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1

Cecal rupture after continent ileocecal urinary diversion during total pelvic exenteration  

SciTech Connect

Continent ureteral diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration avoids an external appliance and allows patients to retain bladder reservoir function. The technical difficulty of this procedure requires meticulous attention to operative and perioperative care, particularly after pelvic irradiation. A patient with recurrent stage IIIB carcinoma of the cervix underwent total pelvic exenteration with reconstructive procedures including low rectal anastomosis, neovagina formation, and ileocecal (Indiana) continent diversion. Early catheterization of the reservoir began 2 weeks postoperatively. One week later cecal rupture occurred, not related to suture line (technical) failure. Because of the high wall tension and reduced compliance in the irradiated cecum, the authors do not recommend catheterization of the urinary reservoir before 4-6 weeks. In order for continent diversion to become the standard diversion in exenteration patients, the major complication rate must remain comparable to that of noncontinent diversion.

Brand, E. (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver (USA))

1991-09-01

2

Continent Urinary Diversion  

PubMed Central

We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of their renal function and cancer recurrence. PMID:24235792

Moon, Andrew; Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

3

METABOLIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONTINENT URINARY DIVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeContinent diversion, in particular orthotopic bladder substitution, is a well accepted form of urinary diversion. However, potential metabolic consequences in the early postoperative period as well as long term remain a serious problem.

R. D. MILLS; U. E. STUDER

1999-01-01

4

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. 876.5280...876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device...

2010-04-01

5

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

2012-04-01

6

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

2010-04-01

7

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

2014-04-01

8

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

2011-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Implanted electrical urinary continence device. 876.5270 Section 876.5270 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270...

2013-04-01

10

Anterior repair using Bologna procedure: Long-term results on stress urinary continence  

E-print Network

Title: Anterior repair using Bologna procedure: Long-term results on stress urinary continence using Bologna procedure: Long-term results on stress urinary continence. Summary: During anterior repair for stress urinary continence. inserm-00357077,version1-29Jan2009 #12;2 Anterior repair using Bologna

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Patient-reported urinary continence and sexual function after anatomic radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. After radical prostatectomy, the rates for recovery of urinary continence and sexual function reported by experienced surgeons are much higher than the patient-reported outcomes from other centers. It is uncertain whether this represents differences in surgical technique or in the collection of data. This study was performed to determine patient-reported rates of continence and potency after radical prostatectomy performed

Patrick C Walsh; Penny Marschke; Deborah Ricker; Arthur L Burnett

2000-01-01

12

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir: Clinical results in 12 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir has been performed in 12 patients. An isolated ileal reservoir was constructed using the technique described for patients with a continent ileostomy. The ureters were implanted into an afferent segment provided with a reflux-preventing nipple valve. There were few operative complications and no operative mortality. Late complications involving malfunction of the nipple valves

N. G. Kock; A. E. Nilson; L. O. Nilsson; L. J. Norlén; B. M. Philipson

2002-01-01

13

Predictors of Urinary and Fecal Continence Status After Stroke  

E-print Network

characteristics assessed within two weeks after stroke (baseline) predicted continence at 6 months. The Kansas City Stroke Study, a prospective cohort of 459 subjects examined longitudinally for 6 months using validated functional assessment tools, was used...

Griebling, Tomas Lindor

2008-07-29

14

Morbidity and Quality of Life in Patients with Orthotopic and Heterotopic Continent Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate morbidity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with continent urinary diversion.Methods. Morbidity and neobladder function were analyzed in 56 consecutive patients with bladder substitutions. QOL assessment was performed using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), supplemented with a detailed voiding and continence questionnaire.Results. Mean age was 44.7 years. Mean follow-up was 41 months. Thirty-one men and 25

Philip C Weijerman; Johan R Schurmans; Wim C. J Hop; Fritz H Schröder; J. L. H. Ruud Bosch

1998-01-01

15

Efficacy of Polydimethylsiloxane Injection to the Bladder Neck and Leaking Diverting Stoma for Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAchieving urinary continence is a major goal in the treatment of patients with bladder exstrophy\\/epispadias, spinal dysraphism and other urological disorders. Endoscopic injection of bulking materials is an evolving, minimally invasive procedure that provides an attractive alternative to open bladder surgery to increase outlet resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of bladder outlet (bladder neck and diverting stoma) polydimethylsiloxane injection (BOMI)

SAREL HALACHMI; WALID FARHAT; PETER METCALFE; DARIUS J. BAGLI; GORDON A. McLORIE; ANTOINE E. KHOURY

2004-01-01

16

Fluid bridge test in the evaluation of male urinary continence.  

PubMed

Graphic documentation of the competence (or incompetence) of the sphincteric regions was attempted in 25 male subjects using the fluid bridge test. The objective of the test was to recognize urodynamically the urinary fluid bolus that escapes through an incompetent outlet and tends to act as a fluid bridge between the bladder and a urethral test point distal to the sphincteric region. Our studies indicate that the fluid bridge test can be included in the urodynamic armamentarium for recognizing the integrity of the proximal and the distal sphincteric regions of the male patient. We herein describe the technique and pitfalls of the interpretation. PMID:7154177

Yalla, S V; Finn, D; De Felippo, N

1982-12-01

17

Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique.

Davis, Winston Brooks; Trerotola, Scott O.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Patel, Nilesh H.; Namyslowski, Jan; Stecker, Michael S.; McLennan, Gordon; Shah, Himanshu [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bihrle, Richard; Foster, Richard [Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

2002-03-15

18

“Oh, that's a bit of a nuisance”: Community-dwelling clients' perspectives of urinary continence health service provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study explored clients' perspectives of urinary continence service provision for community-dwelling people from a primary health care perspective. Design: For this interpretive study, data were collected from 11 clients via in-depth interviews and a questionnaire eliciting demographic details and written comment. A focus group was also held with 7 people belonging to an existing continence self-help group. Results:

Winsome St John; Heather James; Shona McKenzie

2002-01-01

19

Continent and orthotopic urinary diversion following radical cystectomy. Should these reconstructive procedures now be considered standard of care?  

PubMed

Our extensive operative experience with various forms of the continent ileal reservoir in more than 1000 patients over the past 12 years has demonstrated clearly the extreme reliability and durability of this diversion system. Reflux reliably can be prevented and the upper urinary tracts protected. Patients can void or catheterize with confidence. Orthotopic diversions should now be available to most patients, both male and female. Patients should be able to live a more normal life style with a positive self image. We believe that because our modifications of the ileal reservoir systems have decreased the need for reoperation, these forms of continent urinary diversion have emerged as optimal operations and even as the standard of care in cystectomy patients. Ileal conduits should be reserved for poor-risk candidates with short-term life expectancy or for those patients not motivated for continent diversion. The most vocal advocates of the procedures remain those continent diversion patients who have had urinary diversion by another method. Patients still must be aware that complications can occur. Appropriate patient motivation and a thorough understanding of the continent diversion technique and its potential problems continue to be essential prerequisites of the operation. Although minor refinements to these systems will continue to be made, we feel that continent diversion, most often in the form of orthotopic reconstruction, can be offered safely and wisely most to patients. PMID:7796286

Boyd, S D; Skinner, E; Lieskovsky, G; Skinner, D G

1995-04-01

20

Effectiveness of a new standardised Urinary Continence Physiotherapy Programme for community-dwelling older women in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To examine the effectiveness of a standardised Urinary Continence Physiotherapy Programme for Chinese older women with stress, urge, or mixed urinary incontinence. DESIGN. A controlled trial. SETTING. Six elderly community health centres in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 55 women aged over 65 years with mild-to-moderate urinary incontinence. INTERVENTIONS. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=27) where they received eight sessions of Urinary Continence Physiotherapy Programme for 12 weeks. This group received education about urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscle training with manual palpation and verbal feedback, and behavioural therapy. The control group (n=28) was given advice and an educational pamphlet on urinary incontinence. RESULTS. There was significant improvement in urinary symptoms in the intervention group, especially in the first 5 weeks. Compared with the control group, participants receiving the intervention showed significant reduction in urinary incontinence episodes per week with a mean difference of -6.4 (95% confidence interval, -8.9 to -3.9; t= -5.3; P<0.001) and significant improvement of quality of life with a mean difference of -3.93 (95% confidence interval, -5.08 to -2.78; t= -6.9; P<0.001) measured by Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form modified Chinese (Taiwan) version. The subjective perception of improvement, measured by an 11-point visual analogue scale, was markedly better in the intervention group (mean, 8.7; standard deviation, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 8.4-9.1) than in the control group (mean, 1.4; standard deviation, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7; t=33.9; P<0.001). The mean treatment satisfaction in the intervention group was 9.5 (standard deviation, 0.8) as measured by an 11-point visual analogue scale. CONCLUSIONS. This study demonstrated that the Urinary Continence Physiotherapy Programme was effective in alleviating urinary symptoms among Chinese older women with mild-to-moderate heterogeneous urinary incontinence. PMID:25377297

Leong, B S; Mok, N W

2014-11-01

21

Neuroanatomy of the External Urethral Sphincter: Implications for Urinary Continence Preservation During Radical Prostate Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence probably is multifactorial and sphincteric nerve injury could be a contributing cause. Controversy still exists regarding the innervation of the external sphincter, and currently pudendal nerve injury is not believed to be an etiological factor in post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. To understand better the sphincter and its innervation, we undertook an anatomical and histological study of 18 adult

Perinchery Narayan; Badrinath Konety; Khalid Aslam; Sherif Aboseif; Walter Blumenfeld; Emil. Tanagho

