78.35 mL, and postoperative volume was slightly decreased (991.27 ± 42.77 mL), but there was no significant difference (P = 0.057). Difference was significant in the test value before and after hemorrhoidectomy in group A (858.24 ± 32.01 mL vs 574.18 ± 60.28 mL, P = 0.011), but no obvious difference was noted in group B or group C. There was no significant difference in Wexner score before and after operation (1.68 ± 0.13 vs 2.10 ± 0.17, P = 0.064). By further stratified analysis, there was significant difference before and 2 months after operation in group A (2.71 ± 0.30 vs 3.58 ± 0.40, P = 0.003). In contrast, there were no significant differences in group B or group C (1.89 ± 0.15 vs 2.11 ± 0.19, P = 0.179; 0.98 ± 0.11 vs 1.34 ± 0.19, P = 0.123). CONCLUSION: There is no difference in the continence status of patients before and after Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. However, patients with preoperative compromised continence may have further deterioration of their continence, hence Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy should be avoided in such patients. PMID:22912558

Li, Yan-Dong; Xu, Jia-He; Lin, Jian-Jiang; Zhu, Wei-Fang

2012-01-01

141

Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent: focus on CYP450.  

PubMed

Countries in Africa have a high burden of communicable disease, and are experiencing an increase in noncommunicable diseases due to the effects of globalization, industrialization and urbanization. The costs incurred through adverse drug reactions and nonresponsiveness to therapy further aggravates the situation, and the application of pharmacogenetic principles is likely to provide some relief. Having undertaken an extensive evaluation of CYP450 reports in Africa, our objective was to map out areas of need based on regional disease burdens. The data confirms a paucity of CYP450 reports and illustrates large regions for which no population information exists. There is a dire need to address the health problems of Africa, and wide-scale pharmacogenetic profiling of these populations will add significantly to improving patient care on the continent. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent gives precedence to the profiling of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers, and defines the immediate need in the context of disease burden. PMID:24533717

Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

2014-02-01

142

Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

de Wit, Maarten J.

143

Fluoroquinolones in urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases for which antibiotic therapy is prescribed. Many\\u000a characteristics of the fluoroquinolones make them ideal agents for the management of UTI [1-12]. As a class, the fluoroquinolones traditionally have been highly active in vitro against nearly all significant urinary pathogens. Most are renally excreted, hence achieve high concentrations in

James R. Johnson

144

Urinary diversion after radical cystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  At most centers with experience in urinary diversion, an orthotopic urinary reservoir is the diversion of choice after radical\\u000a cystectomy for bladder cancer. The paradigm has shifted in the past 10 years from actively looking for reasons to do an orthotopic\\u000a diversion to carefully considering why a patient cannot undergo reconstruction to their native urethra. In our institution,\\u000a any

Peter E. Clark

2002-01-01

145

Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

CSTA Journal, 1995

1995-01-01

146

Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive extremes (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative extremes (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role for the overall impact of GPP extremes compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative extremes in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas extreme temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.

2014-06-01

147

Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake) and negative extremes (decrease in uptake) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

Zscheischler, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Reichstein, M.

2014-01-01

148

GEOROC: Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, the Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents database (GEOROC) contains about 70,000 sample analyses. These include whole rock, mineral, and inclusion data from seven tectonic settings such as convergent margins, oceanic plateaus, and ocean islands. The database can be queried by several criteria including a handy precompiled file compilation, which can be downloaded for further examination.

2002-01-01

149

Interannual Rainfall Variability over the Eastern Maritime Continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the interannual rainfall variability over the eastern maritime continent using station rainfall data in the Republic of Palau during 1923-2009 and Eastern Indonesia during 1973-2008. Two possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the interannual rainfall variability associated with the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation over the surrounding region of the Banda and Arafura seas. During the El Niño developing

Hisayuki Kubota; Ryuichi Shirooka; Hamada Jun-Ichi; Fadli Syamsudin

2011-01-01

150

New Caledonia a classic example of an arc continent collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SW Pacific island of New Caledonia presents a classic example of an arc-continent collision. This event occurred in the Late Eocene when elements of an intra-oceanic island arc system, the Loyalty-D'Entrecasteaux arc, which stretched SSE from near Papua New Guinea east of New Caledonia to offshore New Zealand, collided with micro-continental fragments that had rifted off eastern Gondwana (Australia) in the late Cretaceous. Intervening Late Cretaceous to Paleogene oceanic crust of the South Loyalty Basin was eliminated through eastward subduction beneath this west-facing intra-oceanic island arc. As with many arc-continent collisions elsewhere collision was accompanied by ophiolite emplacement. The erosional remnants of which are extensive in New Caledonia. Collision led to subduction flip, followed by extensive rollback in front of the newly established east-facing Vitiaz arc. Post-collisional magmatism occurred after slab break-off and is represented by small-scale granitoid intrusions. Additional important features of New Caledonia include the presence of a regionally extensive UHP metamorphic terrain consisting of blueschists and eclogites that formed during the subduction process and were rapidly exhumed as a result of the collision Not only was collision and associated orogeny short-lived this collision system has not been overprinted by any major subsequent collision. New Caledonia thus provides an exceptional location for the study of processes related to arc-continent collision in general.

Aitchison, J.

2011-12-01

151

Molecular Mechanisms Related to Parturition-Induced Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular mechanisms underlying stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at the tissue level are poorly understood. Objective To study genetic and molecular alterations in the urethra of animals with experimentally induced SUI. Design/Setting/Participants Cohort analysis of primiparous 2-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats with experimentally induced SUI versus those who did not develop SUI in a university research laboratory setting Intervention Within 24 h of parturition, rats underwent intravaginal balloon dilation and bilateral ovariectomy. Transvesical cystometry was performed 12 wk after parturition. Rats were classified as continent (C) or incontinent (I) according to the results of cystometry. Measurements The expression of over 22,000 genes in urethral tissue from the two groups was assessed with the use of an oligo microarray. The expression of relevant genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of small mothers against decapentaplegic 2 (Smad2), one of the differentially expressed genes, was extensively studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Regulation of Smad2 activity by transforming growth factor-? (Tgf-?) was assessed in cultured urethral smooth muscle cells (USMCs). Results & Limitations After intervention, 14 (58.3%) rats remained continent and 10 (41.7%) became incontinent. There were significant differences in the expression of 42 urethral genes between continent and incontinent rats. The expression of genes involved in the TGF cellular signaling pathway (Smad2), collagen breakdown (matrix metalloproteinase 13 [Mmp13]), and smooth muscle inhibition (regulator of G-protein signaling 2 [Rgs2]) was significantly increased in the incontinent group. Smad2 protein expression was significantly upregulated in the incontinent rats. In cultured USMCs, Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation increased after Tgf-? treatment. Conclusions Genes important in inflammation, collagen breakdown, and smooth muscle inhibition are upregulated in the urethras of female rats with parturition-associated incontinence. PMID:18372098

Lin, Guiting; Shindel, Alan W.; Banie, Lia; Deng, Donna; Wang, Guifang; Hayashi, Narihiko; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F.

2010-01-01

152

[Urinary incontinence and obesity].  

PubMed

Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

2012-06-01

153

Surface Wave Group Velocity Tomography and Lithospheric S-velocity Structure of South American Continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new group velocity tomography is presented for the South American continent including additional stations deployed in the northern and northeastern part of the continent, which had not been covered by previous works. More than 10,000 seismograms were examined with paths principally propagating across the continent of South America. 4000 Rayleigh- and 2270 Love-wave dispersion curves with good quality were

M. Feng; M. Assumpcao; S. van der Lee

2003-01-01

154

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

155

True polar wander in mantle convection models with multiple, mobile continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geologic record supports numerous instances during which continents apparently moved at speeds significantly faster than any of today's tectonic plates. While the time dependence of convective driving forces likely explains some such observations, rapid motions of large continents in particular are often attributed to true polar wander (TPW). In order to gauge the potential for connections between continents, mantle

Benjamin R. Phillips; Hans-Peter Bunge; Katrin Schaber

2009-01-01

156

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents  

E-print Network

May 2005 Abstract It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above is principally by conduction [4­6] and continents thus act as thermal insulation above the convecting mantle [7Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents A. Lenardica

Manga, Michael

157

Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: how, when, and with which patients do we use urodynamics?  

PubMed

Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) affects many patients and requires close monitoring. Initial studies establishing patients at risk for upper tract disease revealed that high detrusor leak point pressures were predictive of upper tract disease. Urodynamics in patients with NLUTD have specific challenges. Initial studies in patients after an acute injury should be delayed until after the spinal shock phase. In children with spinal dysraphism, studies should be done early to established potential risk. The goals are maintaining low bladder pressures, decreasing risk of infection, and maintaining continence. PMID:25063601

Danforth, Teresa L; Ginsberg, David A

2014-08-01

158

Catheter associated urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

2014-01-01

159

Variations in Tectonic Styles of Arc-Continent Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient arc-continent collisions are commonly informally described as hard or soft, although the differences between these two are rarely defined. We define a hard collision where the overriding arc (including infant arcs preserved in obducted ophiolites) has been significantly thickened in proximity to the suture zone due to internal deformation. Upper plate deformation involved progressive underthrusting and thickening of parts of the arc-forearc terrane, presumably as a result of progressive widening of the subduction channel into the hangingwall. The Late Cretaceous Kohistan arc collision with Eurasia or India is an example of a hard collision. A more ancient example of a well-studied arc-continent collision is the Early-Middle Ordovician, (Taconic) collision between the Laurentian Humber margin and the Notre Dame arc in the Northern Appalachians. The collision was hard where the arc was built on continental crust (Dashwoods), because parts of both the ophiolitic forearc basement (Baie Verte oceanic tract) and the leading edge of the arc block were locally intensely deformed and metamorphosed with conditions ranging from high pressure greenschist to amphibolite and/or granulite facies conditions. However, where the Notre Dame arc transgresses from a continental to an oceanic substrate, the style of collision appears to change from hard to soft and more resembles the relatively soft Late Cretaceous collision between the infant arc preserved in the Semail ophiolite and the Arabian continental margin. Subsequent Ordovician-Silurian collisions involving arc blocks in the Appalachians are generally soft or show a more intermediate character between hard and soft such as the China-Luzon arc collision in central Taiwan. Here most of the forearc block appears to have been deformed and subducted, whereas the arc itself remained relatively undeformed. Other orogens (e.g. Canadian Cordillera) may show a similar variation in style of arc-continent collisions.

van Staal, C.; Zagorevski, A.; Castonguay, S.; Massonne, H.; McNicoll, V.; Willner, A. P.

2011-12-01

160

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

MedlinePLUS

FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, ...

161

Structural aspects of Mid-Continent rift system in Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Humboldt fault zone and the faulted Abilene anticline are among many prominent north-northeast to south-southwest-trending structures in northeastern Kansas that occur in Paleozoic rocks as a result of renewed movement of faults associated with the Mid-Continent rift system (MRS). The Humboldt fault zone consists of a number of anastomosing fault segments with high-angle, normal or reverse displacements of up to 600 m. Most of this movement occurred during the Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian. Domal culminations, some of which bear oil, and rhomboid-shaped grabens, are recognized.

Berendsen, P.; Newell, K.D.; Blair, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))

1989-08-01

162

Urinary polyamines in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Urine polyamine content is increased in patients with colorectal malignancy and may be a useful tumor marker in the management of these patients. Urinary excretion of putrescine and spermidine was measured preoperatively and in the first week postoperatively in nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease, eight with other benign colorectal disease, and 13 with colorectal cancer. Preoperative urine putrescine levels were elevated similarly in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and malignancy. Polyamine levels were increased in all three groups in the early postoperative period. Urinary polyamine excretion did not correlate with serum CEA levels, tumor volume, or stage of disease in patients with cancer. Because elevated levels of urinary polyamines are not specific for malignancy and do not correlate with other prognostic indicators, such measurements are unlikely to be useful in tumor detection and determining prognosis. Polyamine levels, however, may prove useful in monitoring response to therapy and detecting recurrences in individual patients. PMID:3792170

Thompson, J S; Edney, J A; Laughlin, K

1986-12-01

163

Urinary problems in decompression sickness.  

PubMed

The records of 25 patients with type II decompression sickness and urinary problems have been reviewed. Seventeen patients were professionals and 8 were above the age of 40. The disease appeared within the 1st hour of emergence from the water in 70% of the cases and within the first 4 hours in the remaining 30%. Nine patients were diagnosed as paraplegic and two as tetraplegic. All patients had urinary disturbances and 14 were on Foley-catheter drainage during the decompression while 11 were on intermittent catheterisation. Fifteen patients had improved urinary function after recompression, 8 had some difficulty, 2 underwent a sphincterotomy and one a transurethral prostatectomy. The low percentage of complete recovery was due to the delayed arrival at the decompression chamber. PMID:3960586

Dounis, A; Mitropoulos, D

1986-02-01

164

A slow divorce: tectonic signals in an ancient continent Australia is a continent of ancient cratonic rocks, at least two-thirds of which formed  

E-print Network

Feature A slow divorce: tectonic signals in an ancient continent Australia is a continent significantly expressed in its longer-term landscape evolution. A slow divorce Newer research indicates-year-long dalliance with India is coming to an end in a kind of grand plate-tectonic `divorce'. In tectonic terms

Sandiford, Mike

165

Urinary incontinence products - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

166

Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.  

PubMed

The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

2014-07-15

167

Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

2010-07-01

168

Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

1997-01-01

169

Stress urinary incontinence in the gynecological practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the prevalence, risk factors, the impact on the quality of life and healthcare-seeking behavior of women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in particular. UI is a common problem, affecting women in all age groups, and has devastating effects on their social, professional and family life. UI may be manifest as stress urinary

O Contreras Ortiz

2004-01-01

170

Managing urinary incontinence: what works?  

PubMed

Abstract Urinary incontinence is a common condition, which, although not life-threatening, impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. All women complaining of incontinence require a basic assessment and those with complex or refractory symptoms may benefit from urodynamic studies. Initial treatment includes lifestyle advice, behavioral modifications, bladder retraining and pelvic floor muscle training. For those women with persistent stress urinary incontinence following conservative therapy, surgical management might be considered. The development of the minimally invasive, retropubic, synthetic, mid-urethral sling procedures has revolutionized stress incontinence surgery and reduced the popularity of 'traditional' procedures, such as colposuspension and autologous fascial sling. In an attempt to reduce further the morbidity, transobturator and single-incision slings have been introduced. While antimuscarinic agents are the mainstay of the current medical management of urgency urinary incontinence, a recently developed selective ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist (mirabegron) offers an alternative pharmacological option. Modalities such as intravesical botulinum toxin and neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) are available to women with refractory urgency incontinence. Finally, when all other options have been explored and proven unsuccessful, inappropriate or not feasible, reconstructive surgery or catheter insertion might be considered as a last resort. The aim of this paper is to review conservative, medical and surgical management for urinary incontinence by using the best available evidence in the literature. PMID:25196507

Giarenis, I; Cardozo, L

2014-12-01

171

Urinary caffeine metabolites in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In an exploratory study the 24-h urinary excretion pattern of caffeine and 14 of its major metabolites was studied in 32 volunteers (adults, adolescents and children), 14 patients either with end stage renal disease or liver cirrhosis, 7 heavy smokers and 27 patients on therapy with cimetidine, allopurinol, theophylline or phenytoin. Caffeine and its metabolites were quantified by UV-absorption

D. Ullrich; D. Compagnone; B. Miinch; A. Brandes; H. Hille; J. Bircher

1992-01-01

172

OxyContin® as Currency: OxyContin® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

2012-01-01

173

A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.  

PubMed

Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (?(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, ?(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (?(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF ?(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of ?(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593

Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

2013-05-01

174

Here be Dragons: The Unexplored Continents of the CMSSM  

E-print Network

The Higgs boson mass and the abundance of dark matter constrain the CMSSM/mSUGRA supersymmetry breaking inputs. A complete map of the CMSSM that is consistent with these two measured quantities is provided. Various "continents," consisting of non-excluded models, can be organized by their dark matter dynamics. The following mechanisms manifest: well-tempering, resonant pseudo-scalar Higgs annihilation, neutralino/stau coannihilations and neutralino/stop coannihilations. Benchmark models are chosen in order to characterize the viable regions. The expected visible signals of each are described, demonstrating a wide range of predictions for the 13 TeV LHC and a high degree of complementarity between dark matter and collider experiments. The parameter space spans a finite volume, which can be probed in its entirety with experiments currently under consideration.

Cohen, Timothy

2013-01-01

175

Here be Dragons: The Unexplored Continents of the CMSSM  

E-print Network

The Higgs boson mass and the abundance of dark matter constrain the CMSSM/mSUGRA supersymmetry breaking inputs. A complete map of the CMSSM that is consistent with these two measured quantities is provided. Various "continents," consisting of non-excluded models, can be organized by their dark matter dynamics. The following mechanisms manifest: well-tempering, resonant pseudo-scalar Higgs annihilation, neutralino/stau coannihilations and neutralino/stop coannihilations. Benchmark models are chosen in order to characterize the viable regions. The expected visible signals of each are described, demonstrating a wide range of predictions for the 13 TeV LHC and a high degree of complementarity between dark matter and collider experiments. The parameter space spans a finite volume, which can be probed in its entirety with experiments currently under consideration.

Timothy Cohen; Jay G. Wacker

2013-05-13

176

Here be dragons: the unexplored continents of the CMSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Higgs boson mass and the abundance of dark matter constrain the CMSSM/mSUGRA supersymmetry breaking inputs. A complete map of the CMSSM that is consistent with these two measured quantities is provided. Various "continents", consisting of non-excluded models, can be organized by their dark matter dynamics. The following mechanisms manifest: well-tempering, resonant pseudo-scalar Higgs annihilation, neutralino/stau coannihilations and neutralino/stop coannihilations. Benchmark models are chosen in order to characterize the viable regions. The expected visible signals of each are described, demonstrating a wide range of predictions for the 13 TeV LHC and a high degree of complementarity between dark matter and collider experiments. The parameter space spans a finite volume, which can be probed in its entirety with experiments currently under consideration.

Cohen, Timothy; Wacker, Jay G.

2013-09-01

177

Mapping the Western Boundary of the North American Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite progress in understanding the tectonic history of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), the characteristics of mantle fabric/flow and the definition of the tectonic boundary between cratons (east/northeast) and terranes (west) remain poorly understood due to limited data coverage. In this study we present greatly improved constraints on the mantle lithosphere using data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta NEtwork (CRANE), a newly installed broadband array in southern-central Alberta and parts of Saskatchewan. The SKS splitting parameters determined from multiple Mw>6.5 earthquakes are well correlated for stations in the vicinity of the Canadian Rockies. A northeast-southwest trending fast direction is consistent with the present-day absolute plate motion, and is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress. In contrast, substantially lower splitting times and northwest-southeast fast-splitting orientations are observed beneath eastern-central Alberta, a region characterized by enhanced heat-flow and below-average seismic velocities. The anomalous shear-wave splitting patterns could be the mantle expression of a hidden tectonic boundary between stable continent and accreted terranes. Base on this hypothesis, streamlined mantle flow around the edges of moving continental `keels' could induce strong north-south oriented horizontal strain. Geometrical imperfections such as a divot or an abandoned plume conduit on the continental root could cause further disruptions to the mantle flow beneath this region, giving rise to both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. While the mantle flow pattern beneath the entire WCSB remain debatable, the sharp change in splitting parameters across central Alberta could mark the western edge of the North American continent.

Gu, Y. J.; Kocon, K.; Okeler, A.

2009-12-01

178

Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.

2012-12-01

179

Moho depth and residual topography of the Antarctic continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (ANTMoho), merging information retrieved from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data have been analyzed: from active seismic prospection,including DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent passive seismic receiver function and geological studies. ANTMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. The oldest Archean and Proterozoic crust of East Antarctica has a thickness of 36-56 km (with an average of about 41 km). The continental crust of the Transantarctic Mountains, the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilkes Basin has a thickness of 30-40 km (with an average Moho of about 30 km). The youngest rifted continental crust of the West Antarctic Rift System has a thickness of 16-28 km (with an average Moho of about 26 km). The mean Moho depth of the whole model is 33.8 km. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography -- an indicator of dynamic response to large-scale mantle flow. We adopt the semianalytical methodology implemented in the HC code (developed and maintained by Prof. T. Becker). The spatial resolution is limited by the L=127 of the input model. The Transantarctic Mountains appear not to be isostatically compensated, such as the neighboring Wilkes Subglacial Basin. East Antarctica on a large scale does not show significant uncompensated topography. There are however some smaller-scale residual topography features, that correlate with sub-glacial topography and that may indicate some limitation in resolution or laterally-variable crustal density. Better knowledge of crustal structure is therefore an important tool for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

Baranov, Alexey; Molinari, Irene; Morelli, Andrea; Danesi, Stefania

2013-04-01

180

Simple cyst of urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure. PMID:25125900

Bo, Yang

2014-07-01

181

[Male and female urinary incontinence: treatment in day surgery].  

PubMed

Incontinence isn't itself a disease but the feature of possible urinary tract alterations or outside of it. Incontinence is frequent above all in the elderly but it can be on charge of both sexes at every age. In Italy, according to recent evaluations, people affected with this disease would be more than 4 millions. Incontinence is therefore an important failure for its health aspects but also for economic and social ones. The problem is to evaluate if incontinence can't be prevented and as consequence needs only an assistance management, or it can be considered a preventable disease able to be cured, as we deeply believe, suggested also by the positive results of new therapeutical procedures, in association with traditional surgery and rehabilitation such as injectables or mini-invasive quick operations such as colpocleisis or percutaneous vaginal colposuspension (PVC), matters of this presentation and always performed according to correct diagnosis and indication. Bovine dermal collagen highly purified, poorly viscous and easily injectable, despite traditional rehabilitation and surgery, is a further procedure, endoscopic and minimally invasive to treat stress incontinence. Collagen is employed to perform a bladder neck plasty, increasing urethrosphincterial competence, to obtain continence without the creation of an obstruction. Genital prolapse, that is hysterocolpocele or simple vaginal vault prolapse, has course in high proportion (37%) in elderly (after 80 years). Surgical management of severe failures of continence and often also of the voiding function, such as: hyscuria with vesicoureteral reflux, obstinate constipation related to severe genital prolapse with allied rectocele is often hardly performed in elderly owing to the age and general health conditions: colpoclesis is a vaginal surgical approach that can be easily performed by the urologist too, it is an effective alternative to permanent catheterization or maxipad to be offered to the patient to improve her quality of life. In between the above maintained procedures takes place the percutaneous vaginal colposuspension (PVC). It is an original technique made up in our Institute to treat incontinence by the bladder neck resuspension to Cooper ligament according to a complete miniinvasive retropubic tension free transvaginal colposuspension, in local anaesthesia and complementary light narcosis in Day Surgery. Urinary incontinence is today a disturbance easy to be cured thanks to injectables and to miniinvasive surgical procedures as reported in this presentation concerning the most advanced approaches to its management. PMID:9738319

Mantovani, F; Patelli, E; Zanetti, G; Ceresoli, A

1998-06-01

182

Treatment of Urinary Calculus Disease  

PubMed Central

The treatment of urinary calculus disease has changed dramaticlly over the last 10 years. What once involved an open surgical procedure, often with a lengthy hospital stay, can now often be done as a day procedure under local anesthesia. This change has been brought about by technological advances in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy, as well as downsizing and fiberoptic improvements in urologic instruments. PMID:21229069

Nigro, Mark

1991-01-01

183

Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting continence. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34(+) cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to urinary incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:24179600

Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K

2013-10-26

184

A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th and U typically show increases due to their association in clays and oxides in the profile. These geochemical relationships underpin the first model prediction. In the case where no gamma-ray data is available or where the bedrock is very low in radioelements (e.g. basalt, quartz-rich sandstone) surface relief is used as surrogate in the second prediction model. The two models are combined to generate a weathering intensity index of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity index has been developed for erosional landscapes but also provides useful information on deposition processes and materials. The weathering intensity prediction is evaluated with surface geochemistry (compared with geochemical indices) and previous regolith-landform mapping. The use of the weathering intensity index in natural resource management and mineral exploration is discussed.

Wilford, J.

2013-12-01

185

Urinary tract infections in children. An update.  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection is a common and frequently recurring condition in children. The susceptibility of the host, the presence of urinary tract abnormalities, and the virulence of the urinary pathogens are of primary importance in the development of the infection. Renal parenchymal scarring, hypertension, and renal insufficiency are well-established complications of the infection in children. To reduce the risk of renal damage, diagnosis and treatment must be prompt. The diagnosis demands radiologic evaluation of the urinary tract in all boys, all children younger than 5 years, all patients with voiding dysfunction, and school-aged girls with recurrent infection to identify those patients with vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction, or other urinary tract abnormalities. Both voiding cystourethrography and renal ultrasonography are the initial examinations to use to determine the next appropriate study. Children with vesicoureteral reflux or with recurrent urinary tract infections should receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy and should be observed closely to prevent renal scarring. PMID:1441497

Zelikovic, I; Adelman, R D; Nancarrow, P A

1992-01-01

186

The CPE network: Creating an evidence base for continence product selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting continence products for an individual patient or hospital contract is often a daunting task. This article describes the evaluation process developed for a program of government-funded multicenter evaluations of continence products established in the United Kingdom to provide an evidence base for product selection. The essential requirements of an evaluation are discussed, together with the methodologic and statistical issues

Mandy Fader; Alan Cottenden; Rodney Brooks

2001-01-01

187

TOPO-OZ: Insights into the various modes of intraplate deformation in the Australian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the fastest, lowest, flattest and amongst the most arid of continents, Australia preserves a unique geomorphic record of intraplate tectonic activity, evidencing at least three distinct modes of surface deformation since its rapid northward drift commenced around 43 million years ago. At long wavelengths (several 1000s km) systematic variations in the extent of Neogene marine inundation imply the continent has tilted

Mike Sandiford; Mark Quigley

2009-01-01

188

Quantification of neurological and other contributors to continence in female rats.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle, striated muscle, their central and peripheral innervations and control, and mucosal coaptation contribute to maintenance of continence. We used manual leak point pressure (mLPP) testing and electrical stimulation LPP (eLPP) testing in female rats to quantify the contribution of these factors to urethral resistance, a measure of continence. Abdominal muscles were electrically stimulated to induce leakage for eLPP. A Crede maneuver was applied for mLPP. These were repeated after complete T8 spinal cord injury (SCI) and/or bilateral pudendal nerve transection (PNT). After euthanasia, mLPP was repeated. MLPP was not significantly affected by opening the abdomen, suggesting that intra-abdominal pressure transmission contributes little to continence during slow pressure changes. ELPP was significantly higher than mLPP in intact rats, after PNT, and after SCI+PNT, suggesting that abdominal pressure transmission contributes to continence during rapid increases in intra-abdominal pressure. MLPP decreased significantly after PNT, indicating that urethral striated muscles contribute significantly to continence. ELPP decreased significantly after PNT with and without SCI, suggesting that supraspinal control significantly affects continence during rapid pressure changes, but not during slow pressure changes. MLPP after euthanasia was significantly decreased compared to mLPP after SCI+PNT, suggesting that urethral mucosal seal coaptation and tissue elasticity also contribute to continence. The urethra is a complex organ that maintains continence via a highly organized and hierarchical system involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:21295013

Jiang, Hai-Hong; Salcedo, Levilester B; Damaser, Margot S

2011-03-25

189

adansonii [12], the study of honey bees from this continent remained superficial and  

E-print Network

adansonii [12], the study of honey bees from this continent remained superficial and incomplete description of honey bees from the African continent dates back to 1804 when the French entomolo- gist Latreille named a bee from Senegal Apis Original article Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in honey bee

Boyer, Edmond

190

Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia -Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition  

E-print Network

Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia - Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition Peninsula and Philippines are in the Asian summer monsoon regime while the Maritime Continent experiences a wet monsoon during boreal winter and a dry season during boreal summer. However, the complex

Chang, Chih-Pei

191

Use of Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients With Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Abdominoperineal resection, with iliac colostomy, remains the gold standard treatment for very low-lying rectal cancer, but it alters patients quality of life. Alternatives to iliac colostomy need to be experimented. Antegrade enemas via a cecal access (Malone operation) obtains a colonic emptying and improves continence for incontinent patients. Continence and quality of life after abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy associated

Guillaume Portier; Nicolas Bonhomme; Ivan Platonoff; Frank Lazorthes

2005-01-01

192

Temperature beneath continents as a function of continental cover and convective wavelength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic modeling studies have demonstrated that mantle global warming can occur in response to continental aggregation, possibly leading to large-scale melting and associated continental breakup. Such feedback calls for a recipe describing how continents help to regulate the thermal evolution of the mantle. Here we use spherical mantle convection models with continents to quantify variations in subcontinental temperature as a function of continent size and distribution and convective wavelength. Through comparison to a simple analytical boundary layer model, we show that larger continents beget warming of the underlying mantle, with heating sometimes compounded by the formation of broader convection cells associated with the biggest continents. Our results hold well for purely internally heated and partially core heated models with Rayleigh numbers of 105 to 107 containing continents with sizes ranging from that of Antarctica to Pangea. Results from a time-dependent model with three mobile continents of various sizes suggests that the tendency for temperatures to rise with continent size persists on average over timescales of billions of years.

Phillips, Benjamin R.; Coltice, Nicolas

2010-04-01

193

Lower urinary tract symptoms: thinking beyond the urinary tract.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 54-year-old man with progressive lower urinary tract symptoms over 12 months. Physical examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and ultrasound of the renal tract were all unremarkable. Flexible cystoscopy was normal. Urodynamic assessment revealed an overactive bladder of unknown aetiology. The patient went on to have an MRI of the lumbosacral spine which showed a spinal cord tumour of the conus medullaris. The patient underwent a laminectomy and resection of the tumour. Histology showed myxopapillary ependymoma of the spinal cord. This case highlights the need to consider the full spectrum of causes, urological and non-urological, in assessing a patient with voiding dysfunction. PMID:25035441

Ashrafi, Akbar; Winkle, David

2014-01-01

194

Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

2013-03-01

195

Diversity of frankiae in soils from five continents.  

PubMed

Clone libraries of nifH gene fragments specific for the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia were generated from six soils obtained from five continents using a nested PCR. Comparative sequence analyses of all libraries (n=247 clones) using 96 to 97% similarity thresholds revealed the presence of three and four clusters of frankiae representing the Elaeagnus and the Alnus host infection groups, respectively. Diversity of frankiae was represented by fewer clusters (i.e., up to four in total) within individual libraries, with one cluster generally harboring the vast majority of sequences. Meta-analysis including sequences previously published for cultures (n=48) and for uncultured frankiae in root nodules of Morella pensylvanica formed in bioassays with the respective soils (n=121) revealed a higher overall diversity with four and six clusters of frankiae representing the Elaeagnus and the Alnus host infection groups, respectively, and displayed large differences in cluster assignments between sequences retrieved from clone libraries and those obtained from nodules, with assignments to the same cluster only rarely encountered for individual soils. These results demonstrate large differences between detectable Frankia populations in soil and those in root nodules indicating the inadequacy of bioassays for the analysis of frankiae in soil and the role of plants in the selection of frankiae from soil for root nodule formation. PMID:19692194

Mirza, Babur S; Welsh, Allana; Rieder, Julie P; Paschke, Mark W; Hahn, Dittmar

2009-12-01

196

Exploration in Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly: rift or riffraff  

SciTech Connect

Geologic and geophysical exploration for oil and gas in the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) resulted in acquiring millions of acres and thousands of miles of seismic data in areas previously considered nonprospective for economic hydrocarbon production. Interpreted to be a rift, this 700-mi feature extends from northern Kansas through Lake Superior into Michigan. Factors influencing major company interest in the feature include: oil occurring in Keweenawan sediments from Michigan; gravity and magnetic data suggesting that clastic-filled basins are present; and extensive folding and faulting of Precambrian rock units seen on seismic sections. Little attention has been given to other important factors, including lithostratigraphy, thermal and burial history of reservoir and source rocks, and distribution of observed gravity and magnetic anomalies throughout the rift. Although such data are sparse or highly susceptible to interpretation, any ensuing model should attempt to explain the observations. The observed data constrain exploration modeling within certain boundaries. These constraints are: (1) proximity of the reservoir rock to the potential source rock; (2) different thermal histories for the flanks of the rift versus the center; and (3) high versus low densities and magnetic susceptibilities in the central part versus the flanking positions of the MGA south of Lake Superior.

Yarus, J.M.; Hinks, A.

1986-05-01

197

Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas  

SciTech Connect

Project will develop a prototype for a digital and hard-copy atlas of petroleum fields and reservoirs in the northern Mid-continent region. A limited number of reservoirs in Kansas are to be included in the prototype project, but the goal is to expand beyond the prototype atlas to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, the Williston basin portion of Montana, the Denver-Julesburg basin of eastern Colorado and southeastern Colorado. Primary products of the prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases covering two selected petroleum plays in Kansas. `Pages` and data schema for the first field studies of the atlas have been developed and are accessible through the World-Wide-Web. The atlas structure includes access to geologic, geophysical and production information at levels from the regional, to the field to the individual well. Several approaches have been developed that provide efficient and flexible screening and search procedures. The prototype of the digital atlas is accessible through the Kansas Geological Survey Petroleum Research Section (PRS) HomePage (The Universal Resource Locator [URL] is http://www.kgs. ukans.edu/PRS/PRS.html). The DPA HomePage is available directly at http://www.kg.ukans.edu/DPA/dpaHome.html. Technology transfer is underway through the use of monthly electronic updates and the on- line availability of DPA products. Quarterly Progress Reports are posted on the digital Petroleum Atlas HomePage.

Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

1996-04-15

198

Botulinum toxin A's expanding role in the management of pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin A's (Onabotulinum toxin A - OnabotA) utility in the pediatric population is evolving, and is currently being used in the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction, both in children with neuropathic compromise, and non-neuropathic overactive bladders. The results of having OnabotA injected directly into the bladder wall cystoscopically are: a more compliant bladder with reduced bladder pressure, avoiding renal compromise and upper urinary tract deterioration; increased bladder capacity; and the ability for children to reach an improved degree of urinary continence through a minimally invasive approach. A growing body of research in patients with either neuropathic bladders or overactive bladders (OAB), have shown excellent results when looking at urodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction and improvement in symptomatology. One of the main indications for the use of OnabotA in children with neuropathic bladders is to delay or avoid the need for augmentation cystoplasty. By achieving the aforementioned results, some children can delay or avoid this more invasive and permanent procedure. Prospective studies are needed to answer questions regarding optimal dosage and frequency, ideal patient selection criteria and assessment of long-term outcomes and complications. PMID:24903352

Hassouna, Tarek; Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J

2014-08-01

199

Single-Incision Slings (SIS) - a New Option for the Surgical Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

The new development of single-incision slings (SIS) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence offers comparable results with only minimal side effects and will find wide acceptance in modern incontinence surgery. This mini-sling is inserted over a single vaginal incision and fixed on both sides to the pelvic wall tissue with special anchors, without passing through the groin and avoiding a blind tape passage. Compared with the established sub-urethral tapes, there are comparable success rates with fewer complications. Randomised prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether, in the long run, the benefits of the single incision technique can be correlated with satisfying continence results.

Naumann, G.; Albrich, S.; Skala, C.; Laterza, R.; Kolbl, H.

2012-01-01

200

A rare urinary bladder tumour.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

2014-01-01

201

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis of the urinary bladder is a rare anaerobic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces isrealii. Initial diagnosis is often difficult and this disease is easily misdiagnosed as a urothelial or urachal tumour. The definitive diagnosis is usually made postoperatively via tissue pathology. We discuss a case of a 54-year-old male with a smoking history and a 2.5-week history of gross hematuria. Ultrasound, computed tomography and cystoscopy revealed a large inflammatory mass adherent to the right, anterior bladder wall, suggesting malignancy. Transurethral resection and histological pathology subsequently confirmed inflammatory urothelium and gram-positive bacteria consistent with actinomyces species. PMID:23914269

Huang, Chun; Al-Essawi, Turki

2013-01-01

202

The Rise of Continents and the Transition Archean to Proterozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planets evolve in part via partial melting and gravitational differentiation, and in part via fluid/rock interactions at the surface. Mass and energy transfers across their various envelopes depend on the mode of convective motion, which may involve stagnant or mobile lid systems, for which plate tectonics is a possible mode; one promoting the coupling between exogenic and endogenic envelopes. In the other hand, fluid/rock interaction at the surface depends on the planet hypsometry and availability of weathering agents such as liquid water. It also depends on fluid/rock interaction at mid-oceanic ridge and therefore on the mode of convection. Hence, from 4.54 to 2.5 Ga the interplay between deep and surface processes under the forcing of secular cooling was such that the Earth differentiation was non-linear with sudden crises that punctuated periods of relative quietness. The Earth secular cooling impacted on deep and surface processes through the modulation of the Earth's hypsometry. This modulation occurred via cooling and strengthening of the lithosphere (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008), and via the deepening of oceanic basin, which lowered the mean sea level forcing the continents to emerge (Flament et al., EPSL, 2008). Stronger lithospheres are able to sustain higher orogenic belts and orogenic plateaux, the erosion of which lead to stronger fluxes towards the ocean. Secular strengthening and emergence conspired to enhance weathering and erosion of the continents and therefore to enhance the geochemical coupling between the endogenic and exogenic Earth's envelopes (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008). The shift to the aerobic world, at the Archean to Proterozic transition, took place at a time when exogenic envelopes recorded major shifts in composition (eg. Taylor and McLennan, Rev. of Geophys., 1995; Veizer and Compston, Geochem. Cosmochem Acta, 1976; Valley et al., Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol., 2005) that are consistent with the progressive exposure to erosion of large areas of felsic crust hitherto hidden under greenstone covers and/or under sea level. Silicate weathering and erosion is a very efficient sink for atmospheric CO2. It is therefore also very likely that the strengthening and emergence of the continental lithosphere was a very important factor contributing to both the cooling of the Earth's surface and oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere. The transition from primitive to modern Earth has often been presented in the context of a major pulse of crustal growth and differentiation (Taylor and McLennan, Rev. of Geophys., 1995), superplume activity (Condie, PEPI, 2004), and/or mantle overturn and orogenic crisis (Stein and Hofman, Nature, 1994; Breuer and Spohn, Nature, 1995). However, in the context of continental emergence and strengthening, the shift to the aerobic world, at the Archean to Proterozic transition, may be linked to the time period when the Earth evolved its modern hypsometry, and when the Earth's exogenic and endogenic geochemical reservoirs became strongly coupled via higher erosion rates and fluxes toward the oceans.

Rey, P. F.; Flament, N.; Coltice, N.

2011-12-01

203

Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas  

SciTech Connect

The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-continent. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.

Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

1997-02-13

204

Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

2004-12-01

205

Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

2007-12-01

206

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1377 Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

207

Urinary Incontinence Treatments for Women (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... Stress urinary incontinence in women: Retropubic midurethral slings Stress urinary incontinence in women: Transobturator midurethral slings The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ? National Library of ...

208

Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling seniors. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Urinary incontinence defined as “the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine” was identified as 1 of the key predictors in a senior’s transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. Urinary incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario’s community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies. Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., continence pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products). The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures. Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. Description of Technology/Therapy Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or moto

2008-01-01

209

Prospects for Engineering the Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities and acquired disorders can lead to organ damage or loss within the urinary tract. For reconstructive purposes, tissue engineering efforts are currently underway for virtually every type of tissue and organ within the urinary tract. Tissue engineering incorporates the fields of cell transplantation, materials science, and engineering for the purpose of creating functional replacement tissue, and requires personnel

Chester J. Koh; Anthony Atala

2004-01-01

210

Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... ejected from the bladder and out of the body through the urethra, another tube-like structure. The male urethra ends at the tip of the penis; the female urethra ends just above the vaginal opening. Back Continue ... and Urinary Tract Problems Like other systems in the body, the entire urinary tract is subject to diseases ...

211

Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

212

The impact of cavernosal nerve preservation on continence after robotic radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between baseline characteristics, nerve-sparing (NS) status and return of continence, as a relationship may exist between return to continence and preservation of the neurovascular bundles for potency during radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 592 consecutive robotic RPs completed between 2002 and 2007. All data were entered prospectively into an electronic database. Continence data (defined as zero pads) was collected using self-administered validated questionnaires. Baseline characteristics (age, International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5] score, American Urological Association symptom score, body mass index [BMI], clinical T-stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen level), NS status and learning curve were retrospectively evaluated for association with overall continence at 1, 3 and 12 months after RP using univariate and multivariable methods. Any patient taking preoperative phosphodiesterase inhibitors was excluded from the postoperative analysis. RESULTS Complete data were available for 537 of 592 patients (91%). Continence rates at 12 months after RP were 89.2%, 88.9% and 84.8% for bilateral NS, unilateral NS and non-NS respectively (P = 0.56). In multivariable analysis age, IIEF-5 score and BMI were significant independent predictors of continence. Cavernosal NS status did not significantly affect continence after adjusting for other co-variables. CONCLUSION After careful multivariable analysis of baseline characteristics age, IIEF-5 score and BMI affected continence in a statistically significant fashion. This suggests that baseline factors and not the physical preservation of the cavernosal nerves predict overall return to continence. PMID:21244602

Pick, Donald L.; Osann, Kathryn; Skarecky, Douglas; Narula, Navneet; Finley, David S.; Ahlering, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

213

The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

1981-01-01

214

Ileocecal intussusception caused by lung cancer metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Die Invagination von Darmabschnitten stellt im Erwachsenenalter ein seltenes Krankheitsbild dar. Der distale Dünndarm und\\u000a der Dickdarm sind am häufigsten betroffen. Wir berichten über eine 65-jährige Patientin mit bekanntem nichtkleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom\\u000a mit akutem Abdomen und ileusartigem Beschwerdebild. Die Computertomographie des Abdomens zeigte das Bild einer ileozökalen\\u000a Invagination. Es erfolgte eine rechtsseitige Hemikolektomie mit histopathologischem Nachweis einer Metastase des Lungenkarzinoms\\u000a als

Marion J. Pollheimer; Thomas Eberl; Klaus Baumgartner; Verena S. Pollheimer; Jörg Tschmelitsch; Heinz Lackner; Cord Langner

2009-01-01

215

Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=??0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

2014-01-01

216

Continent-continent collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique continent-continent collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps is larger than needed to support surface topography, and is offset from its topographic high, consistent with dynamic thickening of the Pacific crust by the mantle thickening. Teleseismic shear wave splitting is evidence of a wide zone of distributed strain for the mantle portion of the plate boundary. The collective set of results from the South Island projects have led to a number of subsequent studies by various teams, based on follow-up questions, expanded observational expertise, and international collaborative alliances with in particular the New Zealand science community. These studies include a search for the full width of Pacific/Australian distributed mantle strain using marine OBS studies, the transition from strike-slip to plate boundary subduction to the north, the search and discovery of seismic tremor on the Alpine fault, and high resolution geophysical characterization of Alpine fault seismogenesis. The success of geophysically imaging a narrow island using both marine sides led different SIGHT scientists to carry out expanded efforts to study North Island subduction and separately Taiwan mountain building. These efforts benefited and were largely motivated from multi-disciplinary, multi-national collaborations as typically supported by the NSF Continental Dynamics program.

Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

2012-12-01

217

Trends in Abuse of OxyContin and Other Opioid Analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004  

E-print Network

surveyed. The prevalence of abuse was rank ordered as follows: OxyContin > hydrocodone > other oxycodone calendar quarters we monitored, but was most pronounced with OxyContin and hydrocodone. These results increased among street and recreational drug users, with OxyContin and hydrocodone products the most

Steinbach, Joe Henry

218

The European Continent : Surface Expression of Upper Mantle Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface topography of Europe shows important variations, most of which are relatively well explained by isostatic compensation of density contrasts within the crust and lithosphere. However, not all of the density contrasts leading to topography reside within the lithosphere. The crucial problem is how to detect the extra topography signal, in addition to that associated with both crustal and lithospheric anomalies. Forte and Perry, 2000 estimate the amplitude of the dynamic topography by removal of the crustal isostatic topography signal from the surface of the Earth. Faccenna and Becker, 2010 infer the equivalent dynamic topography from the normal stress generated at the surface by mantle viscous flow driven by thermal anomalies. Here we consider the correlation between residual topography and mantle residual gravity anomalies. As shown by Pekeris, 1935 and Hager et al., 1985, the viscous mantle flow that is driven by the thermal density contrasts is responsible for the long-wavelength gravity anomalies observed at the surface. They have demonstrated that the gravitational effects of surface deformation caused by the flow is opposite in sign and comparable in magnitude to that of the driving density contrast. The 1°x1° recently assembled European crustal model, EPCrust (Molinari and Morelli, 2011) is used to estimate the effects of the isostatic crust and the mantle residual gravity anomalies. We calculate the correlation matrix between the residual topography and the mantle residual gravity anomalies and we define the regions where the sublithospheric mantle density, below the European continent, contributes to surface topography. To recover the residual topography, the effects of the isostatic crust is estimated with the Panasyuk and Hager (2000) algorithm and subtracted from the observed elevation (ETOPO-1). The mantle residual gravity anomalies are estimated as the differences between the produced gravity field of EPCrust and the observations. 3-D images of the European upper mantle isotropic shear-wave speeds and mass densities, recently recovered by combined inversion of surface-wave information and GRACE satellite gravity data (Tondi et al., 2012) are used to select the regions where the residual topography and the residual mantle gravity anomalies are strongly correlated (correlation coefficient is equal to 1). We assume surface uplift processes with negative density anomalies and downward pull with positive anomalies. Our work shows a strong correlation among the areas where, on the basis of our assumptions, the mantle dynamics have surface expression and the areas of low values of radial anisotropy: (1) the southern margins of the East European Craton, (2) the North-Eastern edges of the Arabian Plateau, (3) the northern edge of the CEVP (Central European Volcanic Province), (4) the North-Eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Iceland.