1995-01-01

22

Urinary Continence Following Repair of Intermediate and High Urogenital Sinus (UGS) in CAH. Experience with 55 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate postoperative urinary continence in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with intermediate (IT) and high urogenital sinus (UGS) who underwent a UGS mobilization maneuver. Methods: We called IT to those that although needing an aggressive dissection to get to the vagina, still have enough urethra proximal to the vaginal confluence. Very low variants are excluded from this analysis. Dissection always started in the posterior wall of the UGS with an aggressive separation from the anterior rectal wall. If the wide portion of the vagina was reached dissection stopped and the UGS opened ventrally widening to the introitus. Nineteen patients were treated using this maneuver (Group 1). When more dissection was required the anterior wall of the UGS was dissected and carefully freed from the low retropubic space. Then the UGS was opened either ventrally or dorsally. Thirty three patients required this approach (Group 2). Combined procedures were used in three patients with high UGS (Group 3). Results: Mean age at the time of the repair and length of the UGS were 12.2?years (4?months–18?years) and 3.75?cm (3–8?cm) for G1; 8?years (5?months–17?years) and 6.34?cm (4–12?cm) in G2 and 8.3?years (2–14?years) and 11.5?cm (11–12?cm) in G3. All patients had been regularly followed. Mean age at last follow up was 14.3, 17, and 9.9?years for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All patients continue to void normally and are continent. All patients have two separate visible orifices in the vulva. Only three are sexually active. Conclusion: Urogenital sinus mobilization for vaginoplasty in girls with CAH does not compromise voiding function or urinary continence. PMID:25072036

Bailez, Maria Marcela; Cuenca, Estela Susana; Dibenedetto, Victor

2014-01-01

23

The role of interventional radiology in the management of intra-and extra-Peritoneal leakage in patients who have undergone continent urinary diversion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To assess how radiologic intervention altered the hospital course of patients undergoing continent urinary diversion. Methods. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with bladder cancer invading the muscular layer were treated with total cystectomy and construction of a continent urinary reservoir. Eleven of 37 patients suffered early and late anastomotic leakage; six had prolonged extraperitoneal leakage at the urethroenteric anastomosis, three had prolonged intraperitoneal pouch leaks, and two had delayed ureteroenteric leaks. Seven of these patients required radiologic intervention.Results. Intervention in the form of drainage catheter manipulation (n=4), percutaneous nephrostomy (n=4), or ureteral stent placement (n=2) resulted in cessation of leakage without surgical intervention in all seven patients. Intraperitoneal pouch leaks were more difficult to control than extraperitoneal leakage and required longer drainage intervals.Conclusion. Interventional radiologic procedures played a key role in the management of continent urinary diversion complications obviating the need for repeat surgical intervention in all instances.

Bodner, Leonard; Nosher, John L.; Siegel, Randall; Russer, Tadeus [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Radiology (United States); Cummings, Kenneth; Kraus, Stephen [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Surgery (United States)

1997-07-15

24

The Standardization of Terminology of Lower Urinary Tract Function in Children and Adolescents: Report From the Standardization Committee of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We updated the terminology in the ¢eld of pediatric lower urinary tract function. Materials and Methods: Discussions were held in the board of the International Children's Con- tinence Society and an extensive reviewing process was done involving all members of the Interna- tional Children's Continence Society, the urology section of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the European Society of

Tryggve Neveus; Alexander von Gontard; Piet Hoebeke; Kelm Hjlms; Stuart Bauer; Wendy Bower; Troels Munch Jrgensen; Sren Rittig; Johan Van de Walle; Chung-Kwong Yeung; Jens Christian Djurhuus

2006-01-01

25

The effects of birth on urinary continence mechanisms and other pelvic-floor characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effects of delivery on bladder and anorectal functions.Methods: One hundred forty-nine nulliparas were studied once during pregnancy and again about 9 weeks after delivery by means of questionnaire, clinical examination, perineal sonography, urethral pressure profiles, and recording of intravaginal and intra-anal pressures during pelvic-floor contraction.Results: Stress urinary incontinence was present in 46 patients (31%) during pregnancy

S Meyer; A Schreyer; P De Grandi; P Hohlfeld

1998-01-01

26

Complications, Urinary Continence, and Oncologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Single-Surgeon Experience for the First 100 Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial learning curves of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with regard to complications, urinary continence, and oncologic outcome. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. All 100 patients underwent LRP performed by the same urologist at one institution. Results: Mean operating time (208.4 ± 48.6?min), estimated blood loss (495.8 ± 436.5?mL), allogeneic blood transfusion rate (0%), and intraoperative complications diminished with surgical experience. Positive margin rate varied greatly among pathological stage (positive margin rates: pT2 = 20.5%; pT3 = 63.0%). A trend towards reduction of positive surgical margins in pT2 cases was apparent with increasing experience. Intraoperative and early complications occurred in 2.0% of patients. In all patients, 85.9% used none or no more than one pad per 24?h at 6 months postoperatively. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence was seen in only 2 patients. Conclusions. In the present series of 100 patients, our retrospective evaluation confirms that LRP provides satisfactory results. PMID:22110991

Imamoto, Takashi; Goto, Yusuke; Utsumi, Takanobu; Fuse, Miki; Kawamura, Koji; Kamiya, Naoto; Naya, Yukio; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kondo, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

2011-01-01

27

Ileocecal Valve Lipoma With Refractory Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, with the colon being the most prevalent site. Intestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic. Tumors >2 cm in diameter may occasionally cause nonspecific symptoms, including change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or rectal bleeding, but with resection the prognosis is excellent. Herein, we describe the case of an elderly male who presented with painless hematochezia. Methods: Both colonoscopy and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed the presence of a mass near the ileocecal valve. Because of continuing bleeding, the patient required laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy to resect the mass. Results: Both gross and microscopic pathology were consistent with lipoma at the ileocecal valve. Conclusion: Previous cases of ileocecal valve lipomas have been reported in the English literature, with the majority presenting as intussusception or volvulus. We present a rare case of an ulcerated ileocecal valve lipoma presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding that was treated successfully with laparoscopic resection. PMID:19366548

Dultz, Linda A.; Ullery, Brant W.; Sun, Huan Huan; Huston, Tara L.; Eachempati, Soumitra R.; Barie, Philip S.

2009-01-01

28

Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the preservation and restoration of erectile function and urinary continence in conjunction with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods The present study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013 as a randomized prospective trial at two university hospitals. Eligible participants were continent men with an International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score of at least 18, scheduled to undergo nerve-sparing RP. Patients were randomized to a PVS group or a control group. Patients in the PVS group were instructed in using a PVS device (FERTI CARE® vibrator). Stimulation was performed at the frenulum once daily by the patients in their own homes for at least 1 week before surgery. After catheter removal, daily PVS was re-initiated for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery with the IIEF-5 questionnaire and questions regarding urinary bother. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT01067261). Results Data from 68 patients were available for analyses (30 patients randomized to PVS and 38 patients randomized to the control group). The IIEF-5 score was highest in the PVS group at all time points after surgery with a median score of 18 vs 7.5 in the control group at 12 months (P = 0.09), but the difference only reached borderline significance. At 12 months, 16/30 (53%) patients in the PVS group had reached an IIEF-5 score of at least 18, while this was the case for 12/38 (32%) patients in the control group (P = 0.07). There were no significant differences in the proportions of continent patients between groups at 3, 6 or 12 months. At 12 months 90% of the PVS patients were continent, while 94.7% of the control patients were continent (P = 0.46). Conclusion The present study did not document a significant effect of PVS. However, the method proved to be acceptable for most patients and there was a trend towards better erectile function with PVS. More studies are needed to explore this possible effect further. PMID:24127838

Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A; Lichtbach, Jonas; Sønksen, Jens

2014-01-01

29

Continent cutaneous diversion.  

PubMed

Continent urinary diversion requires the creation of a reservoir, ureteric implantation and establishment of a continence mechanism in the efferent segment. This review is a short overview on the history of different techniques in current use. Reservoirs with high volume and low pressure can be fashioned by antimesenteric opening and spherical reconfiguration of the bowel. Previously, techniques for ureteric implantation were simply transferred to continent urinary diversion. Currently the need for antirefluxive ureteric implantation techniques is questioned and there is a trend towards refluxive implantation. To create a continence mechanism, simple and reproducible procedures. e.g. the incorporation of the efferent segment into the pouch wall (e.g. appendix stoma, flap valve T mechanism, serosal-lined extramural tunnel) have been developed. Long-term data for different surgical techniques show excellent continence and acceptable complication rates. PMID:19035898

Fisch, Margit; Thüroff, Joachim W

2008-11-01

30

Continent diversion with the Mainz pouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1983 until July 1994, 561 patients in 2 urology departments (Mainz and Wuppertal) underwent a Mainz pouch 1 procedure. The Mainz pouch 1 was used for bladder augmentation in 60 patients, for orthotopic bladder substitution in 61 patients, and for continent cutaneous urinary diversion in 440 patients. In the group of continent cutaneous urinary diversion, the continence mechanism applied