Tondi, M. R.; Schivardi, R.; Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.

2012-12-01

219

New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent.  

PubMed

New Zealand has long been a conundrum to biogeographers, possessing as it does geophysical and biotic features characteristic of both an island and a continent. This schism is reflected in provocative debate among dispersalist, vicariance biogeographic and panbiogeographic schools. A strong history in biogeography has spawned many hypotheses, which have begun to be addressed by a flood of molecular analyses. The time is now ripe to synthesize these findings on a background of geological and ecological knowledge. It has become increasingly apparent that most of the biota of New Zealand has links with other southern lands (particularly Australia) that are much more recent than the breakup of Gondwana. A compilation of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ca 100 plant and animal groups reveals that only 10% of these are even plausibly of archaic origin dating to the vicariant splitting of Zealandia from Gondwana. Effects of lineage extinction and lack of good calibrations in many cases strongly suggest that the actual proportion is even lower, in keeping with extensive Oligocene inundation of Zealandia. A wide compilation of papers covering phylogeographic structuring of terrestrial, freshwater and marine species shows some patterns emerging. These include: east-west splits across the Southern Alps, east-west splits across North Island, north-south splits across South Island, star phylogenies of southern mountain isolates, spread from northern, central and southern areas of high endemism, and recent recolonization (postvolcanic and anthropogenic). Excepting the last of these, most of these patterns seem to date to late Pliocene, coinciding with the rapid uplift of the Southern Alps. The diversity of New Zealand geological processes (sinking, uplift, tilting, sea level change, erosion, volcanism, glaciation) has produced numerous patterns, making generalizations difficult. Many species maintain pre-Pleistocene lineages, with phylogeographic structuring more similar to the Mediterranean region than northern Europe. This structure reflects the fact that glaciation was far from ubiquitous, despite the topography. Intriguingly, then, origins of the flora and fauna are island-like, whereas phylogeographic structure often reflects continental geological processes. PMID:19674312

Wallis, Graham P; Trewick, Steven A

2009-09-01

220

Convective cloud and rainfall processes over the Maritime Continent : simulation and analysis of the diurnal cycle  

E-print Network

The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global ...

Gianotti, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Louise)

2013-01-01

221

Urinary tract infection in children.  

PubMed Central

During 1968-77, 572 consecutive children with one or more positive urine cultures who were referred by their family doctors to one paediatric surgical outpatient clinic were investigated and prospectively recorded. An abnormality requiring treatment was found in 45%. The yield of positive findings and need for operation were greater in those referred after one infection than in those with recurrent infection. Among those under 2 years old 90% had an abnormality. One third of children with vesicoureteric reflux showed renal scarring at the time of first attendance. The results of medical and surgical treatment over five to 15 years of follow up were analysed. They emphasised the importance of culturing the urine whenever there may be urinary infection in a child and of investigating immediately those with a positive urine culture. PMID:6430447

McKerrow, W; Davidson-Lamb, N; Jones, P F

1984-01-01

222

Urinary retention in elderly women: diagnosis & management.  

PubMed

The management of urinary retention in the elderly female can present a challenging conundrum for primary care physicians, geriatricians, and urologists. It is often difficult to diagnose due to concomitant comorbidities and potential cognitive impairments. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and physical examination, post-void residual, and urinalysis with consideration given to urodynamic testing in select patients. Management varies from conservative to invasive and should be tailored to the individual patient. Primary goals of care include symptom reduction, prevention of urinary tract infection, and upper tract deterioration. This presents an up-to-date review of the presentation, diagnosis, and management options available for elderly women with urinary retention. PMID:25234188

Malik, Rena D; Cohn, Joshua A; Bales, Gregory T

2014-11-01

223

Urinary and Fecal Incontinence After Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Morbidly obese women have markedly high rates of urinary and fecal incontinence. Weight loss reduces prevalence and severity\\u000a of urinary incontinence; however, the effect of weight loss on fecal incontinence is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence in subjects who underwent bariatric\\u000a surgery and associated weight loss.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We mailed a

Erica N. RobersonJon; Jon C. Gould; Arnold Wald

2010-01-01

224

The clinical relevance of cell-based therapy for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

Stress urinary incontinence is a common disorder affecting the quality of life for millions of women worldwide. Effective surgical procedures involving synthetic permanent meshes exist, but significant short- and long-term complications occur. Cell-based therapy using autologous stem cells or progenitor cells presents an alternative approach, which aims at repairing the anatomical components of the urethral continence mechanism. In vitro expanded progenitor cells isolated from muscle biopsies have been most intensely investigated, and both preclinical trials and a few clinical trials have provided proof of concept for the idea. An initial enthusiasm caused by positive results from early clinical trials has been dampened by the recognition of scientific irregularities. At the same time, the safety issue for cell-based therapy has been highlighted by the appearance of new and comprehensive regulatory demands. The influence on the cost effectiveness, the clinical relevance and the future perspectives of the present clinical approach are discussed. PMID:21564032

Gräs, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

2011-08-01

225

Flexural Tectonics in Continents: Critical Stress amid Immeasurable Strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a few notable exceptions, most fatalities from earthquakes in the past millennium have occurred in mid-continent regions along the southern edge of the Eurasian plate where earthquakes are not expected due to their infrequency, or absence, in local historical records. Although the spatial density geodetic measurement in many parts of the Indo-Eurasian collision zone is currently poor, geodetically estimated strain rates where these are sufficiently dense (e.g. North America) are now being considered an important option to quantify the stressing rate of regions where seismic productivity is low. Certain assumptions attend the use of surface strain as a measure of seismic productivity: that the observed surface strain rate provides a measure of strain at seismogeninc depths, that none of the observed strain is dissipated in aseismic processes, that currently measured rates are uniform in time, and perhaps most importantly, whether regional strain rate alone is an adequate measure of the failure process. The first of these assumptions can be violated in locations in continental collisional settings, such as India, where flexural stresses prevail. The minimum in-plane northerly directed compressional stress in the Indian plate required to support the Tibetan Plateau is overwhelmed by the flexural stresses caused by the depression of its northern edge. Flexure results in static stresses that vary with depth and latitude, but which, averaged over the entire plate vary negligibly with time, because the rocks of India stream through the >600 km wavelength flexural stress-field at rates of only 2 cm/yr. This theoretical result is consistent with India's mean north-south strain rate observed geodetically, which is less than a few nanostrain each year. The spatial distribution of flexural stress, however, varies spatially as a function of distance from the Himalayan front. Strain rates exceed 2 bars/km in a flexural trough between 1000-1800 km south of the Himalaya, and reverse to extensional surface stresses less than 800 km north of the flexural bulge. The high absolute stress levels that prevail in certain locations (>2 kbar) means that despite India's slow movement northward, existing zones of weakness are critically close to failure, and that the inferred 1 bar/millenium changes in surface stress attributable to India's northward motion (invisible to current geodesy) may be responsible for triggering local seismicity. Variable sediment rates in flexural troughs in the oceanic plate south of India suggest that the in-plane stresses responsible for the amplitude of the continental bulge have not been constant with time in the past several millions of years. It is also possible that anthropogenic loading and unloading of the Indian plate (groundwater withdrawal in the north and reservoir loading in central India) may be adversely perturbing the seismogenic charateristics of the flexural stress field.

Bilham, R. G.

2012-12-01

226

The continent-ocean transition of the Pearl River margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifted continental margins form by lithospheric extension and break-up. The continent to ocean transition (COT) architecture depends on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes, and thus, to study the COT variability of different systems is key to understand rifting. We use MCS data and magnetic lineations across the Pearl River margin (PRM) of South China Sea to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The structure of the PRM presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. We reprocessed about 2250 km of MCS data along 4 regional, crustal-scale lines and found that 3 of them possibly display the COT. The time-migrated seismic sections show differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, in the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections, that we interpret to represent clear continental and oceanic domains. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope passing abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. Comparatively the oceanic crust has a highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. The PRM shows arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin displays abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a change in the tectonic structure from NE to SW. On the two NE-most lines, crustal thinning and break-up occur over 20-40 km wide segments. To the SW, continental extension occurred over a comparatively broader ~100-110 km segment of tilted fault-block structure. We interpret, that this 3D structural variability and the narrow COT was caused by the lateral NE to the SW propagation of a spreading center. In the NE, early spreading center propagation during ongoing rifting stopped continental stretching, causing an abrupt break-up and a narrow COT to seafloor spreading. Later arrival of spreading center propagated to the SW, resulted in a comparatively broader segment with fault-block structures of extended continental crust. However, the COT to clear oceanic crust is narrow. Spreading center propagation in the basin is however not a simple phenomena and ridge jumps and abrupt cessation of spreading contributed to form narrow COT that laterally change to highly thinned continental crust segments. We suggest that the tectonic architecture of continental extension and the abrupt COT along the PRM have been controlled by 3D oceanic spreading center propagation to a degree larger than by the local lithospheric structure during rifting.

Cameselle, A. L.; Ranero, C. R.; Franke, D.; Barckhausen, U.

2013-12-01

227

Urinary proteins in four rodent species.  

PubMed

1. Mean urinary protein concentration levels are significantly higher in male Peromyscus leucopus than females (98.4 and 72.4 mg/dl). 2. Only females showed a significant correlation between weight and urinary protein concentration (r = 0.75 vs r = 0.03). 3. In intraspecific sexual electrophoretic comparisons of P. leucopus and P. maniculatus non-denatured urinary protein, four and two common bands were identified, respectively. Males of both species showed an extra protein band. 4. Four common electrophoretically separable denatured urinary protein bands were observed between 14,200 and 116,000 mol. wt in male and female P. leucopus and female P. gossypinus. Three of the four major protein bands were also found in P. maniculatus. Male Reithrodontomys megalotis pattern showed none of the major bands. PMID:1499268

Cain, K A; Burns, T A; Stalling, D T

1992-01-01

228

Escitalopram-associated acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

New-onset urinary retention can typically be explained by the use of the routine normally suspected medications (e.g., anticholinergics, antihistamines). However, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are not typically presumed as the cause of acute urinary retention (AUR). The following case describes the introduction of escitalopram in a patient and the subsequent development of AUR. Medical causes of urinary retention had been ruled out, and ipratropium was initially suspected to be the cause of urinary difficulties and was discontinued. However, the retention persisted four days after suspending the ipratropium. Normal micturition resumed only after stopping the escitalopram without further need for catheterization. Escitalopram may cause rare cases of AUR and may often times be overlooked possibly because of the paucity of reporting. PMID:24129221

Trombetta, Dominick; Garrett, Kathleen; Harrison, Marissa

2013-10-01

229

Nonsurgical Treatments Suggested for Women's Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... on a set schedule and slowly increasing the intervals between urination over time. Women with more than one form of urinary incontinence can try a combination of Kegel exercises and bladder training, according to the guidelines published Sept. 15 in ...

230

Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

1986-01-01

231

Urinary abnormalities in non gonococcal urethritis.  

PubMed Central

The association between urinary abnormalities detected by the two-glass urine test and objective urethritis was investigated in a study of 221 male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. A strong correlation existed between urinary threads and urethritis, but use of the test for diagnosis and in the assessment of cure is limited by its poor predictive value in both treated and untreated patients. PMID:7326552

Munday, P E; Altman, D G; Taylor-Robinson, D

1981-01-01

232

Urinary Incontinence and Weight Change During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to increased urinary incontinence (UI) during and after pregnancy, but scientific support is lacking. The effect of weight loss on UI postpartum is unclear. From 1999 to 2006, investigators in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study recruited pregnant women during pregnancy. This study was based on 12,679 primiparous women who were continent before pregnancy. Data were obtained from questionnaires answered at weeks 15 and 30 of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Weight gain greater than the 50th percentile during weeks 0–15 of pregnancy was weakly associated with higher incidence of UI at week 30 compared with weight gain less than or equal to the 50th percentile. Weight gain greater than the 50th percentile during pregnancy was not associated with increased prevalence of UI 6 months postpartum. For each kilogram of weight loss from delivery to 6 months postpartum among women who were incontinent during pregnancy, the relative risk for UI decreased 2.1% (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 0.99). Weight gain during pregnancy does not seem to be a risk factor for increased incidence or prevalence of UI during pregnancy or postpartum. However, weight loss postpartum may be important for avoiding incontinence and regaining continence 6 months postpartum. PMID:20729349

Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Hunskaar, Steinar; Bo, Kari; Rortveit, Guri

2010-01-01

233

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: new aspects of novel urinary catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial urinary tract infection is the most common infection acquired both in hospitals and nursing homes and is usually associated with catheterisation. These catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) have been reported to increase mortality and have a considerable economic impact. To date, the sole effective preventative strategy is the use of a closed drainage system and removal of the catheter

U-Syn Ha; Yong-Hyun Cho

2006-01-01

234

Electrochemical immunosensor detection of urinary lactoferrin in clinical samples for urinary tract infection diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low-cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report

Ying Pan; Geoffrey A. Sonn; Mandy L. Y. Sin; Kathleen E. Mach; Mei-Chiung Shih; Vincent Gau; Pak Kin Wong; Joseph C. Liao

2010-01-01

235

Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodents and other species have subsequently been identified, including N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) administered in the drinking water, N-[(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) in the diet and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) instilled intravesically. When low doses of several bladder carcinogens (BBN, FANFT, 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) are administered to rats, either simultaneously or sequentially, a synergistic effect is observed with respect to bladder carcinogenesis. In addition, a multistage carcinogenesis process has been demonstrated for the rat bladder using MNU or FANFT as initiators, and dietary sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, or tryptophan as promoters. Calculi (or pellets) appear to enhance the promotion process but are not necessary for it to occur. Recent studies also indicate that urine has a role in the promoting process. The urothelium normally has a very low mitotic rate. If mucosal proliferation is increased, such as during fetal development or during regeneration and repair of an ulcer, the bladder appears to be considerably more sensitive to the effects of promoting substances. For example, if sodium saccharin is administered to rats after ulceration of the bladder, even without prior administration of an initiator, bladder carcinoma develops. Under these conditions, the substance appears as a carcinogen. Human populations with increased bladder epithelial proliferation, such as fetus, infants, patients with bacterial cystitis or men with partially obstructive prostatism, may have increased susceptibility to the action of carcinogenic or promoting stimuli. PMID:6873031

Cohen, S M

1983-04-01

236

Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for urinary incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how continence nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228

Bernier, Francie

2002-12-01

237

Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta

2014-01-01

238

Lower urinary tract development and disease  

PubMed Central

Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

239

Human urinary exosomes as innate immune effectors.  

PubMed

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

Hiemstra, Thomas F; Charles, Philip D; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N; Lilley, Kathryn S; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

2014-09-01

240

Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention' and 'PVR'. Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is defined by the International Continence Society as 'a non-painful bladder, which remains palpable or percussable after the patient has passed urine'. Abrams was the first to choose a residual urine volume >300 mL to define CUR as he considered it the minimum volume at which the bladder becomes palpable suprapubically. The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) guidelines define CUR as a postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) of >1000 mL. No studies have specifically addressed the problem of quantifying the minimum amount of urine present in the bladder to define CUR. Nor did we find any publications objectively assessing at what amount of urine a bladder can be palpable. The ability to feel a bladder may rely on variables (i.e. medical skills and patient habitus). There is a marked variability of PVR, so the test should be repeated to improve precision. As defining CUR is difficult, structured management is challenging. Nearly all prospective trials exclude men with CUR from analysis, possibly anticipating a poor outcome and a high risk of complications. However, men with CUR are a clinically important group, comprising up to 25% of men undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Definition of CUR is imprecise and arbitrary. Most studies seem to describe the condition as either a PVR of >300 mL in men who are voiding, or >1000 mL in men who are unable to void. This confusion leads to an inability to design and interpret studies; indeed most prospective trials simply exclude these patients. There is a clear need for internationally accepted definitions of retention to allow both treatment and reporting of outcomes in men with LUTS, and for such definitions to be used by all investigators in future trials. PMID:22452619

Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

2012-12-01

241

Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections after removal of urinary catheter: meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of removal of a urinary catheter reduces the risk of subsequent symptomatic urinary tract infection. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published before November 2012 identified through PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library; conference abstracts for 2006-12 were also reviewed. Inclusion criteria Studies were included if they examined antibiotic prophylaxis administered to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection after removal of a short term (?14 days) urinary catheter. Results Seven controlled studies had symptomatic urinary tract infection after catheter removal as an endpoint; six were randomized controlled trials (five published; one in abstract form) and one was a non-randomized controlled intervention study. Five of these seven studies were in surgical patients. Studies were heterogeneous in the type and duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the period of observation. Overall, antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with benefit to the patient, with an absolute reduction in risk of urinary tract infection of 5.8% between intervention and control groups. The risk ratio was 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.72). The number needed to treat to prevent one urinary tract infection was 17 (12 to 30). Conclusions Patients admitted to hospital who undergo short term urinary catheterization might benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis when the catheter is removed as they experience fewer subsequent urinary tract infections. Potential disadvantages of more widespread antimicrobial prophylaxis (side effects and cost of antibiotics, development of antimicrobial resistance) might be mitigated by the identification of which patients are most likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:23757735

2013-01-01

242

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

243

Urinary Tract Infections in Adolescents and Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... The Basics) Recurrent urinary tract infection in women Sampling and evaluation of voided urine in the diagnosis ... Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy Sampling and evaluation of voided urine in the diagnosis ...

244

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Men’s Health Heart & Circulatory Health contact us Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: With each of the bladder or urinary tract infections that you have you had, as far back ...

245

Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum  

PubMed Central

Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

2014-01-01

246

[Changes in lower urinary tract function in children with hyperactive urinary bladder treated with combined therapy].  

PubMed

Low clinical efficacy of M-cholinolytics remains a serious problem in conservative therapy of hyperactive bladder (HB). To improve treatment outcomes, combined therapy (pikamilon plus driptan) was tried in 22 boys and 25 girls aged 7 to 14 years. The children were examined with uroflowmetry, cystometry. The response to the treatment was found to depend on mean effective capacity of the urinary bladder. Duration ofurodynamic correction has a negative colleration with this capacity. Urodynamic investigations performed in different periods of therapy show that improvement of lower urinary tract function is pathogenetically important for treatment of children with urologic pathology running in the presence of hyperactive urinary bladder. PMID:17722623

Danilova, T I; Medvedeva, E V; Vasil'eva, Zh B; Danilov, V V

2007-01-01

247

Management of daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children.  

PubMed

Lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly urgency, frequency and incontinence are common in school-aged children but are often overlooked. They may cause considerable physical, social and psychological difficulties to children and their families, and usually are manifestations of underlying non-neurogenic voiding disorders. The differential diagnoses include overactive bladder syndrome, dysfunctional voiding and vaginal reflux as well as less common conditions like giggle incontinence, voiding postponement, pollakiuria and diabetes insipidus. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based approach to the management of conditions causing daytime urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms in children from a general paediatrician's perspective. PMID:22050540

Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Craig, Jonathan C; Smith, Grahame H H; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

2012-02-01

248

Analysing NDVI for the African continent using the geostationary meteosat second generation SEVIRI sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents first results on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) covering the African continent. With a temporal resolution of 15 min MSG offers complementary information for NDVI monitoring compared to vegetation monitoring based on polar orbiting satellites. The improved temporal resolution

Rasmus Fensholt; Inge Sandholt; Simon Stisen; Compton Tucker

2006-01-01

249

Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard assessment  

E-print Network

the slowly deforming continents are predicted to be significantly longer than the decade typically observed seismicity2 . This transition is difficult to identify precisely, because defining it depends on the area at plate boundaries, the transition generally occurs less than a decade after the main shock, as shown

Stein, Seth

250

Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species

S. L. Chown; A. H. L. Huiskes; N. J. M. Gremmen; J. E. Lee; A. Terauds; K. Crosbie; Y. Frenot; K. A. Hughes; S. Imura; K. Kiefer; M. Lebouvier; B. Raymond; M. Tsujimoto; C. Ware; B. van de Vijver; D. M. Bergstrom

2012-01-01

251

The Eighth Continent: A Vision for Exploration of the Moon and Beyond  

E-print Network

The Eighth Continent: A Vision for Exploration of the Moon and Beyond No¨el M. Bakhtian and Alan H., Palo Alto, California 94306 Four decades have passed since man first set foot on the Moon. The ensuing aspiration quickly faded. Should we return to the Moon? Should we visit some other solar system destination

Alonso, Juan J.

252

Vaalbara, Earth's oldest assembled continent? A combined structural, geochronological, and palaeomagnetic test  

E-print Network

Introduction The Archean Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa (KC) and Pilbara Craton of Australia (PC) are the only). Late Archean to Palaeoproter- ozoic (2.7±2.1 Gyr old) volcanosedi- mentarysequencesunconformablycover. Then we sug- gest that the Vaalbara continent may have been assembled in earlier Archean times because

Utrecht, Universiteit

253

Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents Rudi J. van der Ent,1  

E-print Network

and land cover in continental moisture recycling patterns and the distribution of global water resourcesOrigin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents Rudi J. van der Ent,1 Hubert H. G. Savenije precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused

Saleska, Scott

254

Exploring Earth, Visualization: Observe an animation showing growth of a continent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts convergent plate boundaries. The animation shows how continents can "grow" by accumulating crustal material along their edges at convergent boundaries. One can view the animation in full motion, or choose to view the animation in detail frame by frame.

255

Developing Your Own Continent--A Teaching Unit for World Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a six-week seventh-grade project in which students create their own continent. The project helps students learn about weather and climatic patterns, use map scales and legends, describe relationships between natural resources and human activities, solve problems, and work effectively in groups. (Author/KC)

Richburg, Robert W.; Dornan, David Lynn

1980-01-01

256

Applying Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing to continence care: Part 2.  