A. Lampel; M. Fisch; R. Stein; D. Schultz-Lampel; M. Hohenfellner; C. Eggersmann; R. Hohenfellner; J. W. Thfiroff

1996-01-01

31

Modified posterior musculofascial plate reconstruction decreases the posterior vesicourethral angle and improves urinary continence recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our modified posterior musculofascial plate reconstruction (PMPR) procedure in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Prior to 2010, four operative procedures were used to expedite continence recovery: preserving the fascia covering the levator ani muscle, preserving the bladder neck, securing a functional urethral length by using a lateral-view dissection technique and suspending the vesicourethral anastomosis from the puboprostatic ligaments. Since February, 2010, a running suture between Denonvilliers' fascia (DF) and the median fibrous raphe (MFR, the fibrous tissue that lies immediately underneath the urethra) has also been used. In vesicourethral anastomosis, a double-armed running suture was performed. At the beginning of the anastomosis, the first stitches (at 1 and 11 o'clock positions on the bladder neck) were placed 1–2 cm dorsocephalad to the bladder neck (first through the seromuscular layer and then through the full thickness of the bladder neck). At the 5 and 7 o'clock positions of the urethra, the stitches were placed through the urethral mucosa as well as the the reconstructed musculofascial plate. The bladder shape was evaluated by postoperative cystography and the clinical results were compared between patients undergoing LRP without PMPR (group A) and those undergoing LRP with PMPR (group B). The cystograms demonstrated that the PMPR significantly shortened the vertical length of the bladder and significantly decreased the posterior vesicourethral angle. At 1, 3 and 6 months after LRP, the number of daily used pads was significantly lower in group B compared to that in group A and the time to achieve a pad-free status was significantly shorter in group B. Our modified PMPR procedure significantly improved the recovery of urinary continence following LRP and this improvement may be due in part to changes of the bladder shape. PMID:24649279

ITO, KEIICHI; KENJI, SEGUCHI; YOSHII, HIDEHIKO; HAMADA, SHINSUKE; ASAKUMA, JUNICHI; TASAKI, SHINSUKE; KURODA, KENJI; SATO, AKINORI; HORIGUCHI, AKIO; ASANO, TOMOHIKO

2013-01-01

32

Urinary Diversion  

MedlinePLUS

... diversion surgery? After urinary diversion surgery, a wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nurse or an enterostomal therapist ... diversions. WOC nurses and enterostomal therapists specialize in ostomy care and rehabilitation. Patients should ask how to ...

33

Urinary Diversion  

MedlinePLUS

... the abdomen. The patient then wears an ostomy bag into which the urine continuously drains, but they ... continent urinary diversion is that no permanent ostomy bag needs to be worn. What can be expected ...

34

Ileocecal Intussusception due to a Lipoma in an Adult  

PubMed Central

While intestinal tumors are rare, small intestinal lipomas are even more uncommon benign neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic, but lipomas larger than 2?cm may become symptomatic due to obstruction, bleeding, or intussusception. In this paper, US and CT findings of a lipoma located in the terminal ileum and causing ileocecal intussusception were discussed. We report a case of small bowel lipoma that became symptomatic due to intermittent obstruction episodes and ileocecal intussuception. If the diagnosis of intestinal lipoma had been made absolutely as in our case, they should be removed surgically in elective conditions. PMID:22991683

Bilgin, Mehmet; Toprak, Huseyin; Ahmad, Issam Cheikh; Yardimci, Erkan; Kocakoc, Ercan

2012-01-01

35

Tubercular duodenal, jejunal and ileocecal stricture in a patient.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing countries. Duodenal involvement is uncommon and can mimic superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Our case presented as proximal intestinal obstruction had tubercular stricture in the third part of the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileocecal region, an uncommon and difficult intraoperative situation. PMID:24334467

Sisodiya, Rajesh; Ramachandra, Lingadakai

2013-01-01

36

Continents - Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second graders will learn about the seven continents and animals that live in those environments. I have a dream speech Eggleston, Va Welcome to the largest continent, Asia! First, let's see the map of Asia! You will click on this site. Next, while on this site you can answer questions on the worksheet. Then you finish the questions. Finally,close the website by closing the red x in the right hand ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-03-26

37

Ileocecal intussusception in an adult: the laparoscopic approach.  

PubMed

Adult intussusception is uncommon and requires a surgical approach. Malignancy is associated with 31% (43/137) of small bowel intussusception and 70% (74/106) of large bowel intussusception. Computerized tomography (CT) findings are pathognomonic for this condition. Often, the patient presents with long-standing, nonspecific complaints. A 63-year-old man presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain. CT demonstrated colonic inflammation. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ileocecal intussusception was performed. The pathology report revealed a lipoma of the cecum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged the fifth postoperative day. Despite a high incidence of malignancy, colonic or ileocecal intussusception can be successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Review of the literature and treatment options are discussed. PMID:16882431

McKay, Robert

2006-01-01

38

Ileocecal Intussusception in an Adult: the Laparoscopic Approach  

PubMed Central

Adult intussusception is uncommon and requires a surgical approach. Malignancy is associated with 31% (43/137) of small bowel intussusception and 70% (74/106) of large bowel intussusception. Computerized tomography (CT) findings are pathognomonic for this condition. Often, the patient presents with long-standing, nonspecific complaints. A 63-year-old man presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain. CT demonstrated colonic inflammation. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ileocecal intussusception was performed. The pathology report revealed a lipoma of the cecum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged the fifth postoperative day. Despite a high incidence of malignancy, colonic or ileocecal intussusception can be successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Review of the literature and treatment options are discussed. PMID:16882431

2006-01-01

39

Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that we can measure the motion of the Earth's continental plates by using sensitive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers from space. If we follow that motion backwards in time, we can predict where the plates came from. The fact that the Eastern "corner" of South America appears to fit exactly into the "corner" of Africa led Alfred Wegener to suggest that the continents drifted. Mineral deposits which are very similar at corresponding places on the two continents lend credence to that view. In this exercise students take a map of the Earth as it might have looked 94 million years ago and measure the average speed of separation of these two continents over time to find out how fast the plates are moving.

40

Continence and micturition: an anatomical basis.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence remains an important clinical problem worldwide, having a significant socio-economic, psychological, and medical burden. Maintaining urinary continence and coordinating micturition are complex processes relying on interaction between somatic and visceral elements, moderated by learned behavior. Urinary viscera and pelvic floor must interact with higher centers to ensure a functionally competent system. This article aims to describe the relevant anatomy and neuronal pathways involved in the maintenance of urinary continence and micturition. Review of relevant literature focusing on pelvic floor and urinary sphincters anatomy, and neuroanatomy of urinary continence and micturition. Data obtained from both live and cadaveric human studies are included. The stretch during bladder filling is believed to cause release of urothelial chemical mediators, which in turn activates afferent nerves and myofibroblasts in the muscosal and submucosal layers respectively, thereby relaying sensation of bladder fullness. The internal urethral sphincter is continuous with detrusor muscle, but its arrangement is variable. The external urethral sphincter blends with fibers of levator ani muscle. Executive decisions about micturition in humans rely on a complex mechanism involving communication between several cerebral centers and primitive sacral spinal reflexes. The pudendal nerve is most commonly damaged in females at the level of sacrospinous ligament. We describe the pelvic anatomy and relevant neuroanatomy involved in maintaining urinary continence and during micturition, subsequently highlighting the anatomical basis of urinary incontinence. Comprehensive anatomical understanding is vital for appropriate medical and surgical management of affected patients, and helps guide development of future therapies. PMID:24615792

Shah, Adarsh P; Mevcha, Amit; Wilby, Daniel; Alatsatianos, Anton; Hardman, John C; Jacques, Steven; Wilton, Joanne C

2014-11-01

41

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

42

Comparison of laparoscopic and open ileocecal resection for Crohn’s disease: a metaanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The role of laparoscopic surgery for patients with ileocecal Crohn’s disease is a contentious issue. This metaanalysis aimed\\u000a to compare open resection with laparoscopically assisted resection for ileocecal Crohn’s disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A literature search of the Medline, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify comparative studies reporting\\u000a outcomes for both laparoscopic and open ileocecal resection. Metaanalytical techniques were applied

H. S. Tilney; V. A. Constantinides; A. G. Heriot; M. Nicolaou; T. Athanasiou; P. Ziprin; A. W. Darzi; P. P. Tekkis

2006-01-01

43

POTENCY, CONTINENCE AND COMPLICATION RATES IN 1,870 CONSECUTIVE RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe update results in a series of consecutive patients treated with anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy regarding recovery of erections, urinary continence and postoperative complications.

WILLIAM J. CATALONA; GUSTAVO F. CARVALHAL; DOUGLAS E. MAGER; DEBORAH S. SMITH

1999-01-01

44

Occurrence of jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions in a thoroughbred stallion  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old, 600.4 kg stallion horse of German thoroughbred breed was presented at the Tehran University Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, Iran, with a history of weakness of 2–3 days duration. The stallion died of unknown cause on the previous day. Abnormal findings during physical examination included an estimated dehydration of 3% to 5%, dark red oral mucous membranes, elevated heart and respiratory rates, stiffened feces, and absence of intestinal motility on auscultation. Postmortem examination indicated the presence of a jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions, 46 cm in length; a torsion of jejunum proximal to the intussusceptions was also noted. An ulcerative lesion, 6 cm in diameter, was found on the mucosa of duodenum. Large amounts of sand, coat hair, and hay mantling in bloody discharge were observed in a colonic impaction. It was an acute case that was evident by the involvement of intussusception and ulceration, indicating desquamation of the necrotic epithelial cells with edema and distinct infiltration of neutrophils. Histopathological examination confirmed that the ileum was the intussiscipiens to the jejunum that subsequently passed through into the caecum, and the mesentery probably tore as a result of the intussusception.

Sasani, Farhang; Javanbakht, Javad; Alidadi, Naser; Khaligh, Sahar Ghaffari; Hosseini, Ehsan

2013-01-01

45

Laparoscopic-assisted continent stoma procedures: our new standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To compare standard surgery to laparoscopic-assisted surgery for the creation of continent stomas. Creation of an antegrade continent enema (ACE) and\\/or continent urinary (CU) stoma using the appendix may require a generous midline incision. A laparoscopic-assisted technique to reduce morbidity and improve cosmesis has been described for urologic reconstruction.Methods. Between February 1996 and November 1998, 11 laparoscopic-assisted ACE and\\/or

Jeffrey A Cadeddu; Steven G Docimo

1999-01-01

46

Development of a community nurse-led continence service.  