PubMed

Theory based nursing practice provides a framework for initiation of the research process. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing clearly relates and can be easily applied to continence care. Orem's Theory guides nursing practice with theoretical concepts and goal setting providing a foundation upon which nurses can question the practice and expand the avenue for nursing research. PMID:12593229

Bernier, Francie

2002-12-01

257

Can Individualized Health Care Plans Help Increase Continence in Children with Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-age children with dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES) do not always have school support for their treatment plans, including an every 2-hr voiding schedule. The objective of this study was to increase school support of treatment plans by allowing access to bathrooms, thereby improving continence. An eight-question survey about bathroom…

Boisclair-Fahey, Anne

2009-01-01

258

New Views of an Old Continent: A Tectonics Lab Exercise Using Geophysical Maps of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students are given five different map views of the continent of Australia: Geology, Gravity Anomaly, Magnetic Anomaly, Digital Elevation, and Satellite Image, and asked to investigate and interpret these different data sets. The primary goal is to introduce students to the potential of geophysical data for regional geologic and tectonic investigations.

Greene, David

259

Manipulation of the Family Photo Album: Esther Parada's Transplant--A Tale of Three Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on Esther Parada's non-traditional use of the Web to communicate her art, and offers a critique of Parada's work, "Transplant: A Tale of Three Continents," and suggestions for critiquing Web art in the school classroom. Parada creates an intersection between this new medium and the more traditional medium of…

Eggemeyer, Valerie

2004-01-01

260

Lost Continents? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify continent shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)

Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette

1996-01-01

261

A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

1991-01-01

262

Neurogenic bowel and continence programs for the individual with spina bifida.  

PubMed

The neurogenic bowel in the person with spina bifida has been difficult to manage. Current literature reveals very little research conducted on the outcome of continence programs in the person with spina bifida. It has different characteristics than the neurogenic bowel seen with spinal cord injury because it occurs during fetal development. Management of the neurogenic bowel to achieve continence is based upon thirteen assessment items that include stool form, individual physiologic parameters, family patterns, diet and medications. Programs are developmentally related to appropriately support the child's involvement. Continence strategies include the use of oral medication early in the day and timed sitting, suppositories or enemas later in the day at a time convenient to the family. The timing of the medications and evacuation is very important to the success. An interdisciplinary team is important in supporting the family as the child with spina bifida grows into an independent adult. The dietician and occupational therapist have invaluable insight into diet, fluids, adaptive aids and techniques that contribute to positive outcomes of the continence program. PMID:21791784

Leibold, Susan

2008-01-01

263

Origin of the Ocean and Continents: Towards a Unified Theory of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time period from the formation of the Earth (4.5 Ga) to the establishment of plate tectonics at the beginning of the Proterozoic (2.5 Ga) remains largely hidden and unknown. During this time period, the ocean, atmosphere, and continents formed, and the geochemical and physical processes that allowed the development and evolution of life were established. Our knowledge of these

D. Deming

2001-01-01

264

Origin of the Ocean and Continents: A Unified Theory of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time period from the formation of the Earth (4.5 Ga) to the establishment of plate tectonics at the beginning of the Proterozoic (2.5 Ga) remains largely hidden and unknown. During this time period, the ocean, atmosphere, and continents formed, and the geochemical and physical processes that allowed the development and evolution of life were established. Our knowledge of these

David Deming

2002-01-01

265

Paleogeographic maps of the continents bordering the Indian Ocean since the Early Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic data from the African plate from the Early Jurassic onward are used to produce a set of 30 paleopoles, from which an apparent polar wander path is obtained. Based on this path, other continents bordering the Indian Ocean and blocks involved in the collision of India with Eurasia are situated in an absolute paleogeographic frame fixed with respect to

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1988-01-01

266

Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

267

Pathogenesis and management of bacterial biofilms in the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  In conclusion, a classification of the modes of bacterial infection is presented in Fig. 16. In urinary tract infections,\\u000a only uropathogenic bacteria with invading and adhering activities (virulence factors) in the urinary tract can cause acute\\u000a infection in patients without local underlying diseases. Local abnormalities which disturb the normal urinary stream permit\\u000a the entry of non-uropathogenic bacteria into the urinary

Hiromi Kumoh

1996-01-01

268

[A rare cause of urinary obstruction: urogenital tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The authors reported a rare cause of urogenital tuberculosis complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure in 44 years old man with solitary anatomic kidney. The authors insisted of using the upper urinary tract opacification by percutaneous nephrostomy for diagnosis, the urogenital tuberculosis with this exploration, we can suspected the tuberculosis by abnormalities of the radiologic imagine, and confirmed the koch bacilli urinary into urinary tract. The upper chance of positives of finding koch bacilli in higher than urinary bladder. PMID:12741196

Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; Bennani, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

2003-04-01

269

Ambulatory surgical hemorrhoidectomy—A solution to postoperative urinary retention?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The most frequent complication of surgical hemorrhoidectomy is urinary retention. This study evaluates the incidence of urinary retention in a series of patients undergoing surgical hemorrhoidectomy in an ambulatory setting. METHODS: The records of all patients undergoing anorectal surgical operative procedures during the calendar year 1990 were reviewed, with particular emphasis on urinary retention and other postoperative complications. RESULTS:

Stuart D. Hoff; H. Randolph Bailey; Donald R. Butts; Ernest Max; Kenneth W. Smith; Luis F. Zamora; Gary B. Skakun

1994-01-01

270

Successful treatment of reboxetine-induced urinary hesitancy with tamsulosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary hesitancy can be an uncomfortable side effect during antidepressant treatment. Clinicians often use the selective ?1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin, to treat urinary hesitancy associated with prostate enlargement. We report here a series of case studies in which tamsulosin has been successfully used in the management of urinary hesitancy during therapy with the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine for major depressive

S Kasper; R Wolf

2002-01-01

271

Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus.  

PubMed

Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. PMID:16810498

Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh

2006-10-01

272

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Irrespective of its cause, urinary incontinence is a medical condition seriously affecting quality of life and is increasingly recognized. In this study, we examined the association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and urinary incontinence. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study among starters with an SSRI was performed to estimate the relative and absolute risk for urinary

K. L. L. Movig; H. G. M. Leufkens; S. V. Belitser; A. W. Lenderink; A. C. G. Egberts

2002-01-01

273

Comparison of Ileal Conduit and Transureteroureterostomy with Ureterocutaneostomy Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We compare the postoperative early and late complications of patients who had undergone ileal conduit (IC) urinary diversion and transureteroureterostomy (TUU) with ureterocutaneostomy (UC) urinary diversion during the same interval and by the same surgeons. Materials and Methods: Between 1992 and 2004, we performed TUU with UC urinary diversion in 27 men and 7 women (group I) and ileal

Mete Kilciler; Selahattin Bedir; Fikret Erdemir; Nazif Zeybek; Koray Erten; Yasar Ozgok

2006-01-01

274

Changes in self assessment of continence status between telephone survey and subsequent clinical visit  

PubMed Central

AIMS To explore variance in reporting continence information obtained by telephone survey with face-to-face clinician interview in a clinical setting. METHODS As part of a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of incontinence prevalence among Black and White women ages 35-64 years, randomly selected households were contacted from geographic areas of known racial composition. Of 2814 women who completed a 20-minute, 137-item telephone interview, 1702 were invited for future components of the study. A subset of these women was recruited for a clinical evaluation that was conducted within a mean of 82 days (SD 38 days) following the interviews. Prior to urodynamics testing, a clinician interview was conducted inquiring about continence status. The criterion for incontinence for both the telephone interview and the clinician interview was constant: twelve or more episodes of incontinence per year. Women whose subjective reports of continence information differed between telephone and clinician interviews were designated as “switchers”. RESULTS Of the 394 women (222 Black, 172 White) who completed the clinical portion, 24.6% (n=97) were switchers. Switchers were four times more likely to change from continent to incontinent (80.4% N=78) than from incontinent to continent (19.4%; N=19 p=.000) and nearly three times more likely to be Black (69% N=67) than White (31%; N=30 p=.001). Telephone qualitative interviews were completed with 72 of the switchers. The primary reason for switching was changes in women’s life circumstances such as variation in seasons, activities of daily living, and health status followed by increased awareness of leakage secondary to the phone interview. CONCLUSION One-time subjective telephone interviews assessing incontinence symptoms may underestimate the prevalence of incontinence especially among Black women. PMID:19816917

Thomas, A; Kane Low, L; Tumbarello, JA; Miller, JM; Fenner, DE; DeLancey, JOL

2012-01-01

275

Preventing Catheter Associated UrinaryTract  

E-print Network

Approach Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI's) are hospital acquired infections (HAI's) to adopt and abide by guidelines that prevent CAUTI's, however, little research and standardization of practice is in place for prevention of CAUTI's in the pediatric population. In October 2012, Judy Ascenzi

Connor, Ed

276

Treatment of urinary incontinence in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a newly recognised problem in cystic fibrosis. Whilst prevalence is well documented, there are no reports of assessment and treatment of the problem. Methods: A previous study reports the prevalence of UI in women with CF to be 51\\/75 (68%). Nineteen women subsequently requested help for the problem and were referred to a physiotherapist specialising

R. J. McVean; A. Orr; A. K. Webb; A. Bradbury; L. Kay; E. Philips; M. E. Dodd

2003-01-01

277

Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infections in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus saprophyticus commonly causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women: in males it is found mainly in the elderly. In this studyS. saprophyticus UTI occurred in 59 children (45 girls and 14 boys) below 16 years of age, of whom 20 were less than 13 years of age. The common presentation was dysuria and flank or back pain whereas

K. Abrahamsson; S. Hansson; U. Jodal; K. Lincoln

1993-01-01

278

Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

1999-01-01

279

Urinary tract infection and hip fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A routine audit revealed that in 25 per cent of patients with proximal femoral fracture, hospital stay was complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the relationship of UTI to fracture type, timing of surgery and the effect of perioperative antibiotics. Eighty-eight patients were investigated over a 4-month period with urine specimens obtained at

D. J. Johnstone; N. H. Morgan; M. C. Wilkinson; H. R. Chissell

1995-01-01

280

Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

Griebling, Tomas L.

2008-01-01

281

Urinary catheter sterilization with microwave oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted utilizing a home microwave oven to sterilize catheters commonly used for intermittent self-catherization. Red rubber urinary catheters were inoculated with common clinical uropathogens and were placed in sealed brown paper bags or Ziploc plastic freezer bags and microwaved at full power for various timed intervals. Differences were noted in killing time for some strains or species of

C. J. Lian; R. B. Bracken

1991-01-01

282

Urinary-tract infections in African neonates.  

PubMed

During a 4-year period between January 1987 and December 1990, 41 high-risk neonates with proven urinary tract infections (UTIs) were studied prospectively and compared with 55 control neonates. An incidence of 2.6 UTIs per 1000 live births was noted, amongst whom no obvious radiological abnormalities of the urinary tract were found. Significantly, more males than females developed UTIs, the ratio being 4.5:I. Low-birth-weight babies were significantly more often affected than those of normal weight (P less than 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp. were the predominant pathogens isolated. Aetiologically, bacteraemia from sepsis was important. Most of the infants presented with a significantly higher incidence of pyrexia, abdominal distension, lethargy and jaundice (P less than 0.01). The overall mortality rate of 17.1% was closely related to these associated problems. The relatively high incidence of UTI and the rarity of radiological abnormalities of the urinary tract in the African neonate contrast with previous reports in the literature and the reason is worthy of consideration. Despite the rarity of urinary-tract anomalies, a continuous surveillance of the trend of neonatal UTI and its outcome is recommended. PMID:1522323

Airede, A I

1992-07-01

283

p53 mutations in urinary bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

We have screened for mutations in exons 5–8 of the p53 gene in a series consisting of 189 patients with urinary bladder neoplasms. 82 (44%) neoplasms were lowly malignant (Ta, G1–G2a) and 106 (56%) were highly malignant (G2b–G4 or ?T1). Only one mutation was in a lowly malignant urinary bladder neoplasm, in total we found p53 mutations in 26 (14%) of the 189 patients. 30% of the samples had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for one or both of the p53 exogenic (CA)n repeat and the p53 intragenic (AAAAT)n repeat markers. 31 samples (21%) showed LOH but were not mutated, suggesting other mechanisms inactivating p53 than mutations. 4 mutations were found at codon 280 and 2 mutations were found at codon 285, 2 previously reported hot spots for urinary bladder cancer. The study indicate a boundary between G2a and G2b tumours concerning the occurrence of genetic events affecting p53 function; moderately differentiated (G2) urinary bladder neoplasms probably are genetically heterogeneous which supports the suggestion that they should not be grouped together but instead, for example, be categorized as either lowly or highly malignant. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384101

Berggren, P; Steineck, G; Adolfsson, J; Hansson, J; Jansson, O; Larsson, P; Sandstedt, B; Wijkstrom, H; Hemminki, K

2001-01-01

284

Urinary tract pathogens and resistance pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiology and resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens in paediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) show large inter-regional variability, and rates of bacterial resistance are changing due to different antibiotic treatment. Empiric therapy to treat UTI should be tailored to the surveillance data on the epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens to reduce treatment failures and emergence of bacterial resistance within

R. Chakupurakal; M. Ahmed; D. N. Sobithadevi; S. Chinnappan; T. Reynolds

2010-01-01

285

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and

Tetsuro Muratani; Tetsuro Matsumoto

2004-01-01

286

Urinary incontinence: treatment using behavioral therapy protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Confirm previously reported cure rate of 88% with standard protocol using multiple behavioral therapies (BT) in a larger patient population.Methods: Consecutive patients referred to a single physician for urinary incontinence (UI) who met protocol criteria for BT were prospectively followed through their course of therapy and for up to 24 months after completion. Descriptive analysis of outcomes and comparison

Sandra F. Reilley

2000-01-01

287

Body growth in urinary tract malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body height and height velocity were analysed in 54 children with obstructive urinary tract malformations over a mean period of 8.7 years, using new auxological methods. At the time of diagnosis, 9% of patients had a height of more than 2 standard deviations below the normal mean. Mean relative height changed significantly from the first to the last observation, the

C. Seidel; F. Schaefer; K. Schärer

1993-01-01

288

An unusual case of acute urinary retention.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old male was referred to Emergency Department of our hospital for acute urinary retention. Physical examination showed electrical cable with proximal part introduced into the urethra. Plain abdominal radiograph demonstrated a metallic object in the pelvis and the patient underwent an operation. We used suprapubic cystostomy approach, and the wire was removed from the bladder and urethra. PMID:21086737

Krpina, Kristian; Sotosek, Stanislav; Ogui?, Romano; Marici?, Anton; Valenci?, Maksim; Fuckar, Zeljko

2010-06-01

289

Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the "spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model"  

PubMed Central

Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model. PMID:21912487

Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

2011-01-01

290

Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving ?1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:23441811

Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

2013-07-01

291

Diagnosis and management of fungal urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

When the terms funguria or fungal urinary tract infection are used, most physicians are referring to candiduria and urinary tract infections due to Candida species. Other fungi, including yeasts and molds can involve the kidney during the course of disseminated infection, but rarely cause symptoms referable to the urinary tract. Candida species appear to be unique in their ability to both colonize and cause invasive disease in the urinary tract. This overview focuses only on candiduria and Candida urinary tract infection because they are common and many times present perplexing management issues. PMID:24484575

Kauffman, Carol A

2014-03-01

292

Accumulation of 'anti-continent' at the base of the mantle and its recycling in mantle plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental crust is a unique reservoir of light elements in the solid Earth; it possesses an intermediate composition and is believed to have been created principally along volcanic arcs, which are major sites of terrestrial andesitic magmatism. Mantle-derived arc magmas are, however, generally mafic or basaltic. A simple mechanism to overcome this apparent dilemma and generate andesitic melts in such a setting is through the partial remelting of an initial mafic arc crust by heat supplied from underplating basaltic magmas. An antithesis to the formation of continental crust in this way should be the production of refractory melting residue, here referred to as 'anti-continent'. This anti-continent is likely to detach from arc crust as a result of a density inversion and descend into the upper mantle. High-pressure experiments demonstrate that sinking anti-continent is, in contrast to the subducting oceanic crust, always denser than the surrounding mantle, suggesting that it penetrates through the upper-lower mantle boundary, without stagnation, and accumulates at the base of the mantle to form a 200-400 km thick mass known as the D? layer. Geochemical modeling provides further evidence that this accumulating anti-continent contributes to a deep-seated hotspot source. Therefore, through complementary processes, Earth creates buoyant continents and dense anti-continents at the top and the base of the mantle, respectively, and has recycled portions of anti-continent in mantle plumes.

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ozawa, Haruka; Hirose, Kei; Hanyu, Takeshi; Ohishi, Yasuo

2014-10-01

293

A bioassessment approach for mid-continent great rivers: the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) are to (1) develop\\u000a and demonstrate, in collaboration with states, an assessment program yielding spatially unbiased estimates of the condition\\u000a of mid-continent great rivers; (2) evaluate environmental indicators for assessing great rivers; and (3) assess the current\\u000a condition of selected great river resources. The purpose of

T. R. Angradi; D. W. Bolgrien; T. M. Jicha; M. S. Pearson; B. H. Hill; D. L. Taylor; E. W. Schweiger; L. Shepard; A. R. Batterman; M. F. Moffett; C. M. Elonen; L. E. Anderson

2009-01-01

294

Tectonic evolution of accretionary prism in the arc-continent collision terrane of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thick sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks west of the Eocene-Paleozoic metamorphic basement of Taiwan represent an accretionary prism developed between the Eurasian continent and the Philippine Sea plate. The accretionary prism consists of a subduction wedge in the east and a collision prism in the west. The deep-marine subduction wedge developed during the eastward subduction of the South China Sea

Chi-Yue Huang; Wei-Yu Wu; Chung-Pai Chang; S. Tsao; Peter B. Yuan; Ching-Weei Lin; Kuan-Yuan Xia

1997-01-01

295

Gravity modeling of the ocean-continent transition along the South Atlantic margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity, magnetic, and seismic data have been used to examine changes in crustal structure of conjugate portions of the South Atlantic volcanic margins south of the Walvis Ridge-Rio Grande Rise hot spot tracks. We have constructed 18 seismically constrained crustal-scale gravity models of the ocean-continent transition: 12 across the African margin and 6 across the South American margin. We attribute

Diana Dragoi-Stavar; Stuart Hall

2009-01-01

296

Sensitivities of species compositions of the mixed forest in eastern Eurasian continent to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivities of species compositions of the broadleaf–conifer mixed forest in eastern Eurasian continent to climate change were evaluated with three forest gap models, namely KOPIDE, NEWCOP, and ForClim. Testing sites are located on Changbai Mountain, the middle of the distribution range for the mixed forest. Six climate change scenarios characterizing increase in temperature and increase\\/decrease in precipitation were used to

Guofan Shao; Xiaodong Yan; Harald Bugmann

2003-01-01

297

Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a,  

E-print Network

on the temperature and flow of the underlying mantle through thermal insulation and enlargement of the convection pulses of continent formation. Major growth events are dated at 2.7, 2.5, 1.9, 1.1, 0.48, 0.28 and 0.1 Ga of supercontinents (Yale and Carpenter, 1998; Condie, 2004). Rodinia was breaking up at 0.75 Ga, Gondwana at 0.48 Ga

298

Whole-Mantle Convection, Continent Generation, and Preservation of Geochemical Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is numerical modeling of crust-mantle differentiation. We begin by surveying the observational constraints\\u000a of this process. The present-time distribution of incompatible elements are described and discussed. The mentioned differentiation\\u000a causes formation and growth of continents and, as a complement, the generation and increase of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM).\\u000a Here, we present a solution of

Uwe Walzer; Roland Hendel; John Baumgardner

299

[Six billion people: how the continents were populated--yesterday, today, and tomorrow].  

PubMed

World population growth from settlement of the continents to future population size is broadly traced in this work. Population growth has accelerated greatly in the past two centuries and especially since 1950. The first billion was reached only in 1850, while the fifth billion, in 1986, required only 11 years. Past population growth was slow, irregular, and variable from continent to continent. Population estimates for prehistory have a margin of error of around 50%. Modern man first appeared in Africa or possibly the Middle East around 100,000 BC. The three great centers of population in China, India, and the Middle East and Mediterranean area developed during the Neolithic Revolution and have maintained their importance. At least 500,000 years ago, humans began using fire and clothing to escape the limits of their biotype and geographic area of origin. The peopling of the continents was not achieved by massive displacement of surplus population, but by movement of small groups into empty space where they proliferated. World population was an estimated 460-510 million in 1500, with probably 135 million in China, 95 million in India, and 80 million in Europe. The balance between fertility and mortality postulated by transition theory has not occurred in Europe. World population is projected to increase from 2.5 billion to 6 billion between 1950 and 2000, with 61% in Asia, 12% in Africa, 9% in Latin America, and 5% in Europe. The world rate of population growth is still about 1.4% annually. The demographic explosion will have been a transitory episode in human history, but revolutionary in its impact. PMID:12179517

Dupaquier, J

1998-01-01

300

Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

2003-01-01

301

Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: hans.geinitz@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, Monika [Sektion Psychoonkologie, Klinik fuer Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Pehl, Christian [Medizinische Klinik, Kreiskrankenhaus Vilsbiburg, Vilsbiburg (Germany); Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Busch, Raymonde [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

2011-04-01

302

[Treatment of cystoceles with urinary stress incontinence].  

PubMed

Thirteen women were operated for cystocele associated with urinary stress incontinence. Cystoceles were grade I in 6 cases, grade II in 6 cases and grade III in 1 case. Five patients underwent retropubic colposuspension according to Burch (3 cases) and M.M.K. (2 cases). Eight patients were treated by RAZ's technique associated with anterior colporaphy in order to reduce the cystocele. In this latter group, only one recurrence was observed and was treated by repeat colporaphy with good results. Colposuspension associated with anterior colporaphy is a reliable method for the treatment of cystocele with urinary stress incontinence, associated with low morbidity and short hospitalization. Its results are probably comparable to those of retropubic colposuspension, at least for a 6 months follow-up. PMID:9827204

Sarf, I; Aboutaieb, R; Dakir, M; el Moussaoui, A; Rabii, R; Hafiani, M; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

1998-01-01

303

[Urinary retention caused by vulvar carcinoma].  