PubMed

Extrapolations from prevalence studies suggest that on average 56,000 adults experience urinary incontinence in Glasgow, a third of whom will have been incontinent during the last week. A review by a multidisciplinary health gain commissioning team concluded that existing continence services in Glasgow had developed opportunistically and that problems exist, e.g. prescription of products without full assessment of continence problems. In response to this situation, a new community nurse-led continence service was introduced in 1995. This article describes the development and evaluation of this new service. For the past 3 years the service has employed five staff nurses and a physiotherapist. The team is solely employed to promote continence. It carries out assessments both in nursing and residential homes and community clinics. The planned evaluation will assess the effectiveness of this team in promoting continence and the future demand for continence nurse-led services. PMID:9849143

Shields, N; Thomas, C; Benson, K; Major, K; Tree, J

47

Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers’ propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for incontinent elderly residents were asked how they perceived urinary incontinence (UI), how it

Cara Tannenbaum; Danielle Labrecque; Christiane Lepage

2005-01-01

48

Ileocecal endometriosis and a diagnosis dilemma: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Bowel endometriosis affects between 3.8% and 37% of women with endometriosis. The evaluation of symptoms and clinical examination are inadequate for an accurate diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented to our hospital because of six months of recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, without previous history of bowel disease. Physical examination revealed a palpable 3 cm × 5 cm mass in the right lower quadrant abdomen. Laboratory tests showed slightly elevated levels of CA19-9 and CA125. Small bowel computer tomography scanning revealed an ileocecal mass with bowel wall thickening and luminal narrowing. Small bowel endoscopy identified a deep longitudinal ulcer and mucosal edema in the distal ileum. All these findings supported the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. The patient underwent a laparotomy, which identified a 5 cm × 5 cm ileocecal mass with severe mucosal edema and luminal stricture in the distal ileum. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of ileocecal endometriosis without other areas involved. After one-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the symptoms. PMID:23801877

Tong, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Shen-Yi

2013-01-01

49

Ileocecal endometriosis and a diagnosis dilemma: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Bowel endometriosis affects between 3.8% and 37% of women with endometriosis. The evaluation of symptoms and clinical examination are inadequate for an accurate diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented to our hospital because of six months of recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, without previous history of bowel disease. Physical examination revealed a palpable 3 cm × 5 cm mass in the right lower quadrant abdomen. Laboratory tests showed slightly elevated levels of CA19-9 and CA125. Small bowel computer tomography scanning revealed an ileocecal mass with bowel wall thickening and luminal narrowing. Small bowel endoscopy identified a deep longitudinal ulcer and mucosal edema in the distal ileum. All these findings supported the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. The patient underwent a laparotomy, which identified a 5 cm × 5 cm ileocecal mass with severe mucosal edema and luminal stricture in the distal ileum. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of ileocecal endometriosis without other areas involved. After one-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the symptoms. PMID:23801877

Tong, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Shen-Yi

2013-06-21

50

POTENCY, CONTINENCE AND COMPLICATIONS IN 3,477 CONSECUTIVE RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe report results in a series of 3,477 consecutive patients treated with anatomical nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in terms of recovery of erectile function, urinary continence and postoperative complications.

SHILAJIT D. KUNDU; KIMBERLY A. ROEHL; SCOTT E. EGGENER; J. O. ANN V. ANTENOR; MISOP HAN; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

2004-01-01

51

Urinary Bladder  

MedlinePLUS

... Anatomy & Physiology » Urinary System » Components of the Urinary System » Urinary Bladder Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

52

Ileocecal junction: anatomic, histologic, radiologic and endoscopic studies with special reference to its antireflux mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of the study was to perform histomorphologic, endoscopic, and radiologic studies of the ileocecal junction (ICJ).\\u000a A clearer understanding of the anatomical structure of the ICJ may shed some light on its function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Histomorphologic studies were performed in 18 cadavers and radiologic in 22 and endoscopic in 10 healthy volunteers. Morphologic\\u000a studies were done with the help of

Ali A. ShafikIsmail; Ismail A. Ahmed; Ahmed Shafik; Mohamed Wahdan; Soheir Asaad; Essam El Neizamy

2011-01-01

53

Our Changing Continent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication covers the subject of North American paleogeography: how the continent has changed over geologic time in terms of location, climate, and other geographical factors. Clues for detecting this information include looking at fossils, rocks, and different kinds of maps. The geographic history of North America is traced from the supercontinent Pangea 200 million years ago (Mesozoic Era)through today, with emphasis on the coal, dinosaur, and ice ages.

Schlee, John

54

The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2 g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90 d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12 mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. PMID:23958018

Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M

2013-10-01

55

Pathological changes caused by Anoplocephala perfoliata in the equine ileocecal junction.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in horses. Previously regarded as a non-pathogenic tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata has been recently associated with equine colic. In this study, pathological changes related to A. perfoliata at the ileocecal junction were investigated in 31 slaughtered horses. Our results showed a significant relationship between parasitic burden and grading of histopathological lesions in both the mucosa and submucosa. Moreover, in infested horses, hypertrophy of the circular muscle layer was determined. Finally, an enteric nervous system (ENS) evaluation showed injury to intestinal nervous elements in horses with moderate to high parasitism. In summary, our results on the ENS support a correlation between colic and A. perfoliata infestion in the horse. PMID:20461456

Pavone, S; Veronesi, F; Piergili Fioretti, D; Mandara, M T

2010-06-01

56

Formation of an Archaean continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 30 percent of the earth is covered by continents, but only about 10 small kernels of these continents - known as Archaean cratons - are continental fragments formed before 2.5 Gyr ago. The Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, which formed and stabilized between 3.7 and 2.7 Gyr ago, is one of the oldest reasonably sized examples of these continental

Maarten J. de Wit; Chris Roering; Rodger J. Hart; Richard A. Armstrong; Cornel E. J. de Ronde; Rod W. E. Green; Marian Tredoux; Ellie Peberdy; Roger A. Hart

1992-01-01

57

Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This background information on Alfred Wegener discusses his idea of continental drift. It explains how he came to the conclusion that the continents split apart as outlined in his 1915 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans. The site also provides information about his death in 1930 only a year after the final revision of his book.

58

[Urinary incontinence and genital prolapse].  

PubMed

Prolapse commonly coexists with lower urinary tract dysfunction. If symptomatic stress urinary incontinence is often described by patients with low stage pelvic organ prolapse, obstructive symptoms are common in patients with stage 3 or 4 prolapse. Positive preoperative reduction testing in stress continent women planning prolapse repair is associated with a higher risk for postoperative leakage and clearly identify a high risk population. To date it has not been proven that urodynamic testing may provide more precise data than physical examination to advocate an additional stress urinary surgery at the time of prolapse repair. A systematic prophylactic Burch colposuspension significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients with occult SUI, a concomitant TVT at the time of vaginal prolapse surgery significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients without leakage during reduction testing, there is no evidence for performing a concurrent TVT. PMID:20141922

Fatton, B; Nadeau, C

2009-12-01

59

Primary colonic melanoma presenting as ileocecal intussusception: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma originating in the colon is an extremely rare disease. Herein, we report a case of primary melanoma of the ascending colon. The patient was a 57-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital for persistent abdominal pain and episodes of bloody stool, nausea and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed lower intestinal intussusception and enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum. During laparoscopic operation, multiple enlarged lymph nodes were found. Several segments of the proximal small intestine were incarcerated into the distal small intestine, forming an internal hernia and obstruction. The necrotic terminal ileum was invaginated into the ascending cecum. Subsequently, adhesive internal hernia reduction and palliative right hemicolectomy were performed. Pathologic examination of the excised specimen revealed a polypoid mass in the ascending colon. Histological examination showed epithelioid and spindle tumor cells with obvious cytoplasmic melanin deposition. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor cells were positive for S-100, HMB-45 and vimentin, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient history and a thorough postoperative investigation excluded the preexistence or coexistence of a primary lesion elsewhere in the skin, anus or oculus or at other sites. Thus, we consider our case to represent an aggressive primary colon melanoma presenting as ileocecal intussusception and intestinal obstruction. PMID:25071362

Li, Wen-Xiang; Wei, Ye; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Ya-Lan; Ren, Li; Zhong, Yun-Shi; Ye, Le-Chi; Zhu, De-Xiang; Niu, Wei-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yu; Xu, Jian-Min

2014-01-01

60

The mainz-pouch (mixed augmentation ileum 'n zecum) for bladder augmentation and continent diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal urinary reservoir constructed from bowel material should be a low-pressure system with a high capacity, capable of preventing upper tract deterioration resulting from ureteral obstruction or reflux. It should achieve reliable control of continence and assure easy emptying of the reservoir. In the Mainz-pouch, the combination of cecum and ileum, the latter of which is able to absorb

J. W. Thtiroff; P. Alken; H. Riedmiller; U. Engelmann; G. H. Jacobi; R. Hohenfellner

1985-01-01

61

Extended Diaper Wearing: Effects on Continence in and out of the Diaper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this…

Tarbox, Rachel S. F.; Williams, W. Larry; Friman, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

62

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

63

Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated. PMID:24051941

Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

2013-08-01

64

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

65

BLUEPRINT FOR A LIVING CONTINENT  

E-print Network

of conservation issues, please contact us on publications@wwf.org.au or call (02) 9281 5515. Cover image by Peter centuries we have believed that we could remake this continent in the image of Europe ­ turn the rivers inland and force truculent soils to yield. There are signs that things are changing for the better

Lamontagne, Sebastien

66

Urological problems or fecal continence during long-term follow-up of patients with anorectal malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases. The main concerns for the surgeon in correcting these anomalies\\u000a are bowel control, urinary control, and sexual function. The aim of this study was to evaluate fecal continence together with\\u000a additional urinary anomalies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) and determine which of them is more troublesome\\u000a for life quality in long-term

Emrah Senel; Fatih Akbiyik; Halil Atayurt; H. Tugrul Tiryaki

2010-01-01

67

Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during air insufflation 21.23 ± 3.52 mmHg vs 16.10 ± 3.39 mmHg. The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflation was not significantly different 101.08% ± 7.96% vs 100% ± 0%. The total symptom score for subjects with normal lactulose breath tests and subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not statistically different (13.30 ± 4.09 vs 24.14 ± 6.58). The ICV peak pressures during air insufflations were significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.005). The average percent difference of the area under the pressure curve in the ICV from cecum was significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.0012). Individuals with positive lactulose breath tests demonstrated symptom scores which were significantly higher for the following symptoms: not able to finish normal sized meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite and bloating. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal, subjects with a positive lactulose breath test have a defective ICV cecal distension reflex. These subjects also more commonly have higher symptom scores. PMID:23239918

Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

2012-01-01

68

Continents and Oceans on a Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seven continents and four oceans and basic features found on a map? 1. Your teacher will pass out this graphic organizer. As you learn use this organizer to write down all the continents, oceans, and three basic features found on maps. Graphic organizer. 2. Look at this map and on your graphic organizer write down all seven continents. Continents Map. 3. Go to this website and ...

Houghton, Ms.

2010-11-04

69

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310...5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a) Identification... A nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device is a...

2014-04-01

70

To A Continent A Reference Guide  

E-print Network

Headwaters To A Continent A Reference Guide to Montana's Water Produced by Susan Higgins-Headwaters To A Continent A Place in the Hydrologic Cycle The Historical Significance of Water in Montana Water Availability as accessible as possible to a variety of users. #12;Montana- Headwaters to a Continent A s the title

Dyer, Bill

71

TRansformation of Oceanic Plateaus Into ContinentS (TROPICS): Collaborative multidisciplinary international research and education program  

E-print Network

C-1 TRansformation of Oceanic Plateaus Into ContinentS (TROPICS): Collaborative multidisciplinary's continents, large areas of thick silica-rich ("granitic") crust, are unique. Understanding the mechanical (accretion) and chemical (differentiation) processes of continent formation, and whether there has been

Menke, William

72

Mid-continent gas symposium  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Proceedings of the Society of Petroleum Engineers Mid-Continent Gas Symposium held in Amarillo, Texas, U.S.A. April 28-30, 1996. Presentations given at this meeting covered topics including: Reservoir engineering of natural gas fields, well production, well completion, well stimulation techniques such as waterflooding and hydraulic fracturing of reservoir rock, performance of natural gas wells, and other topics involving resource management and development of natural gas fields. Several papers also discussed fluid flow in reservoir rock: steady state flow, non-Darcy flow (steady state) and transient flow in horizontal, vertical, partially penetrating wells and in fractures.

NONE

1996-09-01

73

The mobile continents of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of mobile continents in the northern hemisphere of Venus is examined on the basis of Venera 15 and 16 photographs. The relationship between block motion and subduction is considered, and the characteristics of the observed 'parquet' structure are described. This structure is shown to have certain analogies on other terrestrial planets. It is concluded that the continental matter of Venus might have been displaced via two processes, involving the motion of small and large plates, accompanied by clumping and shallow subduction on their boundaries, as well as through the formation of large gravity-induced landslides and fluxes.

Sukhanov, Aleksei L.

1989-11-01

74

Magnetic Reversals and Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief review of the role of polar reversals in the development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics from the old continental drift concept of Alfred Wegener. It describes the physical difference between the continents and the ocean floor and also the surprising order of the magnetic bands on the ocean floor and how this led to the idea of sea-floor spreading as postulated by Fred Vines and Drummond Matthews in 1962. The author then goes into more detail and gives examples of Plate Tectonics.

Stern, David

75

Bony Pelvis Dimensions in Women With and Without Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

AIMS To test the null hypothesis that bony pelvis dimensions are similar in women with and without stress urinary incontinence, both in the postpartum and midlife periods. METHODS Secondary analyses were performed of two case-control studies comparing women with stress urinary incontinence to asymptomatic controls. One study examined primiparas in the first 9–12 months postpartum; the other study involved middle-aged women. Stress urinary incontinence was confirmed by full-bladder stress test. All subjects underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. The interspinous and intertuberous diameters, subpubic angle and sacrococcygeal joint-to-the inferior pubic point distance were measured from the images independently by two authors. RESULTS In the young cohorts, we compared primiparas with de novo postpartum stress urinary incontinence to both continent primiparas and nulliparas. Postpartum stress urinary incontinence is associated with a wider subpubic angle. There is also a trend towards wider interspinous and intertuberous diameters in the stress-incontinent primiparas as compared to the continent cohorts, although this did not reach statistical significance with our sample sizes. By contrast, no significant differences in bony pelvis dimensions were identified when comparing middle-aged women with stress urinary incontinence and their continent controls. CONCLUSIONS Bony pelvis dimensions are different in women with stress urinary incontinence than in matched continent controls. However, these differences are only identified in young primiparas in the postpartum period, not in middle-aged women. PMID:22674676

Berger, Mitchell B.; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K.; DeLancey, John O.

2012-01-01

76

Mapping the Moho beneath the Southern Alps continent-continent collision, New Zealand, using wide-angle reflections  

E-print Network

Mapping the Moho beneath the Southern Alps continent-continent collision, New Zealand, using wide. Okaya, and J. Yu (2004), Mapping the Moho beneath the Southern Alps continent-continent collision, New mantle (7.6­ 7.8 km/s) [Jarchow and Thompson, 1989]. Isostatic constraints demonstrate that in continent-continent

Okaya, David

77

Continent ileovesicostomy after bladder neck closure as salvage procedure for intractable incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated the success rate of continent vesicostomy using an ileal segment with seroserosally embedded, tapered ileum for bladder augmentation with continent stoma following bladder neck closure (BNC) for severely damaged bladders or persistent urinary incontinence. Material and methods A total of 15 patients were treated for persistent urinary incontinence or non–reconstructible bladder outlet between 2003 and 2012. Underlying diagnosis included post–prostatectomy incontinence (n = 5), recurrent bladder neck stenosis (n = 5), neurogenic bladder (n = 3), urethral tumor recurrence following orthotopic neobladder (n = 1) and post–TVT and colposuspension incontinence (n = 1). All patients underwent open BNC, omental interposition and continent vesicoileostomy. The continent outlet was placed in the lower abdomen using a circumferential subcutaneous and skin plasty to avoid retraction. Data collected included age, underlying diagnosis, stoma site, time to complications and need for subsequent surgical revisions. All patients received a standardized questionnaire at the time of data acquisition and were personally interviewed. Results Median follow–up was 24 months (range: 2–111). Primary BNC was successful in all patients and primary continence rate was 86.7%. Two patients (13.3%) suffered from failure of the continence mechanism, caused by stoma stenosis at skin level and insufficiency of the bladder augmentation and stoma due to local infection. One additional patient developed a mild stomal incontinence without need for further reconstruction. Regardless of the number of revisions, at the last follow–up 93.3% of patients had a functional channel. All complications occurred within the first postoperative year. Conclusions This technique is an effective last resort treatment for patients with non–reconstructible bladder outlet. PMID:24757550

Anheuser, Petra; Rausch, Steffen; Fechner, Guido; Braun, Moritz; Müller, Stefan C.; Steffens, Joachim A.; Kälble, Tilman

2013-01-01

78

Accurate localization of a fall in pH within the ileocecal region: validation using a dual-scintigraphic technique.  

PubMed

Stereotypical changes in pH occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Classically, there is an abrupt increase in pH on exit from the stomach, followed later by a sharp fall in pH, attributed to passage through the ileocecal region. However, the precise location of this latter pH change has never been conclusively substantiated. We aimed to determine the site of fall in pH using a dual-scintigraphic technique. On day 1, 13 healthy subjects underwent nasal intubation with a 3-m-long catheter, which was allowed to progress to the distal ileum. On day 2, subjects ingested a pH-sensitive wireless motility capsule labeled with 4 MBq (51)Chromium [EDTA]. The course of this, as it travelled through the GI tract, was assessed with a single-headed ?-camera using static and dynamic scans. Capsule progression was plotted relative to a background of 4 MBq ¹¹¹Indium [diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid] administered through the catheter. Intraluminal pH, as recorded by the capsule, was monitored continuously, and position of the capsule relative to pH was established. A sharp fall in pH was recorded in all subjects; position of the capsule relative to this was accurately determined anatomically in 9/13 subjects. In these nine subjects, a pH drop of 1.5 ± 0.2 U, from 7.6 ± 0.05 to 6.1 ± 0.1 occurred a median of 7.5 min (1-16) after passage through the ileocecal valve; location was either in the cecum (n = 5), ascending colon (n = 2), or coincident with a move from the cecum to ascending colon (n = 2). This study provides conclusive evidence that the fall in pH seen within the ileocolonic region actually occurs in the proximal colon. This phenomenon can be used as a biomarker of transition between the small and large bowel and validates assessment of regional GI motility using capsule technology that incorporates pH measurement. PMID:20847301

Zarate, Natalia; Mohammed, Sahar D; O'Shaughnessy, Emma; Newell, Margaret; Yazaki, Etsuro; Williams, Norman S; Lunniss, Peter J; Semler, Jack R; Scott, S Mark