PubMed

Epidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent neoplasia of the vulva. It usually appears in aged post-menopausal women (51-70 years). The signs and symptoms are unremarkable: vulvar bulk or protuberance, pruritus, painful ulcer, flow, vulvar irritation, dysuria or haemorrhage, all of which motivate that this condition may be ignored, overlooked, or be the cause of self-treatment. At other times a dangerous shyness causes considerable delays by postponing the visit to the specialist. Many patients refuse to go to see a physician. The existence of urinary signs and symptoms in a patient with vulvar neoplasia are indicative of urethral invasion and the advanced stage of the condition. A case is presented here of an advanced vulva carcinoma in an 82 year-old woman who come with urinary retention by urethral infiltration and perineal destruction. We review the most relevant aspects of vulvar carcinomas associated with obstructive uropathy. PMID:7717162

Romero Pérez, P

1995-01-01

304

Urinary lipid bodies in polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Urinary doubly refractile lipid bodies (oval fat bodies) are observed most frequently in patients with heavy proteinuria resulting from glomerular disease. We observed doubly refractile lipid bodies (DRLB) in the urine sediment of 60% of 35 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). All patients had clinical courses typical of ADPKD, and none exhibited the features of a second, unrelated renal disease. DRLB in the urine were correlated with a urine dipstick protein reading exceeding trace. Age, sex, BP, and serum creatinine concentration were not associated with the presence of DRLB in the urine. Examination of cyst fluid obtained from kidneys of six ADPKD patients revealed DRLB in 80% of cyst fluid samples that contained degraded blood (so-called chocolate cysts). The DRLB in cyst fluid were morphologically indistinguishable from those observed in urine, and DRLB from both sources were stained with oil red O. We conclude that urinary DRLB are a clinical feature of ADPKD. PMID:3966470

Duncan, K A; Cuppage, F E; Grantham, J J

1985-01-01

305

Lower urinary tract reconstruction following cystectomy: experience and results in 96 patients using the orthotopic ileal bladder substitution of Studer et al.  

PubMed

Between 1989 and 1993 96 patients (89 males and 7 females) affected with invasive neoplasms of the bladder underwent surgery consisting of the creation of an orthotopic ileal neobladder according to Studer et al., after radical cystectomy. Patient selection and details of the surgical procedure are described. An accurate follow-up of 3-60 months (mean: 28 months) is presented. There have been 6 perioperative deaths (6.2%) and 11 early complications, all directly related to the neobladder and requiring reoperation in 6 cases (6.2%). Late complications required rehospitalization in 23 cases (23.9%) and a second reoperation was necessary in 10 (10.4%). The urodynamic tests show that the neobladder assumes an average capacity at about 330 cm3 after 1 year. Pressure at maximum capacity decreases in time and ranges from 10 to 20 cm H2O at 2 years. After 1 year, the complete urinary continence rate by day is 97% and the stress incontinence rate is 22%. Night-time continence, instead, increases to 74% after 1 year and to 83% after 2 years. In female patients, the functional results were satisfactory thanks to careful patient selection and to the surgical procedure adopted. Twenty-four patients had disease progression; 17 of these patients with locally advanced neoplasms died. The authors believe that the orthotopic ileal continent reservoir can be a satisfactory solution after cystectomy for bladder cancer, offering the patients a better quality of life compared to other urinary diversions both in male and female patients. PMID:8647148

Cancrini, A; De Carli, P; Pompeo, V; Fattahi, H; Lamanna, L; Giuseppe, C; Cantiani, R; Mainiero, G; von Heland, M

1996-01-01

306

Determination of urinary bromine by pixe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of thin film PIXE was applied to the analysis of a total of 117 urine specimens from urinary stone sufferers and controls. The overall range of Br levels was between 2 and 18 g cm–3. Mean values obtained over a period of three days ranged from 6.8 to 9.2 g cm–3. No significant differences between the Br distributions

L. J. Barbour; M. A. B. Pougnet; M. Peisach

1989-01-01

307

Simplification of urinary aldosterone measurement by radioimmunoassay  

PubMed Central

An anti-aldosterone serum has been used to measure urinary aldosterone concentration. A single stage of paper chromatography provides an extract of sufficient purity. Further purification by additional chromatography in a different solvent system only improves the purity by 3% ± 8 (SD). Blanks are negligible and recovery of added aldosterone is 104% ± 10 (SD). A simplified rapid screening assay capable of revealing gross deviations from the normal is also suggested. The diagnostic value of the assay is indicated. PMID:4733866

Cope, C. L.; Loizou, S.

1973-01-01

308

Urinary tract in schoolgirls with covert bacteriuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

During screening of 16,800 primary schoolgirls, aged 4-12 years, in Cardiff and Oxford, significant bacteriuria was found in 294 (1-7%). Intravenous urography and micturating cystography were performed in 246 of these girls. The urinary tract was abnormal in 47%. Pyelonephritis with or without vesicoureteric reflux was present in 26% and reflux without renal abnormality in a further 16%. The prevalence

M S McLachlan; S T Meller; E R Jones; A W Asscher; E W Fletcher; R T Mayon-White; J G Ledingham; J C Smith; H H Johnston

1975-01-01

309

Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

2014-01-01

310

Botanical medicines for the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)

Eric Yarnell

2002-01-01

311

Specific Pharmacokinetic Aspects of the Urinary Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews the evidence for “specific” pharmacokinetics playing a role in currently marketed drugs intended to treat\\u000a lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms. Principles of drug targeting include intrinsic properties of drugs or organs as well as\\u000a drug formulations to modify drug release or to create confinement of drug presence. Prodrugs and specific formulations to\\u000a deliver high drug concentrations at

Cees Korstanje; Walter Krauwinkel

312

Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide.\\u000a Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including\\u000a childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth\\u000a are presently being

Hai-Hong Jiang; Margot S. Damaser

313

The cranberry and the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry products have been heralded as natural treatments for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and have been widely used\\u000a for this purpose. Current evidence favours an antibacterial role for the cranberry’s natural polyphenols or tannins. Although\\u000a limited species- and strain-specific direct inhibition has been determined in vitro, it has been suggested that a key mechanism\\u000a of inhibition, especially for the abundant

N. Cimolai; T. Cimolai

2007-01-01

314

Daily urinary excretion of bisphenol A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Concerns over dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, have been raised because BPA is contained in\\u000a resins and plastics commonly used for the preservation of food and beverages. The purpose of the present study was to assess\\u000a daily intake levels of BPA in a group of male subjects by measuring total urinary BPA (free BPA plus BPA

Chikako Arakawa; Kayumi Fujimaki; Jun Yoshinaga; Hideki Imai; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi

2004-01-01

315

Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.  

PubMed

Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 ± 27.2 and 26.2 ± 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 ± 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 ± 26 pg/dL in the control group, P <0.001. The mean urinary ET-1 was 121 ± 55.4 pg/dL in patients who had grade 4 hydronephrosis. We conclude that urinary ET-1 was significantly higher in the obstructed than in non-obstructed cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases. PMID:23816722

Sharifian, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Mitra; Karimi, Abdollah; Zand, Ranna Esmaili; Moghadar, Roozbeh; Ahmadi, Roya; Chimeh, Masoud Dadkhah

2013-07-01

316

Monitoring of Internet Forums to Evaluate Reactions to the Introduction of Reformulated OxyContin to Deter Abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Reformulating opioid analgesics to deter abuse is one approach toward improving their benefit-risk balance. To assess sentiment and attempts to defeat these products among difficult-to-reach populations of prescription drug abusers, evaluation of posts on Internet forums regarding reformulated products may be useful. A reformulated version of OxyContin (extended-release oxycodone) with physicochemical properties to deter abuse presented an opportunity to evaluate posts about the reformulation in online discussions. Objective The objective of this study was to use messages on Internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin and to identify methods aimed to defeat the abuse-deterrent properties of the product. Methods Posts collected from 7 forums between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 were evaluated before and after the introduction of reformulated OxyContin on August 9, 2010. A quantitative evaluation of discussion levels across the study period and a qualitative coding of post content for OxyContin and 2 comparators for the 26 month period before and after OxyContin reformulation were conducted. Product endorsement was estimated for each product before and after reformulation as the ratio of endorsing-to-discouraging posts (ERo). Post-to-preintroduction period changes in ERos (ie, ratio of ERos) for each product were also calculated. Additionally, post content related to recipes for defeating reformulated OxyContin were evaluated from August 9, 2010 through September 2013. Results Over the study period, 45,936 posts related to OxyContin, 18,685 to Vicodin (hydrocodone), and 23,863 to Dilaudid (hydromorphone) were identified. The proportion of OxyContin-related posts fluctuated between 6.35 and 8.25 posts per 1000 posts before the reformulation, increased to 10.76 in Q3 2010 when reformulated OxyContin was introduced, and decreased from 9.14 in Q4 2010 to 3.46 in Q3 2013 in the period following the reformulation. The sentiment profile for OxyContin changed following reformulation; the post-to-preintroduction change in the ERo indicated reformulated OxyContin was discouraged significantly more than the original formulation (ratio of ERos=0.43, P<.001). A total of 37 recipes for circumventing the abuse-deterrent characteristics of reformulated OxyContin were observed; 32 were deemed feasible (ie, able to abuse). The frequency of posts reporting abuse of reformulated OxyContin via these recipes was low and decreased over time. Among the 5677 posts mentioning reformulated OxyContin, 825 posts discussed recipes and 498 reported abuse of reformulated OxyContin by such recipes (41 reported injecting and 128 reported snorting). Conclusions After introduction of physicochemical properties to deter abuse, changes in discussion of OxyContin on forums occurred reflected by a reduction in discussion levels and endorsing content. Despite discussion of recipes, there is a relatively small proportion of reported abuse of reformulated OxyContin via recipes, particularly by injecting or snorting routes. Analysis of Internet discussion is a valuable tool for monitoring the impact of abuse-deterrent formulations. PMID:24800858

Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F

2014-01-01

317

Urinary tract endometriosis: Review of 19 cases  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of medical and surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis. Materials and Methods: Urinary tract endometriosis patients enrolled between Jan 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative datas (mode of presentation, diagnosis, imaging), intraoperative findings (location and size of lesion), postoperative histopathology and follow-up were recorded and results were analyzed and the success rate of different modalities of treatment was calculated. Results: In our study, of nineteen patients, nine had vesical involvement and ten had ureteric involvement. Among the vesical group, the success rate of transurethral resection followed by injection leuproide was 60% (3/5), while among the partial cystectomy group, the success rate was 100%. Among patients with ureteric involvement, success rate of distal ureterectomy and reimplantation was 100%, laparoscopic ureterolysis with Double J stenting followed by injection leuprolide was 75% while that of Gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRh) analogue alone was 67%. Conclusion: One should have a high index of suspicion with irritative voiding symptoms with or without hematuria, with negative urine culture, in all premenopausal women to diagnose urinary tract endometriosis. Partial cystectomy is a better alternative to transurethral resection followed by GnRh analogue in vesical endometriosis. Approach to the ureter must be individualised depending upon the severity of disease and dilatation of the upper tract to maximise the preservation of renal function. PMID:22346093

Kumar, Suresh; Tiwari, Punit; Sharma, Pramod; Goel, Amit; Singh, Jitendra P.; Vijay, Mukesh K.; Gupta, Sandeep; Bera, Malay K.; Kundu, Anup K.

2012-01-01

318

Mirabegron for male lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. Patients with BPH often present with a combination of obstructive and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. It is postulated that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) from BPH results in concomitant OAB symptoms through ischemic induced variations in the response to neurotransmitters of both the detrusor and the urothelium. This altered response leads to the pathologic activation of the micturition reflex, generating sensory dysfunction and involuntary bladder contractions. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are commonly used to treat the BOO caused by BPH. Anticholinergic agents are frequently used to treat concurrently OAB symptoms caused by the BOO. Unfortunately, anticholinergic medications demonstrate bothersome side effects and a theoretical risk of urinary retention. Basic science and clinical research has led to the development of a new class of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of overactive bladder with diminished risk of urinary retention and lacking many anticholinergic side effects. This novel compound, mirabegron (Mybertriq, Astellas Pharma US, Inc.), is a ??-adrenoceptor agonist and represents a promising new class of oral agents designed for the treatment of OAB symptoms, with minimal effect on voiding. PMID:23913200

Suarez, Oscar; Osborn, David; Kaufman, Melissa; Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger

2013-12-01

319

The Human Urinary Proteome Fingerprint Database UPdb  

PubMed Central

The use of human urine as a diagnostic tool has many advantages, such as ease of sample acquisition and noninvasiveness. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers, as well as biomarker patterns, in urine is hindered mainly by a lack of comparable datasets. To fill this gap, we assembled a new urinary fingerprint database. Here, we report the establishment of a human urinary proteomic fingerprint database using urine from 200 individuals analysed by SELDI-TOF (surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight) mass spectrometry (MS) on several chip surfaces (SEND, HP50, NP20, Q10, CM10, and IMAC30). The database currently lists 2490 unique peaks/ion species from 1172 nonredundant SELDI analyses in the mass range of 1500 to 150000. All unprocessed mass spectrometric scans are available as “.xml” data files. Additionally, 1384 peaks were included from external studies using CE (capillary electrophoresis)-MS, MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation), and CE-MALDI hybrids. We propose to use this platform as a global resource to share and exchange primary data derived from MS analyses in urinary research. PMID:24222850

Husi, Holger; Barr, Janice B.; Skipworth, Richard J. E.; Stephens, Nathan A.; Greig, Carolyn A.; Wackerhage, Henning; Fearon, Kenneth C. H.; Ross, James A.

2013-01-01

320

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

SciTech Connect

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

321

Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system, the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).

Meghraoui, Mustapha

2014-05-01

322

Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (?105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and vaginal estrogen therapy effectively reduce symptomatic UTI episodes and should be considered in patients with recurrent UTIs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Establishing a diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in older women requires careful clinical evaluation with possible laboratory assessment using urinalysis and urine culture. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be differentiated from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in older women should not be treated. PMID:24570248

Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2014-01-01

323

Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:24235796

Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

2013-01-01

324

An extended-release formulation of oxybutynin chloride for the treatment of overactive urinary bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrusor instability, or urinary incontinence, is common in elderly patients, particularly elderly women. The clinical symptoms of overactive, or unstable, urinary bladder include urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency. Mixed urinary incontinence, which comprises urge urinary incontinence and stress incontinence, is manifested by increased intraabdominal pressure on coughing or sneezing. The detrusor muscle of the bladder is under the control

Marvin M. Goldenberg

1999-01-01

325

Impacting health care: study of a reusable urinary drainage system.  

PubMed

This study of a reusable urinary leg bag system was undertaken to ascertain possible increased incidence of urinary tract infection attributable to reusing urinary leg bags. The fourteen patients involved had diagnoses of "neurogenic bladder," and required long-term drainage. Ten were on Foley catheter drainage and four were on external drainage. Before the reusable bags were placed into use, urine cultures were collected to establish baseline information about prevalent urinary organisms for each subject. During the study period, random urine specimens for culture/sensitivity were collected. Analysis of the findings of this study demonstrates no increase in incidence of urinary tract infection attributable to use of reuseable leg bags for urinary drainage. PMID:7863309

Rooney, M

1994-03-01

326

Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

327

A multivariate analysis of lower urinary tract ageing and urinary symptoms: the role of fibrosis.  

PubMed

An investigative trial including 72 patients who underwent open surgery for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) induced urinary symptoms was carried out with the purpose to obtain a deeper insight in the pathophysiology of this clinical picture. Prostate weight, stroma to parenchyma ratio, bladder wall fibrosis, I-PSS score, residual urine and uroflow obtained from these patients were processed by statistical multivariate analysis. The results point out the pivotal impact of prostate and bladder wall fibrosis in conditioning biological and chronological ageing of the lower urinary tract and relative symptoms. PMID:10673792

Bercovich, E; Barabino, G; Pirozzi-Farina, F; Deriu, M

1999-12-01

328

Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

Smith, Ryan P., E-mail: smithrp@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Benoit, Ronald [Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2011-11-01

329

The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

2014-01-01

330

The Incontinence Outcome Questionnaire: an instrument for assessing patient-reported outcomes after surgery for stress urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop and psychometrically test a questionnaire (Incontinence Outcome Questionnaire, IOQ) for assessing quality of life (QOL) after surgery for stress urinary incontinence that can be used as a single measurement after the intervention. A total of 171 patients who underwent the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT/TVT-O) operation for stress urinary incontinence completed the King s Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the IOQ. The internal consistency, internal and external validity and responsiveness of the IOQ were tested. The IOQ-QOL subscale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83) and significant correlations with the KHQ and the SF-12 scales (r=0.30-0.56). Partial correlations with objective parameters showed a significant relation for the IOQ-QOL subscale with objective continence/incontinence. The results of our study suggest that the IOQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing QOL after incontinence surgery and can be used if baseline or pre-operative data are unavailable. PMID:17308862

Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Dorfer, Martha; Tamussino, Karl; Frudinger, Andrea; Kern, Petra; Winter, Raimund; Greimel, Elfriede

2007-10-01

331

Trends in Abuse of OxyContin® and Other Opioid Analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

OxyContin® (Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, Conn) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 as a sustained-release preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of OxyContin® abuse surfaced. In response, Purdue Pharma L.P. sponsored the development of

Theodore J. Cicero; James A. Inciardi; Alvaro Muñoz

2005-01-01

332

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

333

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

...glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

334

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

335

21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...glucosuria (glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

2012-04-01

336

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

337

21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test...

2010-04-01

338

21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1785 Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test...

2012-04-01

339

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1377 Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system....

2014-04-01

340

21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1785 Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test...

2013-04-01

341

Continence for women: A test of AWHONN's evidence-based protocol in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the effectiveness of an evidence-based protocol for urinary incontinence in increasing identification of women with the condition and improving their outcomes.Design: Prospective formative evaluation study.Setting: Twenty-one public, private, and other women's health care sites.Participants: Women in ambulatory care settings (N = 1474) provided descriptive statistics, Clinical outcomes were tested in 132 cases for whom pre- and posttreatment

Carolyn M. Sampselle; Jean F. Wyman; Karen Kelly Thomas; Diane K. Newman; Mikel Gray; Molly Dougherty; Patricia A. Burns

2000-01-01

342

Micro-continents offshore Western Australia: implications for East Gondwana reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern part of the Western Australian margin formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between the East Gondwanan continents India, Australia and Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous. However, understanding the basin evolution along this margin has been hampered by a lack of data from the offshore Perth Abyssal Plain, and from the conjugate Greater Indian margin, which was highly deformed during collision with Eurasia. The Batavia Knoll and Gulden Draak Knoll are two prominent, previously unsampled, bathymetric features located >1600 km offshore Australia that have typically been assumed to be igneous features. In late 2011, successful dredges on the western flanks of both knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are micro-continents. Felsic orthogneiss and granite from Gulden Draak and Batavia knolls yield 2.8 Ga, 1.3-1.2 Ga and 540-510 Ma U-Pb zircon ages. The affinity of these geological samples, coupled with existing geological sampling and geophysical data, allow us to test alternative reconstructions for East Gondwana breakup. A number of alternative models have been proposed for the pre-rift configuration of Australia and Antarctica. Competing models make very different predictions for the kinematics of Mesozoic rifting that produced the basins along the Southern Australian margin; the magnitude of extension during rifting; and how mapped Paleozoic and Proterozoic geological terranes and fault zones can be correlated between Australia and Antarctica. We will present reconstructions that reconcile our new samples from Indian Ocean micro-continents with observations from India, Antarctica, Australia, and the evolution of the Indian Ocean.

Whittaker, Joanne; Williams, Simon; Halpin, Jacqueline; Daczko, Nathan; Gardner, Robyn

2014-05-01

343

Mixing state and hygroscopicity of dust and haze particles before leaving Asian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

during haze and Asian dust storms are transported out of the Asian continent, affecting the regional climate and the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Understanding the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles is essential to quantify their impacts. In order to determine physicochemical properties of aerosols before leaving the Asian continent, we carried out a field campaign from 14 April to 2 May 2011 at a background site in the path of Asian dust and haze outflows. We measured concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, NO, O3, and CO), black carbon (BC), and particle number in situ and collected airborne particles for microscopic analysis. Pollutant concentrations (BC, 4 µg m-3; CO, 808 ppb; SO2, 24 ppb; NO2, 37 ppb) were highest during haze periods, except for PM2.5 mass, which was highest (162 µg m-3) during a dust storm. Seventy-one percent of haze particles were coated with organic films and 32% were internal mixtures of sulfates and refractory particles (e.g., soot, metal/fly ash, and mineral). Seventy-nine percent of haze particles have deliquescence relative humidity at 68-70%. During a dust storm, soot particles were observed among dust particles. Most dust particles were hydrophobic, and no Ca(NO3)2 was observed in dust particles collected during the dust storms, but up to 32% of dust particles were found to be coated with Ca(NO3)2 after the main dust storm moved out of the sampling area. These results indicated that both natural and anthropogenic aerosol particles in Asian outflow can undergo significant physicochemical processes before leaving the Asian continent.

Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi; Shi, Zongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Lingxiao; Yuan, Qi; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Yaqiang; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Yangmei; Shen, Xiaojing; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

2014-01-01

344

TOPO-OZ: Insights into the various modes of intraplate deformation in the Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the fastest, lowest, flattest and amongst the most arid of continents, Australia preserves a unique geomorphic record of intraplate tectonic activity, evidencing at least three distinct modes of surface deformation since its rapid northward drift commenced around 43 million years ago. At long wavelengths (several 1000s km) systematic variations in the extent of Neogene marine inundation imply the continent has tilted north-down, southwest-up. At intermediate-wavelengths (several 100s km) several undulations of ~ 100-200 m amplitude have developed on the 1-10 myr timescale. At still shorter wavelengths (several 10s km), fault related motion has produced local relief at rates of up to ~ 100 m/myr over several million years. The long-wavelength, north-down tilting can be related to a dynamic topographic effect associated with Australia's northward drift from the geoid low, dynamic topography low now south of the continent to the geoid high, dynamic topography low centred above the south-east Asian and Melanesian subduction zones. The short wavelength, fault-related deformation is attributed in time to plate-wide increases in compressional stress levels as the result of distant plate boundary interactions and, in space, in part to variations in the thermal structure of the Australian lithosphere. At the intermediate wavelengths, transient, low amplitude undulations can be ascribed to either lithospheric buckling or the development of instabilities in the thermal boundary layer beneath the lithosphere. In the latter case, topographic asymmetries suggest the Australian lithosphere is moving north with respect to the mantle beneath, providing a unique attribution to the progressive alignment of seismic anisotropy and absolute plate motion observed near the base of the Australian lithosphere.