2010-12-01

79

Continence outcomes following robotic radical prostatectomy: Our experience from 150 consecutive patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Urinary continence is an important outcome parameter after robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We evaluated the continence outcomes following RARP using a double-layered urethrovesical reconstruction. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty consecutive patients undergoing RARP and double-layered urethrovesical reconstruction were prospectively studied for preoperative, intraoperative and post operative parameters. Key points followed during surgery were: Minimal dissection of sphincteric complex, preservation of puboprostatic ligament, selective ligation of deep venous complex and both posterior and anterior reconstruction using the Von Velthoven stitch. Intraoperative bladder fill test was done at the end of anastomosis to rule out urine leak. Check cystogram was done prior to catheter removal in the outpatient department. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals regarding the status of urinary continence. All patients irrespective of adjuvant therapy were included in the analysis. Results: The mean age was 64 years (standard deviation ± 6.88), and mean serum PSA was 20.2 ng/ml. The mean BMI was 25.6 (SD: ±3.84). The mean prostate weight was 44.09 gm (range 18-103 gm, SD: ±15.59). Median days to catheter removal after surgery was 7 (range 4-14 days) days. Cystographically determined urinary leaks were seen in two patients. Urine leak was managed by delaying catheter removal for 1 week. Minimum 6 month follow up was available in 126 patients. ‘No pad’ status at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year was 15.1%, 54.9%, 78%, 90.5% and 94.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Excellent continence outcomes are observed in patients undergoing double-layered urethrovesical reconstruction. PMID:25378816

Gupta, Narmada P.; Yadav, Rajiv; Akpo, Emmanuel E.

2014-01-01

80

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2010-04-01

81

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2011-04-01

82

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2012-04-01

83

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2013-04-01

84

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2014-04-01

85

Azathioprine is More Effective than Mesalazine at Preventing Recurrent Bowel Obstruction in Patients with Ileocecal Crohn’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with subocclusive Crohn’s disease (CD) who received azathioprine (AZA) therapy had lower re-hospitalization rates due to all causes and for surgical management of CD compared to those treated with mesalazine during a 3-year period. We investigated whether AZA also was effective for prevention of recurrent bowel obstruction. Material/Methods Rates of recurrent bowel occlusion were compared between patients treated with AZA and those treated with mesalazine. We assessed the time interval-off intestinal obstruction as well as the occlusion-free survival for both groups. Results There was a significantly lower cumulative rate of patients with recurrent subocclusion in the AZA group (56%) compared with the mesalazine group (79%; OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.67–8.6; P=0.003), with the number needed to treat in order to prevent 1 subocclusion episode of 3.7 favoring AZA. The occlusion-free time interval was longer in the AZA group compared with the mesalazine group (28.8 vs. 18.3 months; P=0.000). The occlusion-free survival at 12, 24, and 36 months was significantly higher in the AZA group (91%, 81%, and 72%, respectively) than in the mesalazine group (64.7%, 35.3%, and 23.5%, respectively; P<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions In an exploratory analysis of patients with subocclusive ileocecal CD, maintenance therapy with AZA is more effective than mesalazine for eliminating or postponing recurrent intestinal obstruction during 3 years of therapy. PMID:25370731

Vidigal, Fernando Mendonça; de Souza, Gláucio Silva; Chebli, Liliana Andrade; da Rocha Ribeiro, Tarsila Campanha; Furtado, Maria Cristina Vasconcellos; Castro, Antonio Carlos Santana; Pinto, André Luis Tavares; do Valle Pinheiro, Bruno; de Lima Pace, Fabio Heleno; de Oliveira, Juliano Machado; de Oliveira Zanini, Karine Andrade; Gaburri, Pedro Duarte; Zanini, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Chebli, Julio Maria Fonseca

2014-01-01

86

North Mid-Continent Regional Lead Organization  

SciTech Connect

The North Mid-Continent Regional Lead Organization (RLO) is one of ten Regional Lead Organizations designated by the National Organization, called the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC). The North Mid-Continent Regional Lead Organization was funded the first of May, 1995. Goals involve transferring off-the-shelf technologies to North Mid-Continent oil operators to increase oil production and reduce the rate of well abandonments in Kansas and Missouri. The Regional Lead Organization plans to stimulate activities for service companies and consultants in the region by emphasizing technology awareness and application of current and newly developed technologies. This paper will describe (1) the North Mid-Continent Regional Lead Organization, (2) the activities it will undertake, (3) the Producer`s Advisory Group (PAG), (4) the facilities and resources at the Resource Center, and (5) the RLO`s plans to stimulate the region`s industry infra-structure.

Schoeling, L.G. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

87

Ultrasound Thickness of Bladder Wall in Continent and Incontinent Women and Its Correlation with Cystometry  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare bladder wall thickness in two kinds of urinary incontinent women—stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) with urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO), and to compare them with continent patients by ultrasound, also, correlate with cystometric results in incontinent women. Methods. 91 women were divided into the following groups: continent (n = 31), SUI (n = 30), and DO (n = 30) groups after clinical evaluation and urodynamic test (only in incontinent women). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed to the bladder wall thickness (BWT) measurement. The mean of BWT was calculated and data were analyzed with ANOVA and Turkey's multiple comparison tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to compare two variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to study BWT as a diagnostic parameter. Results. BWT in DO group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.005). A moderate positive correlation was found between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction. There was no difference in BWT between SUI and continent groups. DO group had lower first desire to void and cystometric capacity. Maximum bladder pressure at detrusor contraction had a moderate positive correlation with BWT. The ROC revealed an area under the curve of 0.962 (95%?CI, 0.90–1.01). Conclusions. DO patients have increased bladder wall thickness, lower first desire to void, and lower cystometric capacity. There was a moderate correlation between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction.

Otsuki, Edney Norio; Oliveira, Emerson; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castelo; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin

2014-01-01

88

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection  

MedlinePLUS

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and continue throughout ... Increased bacteria near the urethra can cause infection. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with ...

89

Urinary problems after formation of a Mitrofanoff stoma.  

PubMed

1. Bladder irrigation reduces occlusion of drains with clots and debris, thus protecting anastomoses. 2. Leakage from anastomoses is an acknowledged problem postoperatively but resolves spontaneously in the majority of cases. 3. To establish urinary continence a good fluid intake is essential, bladder capacity must be developed, intermittent catheterisation taught and excessive mucus production eliminated. 4. The risk of urinary tract infections can be minimised by drinking cranberry juice, prophylactic antibiotic therapy and a good intermittent catheterisation technique. A degree of bacteria is inevitable and not always significant. PMID:7855147

Gibbons, M

1995-01-01

90

Effect of baseline symptom severity on continence improvement mediated by oxybutynin chloride topical gel  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent placebo-controlled Phase III study, oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) significantly improved urinary continence in patients with overactive bladder. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of incontinence severity on OTG-mediated improvement in continence was evaluated. Methods Change from baseline in the number of incontinence episodes was evaluated in patients with two to three incontinence episodes/day (moderate incontinence) and those with more than three incontinence episodes/day (severe incontinence). Results In patients with moderate (n = 171) and severe (n = 556) incontinence, reduction in incontinence episodes (mean ± standard deviation) was greater (P < 0.01) with OTG (moderate, ?1.7 ± 1.4; severe, ?3.6 ± 3.0) than with placebo (moderate, ?1.2 ± 1.3; severe, ?3.1 ± 3.4). Continence achievement rate with OTG was 48.2% (placebo, 24.4%) among patients with moderate incontinence and 17.8% (placebo, 12.1%) among those with severe incontinence. Conclusion Absolute placebo-adjusted reduction in incontinence episodes with OTG was not affected by baseline incontinence severity. Continence achievement was more likely if symptoms were less severe. PMID:24198648

Sand, Peter K; MacDiarmid, Scott A; Thomas, Heather; Caramelli, Kim E; Hoel, Gary

2011-01-01

91

Lack of psychological resilience: an important correlate for urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study evaluated medical conditions, level of physical functioning, and psychological health as correlates of urinary continence\\u000a (UI) for four different age groups of women. Survey questions from the 1996 MIDUS survey were used in three domains of health:\\u000a medical conditions, physical functioning, and psychological health. Mean questionnaire scores or prevalence percentages for\\u000a individual and total medical conditions, physical functioning,

Margaret G. Jamison; Alison C. Weidner; Audrey A. Romero; Cindy L. Amundsen

2007-01-01

92

Mid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system  

E-print Network

the rupture zone #12;In general we assume: Past large earthquakes indicate where large earthquakes will occur earthquakes indicate where Past large earthquakes indicate where large earthquakes will occurMid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system approach Mian Liu

93

It takes a special kind of toad to hop around the world, colonizing continent after continent.  

E-print Network

It takes a special kind of toad to hop around the world, colonizing continent after continent. And InesVan Bocxlaer knows the secret to that success. Through an extensive analysis of 228 toad species such a worldwide spread possible. On page 679, she and her col- leagues reveal what enabled some toads to leave

Jackman, Todd

94

Urinary incontinence - the family caregivers' perspective.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence can be expected to present an issue in domestic care with various conditions and ways of dealing with the situation. This pilot study investigates the kinds of coping strategies developed by family caregivers of urinary incontinent persons. Therefore, it seeks to explore how family caregivers experience and shape everyday life with an incontinent family member.Based on a qualitative design, problem-centered interviews were carried out with 10 family caregivers (4 men, 6 women) and analyzed according to Grounded Theory.The results show that family caregivers place major emphasis on maintaining continence, which is conceived as an expression of concern for the care-dependent person. The data facilitated the development of four major concepts: incontinence as a cause of dependency, feelings of shame, striving for continence and coping with incontinence. These concepts indicate that family caregivers look for strategies to provide the incontinent family member with the opportunity of (self-) controlled excretion. Yet this kind of support is linked to feelings of shame on both parts. PMID:18677628

Hayder, Daniela; Schnepp, Wilfried

2008-08-01

95

Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

Baku?a, Stanis?aw

2014-01-01

96

Prevalence of occult stress incontinence in continent women with severe genital prolapse.  