Sandiford, Mike; Quigley, Mark

2009-09-01

345

Deformation of the Northern Edge of the Australian Continent in New Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of New Guinea, the leading edge of the northward moving Australian continent, is dominated by the rapid oblique convergence (110 mm/yr) between the Pacific and Australian plates. The oblique convergence has produced a complex array of microplates whose motions result in rapid shear, arc-continent collision, oceanic and continental subduction, continental rifting, and seafloor spreading. We have conducted GPS studies throughout New Guinea (Papua New Guinea in the east and the Indonesian province of West Papua in the west) for the last ten years. For the first time, we integrate the information from these GPS data to gain a more complete picture of tectonic block interactions in the New Guinea region. We are inverting the GPS results along with spreading rates and earthquake slip vectors to solve simultaneously for block rotations and coupling on block-bounding faults. In West Papua a large section of the continent (the Bird's Head) is being detached along a rapid (8 cm/a) shear zone and subducted at the Seram trough. Along the northwest coast of West Papua, oblique convergence is occurring along the New Guinea trench but accommodates only a minor part (20%) of the relative plate motion. This in contrast to the eastern portion of the New Guinea Trench which appears to be taking up a high proportion of Pacific/Australia relative motion. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), Pacific - Australia convergence is even more complex, comprising several blocks, some of which rotate about neaby axes. The South Bismarck plate is rotating rapidly clockwise in response to the ongoing Finisterre Arc-Continent collision. The central part of the Highlands mountain range in PNG appears to be rotating counter-clockwise as an essentially rigid block relative to Australia, agreeing with evidence (from seismicity and geology) for active shortening in the PNG Highlands fold and thrust belt. This is in contrast to the slow rates of left-lateral strike-slip seen in the Highlands in the Western part of New Guinea. We will present results of the integrated modeling as well as GPS results through our 2002 campaigns.

McCaffrey, R.; Wallace, L.; Subarya, C.; Stevens, C.; Silver, E.; Genrich, J. F.

2002-12-01

346

Scale interaction between the MJO and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maritime Continent is a highly-populated region of many islands and shallow oceans, located in the oceanic warm pool, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A strong diurnal cycle of precipitation exists due to onshore breezes causing strong convergence of moist air - enhanced by topographic effects - over the land during the day time, peaking during afternoon-evening. The respective diurnal cycle over the ocean is far weaker and does not peak until early in the morning. On intra-seasonal time-scales the greatest source of variability in the tropics is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The convectively active part of the MJO propagates slowly (~5 ms-1) eastward through the warm pool from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, followed by the convectively suppressed part. The complex topography of the Maritime Continent means the exact nature of the propagation through this region is unclear. Model simulations of the MJO are often poor over the region, leading to errors in latent heat release and, subsequently, global errors in medium-range weather prediction and climate simulation. Using 14 northern hemisphere winters of high-resolution satellite data it is shown that, over regions where the diurnal cycle is strong, more than 80% of the variance in precipitation during an MJO cycle is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. A canonical view of the MJO is of smooth eastward progression of a large-scale precipitation envelope over the warm pool. However, by computing "MJO harmonics" it is shown that the leading edge of the precipitation envelope advances over the islands of the Maritime Continent approximately 6 days or 2000 km ahead of the main body. This behaviour can be accommodated within existing theories of MJO propagation. When the active convective MJO envelope is over the eastern Indian Ocean, frictional moisture convergence and topographic blocking in the easterlies of the equatorial Kelvin wave response supply moisture to the islands of the Maritime Continent. When combined with the relatively clear skies and strong short-wave flux, the low thermal inertia of the islands allows a rapid response in the diurnal cycle which rectifies onto the lower-frequency MJO. Hence, an accurate representation of the diurnal cycle and its scale interaction appear to be necessary ingredients for models to simulate the MJO successfully.

Peatman, Simon; Matthews, Adrian; Stevens, David

2013-04-01

347

Inhomogeneous islands and continents in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model  

E-print Network

We present some recent developments in our study of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. First, we investigate different kinds of one- and two-dimensional spatial modulations of the chiral condensate within the inhomogeneous "island" and compare their free energies. Next, we employ the Polyakov-loop extended version of the model to study the effects of varying the number of colors on the inhomogeneous region. Finally, we discuss the properties of an inhomogeneous "continent" which appears in our model at higher chemical potentials, and analyze its origin.

Stefano Carignano; Michael Buballa

2011-11-18

348

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Crustal Thickness and Ocean-Continent Transition Location from Gravity Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/?) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method (Chappell and Kusznir 2008) which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. Lithosphere thermal model re-equilibration (cooling) times, used to calculate the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, are conditioned by ocean isochron information, and continental rifting and breakup ages. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation are derived from the gravity inversion and use no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of OCT location which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. A correction to the predicted continental lithospheric thinning derived from gravity inversion is made for the addition of volcanic material produced by decompression melting during continental rifting, breakup lithosphere thinning and seafloor spreading. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, sediment and ice thickness from Smith and Sandwell (2008), Sandwell and Smith (2008) and Laske and Masters (1997) respectively, supplemented by Bedmap2 data south of 60 degrees south. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by continent scale rifts. Intermediate crustal thickness with a pronounced rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land. Thin crust is predicted under the West Antarctica Rift System and the Ross Sea. Crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning derived from gravity inversion allows the determination of circum-Antarctic ocean-continent transition structure and the mapping of continent-ocean boundary location. Superposition of illuminated satellite gravity data onto crustal thickness maps from gravity inversion provides improved determination of Southern Ocean rift orientation, pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and continental breakup trajectory.

Kusznir, Nick J.; Alvey, Andy; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Roberts, Alan M.

2013-04-01

349

Electrochemical immunosensor detection of urinary lactoferrin in clinical samples for urinary tract infection diagnosis.  

PubMed

Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low-cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract infection (UTI) biomarker lactoferrin from infected clinical samples. An electrochemical biosensor array with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the mixed SAM, consisted of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. A sandwich amperometric immunoassay was developed for detection of lactoferrin from urine, with a detection limit of 145 pg/ml. We validated lactoferrin as a biomarker of pyuria (presence of white blood cells in urine), an important hallmark of UTI, in 111 patient-derived urine samples. Finally, we demonstrated multiplex detection of urinary pathogens and lactoferrin through simultaneous detection of bacterial nucleic acid (16S rRNA) and host immune response protein (lactoferrin) on a single sensor array. Our results represent first integrated sensor platform capable of quantitative pathogen identification and measurement of host immune response, potentially providing clinical diagnosis that is not only more expeditious but also more informative than the current standard. PMID:20667707

Pan, Ying; Sonn, Geoffrey A; Sin, Mandy L Y; Mach, Kathleen E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

2010-10-15

350

Electrochemical Immunosensor Detection of Urinary Lactoferrin in Clinical Samples for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Urine is the most abundant and easily accessible of all body fluids and provides an ideal route for non-invasive diagnosis of human diseases, particularly of the urinary tract. Electrochemical biosensors are well suited for urinary diagnostics due to their excellent sensitivity, low cost, and ability to detect a wide variety of target molecules including nucleic acids and protein biomarkers. We report the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for direct detection of the urinary tract infection (UTI) biomarker lactoferrin from infected clinical samples. An electrochemical biosensor array with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize the mixed SAM, consisted of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol. A sandwich amperometric immunoassay was developed for detection of lactoferrin from urine, with a detection limit of 145 pg/ml. We validated lactoferrin as a biomarker of pyuria (presence of white blood cells in urine), an important hallmark of UTI, in 111 patient-derived urine samples. Finally, we demonstrated multiplex detection of urinary pathogens and lactoferrin through simultaneous detection of bacterial nucleic acid (16S rRNA) and host immune-response protein (lactoferrin) on a single sensor array. Our results represent first integrated sensor platform capable of quantitative pathogen identification and measurement of host immune response, potentially providing clinical diagnosis that is not only more expeditious but more informative than the current standard. PMID:20667707

Pan, Ying; Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C.

2010-01-01

351

Telocytes subtypes in human urinary bladder.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder voiding is a complex mechanism depending upon interplay among detrusor, urothelium, sensory and motor neurons and connective tissue cells. The identity of some of the latter cells is still controversial. We presently attempted to clarify their phenotype(s) in the human urinary bladder by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry. At this latter aim, we used CD34, PDGFR?, ?SMA, c-Kit and calreticulin antibodies. Both, TEM and immunohistochemistry, showed cells that, sharing several telocyte (TC) characteristics, we identified as TC; these cells, however, differed from each other in some ultrastructural features and immunolabelling according to their location. PDGFR?/calret-positive, CD34/c-Kit-negative TC were located in the sub-urothelium and distinct in two subtypes whether, similarly to myofibroblasts, they were ?SMA-positive and had attachment plaques. The sub-urothelial TC formed a mixed network with myofibroblasts and were close to numerous nerve endings, many of which nNOS-positive. A third TC subtype, PDGFR?/?SMA/c-Kit-negative, CD34/calret-positive, ultrastructurally typical, was located in the submucosa and detrusor. Briefly, in the human bladder, we found three TC subtypes. Each subtype likely forms a network building a 3-D scaffold able to follow the bladder wall distension and relaxation and avoiding anomalous wall deformation. The TC located in the sub-urothelium, a region considered a sort of sensory system for the micturition reflex, as forming a network with myofibroblasts, possessing specialized junctions with extracellular matrix and being close to nerve endings, might have a role in bladder reflexes. In conclusions, the urinary bladder contains peculiar TC able to adapt their morphology to the organ activity. PMID:25139461

Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Traini, Chiara; Guasti, Daniele; Giulio, Del Popolo; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

2014-10-01

352

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

2013-01-01

353

Critical interpretation of urinary phencyclidine monitoring.  

PubMed

A critical appraisal of issues and problems in monitoring urinary phencyclidine (PCP) is presented. Problems may be related to impurities of ingested material and/or metabolites, and methods that are not sensitive enough to detect PCP in the nanogram/ml amounts which may be present in blood or urine. Possible false positives found with some methods are discussed. Most complicated of all is the unpredictable excretion of PCP which can result in negative urines followed by urines which test positive for PCP without necessity of any further ingestion of PCP. A set of guidelines for use in monitoring and interpreting PCP values is included. PMID:6496233

Khajawall, A M; Simpson, G M

1984-01-01

354

Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.  

PubMed

Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark. PMID:12522584

Yarnell, Eric

2002-11-01

355

Epidemiology of lower urinary tract symptoms: emphasis on the status in Korea.  

PubMed

A comprehensive and correct understanding of epidemiologic finding about lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is important for several reasons. First, LUTS are highly prevalent in both genders all around the world and are expected to be a major concern to physicians in the near future because of the rapid rise in the elderly population. Second, it is crucial to observe trends in prevalence when national health care policy is established. By using a Medline search with various terms related to LUTS and prevalence, a review of epidemiologic studies was undertaken with an emphasis on the status in Korea. Despite the suggestions made by the International Continence Society, the lack of uniform definitions and the lack of a unified threshold of symptoms are the biggest obstacles in epidemiologic study with regard to LUTS. Most Korean epidemiologic studies on LUTS have been reported since 2000 and reveal that the prevalences of specific clinical conditions, such as LUTS, benign prostatic hyperplasia, overactive bladder, and detrusor underactivity, are in line with prevalences in Western counties. However, the prevalence of nocturia is somewhat different from that in Western countries. Many epidemiologic studies of LUTS have provided us with valuable information and a better understanding of the clinical conditions. Given that the impact of these clinical conditions on quality of life and health care cost will be emphasized more in the near future, more studies on optimal management approaches to LUTS are needed on the basis of this knowledge. PMID:24868333

Lee, Hakmin; Jeong, Seong Jin

2014-05-01

356

Novel endoscopic management of a late complication following TVT insertion for stress urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Bladder erosion Symptoms: Haematuria • irritative bladder symptoms • recurrent UTI Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endoscopic tape resection Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Since 1995 over 1 million tension free vaginal slings have been utilized to treat stress incontinence. The 10 year success rates range from 84–93%. Complication rates are low by comparision. Bladder perforation occurring during the time of surgery and is managed effectively if diagnosed and treated intraoperatively. However bladder erosion occuring post-operatively predominantly occur within the first 2 years. The risk of erosion increases with body mass index and previous vaginal surgery. Case Report: We report the case of a bladder erosion occurring 5 years following the original surgery. The symptoms included recurrent urinary tract infections, frequency and haematuria. A novel technique was employed using the transurethral approach to initially disintegrate the calculus and then using an endoshears to excise the mesh below the level of the epithelium. Continence was maintained postoperatively. Conclusions: This approach provides a safe alternative to both the transvaginal and transabdominal approach to excising intravesical mesh. PMID:24222816

O'Sullivan, Orfhlaith E.; Martyn, Fiona; O'Connor, Rory; Jaffery, Syed

2013-01-01

357

Management of recurrent stress urinary incontinence and urinary retention following midurethral sling insertion in women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Synthetic midurethral slings are the most common operations performed for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, there is only very scarce evidence regarding the management of complications from these operations. The aim of this survey was to canvass expert opinion regarding the management of recurrent SUI and urinary retention following insertion of these slings. METHODS Expert urologists and urogynaecologists in the UK with an interest in SUI were identified. Three clinical scenarios on recurrent SUI and one on urinary retention following midurethral sling placements were emailed twice to the experts. RESULTS The majority of the experts chose a repeat synthetic midurethral retropubic transvaginal tape (TVT) as the procedure of choice for recurrent SUI in patients who had had a previous TVT or midurethral transobturator tape inserted. In patients who continued to suffer SUI after a failed second TVT, there were mixed results with experts choosing fascial slings, colposuspension and bulking agents as their preferred method of treatment. In women who develop urinary retention following a TVT, tape pull-down within two weeks was the preferred method among the experts. However, division of the tape within two to six weeks following the procedure was also popular. CONCLUSIONS Based on expert opinion, it is difficult to make a recommendation as to the best method of treating recurrent SUI or urinary retention following tape insertion. There is an urgent requirement for well conducted, multicentre, randomised clinical trials to look at the management of these complications and also the tools used to assess the patient before salvage surgical management. PMID:23031773

Hashim, H; Terry, TR

2012-01-01

358

Etiology and susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in Kosova  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infections are amongst the most common pathogenic infections with an increasing resistance to antimicrobials. The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infection pathogens isolated in Kosovo. A retrospective study was carried from urine samples of both inpatients and outpatients that were received in our laboratory throughout 2001. During

Lul Raka; Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani; Lule Berisha; Lumturije Begolli; Shyhreta Omeragiq; Linda Parsons; Max Salfinger; Arbëresha Jaka; Arsim Kurti; Xhevat Jakupi

2004-01-01

359

Urinary Catecholamine Levels in Children with and without Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary catecholamines have been used to measure emotionally stressful states which may affect the development of dental caries. This study investigates the hypothesis that children with and without dental caries do not differ significantly in the mean values of urinary catecholamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. As a test of this hypothesis, 314 children, males and females, aged from

A. P. Vanderas; C. Manetas; L. Papagiannoulis

1995-01-01

360

Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed. PMID:24484579

Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

2014-03-01

361

Urinary tract infection in the renal transplant patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection contracted by recipients of renal allografts in the post-transplantation period. Fungi and viruses can also cause UTIs, but infections caused by these organisms are less common than those caused by bacteria. Both the lower and upper urinary tract (encompassing grafted or native kidneys) can be affected. Factors that

Ruth M de Souza; Jonathon Olsburgh

2008-01-01

362

Urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion and plasma oxalate concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria in young children is hampered by the lack of a reliable reference range for urinary oxalate excretion, especially in infants. We present data on urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion in 137 normal children, on the plasma oxalate concentration in 33 normal children and 53 with chronic renal failure, and on amniotic fluid oxalate concentration in

T M Barratt; G P Kasidas; I Murdoch; G A Rose

1991-01-01

363

Urinary corticosteroids: an indicator of stress in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of immunoreactive urinary corticosteroids was validated as a method of monitoring adrenocortical activity in lactating dairy cows. The physiological relevance of the technique was validated by demonstrating that (i) injection of ACTH led to a significant increase in plasma and urinary corticosteroid concentrations, and (ii) the translocation of cows from pasture to a barn facility resulted in a

C. J. MORROW; E. S. KOLVER; G. A. VERKERK; L. R. MATTHEWS

364

Dilatation and curettage of urinary bladder: A rarity  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight-year-old female while undergoing a medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) encounter complete urethral loss and massive bladder curettage. After resuscitation, she developed continuous urinary leakage followed by progressive decline in urine output. Case is highlighted here because of the massive vesico-urethral trauma because of MTP, leading to permanent urinary diversion. PMID:24592378

Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Ritu; Bera, Malay Kumar

2014-01-01

365

Host–pathogen interactions in urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urinary tract is a common site of bacterial infections; nearly half of all women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. These infections are classified based on the condition of the host. Uncomplicated infections affect otherwise healthy individuals and are most commonly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, whereas complicated infections affect patients with underlying difficulties,

Greta R. Nielubowicz; Harry L. T. Mobley

2010-01-01

366

[Tumors of the upper urinary tract. Apropos 35 cases].  

PubMed

Thirty-five cases of upper urinary tract tumors treated by the authors in an interval of 10 years (1979-1988) are presented. After a detailed analysis of the cases some general considerations on the anatomopathologic forms of upper urinary tract tumors, stage classification, symptoms and clinical and laboratory diagnosis, therapeutical indications are made. PMID:1823437

Filimon, C; Novac, C; Dorneanu, G H; Gheorghiu, V; Suditu, N; Cordun-T?r?bu??, G; R?dulescu, D; Mihailovici, S; Roznovanu, S; G?le?anu, M R

1991-01-01

367

Urinary tract infections in healthy women: a revolution in management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary infection in otherwise healthy women has largely been a straightforward matter of diagnosis by identifying bacteria in the urine, and then cure by appropriate antibiotics. Recent research has shown this to be over-simplified. Evaluation of methods of self-management of symptoms has been neglected. DISCUSSION: Firstly trial data show that women with what used to called 'urethral syndrome' (urinary

Chris Del Mar

2010-01-01

368

American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents  

PubMed Central

Background All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior. PMID:25226165

M?ller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S. M.; Weston, Mike A.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T.

2014-01-01

369

Does Structural Complexity Determine the Morphology of Assemblages? An Experimental Test on Three Continents  

PubMed Central

Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure. PMID:23691137

Gibb, Heloise; Parr, Catherine L.

2013-01-01

370

Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management  

PubMed Central

Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

2014-01-01

371

A 3-D conductivity model of the Australian continent using observatory and magnetometer array data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exploratory 3-D model of the electrical conductivity structure of the Australian continent is presented. The model is derived from the inversion of vertical magnetic-field transfer functions from the Australia-wide Array of Geomagnetic Stations. Crustal conductivity anomalies evident in the model are consistent with those previously mapped by independent magnetometer array studies and new electrical structures are suggested in the upper mantle. The model represents a seamless continent-scale basis for further models likely to be derived from subsequent studies. The model reveals three upper-mantle enhanced-conductivity anomalies beneath Archaean cratonic regions and two upper-mantle anomalies beneath Phanerozoic terranes in eastern Australia. Two of these anomalies have been investigated by recent magnetotelluric (MT) surveys, one in the Yilgarn Craton-Officer Basin-Musgrave Block the other in the Gawler Craton region, and are consistent with the MT results. Across much of central Australia enhanced conductivity at depths of 50-100 km is observed in the model. This region corresponds well with a recognized seismic velocity gradient at 75-100 km. Conductivity differences are also observed beneath Archaean cratons in Western Australia. The Pilbara Craton is represented as an enhanced conductivity anomaly at about 100 km, corresponding well with the lower-velocity anomaly evident in surface wave tomography models. The Yilgarn Craton is imaged as a low-conductivity body, with conductivity two orders of magnitude lower than the Pilbara Craton, continuing to greater depths.

Wang, Liejun; Hitchman, Adrian P.; Ogawa, Yasuo; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai; Ichiki, Masahiro; Fuji-ta, Kiyoshi

2014-08-01

372

Colonizing the American continent: Systematics of the genus Arabis in North America (Brassicaceae).  

PubMed

The circumscription of the genus Arabis underwent many and drastic changes within the past. Using DNA sequence information from the nuclear ribosomal RNA and parts of the plastid genome (trnL-trnLF), as well as a critical evaluation of herbarium material from East Asia and North America, we circumscribe the various Arabis taxa of North America. The American and East Asian Arabis species are closely related and, contrary to what was previously believed, they are not closely related to the Eurasian A. hirsuta. Using cpDNA, we found five North American lineages of Arabis with distinct distribution patterns, of which only the purple/red-flowered lineage consists of proven diploids that evolved directly from East Asian progenitors. All other four lineages evolved via ancient hybridization either on the Asian continent prior to migration to North America or showed significant evidence for hybridization and reticulation while diversifying on the American continent. We also provide the first evidence for the systematic circumscription of East Asian Arabis taxa, which together with the North American taxa, form one clade distantly related to European A. ciliata and Eurasian A. hirsuta. The findings also represent the first record of A. pycnocarpa for the floras of China, Japan, and Russian Far East. PMID:21622474

Koch, Marcus A; Karl, Robert; Kiefer, Christiane; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A

2010-06-01

373

Late recurrent urothelial carcinoma in the Studer neobladder: conversion to continent reservoir  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer represents a considerable issue in Egypt and the Middle East. Radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder represent the standard of care for managing cases with invasive bladder tumour. There are few cases reported in the literature considering the urothelial recurrence in the urethra, connected to neobladder. We are presenting a rare case of a young female patient, with an aggressive urothelial tumour, recurring 13-year post-radical cystectomy, and the Studer neobladder. Our case was managed by urethrectomy and conversion of the neobladder into continent reservoir, with good short-term oncological and functional outcomes. We can conclude that bladder cancer cases should be followed thoroughly throughout their life. Follow-up urethroscopy and cytology should be done for all cases of post-radical cystectomy, regardless of patients’ symptoms. Key message Late urothelial recurrence of post-radical cystectomy is possible and, in our case, happened 13 years following surgery. The Studer neobladder can be safely converted into continent reservoir, allowing good functional outcomes. Also, recurrence in the Studer neobladder can be safely managed, allowing good oncological outcomes, without the need for any ureteroileal interventions. PMID:22973413

Kotb, AF; Alkosiry, M; AbdElkawy, N; Atta, MA

2012-01-01

374

Variance component estimation uncertainty for unbalanced data: application to a continent-wide vertical datum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variance component estimation (VCE) is used to update the stochastic model in least-squares adjustments, but the uncertainty associated with the VCE-derived weights is rarely considered. Unbalanced data is where there is an unequal number of observations in each heterogeneous data set comprising the variance component groups. As a case study using highly unbalanced data, we redefine a continent-wide vertical datum from a combined least-squares adjustment using iterative VCE and its uncertainties to update weights for each data set. These are: (1) a continent-wide levelling network, (2) a model of the ocean's mean dynamic topography and mean sea level observations, and (3) GPS-derived ellipsoidal heights minus a gravimetric quasigeoid model. VCE uncertainty differs for each observation group in the highly unbalanced data, being dependent on the number of observations in each group. It also changes within each group after each VCE iteration, depending on the magnitude of change for each observation group's variances. It is recommended that VCE uncertainty is computed for VCE updates to the weight matrix for unbalanced data so that the quality of the updates for each group can be properly assessed. This is particularly important if some groups contain relatively small numbers of observations. VCE uncertainty can also be used as a threshold for ceasing iterations, as it is shown—for this data set at least—that it is not necessary to continue time-consuming iterations to fully converge to unity.

Filmer, M. S.; Featherstone, W. E.; Claessens, S. J.

2014-07-01

375

Magnetotelluric imaging beneath the Taiwan orogen: An arc-continent collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taiwan orogen has formed since the late Miocene by oblique collision between the Luzon Volcanic Arc on the Philippine Sea Plate, and the Eurasian continental margin. This oblique collision has produced an orogen that decreases in age from north to south, and permits study of the temporal evolution of an arc-continent collision. These factors make Taiwan a favorable location to study the process of arc-continent collision. The first long-period magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recorded in Taiwan as part of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project in 2006-7. Measurements were made at 82 sites on three transects across south, central and north Taiwan, that span the breadth of the orogen and cross all major tectonic boundaries. Robust, remote reference processing of the MT time series data resulted in high-quality soundings that were modeled in both 2 and 3-dimensions. These MT models support predictions of lithospheric deformation (i.e., thick-skinned tectonics) beneath the Central Ranges in south and central Taiwan, but are inconsistent with predictions of orogen-scale thin-skinned models. The MT resistivity model for northern Taiwan is consistent with dewatering of the subducting Philippine slab, and with deformation described by the subducting-indenter tectonic model. Modeling the TAIGER MT data has definitively shown that conductive, and seismically active crustal structures, exist to 30+ km beneath the orogen. These conductive regions, interpreted as interconnected fluid, map pervasive zones of collisional deformation that are lithospheric in scale.

Bertrand, Edward A.; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Chiang, Chih-Wen; Chen, Chow-Son; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Francis T.; Türko?Lu, Ersan; Hsu, Han-Lun; Hill, Graham J.

2012-01-01

376

Urinary tract infection and hip fracture.  

PubMed

A routine audit revealed that in 25 per cent of patients with proximal femoral fracture, hospital stay was complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the relationship of UTI to fracture type, timing of surgery and the effect of perioperative antibiotics. Eighty-eight patients were investigated over a 4-month period with urine specimens obtained at time of operation and 48 h from operation. Of the patients, all female, 12.5 per cent had positive urine cultures at the time of operation. Of all patients, 42 per cent had positive urine cultures 48 h after operation. Females with intra-capsular fractures were more likely to have positive cultures both pre- and post-operatively (P < 0.005). Age (P < 0.05) and operative delay beyond 48 h (P < 0.05) were also found to predispose to infection. All patients except one who had urinary infection at the time of surgery had post-operative urine infection with the same organism. Present audit methods have significantly under estimated the presence of UTI in these patients. Fracture type and operative delay would appear to be the most significant determinants of a positive urine culture 48 h after operation. Prophylactic antibiotics appear to be ineffective in eradicating pre-existing or preventing early post-operative infection. PMID:7721474

Johnstone, D J; Morgan, N H; Wilkinson, M C; Chissell, H R

1995-03-01

377

Sexual dysfunction after cystectomy and urinary diversion.  

PubMed

Erectile dysfunction (ED) in men and sexual dysfunction in men and women are common after cystectomy and urinary diversion. Research has focused on both qualifying the prevalence of ED following cystectomy and identifying surgical approaches to limit sexual dysfunction after surgery, but most studies have been limited by small patient populations, an absence of control groups, and a lack of adjustment for confounding factors. Similarly, quality of life (QoL) research studies have also emerged in the context of bladder cancer and cystectomy, and increase our understanding of sexual outcomes associated with cystectomy. A number of instruments for collection of patient-reported outcomes among patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy are available for the assessment of condition-specific and procedure-specific QoL. However, other factors that negatively affect sexual function after removal of the bladder, such as psychological issues, age, and health-related competing risks for ED, body image, partner response, and change in life course and sexual priorities, have received less attention. Nevertheless, ED and sexual dysfunction are important complications of cystectomy and urinary diversion. Although changes in the approach to surgery, such as nerve-sparing cystectomy, might improve outcomes, evaluation and management of the source factors of ED and sexual dysfunction are necessary to optimize recovery of function. PMID:24980191

Modh, Rishi A; Mulhall, John P; Gilbert, Scott M

2014-08-01

378

Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.  

PubMed

Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ?40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

2014-11-01

379

Candida urinary tract infections--treatment.  

PubMed

In many instances a report from the clinical laboratory indicating candiduria represents colonization or procurement contamination of the specimen and not invasive candidiasis. Even if infection of the urinary tract by Candida species can be confirmed, antifungal therapy is not always warranted. Further investigation may reveal predisposing factors, which if corrected or treated, result in the resolution of the infection. For those with symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), the choice of antifungal agent will depend upon the clinical status of the patient, the site of infection, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agent. Because of its safety, achievement of high concentrations in the urine, and availability in both an oral and intravenous formulation, fluconazole is preferred for the treatment of Candida UTIs. Flucytosine is concentrated in urine and has broad activity against Candida spp, but its use requires caution because of toxicity. Low-dose amphotericin B may be useful for Candida UTIs in selected patients. The role of echinocandins and azoles that do not achieve measurable concentrations in the urine is not clear. Small case series note some success, but failures have also occurred. Irrigation of the bladder with antifungal agents has limited utility. However, with fungus balls, irrigation of the renal pelvis through a nephrostomy tube can be useful in combination with systemic antifungal agents. PMID:21498839

Fisher, John F; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

2011-05-01

380

[Sport and urinary incontinence in women].  

PubMed

Women are more attentive to their physical appearance and a quarter of French women use to practice a regular physical activity. Benefits of sport on general health are recognized. However, sport may be the cause of various diseases when it is poorly chosen or improperly performed. In literature, intensive exercise is a risk factor for urinary incontinence, defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine". It is essentially stress urinary incontinence, occurring because of the phenomenon of intrabdominal hyperpressure, inherent with certain activities, and excess capacity of sphincters. Some sports are more risky than others, and high-level sportswomen are the most exposed. Health professionals must invest in information, screening, prevention, counseling and treatment track athletes So, the general practitioner and the doctor of sports play a vital role in informing, screening, prevention, therapeutic and monitoring of sportswomen. Better information is needed because according to the severity of incontinence and its impact, there are simple, effective, more or less invasive treatment options. The aim of this study was to establish an inventory of scientific knowledge and to improve the management of these patients. PMID:24996876

Lousquy, R; Jean-Baptiste, J; Barranger, E; Hermieux, J-F

2014-09-01

381

[Choice of antibacterial drugs in urinary infection].  

PubMed

A rise in efficacy of the treatment of acute infection affecting the lower urinary tract (LUTI) and prolongation of recurrence-free interval in chronic LUTI can be achieved only by an optimal antibacterial treatment. The study was made of 987 community-acquired strains of uropathogens from the patients living in 20 cities of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kazakhstan (of them, 903 strains were from Russia). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 83.5%. E. coli infection of LUTI was found in 63.5% patients. The incidence of this infection was about the same both in uncomplicated and complicated cases (64.6 and 62.1%, respectively). Most active oral drugs against E.coli were phosphomycin (98.4%), furasidin (95.7%), nitrofurantoin (94.1%) and oralcefalosporins of the third generation (ceftibuten and cefixim). As to Enterobacteriaceae, only phosphomycin had activity against these bacteria above 90%, i.e. 91.5%. Furasidin and nitrofurantoin activity was 86.3 and 76.8%, respectively. From parenteral drugs, most active against E. coli were carbapenems (ertapenem, meropenem, imipenem. Strains resistant to them were not isolated. High in vitro activity was demonstrated also by cefoperason/sulbactam (97.4%), piperacillin/tasobactam (95.7%), cefalosporins of the third/fourth generation and amikacin (98.9%). Carbapenems were also highly active against Enterobacteroaceae. Empiric treatment of uncomplicated urinary infection should be performed with medicines which are not used for other indications. PMID:22876623

Perepanova, T S; Kozlov, R S; Dekhnich, A V; Palagin, I S; Shevelev, A N; Volkova, E M; Égamberdiev, D K

2012-01-01

382

The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.  

PubMed

Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response. PMID:23732397

Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

2014-07-01

383

Increased urinary nitrate excretion in rats with adjuvant arthritis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--In rats with adjuvant arthritis measurements were taken of the urinary excretion of nitrate, reflecting endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). METHODS--Urinary nitrate was determined by gas chromatography, cGMP by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS--A significant (p < 0.001), more than three fold increase of urinary nitrate excretion was found in rats 20 days after induction of adjuvant arthritis compared with non-arthritic rats. There was no significant difference in urinary cGMP excretion between arthritic rats and control animals. CONCLUSION--The data suggest that the dramatic increase of urinary nitrate excretion is due to increase of NO synthesis by the inducible form of NO synthase. Images PMID:7944643

Stichtenoth, D O; Gutzki, F M; Tsikas, D; Selve, N; Bode-Boger, S M; Boger, R H; Frolich, J C

1994-01-01

384

Association of Urinary Lipocalin-2 with Lupus Nephritis  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Lupus nephritis (LN) is the main cause of mortality and disability in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Therefore, utilizing a reliable and non-invasive method for serial measurements of renal function seems to be necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of urinary lipocalin-2 as a biomarker of renal involvement in SLE patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty two lupus patients in this cross sectional study were divided into two groups: patients with and without nephritis. For each group, urinary lipocalin-2, values were measured and reported according to urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine. Urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine sensitivity and specificity for identifying biopsy-proven nephritis were calculated, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. Results : The mean urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine value of patients with biopsy-proven LN was 2.99 ± 4.1 ng/mg, and in non-LN patients was 1.16 ± 1.27 ng/mg. Urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine levels in LN patients were significantly higher than those in non-LN patients (P- Value = 0.03). In LN patients, urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine significantly correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.68; P = 0.0001). Using a cutoff value of 0.896 ng/mg, urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine had a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 39.1% for identifying SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN. The area under the ROC curve was 0.664 ± 0.076 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.52-0.81 (P=0.04). Analysis of variance showed that urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine is the same in different classes of LN (P-value=0.28). Conclusion: An important clinical conclusion is that measurement of urinary Lipocalin-2 may result in earlier diagnosis of LN. PMID:24171081

Sharifipour, Farzaneh; Zeraati, Abbasali; Sahebari, Maryam; Hatef, Mohammadreza; Naghibi, Masih; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Azarian, Amir Abbas; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Samadi, Katayoun

2013-01-01

385

Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Clinical Guidelines Panel Summary Report on Surgical Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe American Urological Association convened the Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Clinical Guidelines Panel to analyze the literature regarding surgical procedures for treating stress urinary incontinence in the otherwise healthy female subject and to make practice recommendations based on the treatment outcomes data.

Gary E. Leach; Roger R. Dmochowski; Rodney Appell; Jerry G. Blaivas; H. Roger Hadley; Karl M. Luber; Jacek L. Mostwin; Pat D. O'Donnell; Claus G. Roehrborn

1997-01-01

386

Afriflu2--second international workshop on influenza vaccination in the African continent--8 November 2012, Cape Town (South Africa).  

PubMed

The second meeting of the Afriflu conferences took place in Cape Town, South Africa, with over 60 participants from 15 countries in Africa and also outside the continent. Significant progress in surveillance has been made in better understanding the illness burden of influenza on the continent, which limited evidence suggests is greater than that in the developed world. In southern Africa HIV and TB coinfections play a major role in increasing hospitalisation and mortality, while elsewhere in Africa other cofactors still need to be determined. There is currently no indigenous vaccine production in sub-Saharan Africa and only one facility, based in South Africa, capable of filling imported bulk. Innovative vaccine strategies will need to be explored, such as maternal immunisation, and also the possibility of other influenza vaccine options, such as live attenuated influenza vaccine for young children. Sustained indigenous vaccine production is essential for the continent to have vaccine security in the event of a pandemic even though establishing local production faces considerable challenges especially ensuring adequate markets on the continent. There is an urgent need to develop effective communication messages for decision makers as well as healthcare workers addressing the importance of influenza even in the face of the major competing health burdens of the continent. PMID:23602535

Schoub, Barry D; Gessner, Bradford D; Ampofo, William; Cohen, Adam L; Steffen, Christoph A

2013-08-01

387

Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 on the American continent.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important seafood-borne bacterial in recent years and is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis, primarily following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. Until 1996, infections caused by V. parahaemolyticus were generally associated with diverse serovars. However, in February 1996, a unique serovar (O3:K6) of V. parahaemolyticus with specific genetic markers (tdh, toxRS/New and/or orf8) appeared abruptly in Kolkata, India. In subsequent years, O3:K6 isolates similar to those isolated in Kolkata have been reported from food borne outbreaks in Southeast Asia, as well as in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States (U.S). More recently, there have been reports in Europe, Africa and Central and South America. Specifically, in the American continent, some countries have reported cases of gastroenteritis due to the pandemic O3:K6 strain and its serovariants; the pandemic strain was first detected in Peru (1996, >100 cases), subsequently spreading to Chile in 1998 (>16,804 human cases), to the U.S. in 1998 (>700 cases), to Brazil in 2001 (>18 cases) and to Mexico in 2004 (>1200 cases). The arrival of the pandemic clone on the American continent may have resulted in a significant shift on the epidemic dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus. However, although O3:K6 is the predominant serovar of the recognized clinical strains in some countries in the Americas, a decrease in clinical cases caused by O3:K6 and an increase in cases associated with a new serotype (O3:K59, Chile) have been recently reported. The emergence and worldwide dissemination of O3:K6 and other pandemic strains since 1996 have come to represent a threat to public health and should concern health authorities. This review focuses on the presence, distribution and virulence factors of the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants in clinical and environmental strains on the American continent. PMID:24427744

Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de Jesus Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

2013-01-01

388

Imaging in lower urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

In epididymo-orchitis, a sonogram shows a non-homogenous and hypertrophied epididymis and testis, with increased vascularisation seen on a Doppler sonogram. Abscesses must be investigated using sonography so that a necrotic tumour is not misdiagnosed. In prostatitis, sonography is indicated to investigate urine retention and where treatment has failed (to look for a blockage, an abscess, or pyelonephritis). Endorectal sonography is the best imaging modality for analysing the parenchyma, but otherwise has limited value. Chronic prostatitis is the main differential diagnosis from prostate cancer; the two may be distinguished using diffusion MRI. In cases of cystitis, imaging is indicated when a patient has recurrent cystitis (to investigate what the causative factors might be), or an infection with a less common bacterium (to look for calcifications, emphysema, any involvement of the upper urinary tract), and in cases of cystitis with pseudotumour. PMID:22521178

Schull, A; Monzani, Q; Bour, L; Barry-Delongchamps, N; Beuvon, F; Legmann, P; Cornud, F

2012-06-01

389

Factors determining the aggregation of urinary mucoprotein.  

PubMed

The factors determining aggregation of Tamm-Horsfall urinary mucoprotein have been examined using the technique of light-scattering photometry, which has allowed the study to be performed at the concentrations of the mucoprotein in which it occurs in the urine in vivo. The tendency to formation of aggregates is enhanced by increases in concentration of the mucoprotein, by increases in electrolyte concentration within physiological limits, and by lowering of the pH within the physiological range. The effects of 1:2 and 2:1 electrolytes are somewhat different from those of 1:1 electrolytes. The data suggest that the isoelectric point of Tamm-Horsfall protein is higher than previously thought. PMID:5929342

McQueen, E G; Engel, G B

1966-07-01

390

Urinary retention presenting as complete bowel obstruction  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old male was admitted to hospital for clinical and radiological signs of large bowel obstruction with clinical signs of generalized peritonitis. As such, he was scheduled to undergo emergency exploratory laparotomy. During preoperative preparation, over 2000 mL of urine was obtained after catheterization. We suggested re-evaluation, and after several hours the symptoms resolved. Although rare, pressure from the distended bladder due to urinary retention can cause complete bowel obstruction and signs of peritonitis. If a large volume of urine is obtained during preoperative preparation for mechanical bowel obstruction, it is recommended to re-evaluate the patient to avoid unnecessary surgery and imaging studies. PMID:24409213

Papes, Dino; Altarac, Silvio; Arslani, Nuhi; Rajkovic, Zoran

2013-01-01

391

Urinary bladder lesions in bovine enzootic haematuria.  

PubMed

In cattle, bracken fern chronic toxicity is characterized by the presence of multiple tumours in the bladder (bovine enzootic haematuria). From October 1999 to March 2003, 433 urinary bladders with macroscopical lesions were collected in the slaughterhouse of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal), an endemic area where Pteridium aquilinum infestation in pastures is high. Bladder lesions were divided into three main categories (inflammatory lesions, non-neoplastic epithelial abnormalities and tumours) and described in detail. In some cases, neoplastic growth was confined to a single site, but in most cases multiple tumours developed within the same bladder. Epithelial tumours alone were present in 51.2% of the affected bladders, mesenchymal tumours alone in 17.4%, and both epithelial and mesenchymal tumours in the remaining 31.4%. The large number of tumours examined (870) revealed new categories not yet included in other veterinary classification systems, namely, inverted papilloma, papillary neoplasm of apparent low malignant potential, and haemangioendothelioma. PMID:16714029

Carvalho, T; Pinto, C; Peleteiro, M C

2006-05-01

392

Struvite Urolithiasis and Chronic Urinary Tract Infection in a Murine Model of Urinary Diversion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To characterize the clinical course following cutaneous vesicostomy (CV) in megabladder (mgb?/?) mice with functional urinary bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five mgb?/? males underwent CV at a median age of 25 days. The 34 animals that survived longer than 3 days after CV were evaluated by serial observation and renal ultrasound. Moribund animals were euthanized. Urinary bladders and kidneys were analyzed by histopathology, and urine biochemical studies were performed. RESULTS At a median of 11 weeks after CV, 35% (12/34) of mgb?/? males became moribund with pelvic masses, which were identified as bladder stones at necropsy. Urine pH was alkaline and microscopy demonstrated struvite crystals. Urine contained Gram-positive cocci, while urine cultures were polymicrobial. Stone composition was chiefly struvite (88–94%) admixed with calcium phosphate. In 40% (2/5) of cases, retained intravesical polypropylene suture was identified as the presumed nidus. No stones were detected in over 100 males prior to CV or in 25 cases when CV was performed using polydioxanone suture. Kidneys from 33% (4/12) of animals with bladder stones contained staghorn calculi. Histopathology from animals with struvite stones demonstrated active cystitis, pyelitis, and chronic pyelonephritis. CONCLUSIONS These findings attest to the importance of the nidus in lithogenesis and provide a novel murine model for struvite urolithiasis and chronic infection of the diverted urinary tract. PMID:23523293

Becknell, Brian; Carpenter, Ashley R.; Bolon, Brad; Asplin, John R.; Ingraham, Susan E.; Hains, David S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; McHugh, Kirk M.

2014-01-01

393

Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients  

PubMed Central

Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation. PMID:24757556

Suhail, Sufi M.

2014-01-01

394

[Urinary microflora in children from different pediatric departments].  

PubMed

For rational treatment of urinary tract infection it is necessary to know the causative agents. These may be different in various departments of health care institution managing patients with different illnesses. The article presents results of urinary cultures performed in 2002 in Microbiology Laboratory of Vilnius University Children's Hospital. The urine specimens were sent to the Laboratory from all departments of the Hospital. The most common isolate in all departments was E. coli (63.1% of all cultures with growth of >/=10(5) cfu/ml). This organism was somewhat less common in urine specimens obtained from Department of Urology (54.8%); accordingly, species of other organisms were isolated somewhat more often. S. aureus most often was identified in urine specimens from neonatal departments (11.1% of all significant isolates). There were no significant differences in urinary microflora isolated from pediatric in-patients and out-patients. Majority of the strains of the main urinary pathogen, E. coli, showed susceptibility to gentamicin, II-III generation cephalosporins, co-amoxiclav, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. Thus for empirical treatment of urinary tract infection it is necessary to choose an antibiotic with good activity against E. coli. In more complex circumstances (e.g. in children with urinary tract anomalies and in those treated in intensive care units) it would be better to take into account the results of urinary culture and susceptibility testing. PMID:12761428

Kaltenis, Petras; Murauskaite, Grazina; Bernatoniene, Genovaite

2003-01-01

395

?-Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

?–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC–dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system. PMID:24937428

Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M.; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D.; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P.; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E.; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fabio E.; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D'Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J.; Barasch, Jonathan

2014-01-01

396

Histotripsy Erosion of Model Urinary Calculi  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose Histotripsy is a pulsed focused ultrasound technology in which initiation and control of acoustic cavitation allow for precise mechanical fractionation of tissues. The present study examines the feasibility of using histotripsy for erosion of urinary calculi. Materials and Methods Histotripsy treatment was delivered from a 750-kHz transducer in the form of 5-cycle acoustic pulses at a 1-kHz pulse repetition frequency. Model stones were sonicated for 5 minutes at peak negative pressures (p-) of 10, 15, 19, 22, and 24-MPa. Resulting fragment sizes and comminution rates were assessed and compared with those achieved with a piezoelectric lithotripter (Wolf Piezolith 3000) operated at 2-Hz pulse repetition frequency and power level 17 (p-?=?14-MPa). Results Histotripsy eroded the surface of stones producing fine (<100??m) particulate debris in contrast to the progressive and incomplete subdivision of stones achieved with piezoelectric lithotripsy. The histotripsy erosion rate increased with increasing peak negative pressure from 10 to 19?MPa and then saturated, yielding an average rate of 87.9?±?12.8?mg/min at maximum treatment intensity. Piezoelectric lithotripsy achieved an average treatment rate of 110.7?±?27.4?mg/min. Conclusions Histotripsy comminution of urinary calculi is a surface erosion phenomenon that is mechanistically distinct from conventional shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), producing only fine debris as opposed to coarse fragments. These characteristics suggest that histotripsy offers a potential adjunct to traditional SWL procedures, and synergistic interplay of the two modalities may lead to possible increases in both rate and degree of stone fragmentation. PMID:21091223

Hall, Timothy L.; Maxwell, Adam D.; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.

2011-01-01

397

[Neurogenic urinary incontinence. Value of surgical management].  

PubMed

Damage to the CNS, the cauda equina, and the pelvic nerval structures causes neurogenic bladder dysfunction with neurogenic urinary incontinence (NUI). The definitive diagnosis of NUI is made with urodynamic examination methods. The most frequent cause of NUI is neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The treatment concept must take into account the physical and emotional restrictions. The treatment of NUI due to NDO is a domain of conservative therapy, i.e., mostly antimuscarinics and intermittent catheterization (IC). In about 30%, there is a good chance for therapy failures. An advancement in therapy is the injection of BTX-A into the detrusor. The missing drug approval is a disadvantage.Operative treatments are considered if conservative and minimally invasive therapies are unsuccessful. Sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulator implantation (SARSI) are available as organ-preserving techniques only for paraplegics with NDO and reflex urinary incontinence and neuromodulation for the other forms of NDO provided that a successful percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test has previously taken place. Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated if SDAF and neuromodulation cannot be used and the bladder wall is damaged irreversibly by fibrosis. Kidney function of at least 25% and acceptance of IC are prerequisites. Myectomy (autoaugmentation) has an indication similar to augmentation cystoplasty but there must not be any fibrosis. Bladder neck insufficiency (BNI) caused by paralysis or iatrogenically can be treated by the implantation of an alloplastic sphincter high at the bladder neck. A stable reservoir function is required. If not all methods are possible, the ileum conduit or the suprapubic bladder fistula can be the last resort. PMID:18437343

Kutzenberger, J

2008-06-01

398

Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981). PMID:24947864

Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

2014-06-01

399

Warming increases plant biomass and reduces diversity across continents, latitudes, and species migration scenarios in experimental wetland communities.  

PubMed

Atmospheric warming may influence plant productivity and diversity and induce poleward migration of species, altering communities across latitudes. Complicating the picture is that communities from different continents deviate in evolutionary histories, which may modify responses to warming and migration. We used experimental wetland plant communities grown from seed banks as model systems to determine whether effects of warming on biomass production and species richness are consistent across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. We collected soil samples from each of three tidal freshwater marshes in estuaries at three latitudes (north, middle, south) on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and North America. In one experiment, we exposed soil seed bank communities from each latitude and continent to ambient and elevated (+2.8 °C) temperatures in the greenhouse. In a second experiment, soil samples were mixed either within each estuary (limited migration) or among estuaries from different latitudes in each continent (complete migration). Seed bank communities of these migration scenarios were also exposed to ambient and elevated temperatures and contrasted with a no-migration treatment. In the first experiment, warming overall increased biomass (+16%) and decreased species richness (-14%) across latitudes in Europe and North America. Species richness and evenness of south-latitude communities were less affected by warming than those of middle and north latitudes. In the second experiment, warming also stimulated biomass and lowered species richness. In addition, complete migration led to increased species richness (+60% in North America, + 100% in Europe), but this higher diversity did not translate into increased biomass. Species responded idiosyncratically to warming, but Lythrum salicaria and Bidens sp. increased significantly in response to warming in both continents. These results reveal for the first time consistent impacts of warming on biomass and species richness for temperate wetland plant communities across continents, latitudes, and migration scenarios. PMID:23996933

Baldwin, Andrew H; Jensen, Kai; Schönfeldt, Marisa

2014-03-01

400

Malaria prophylaxis policy for travellers from Europe to the Indian Sub Continent  

PubMed Central

Analysis of malaria imported into eight European countries from the Indian sub-continent (ISC) (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka) led to a consensus statement on the use of chemoprophylaxis within TropNetEurop. The proportion of cases from the ISC in 2004 ranged from 1.4%–4.6% of total imported cases. Plasmodium falciparum cases reported from the eight countries was only 23 (13% of all cases from the region). Total malaria reports between 1999–2004 fell from 317 to 180. The risk of malaria in UK residents visiting the region was > 1 case per 1,000 years exposed. The group recommended non-selective prescribing of chemoprophylaxis for visitors to India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka should be dropped. PMID:16451728

Behrens, RH; Bisoffi, Z; Bjorkman, A; Gascon, J; Hatz, C; Jelinek, T; Legros, F; Muhlberger, N; Voltersvik, P

2006-01-01

401

Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

1989-01-01

402

GPS observation of continent-size traveling TEC pulsations at the start of geomagnetic storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our experimental observation of continent-size traveling plasma disturbances using GPS measurements of total electron content (TEC) over the North American sector. These plasma disturbances occurred at the beginning of geomagnetic storms, immediately after the shock arrived, and prior to the appearance of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) from the auroral region. Specifically, these supersize TEC perturbations were observed when the interplanetary magnetic field Bz was oscillating between northward and southward directions. They were found to propagate zonally with a propagation speed of 2-3 km/s. We interpret these TEC pulsations as ion drift waves in the magnetosphere/plasmasphere that propagate azimuthally inside the GPS orbit.

Pradipta, R.; Valladares, C. E.; Doherty, P. H.

2014-08-01

403

Longitudinal structure of plasma bubbles over South American Continent observed by GNSS TEC mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total electron contents (TEC) from the equatorial to low-middle latitude ionosphere over South American Continent have been monitored by ground-based GNSS receiving network RBMC/IBGE, LISN, IGS and RAMSAC since December 2012. It was possible to monitor spatial and temporal variations of TEC over South America with a spatial resolution of 150 -500 km and by 10 minutes time interval. Plasma bubble formation, development and longitudinal drifting modes were successfully monitored. Equidistant several bubbles (longitudinal separation of 500-1000 km) with a large latitudinal extension (> 2000 km) were frequently observed during the November to February season in 2013. Diagnostics of the equatorial plasma bubbles using TEC mapping technique will be presented and discussed.

Takahashi, Hisao; De Paula, Eurico; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Nogueira, Paulo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Paulino, Igo; Costa, Sonia; Ivo, Andre; Gomes, Vitor C.

404

Global change research for protecting resources in the Crown of the continent Ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

A multi-faceted, long-term research program has been initiated by the National Park Service to evaluate the potential effects of climatic changes on natural resources of parks. Glacier National Park is centrally located in a mountainous wilderness complex along the continental divide which was described early in the century as the [open quotes]Crown of the Continent[close quotes]. A central component of the program is a regional ecosystem simulation system. This system acts as an interface for a number of ecological models which collectively provide spatially explicit, mechanistically-derived predictions of microclimate, hydrological output, and forest biophysical processes within the park. Validation of the system is being carried out over the next 5 years with associated studies on glacier dynamics, stream hydrology, lake chemistry, forest landscape classification, remote sensing, and others.

Fagre, D.B. (Glacier National Park, West Glacier, MT (United States))

1993-06-01

405

[Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].  

PubMed

The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

Nozais, J P

1985-01-01

406

Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica.  

PubMed

Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007-2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Naki?enovi? N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (?33,054) are higher than those of scientists (?7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes. PMID:22393003

Chown, Steven L; Huiskes, Ad H L; Gremmen, Niek J M; Lee, Jennifer E; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

2012-03-27

407

Hierarchical Genetic Analysis of German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) Populations from within Buildings to across Continents  

PubMed Central

Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby

2014-01-01

408

Recovery of the internal anal sphincter and continence after restorative proctocolectomy.  

PubMed

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) was assessed prospectively using electromyography and manometry in 66 patients (48 men) undergoing restorative proctocolectomy to determine its role in the gradual return of continence. Twenty-nine patients received a J pouch and 37 a W reservoir. Some 38 pouches (J, ten; W, 28) were hand-sewn (mucosal proctectomy with endoanal anastomosis) and 28 (J, 19; W, nine) stapled (end-to-end pouch-anal anastomosis 1 cm above the dentate line). Twelve patients underwent a one-stage procedure (all J pouches), while the remainder had a covering loop ileostomy. Each patient was reassessed immediately after restorative proctocolectomy and again at 7 days, 1 month, 4 months, 9 months and 18 months after pouch formation. Internal sphincter electromyographic activity was greatly reduced after pouch-anal anastomosis (median preoperative frequency 0.51 Hz versus immediate postoperative frequency 0.21 Hz, P < 0.003) and gradually recovered from 4 months after surgery. At 18 months, measurements of IAS function had not fully recovered to preoperative values (median frequency 0.31 Hz; P < 0.03). Resting anal pressures (median preoperative value 99 cmH2O) decreased by over 50 per cent after surgery (median immediate postoperative resting pressure 44 cmH2O) and recovered gradually but incompletely (median pressure at 18 months 63 cmH2O). Eleven patients reported leakage in the follow-up period. The median (range) resting pressure in these patients (54 (40-71) cmH2O) was not significantly different at 9 months from that of those who were continent either before or after operation (59 (46-68) cmH2O). Prolonged recordings in patients with faecal leakage revealed evidence of high-pressure pouch waves that overwhelmed anal sphincter pressures and coincided with leakage. These episodes were most common during sleep, when anal sphincter activity was reduced. PMID:7922067

Farouk, R; Duthie, G S; Bartolo, D C

1994-07-01

409

Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

2011-12-01

410

Urinary and vaginal criteria for detecting ovulation in the mare  

E-print Network

equine urinary and vaginal protein, glucose and pH levels and to determine if any of these criteria could be used as an indicator(s) of estrus and/or approaching ovulation. Urinary samples and vaginal readings were obtained from 20 equine females... over 31 estrous cycles during which ovulation was timed by rectal palpation. Urinary protein, glucose and pH were measured semi-quantitatively by Combistix and quantitatively by a modified Lowry method, Glucostat analysis, and pH meter. Vaginal...

Householder, D. Douglas

2012-06-07

411

Urinary excretion of mutagens in coke oven workers.  

PubMed

The influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary mutagenic activity was assessed in 75 coke oven workers, using a highly sensitive bacterial mutagen technique (extraction with C18 resin and liquid micro-preincubation test on strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolizing and deconjugating enzymes). Exposure to PAHs was assessed according to the urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol; the main confounding factors were checked by the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the levels of nicotine and its metabolites in urine, or by ascertaining whether recommended dietary restrictions had been followed. Of the 20 urine samples which turned out to be positive (producing at least double the number of spontaneous revertants), 19 (95%) belonged to smokers. Only one non-smoker had obvious urinary mutagenic activity, and was highly exposed occupationally to PAHs (urinary 1-pyrenol of 3.930 mumol/mol of creatinine). Of the five urine samples from subjects who had not followed the recommended diet, two (40%) were clearly mutagenic. Multiple regression analysis (n = 67) showed that the presence of samples positive for urinary mutagenic activity depended only on smoking habits, if this confounding factor was assessed according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, while the significant influence of exposure to PAH could be shown when the confounding factor was objectively estimated according to the urinary levels of nicotine and its metabolites. Assessment of the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts (net revertants/mmol creatinine) confirmed the strong influence of smoking habits on urinary mutagenic activity (all smokers 2156 +/- 2691 versus non-smokers 939 +/- 947 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P < 0.01). In smokers highly exposed to PAHs, greater excretion of mutagens with respect to low-exposure smokers was revealed (3548 +/- 4009 versus 1552 +/- 1227 net revertants/mmol creatinine; Mann-Whitney test: P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the mutagenic potency of urinary extracts of coke oven workers depended on exposure to PAHs, tobacco smoking habits, and consumption of fried, grilled or barbecued meat. Increased urinary mutagenic activity strengthens epidemiological evidence of the increased risk of renal and urinary tract tumours in these workers. The presence of mutagenic metabolites in urine as a result of occupational exposure to PAH may be demonstrated only by using highly sensitive techniques for assessing urinary mutagenic activity in studies which include careful checking of the main confounding factors. PMID:7697812

Clonfero, E; Granella, M; Marchioro, M; Barra, E L; Nardini, B; Ferri, G; Foà, V

1995-03-01

412

[A case of urinary retention caused by true phimosis].  

PubMed

We report a case of urinary retention caused by true phimosis in a 67-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus. The patient could not void in a stream, and urine dropped out of the external urethral orifice with manual compression of the penis. Subsequently, he visited our hospital due to urinary retention. Ultrasonography revealed right hydronephrosis and ballooning of the foreskin. An emergency dorsal slit was performed, and hydronephrosis showed immediate improvement. Histopathologically, fibrosis and inflammation of the foreskin were observed. The mechanisms responsible for urinary retention in this case are discussed. PMID:18634440

Minagawa, Tomonori; Murata, Yasushi

2008-06-01

413

Analysis of glycosuria in okapi (Okapia johnstoni): Examination of urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase.  

PubMed

We analyzed the urinary excretion of glucose and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in six okapis (Okapia johnstoni) in captivity to investigate the cause of their urinary sugar excretion. The urinary glucose-positive okapi had significantly higher urinary NAG indices than the urinary glucose-negative okapi. There was also a positive correlation between urinary glucose levels and urinary NAG indices. These results suggest that the proximal tubular function of the glycosuric okapi may have been obstructed, which impaired glucose reabsorption. PMID:24841561

Kawasaki, Ryuta; Azumano, Akinori; Ueda, Miya; Tanaka, Souhei; Yokota, Aya; Katoh, Kazuo; Hagino, Akihiko

2014-10-01

414

21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid) in urine. The identification of urinary phenylketones is used in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital phenylketonuria which, if untreated, may cause mental retardation. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2013-04-01

415

MPH Urinary Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 16 07  

Cancer.gov

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM Breeze Session Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter and Bladder and Other Urinary Sites February 16, 2007

416

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a)...

2013-04-01

417

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a)...

2011-04-01

418

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a)...

2014-04-01

419

Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case  

PubMed Central

Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications. PMID:23772302

Abbas, Mahmoud; Kramer, Mario W.; Wolters, Mathias; Herrman, Thomas R.W.; Becker, Jan U.; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich

2013-01-01

420

Postpartum evaluation of stress urinary incontinence among primiparas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the prevalence of postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI); the relationship between postpartum SUI and mode of delivery; and the association between SUI and other obstetric factors.

T. Eftekhar; B. Hajibaratali; F. Ramezanzadeh; M. Shariat

2006-01-01

421

Impact of Aging on Urinary Excretion of Iron and Zinc  

PubMed Central

PROJECT Data about the influence of aging on urinary excretion of iron and zinc are scarce. The objective of the present study was to compare the concentration of zinc and iron in the urine of healthy elderly subjects and younger adults. PROCEDURE Seven healthy elderly subjects and seven younger adults were selected and submitted to biochemical, clinical, and nutritional tests. After a fasting period, 12-hour urine was collected for the determination of iron and zinc concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS Urinary zinc and iron concentrations of the elderly subjects were not significantly different from that of younger adults. However, the total zinc and iron urinary clearance in 24 hours for the elderly was significantly higher compared with that of younger adults. CONCLUSION There is an increase in urinary iron and zinc clearance with aging. The values reported in this manuscript may be used as references in future studies. PMID:24932105

Pfrimer, Karina; Micheletto, Rutineia Fatima; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Padovan, Gilberto Joao; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

2014-01-01

422

Urinary incontinence in physically active women and female athletes.  

PubMed

A literature review was performed on the topic of urinary incontinence during physical activity and sports. This paper reviews the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology and treatment modalities of urinary incontinence in physically active women and female athletes. Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages, including top female athletes, but is often under-reported. The highest prevalence of urinary incontinence is reported in those participating in high impact sports. Pelvic floor muscle training is considered the first-line treatment, although more research is needed to determine optimal treatment protocols for exercising women and athletes. Trainers, coaches and other athletes' caregivers should be educated and made aware of the need for proper urogynaecological assessment. PMID:23687004

Goldstick, Orly; Constantini, Naama

2014-02-01

423

SACRAL ROOT NEUROMODULATION IN IDIOPATHIC NONOBSTRUCTIVE CHRONIC URINARY RETENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSacral root neuromodulation is becoming a superior alternative to the standard treatment of idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention. We report results in 20 successive patients who underwent sacral foramen implantation to restore bladder function.

HASSAN S. SHAKER; MAGDY HASSOUNA

1998-01-01

424

Urinary trypsin inhibitor: An experimental and clinical study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is an acid stable proteinase inhibitor present in blood and urine. It was purified from urine using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two forms of UTI were present in urine, A and ...

B. M. Berling

1991-01-01

425

MPH Urinary Practicum : Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 20 07  

Cancer.gov

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary Sites Practicum February

426

Reducing Inappropriate Urinary Catheter Use: A Statewide Effort  

PubMed Central

Background Indwelling urinary catheters may lead to both infectious and non-infectious complications and are often used in the hospital setting without an appropriate indication. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a statewide quality improvement effort to reduce inappropriate urinary catheter use. Methods Retrospective analysis of data collected between 2007 and 2010 as part of a statewide collaborative initiative before, during, and after an educational intervention-promoting adherence to appropriate urinary catheter indications. The data was collected from 163 inpatient units in 71 participating Michigan hospitals. The intervention consisted of engaging clinicians about the appropriate indications for urinary catheter use and promoting the daily assessment of urinary catheter necessity during daily nursing rounds. The main outcome measures were change in prevalence of urinary catheter use and adherence with appropriate indications. We used flexible generalized estimating equation (GEE) and multilevel methodology to estimate rates over time while accounting for the clustering of patients within hospital units. Results The urinary catheter utilization rate decreased from 18.1% (95% CI: 16.8–19.6) at baseline to 13.8% (95% CI: 12.9–14.8) at end of year 2 (p <0.001). The proportion of catheterized patients with appropriate indications increased from 44.3% (95% CI: 40.3–48.4) to 57.6% (95% CI: 51.7–63.4) by the end of year 2 (p = 0.005). Conclusions A statewide effort to reduce inappropriate urinary catheter utilization was associated with a significant reduction in catheter use and improved compliance with appropriate use. The effect of the intervention was sustained for at least 2 years. Word count: 249 PMID:22231611

Fakih, Mohamad G.; Watson, Sam R; Greene, M. Todd; Kennedy, Edward H.; Olmsted, Russell N.; Krein, Sarah L.; Saint, Sanjay

2013-01-01

427

Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist\\u000a Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied\\u000a the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26–54 years completed\\u000a the study. During the control

Nicola T. Sumorok; John R. Asplin; Brian H. Eisner; Marshall L. Stoller; David S. Goldfarb

428

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

429

Physiotherapy for stress urinary incontinence: a national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the physiotherapeutic treatment of urinary stress incontinence in England. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING--All 192 English district health authorities. SUBJECTS--One physiotherapist from each district who was primarily concerned with urinary incontinence. A consensus view was requested. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Responses to questionnaire and analysis of a visual analogue scale to indicate effectiveness. RESULTS--There was a 98% response rate. Treatment was

J Mantle; E Versi

1991-01-01

430

Imperforate hymen and urinary retention in a newborn girl.  

PubMed

Urinary retention is relatively rare in infants,especially in girls. Imperforate hymen is the most frequent congenital malformation of the female genital tract and is usually asymptomatic until puberty. Mucocolpos with an abdominal mass in neonatal age is extremely rare. We report a case of a 20-day-old newborn girl with acute urinary retention due to isolated imperforate hymen and mucocolpos. PMID:19241622

Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Abdi, Hamidreza; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Eslami, Nazanin

2009-02-01

431

Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy and Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the postpartum, and\\u000a to examine postpartum pelvic floor muscle strength. Eight weeks postpartum the prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic\\u000a floor muscle strength was registered. All women in a Norwegian community, delivering at the local hospital during a 1-year\\u000a period, were included in

S. Mørkved; K. Bø

1999-01-01

432

Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH  

PubMed Central

Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

2008-01-01

433

Body Mass Index and Urinary Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was to assess a possible correlation between obesity and lower urinary tract symptoms in a selected\\u000a population of women. All the subjects referred for lower urinary tract complaints over a 2-year period received a questionnaire\\u000a and a frequency\\/volume chart. The patient population was divided into normal or low weight (BMI ?29) and high weight

G. Elia; T. D. Dye; P. D. Scariati

2001-01-01

434

A urinary metabolite ratio that reflects systemic caffeine clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic caffeine clearance and urinary metabolite profiles were determined in 15 subjects with diverse exposure histories to cytochrome P-450 inducers (cigarette smoke) and inhibitors (oral contraceptive steroids). A correlation was observed between caffeine clearance and a urinary ratio based on the molar recovery of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products relative to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (r = 0.91; P < 0.001). Analysis

Monica E Campbell; Stephen P Spielberg; Werner Kalow

1987-01-01

435

Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Athletes and Dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was, to determine the frequency of urinary loss in elite women athletes and dancers. Elite athletes\\u000a in eight different sports, including ballet, filled in an evaluated questionnaire about urinary incontinence while participating\\u000a in their sport\\/dancing and during daily life activities. A total of 291 women with a mean age of 22.8 years completed the

H. H. Thyssen; L. Clevin; S. Olesen; G. Lose

2002-01-01

436

Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.  

PubMed Central

The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

1978-01-01

437

Electromagnetic induction in spherical earth containing oceans and continents in electrical contact with underlying section: Theory, method, example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of allowance for the influence of surface inhomogeneities on the results of deep electromagnetic sounding is one of the most important in geoelectrics. In an effort to solve this problem, the character of electromagnetic induction in a spherical earth containing oceans and continents, theoretical principles are set forth of the so-called iterative-dissipative method as applicable to the problem

B. Sh. Zinger; A. V. Kuvshinov; E. B. Faynberg

1987-01-01

438

Flightless rails endemic to islands have lower energy expenditures and clutch sizes than flighted rails on islands and continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the standard energetics of six flighted and five flightless species of rails (Aves: Rallidae). The factors influencing these data and those from three additional species available from the literature, one of which was flightless, are examined. Basal rate of metabolism correlates with body mass, residency on islands or continents, volant condition, pectoral muscle mass, and food

Brian K. McNab; Hugh I. Ellis

2006-01-01

439

Mapping Global Racisms Project `There is no region, no continent and no ideology that has automatically insulated itself from racism'  

E-print Network

Mapping Global Racisms Project `There is no region, no continent and no ideology that has automatically insulated itself from racism' January-Bardill, Nozipho (2005) `The international legal response to racism' in Dimensions of Racism, New York: OHCHR/UNESCO, http

Haase, Markus

440

Phylogeography across a continent: The evolutionary and demographic history of the North American racer (Serpentes: Colubridae: Coluber constrictor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most phylogeographic studies examine organisms that do not have transcontinental distributions and therefore the genetic and temporal effects of barriers across an entire continent cannot be assessed with respect to a single species. We examined the phylogeographic structure, lineage age, and historical demography using sequences from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene of the widespread North American racer (Coluber constrictor), one

Frank T. Burbrink; Frank Fontanella; R. Alexander Pyron; Timothy J. Guiher; Cynthia Jimenez

2008-01-01