PubMed

We studied 32 clinically continent women with severe prolapse. We found evidence of occult stress incontinence in 10 of these women after reduction of the prolapse with a ring pessary. Our results, confirming the work of others, suggest that a high proportion of women with severe genito-urinary prolapse are at an increased risk of occult stress incontinence that could result in incontinence after surgery for prolapse. Urodynamic studies after restoring anatomy with a ring pessary may identify these women needing anti-incontinence procedures at the time of surgical repair of the prolapse. PMID:17454469

Sinha, D; Arunkalaivanan, A S

2007-02-01

97

Comparions of Snow Cover on Different Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each continent. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each continent for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each continent, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.

2010-03-14

98

Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy – experience of the last 100 cases  

PubMed Central

Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a recognized treatment method of organ-confined prostate cancer. Among post-surgery complications, urinary incontinence is a major one. The aim of this study was to determine the incontinence rate after RP and to analyze factors that might affect it. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 132 RP's were performed at Warsaw Cancer Center. A questionnaire to assess the condition before and after RP was developed by the authors and sent to all treated patients. The questionnaire focused on health status information, function in urinary domain, rate of returning to “normal” activity level as before RP and satisfaction from the treatment. The median age of patients was 62 years. Out of 132 patients 102 subjects (77.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Of all responders, 35 patients (34.3%) reported total urinary continence after RP. After RP 35(34.3%) patients reported total urinary continence and in 55(53.9%) patients urinary incontinence of medium degree was present. In 12 (11.8%) patients significant urinary incontinence developed. The most common cause of urine dripping (82% of patients with any degree of urinary incontinence) was associated with abdominal muscle pressure. No statistically significant association between urinary incontinence and adjuvant radiotherapy after RP or the surgeon performing the RP was found (>0.79, >0.803). Radical prostatectomy carries a certain risk of complications. We observed an 88.2% rate of significant (total and moderate degree) urinary continence. The adjuvant radiotherapy and surgeons, who performed the RP, did not affect the rate of incontinence. PMID:24578896

Szyma?ski, Micha?; Wolski, Jan Karol; Nadolski, Tomasz; Kalinowski, Tomasz; Demkow, Tomasz; Peczkowski, Piotr; Pilichowska, Ma?gorzata; Ligaj, Marcin; Michalski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

99

[Acute urinary retention in primary vaginal carcinoma: therapeutic approach].  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the vagina is a very rare disease. Primary vaginal carcinoma tends to spread by local invasion of the adjacent pelvic organs (without any kind of metastases) and secondarily through lymphatic channels. The aim of this report is to add observations concerning the surgical treatment of this rare occurrence of carcinoma. The 33-year old patient's history began with an acute urinary retention which imposed bladder catheterization. Local examination revealed a hard 3/3 cm large mass on the middle third of the anterior vaginal wall, invasive in the urinary bladder. Cystoscopic examination confirmed the tumor invasion in the trigone. Biopsy specimens of the tumor and histological examination showed carcinoma. Anterior pelvic exenteration with pelvic lymph nodes dissection and total colpectomy was performed and the patient received a continent urinary diversion to the skin (modified Indiana pouch), ovary transposition, vaginal reconstruction with gracilis myocutaneous flaps. Postoperative evolution was uneventful. Organ reconstruction surgery including continent urinary diversion, vaginal reconstruction will significantly improve the quality of life and don't change the body image of the patients after pelvic major surgical procedures such pelvic exenteration. PMID:17687867

Glück, G; Mitulescu, G; Ungureanu, D; Stîngu, C

2007-01-01

100

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

101

African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

Lindow, Megan

2009-01-01

102

Urinary incontinence in women.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

2014-01-01

103

Health Related Quality of Life Significance of Single Pad Urinary Incontinence Following Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeContinence outcomes after radical prostatectomy are frequently reported as the proportion of men using 1 urinary pad or less daily. We postulated that under appreciated health related quality of life (HRQOL) differences may exist between patients requiring 1 pad daily and those who do not require pads.

MATTHEW R. COOPERBERG; VIRAJ A. MASTER; PETER R. CARROLL

2003-01-01

104

Implementing a new urinary catheter insertion and removal pack.  

PubMed

This article describes the implementation of a community urinary catheter insertion and removal pack that provides equipment to maintain safe and effective practice at a cost-effective price within Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. This development was achieved through service integration as a result of two large trusts amalgamating, offering the opportunity for practice development resulting in the development of a joint catheter product formulary, the implementation of a patient catheter record booklet and the design of a community urinary catheterisation pack. The impact of service integration has provided scope for proactive working between acute and community continence services, resulting in innovative approaches generating better quality outcomes for patients who require urinary catheterisation. PMID:25345452

Laws, Alyson

2014-10-23

105

Future petroleum potential of Mid-Continent  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the history of the Mid-Continent, numerous estimates have been made of the amounts of oil and natural gas discovered, produced, and yet to be discovered. As of 1981, the Mid-Continent has produced 127.8 tcf of gas and 18.2 billion bbl of oil, while retaining 32 tcf of gas and 1.5 billion bbl of oil in measured reserves. The 1981 US Geological Survey's estimate of reserves yet to be discovered in the Mid-Continent is 44.5 tcf of gas and 4.4 billion bbl of oil. Since these estimates were made, approximately 25% of those reserves have been found. Production has increased over the last several years, but has been at a rate higher than reserve replacement, owing to the drop in footage drilled and in reserves found per foot drilled. The Mid-Continent is a mature petroleum province whose future years will see an overwhelming emphasis on small field exploration and large field exploitation. In the past 5 years, extensions of old reservoirs and the discovery of new reservoirs in old fields have provided 88% of the newly discovered reserves. As the prices of oil and gas rebound from their 1986 levels, they should see a gradual increase in drilling, both in terms of total footage and in total number of wells drilled. They should also expect fewer exploratory wells and the reserve replacement ratio to remain low. Exploration of new frontiers in the Mid-Continent will be extremely slow in the foreseeable future.

Shotwell, J.D.

1987-08-01

106

Endometriosis localized to urinary bladder wall mimicking urinary bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

Although endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, urinary system endometriosis is an exceedingly rare disease that may cause important clinical problems. In this paper we discussed a 42-year-old woman who had urinary bladder endometriosis misdiagnosed as urinary bladder tumor in imaging modalities. The diagnosis of endometriosis was made by histopathological examination of the operative material after partial resection of the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder endometriosis causes nonspecific signs and symptoms in many patients. In female patients presenting with unexplained urinary symptoms the differential diagnosis should include urinary bladder endometriosis that may mimic urinary bladder cancer and lead to difficulties in making definitive preoperative diagnosis. PMID:25308596

Genç, Mine; Genç, Berhan; Karaarslan, Serap; Solak, Aynur; Saraçoglu, Musa

2014-09-01

107

Imaging of the Urinary Tract  

MedlinePLUS

... is blocking urine flow. Imaging can help clarify kidney diseases, tumors, urinary tract infections (UTIs), urinary retention, small bladder ... of the urinary tract can help highlight a kidney stone or tumor that could be blocking the flow of urine ...

108

Fine-Scale Editing of Continous Volumes using Adaptive Surfaces  

E-print Network

Fine-Scale Editing of Continous Volumes using Adaptive Surfaces Kai Ruhl, Stephan Wenger, Dennis://graphics.tu-bs.de/publications/ruhl2013vmv Contribution First to explore interactive fine-scale editing of continous volumes without

Magnor, Marcus

109

Pathological changes caused by Anoplocephala perfoliata in the mucosa/submucosa and in the enteric nervous system of equine ileocecal junction.  

PubMed

In this study, pathological changes caused by Anoplocephala perfoliata in the ileocecal junction were investigated in 31 regularly slaughtered mixed-breed horses of both sexes. Our results showed a significant relationship between parasite burden and grading of histopathological lesions in the mucosa and submucosa. Hypertrophy of the circular muscle layer was found in infected horses. Moreover, enteric nervous system evaluation showed a significant injury of intestinal nervous elements in the horses with moderate to high parasitism expressed as an increase of degenerative-regressive changes in neuronal cells and a decrease in the number of myenteric ganglia and neuronal cells. These findings can help to clarify the pathogenesis of intestinal motility disorders associated with A. perfoliata infection in horses. PMID:21075534

Pavone, Silvia; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Genchi, Claudio; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili; Brianti, Emanuele; Mandara, Maria Teresa

2011-02-28

110

Continent colostomy: An experimental study in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method for constructing a continent colostomy has been tested in dogs. The sigmoid colon was divided and the distal end\\u000a closed. The proximal end was used for constructing the colostomy. Approximately 5 cm proximal to the colostomy, a short segment\\u000a of the sigmoid wall was intussuscepted into the bowel lumen and secured in position by use of electrocauterization and

N. G. Kock; S. Geroulanos; P. HAHNLOSER; H. Schauwecker; H. Säuberli

1974-01-01

111

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the\\u000a recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between\\u000a January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation\\u000a in 31%, spina bifida

Chandrasen Kumar Sinha; Alka Grewal; Harry C. Ward

2008-01-01

112

Deep Structure of the Indian Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian sub-continent experienced remarkable tectonic and geological events. Breakup of Indian subcontinent from the Gondwana supercontinent possibly due to a large plume, about 130 Myr ago. Paleomagnetic data demonstrates that the Indian continent moved northwards from 65Myr at exceptionally high speeds (18-20cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5cm/year after its collision with Asia approx 40Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (~100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from a 65Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, analysis of heat flow data and P-T estimates on mantle xenoliths from the Dharwar craton reveal low mantle heat flow, 14-20 mW m-2, that indicate a thick lithosphere beneath south India (Roy and Mareschal, 2011). Upper mantle heterogeneities and depth localization of anisotropy structures beneath India are poorly known. In order to solve these issues, we have to follow a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the lithospheric and asthenospheric structure underneath the Indian cratons and the Indian plate. Seismological studies (receiver functions, SKS splitting, anisotropic and surface waves studies of the Indian continent) in conjunction with heat flow, petrological and paleomagnetic data planning to be utilized to image and interpret the 3D-tomographic velocity and anisotropic structure of the whole continent and trace its evolution through time. In this work, we present the high resolution phase velocity maps with azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental and higher mode surface waves propagating across India.

Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-paul; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prakash; Burgos, Gael

2014-05-01

113

Paleostress field evolution of the Australian continent since the Eocene  

E-print Network

Paleostress field evolution of the Australian continent since the Eocene S. Dyksterhuis, R. D. Mu] Although the low-order present stress field of most continents is fairly well established, information for the Australian continent have been included to model the stress field of a heterogeneous plate. We show

Müller, Dietmar

114

Basins in arc-continent collisions AMY E. DRAUT  

E-print Network

Chapter 17 Basins in arc-continent collisions AMY E. DRAUT� and PETER D. CLIFT � U.S. Geological Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5­15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent

Clift, Peter

115

Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering  

E-print Network

Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee* , Douglas M, and approved January 28, 2008 (received for review November 25, 2007) Continents ride high above the ocean, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

116

Managing Continous Data Feed with Subscriber/Publisher Pattern  

E-print Network

Managing Continous Data Feed with Subscriber/Publisher Pattern Raman Kannan kannan: Behavioral, Scope:Object Publisher Purpose: Behavioral, Scope:Object Intent Allow a continous data generator] of the MVC framework to maintain continous data feed. Motivation Our application scenario is one of providing

Schmidt, Douglas C.

117

PICARD GROUPS: REAL AND COMPLEX, ALGEBRAIC AND CONTINOUS  

E-print Network

PICARD GROUPS: REAL AND COMPLEX, ALGEBRAIC AND CONTINOUS ULRICH KR¨AHMER Abstract. An algebraic vector bundle on a smooth variety over R or C can also be considered as a continous bundle over the cor of A by ¯A. #12;PICARD GROUPS: REAL AND COMPLEX, ALGEBRAIC AND CONTINOUS 3 Let now M be an invertible A

Kraehmer, Ulrich

118

WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS  

E-print Network

WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS . By ISAAC GINSBURG FISHERY BULLETIN 96 UNITED the study of these common food fishes occurring on the coasts of the American continents, all the species AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, John L. Farley, Director WHITINGS ON THE COASTS OF THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS By ISAAC

119

Dynamics of an ice continent on Titan J. Taylor Perron  

E-print Network

Dynamics of an ice continent on Titan J. Taylor Perron Department of Earth and Planetary Science feature on Titan's leading hemisphere is an elevated ``continent'' composed mainly of water ice continent based on the similarity solution of Halfar [1983] and the approach of Nye [2000]. We find

Perron, Taylor

120

CCSF Lunch Summary South America: Blueprint for a Green Continent  

E-print Network

CCSF Lunch Summary South America: Blueprint for a Green Continent 17 September 2008 Attendees on hydroe- lectric power. Continent wide, about 25% of the total energy consumed comes from hydropower (see, continent wide, well under 5% of the total energy produced comes from ethanol (see figures at the end)2

Angenent, Lars T.

121

Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.  

PubMed

Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

2014-09-18

122

Origin of Urinary Oxalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

2007-04-01

123

Treatment of recurrent stress urinary incontinence in women: comparison of treatment results for different surgical techniques  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is still no consensus on which surgical technique is the most effective for female recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Aim To compare the long-term treatment outcomes of Burch colposuspension operation, transobturator tape implantation (TOT) and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures performed for female recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Material and methods A retrospective study was performed on 45 women operated on for recurrent stress urinary incontinence after the initial surgery. Depending on the surgical approach, the patients were divided into three groups: group I (n = 19) – Burch colposuspension operation, group II (n = 16) – TOT, and group III (n = 10) – TVT operation was performed. The treatment results were assessed using the UDI-6 (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and IIQ-7 (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) short form questionnaires. We included one additional question: Is the patient satisfied with the treatment outcome? We classified the urinary continence results after surgery as good when patients were cured or improved, and as bad when the treatment failed. Results Good urinary continence results were observed in 84.2% of patients in group I, 93.8% of patients in group II, and 90% of patients in group III. 68.4% of patients in group I, 81.3% of patients in group II, and 90% of patients in group III were satisfied with the treatment outcomes. Conclusions Burch colposuspension operation, TOT and TVT procedures performed for the female recurrent stress urinary incontinence treatment are effective and show similar good urinary continence results and similar number of patients satisfied with the treatment outcomes. PMID:25097693

Barisiene, Marija; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Januska, Gediminas

2014-01-01

124

Intestinal reconstruction of the lower urinary tract as a prerequisite for renal transplantation.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To report a two-stage protocol for children in whom bladder reconstruction was followed by kidney transplantation, as about a quarter of children requiring a kidney transplantation show significant lower urinary tract dysfunction, and consequently their bladder is unsuitable for a kidney transplant. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twelve children (median age 9.5 years, range 4.2-16.8) with end-stage renal disease had a lower urinary tract reconstruction before kidney transplantation. The cause of bladder dysfunction and renal failure included posterior urethral valves in five, neuropathic bladder in two, prune-belly syndrome in two, anal-rectum and urethral atresia syndrome in one, primary obstructive uropathy in one and caudal regression syndrome in one. Two children were diverted with an ileal conduit; four had a bladder augmentation, and four had a bladder augmentation with additional continent cutaneous stoma. A continent urinary reservoir was constructed in one boy, and one boy had a Mitrofanoff-only procedure. Subsequently, 11 children were transplanted. RESULTS The graft survival rate was 11 of 12 at 1 year and eight of 12 at 5 years. No patient lost the graft related to the reconstructed lower urinary tract. During the median (range) follow-up of 5.4 (1.6-12.5) years all but one child had free drainage of the upper urinary tract. All 10 children who did not have an ileal conduit are continent. CONCLUSION Reconstruction of the lower urinary tract followed by renal transplantation is a safe and efficient approach. It has the advantage of restoring the lower urinary tract before immunosuppressive therapy, and supplies the best possible reservoir for a transplanted kidney. PMID:19076129

Djakovic, Nenad; Wagener, Nina; Adams, Judith; Gilfrich, Christian; Haferkamp, Axel; Pfitzenmaier, Jesco; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Schmidt, Jan; Hohenfellner, Markus

2009-06-01

125

Urinary Bladder Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... These workers include hairdressers, machinists, printers, painters, truck drivers, and those in the rubber, chemical, textile, metal ... the body, slows the cancer’s progression and reduces pain. Clinical trials of new treatments for urinary bladder ...

126

Developing an Internationally-Applicable Service Specification for Continence Care: Systematic Review, Evidence Synthesis and Expert Consensus  

PubMed Central

Background Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care. Objectives To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care. Method Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems. Results A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures. Conclusions This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and payers of health and social care could consider using to provide high-quality continence care. A shift towards a community-delivered, nurse-led model appears to be associated with clinical and cost-effective care for people with bladder and bowel incontinence. PMID:25121511

Wagg, Adrian S.; Newman, Diane K.; Leichsenring, Kai; van Houten, Paul

2014-01-01

127

[Recurrent urinary tract infection].  

PubMed

Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

2014-09-01

128

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

129

Endopelvic fascia preservation during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Does it affect urinary incontinence?  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Urinary incontinence has a significant impact on the quality of life after radical prostatectomy. This study aimed to determine whether preserving the endopelvic fascia influences subsequent urinary incontinence. Material and methods. Consecutive patients (n = 138) who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer between October 2010 and June 2012 with a minimum of 1 year follow-up were retrospectively analysed. The subjects were divided into two groups: the non-preserved endopelvic fascia group (nPE group) and the preserved endopelvic fascia group (PE group). Continence was defined as not using any pads and having no urine leakages. Continence rates at set time-points after RALP were compared using the chi-squared test. Continence recovery rates were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Prognostic factors of incontinence were identified using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results. The age, body mass index, preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate volume, estimated blood loss, mean operative time, Gleason score and pathological stage were not significantly different between the two study groups. The continence rate of the nPE group and PE group was 88.4% and 97.1%, respectively, at 12 months after surgery (p = 0.049), which was also significant according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p < 0.001). Preservation of endopelvic fascia was the only significant prognostic factor for urinary incontinence (p = 0.002, hazard ratio = 1.867) according to the multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Endopelvic fascia preservation during RALP significantly enhances postoperative continence and is related to the speed of recovery of continence. PMID:25008957

Kwon, Se Yun; Lee, Jun Nyung; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Bup Wan; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Kwon, Tae Gyun

2014-12-01

130

Assessment of Long-Term Quality of Life Using the FACT-BL Questionnaire in Patients with an Ileal Conduit, Continent Reservoir, or Orthotopic Neobladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL) of patients followed for a long time who underwent an ileal conduit (IC), continent reservoir (CR) or ileal neobladder (NB) using FACT-BL, a bladder-cancer-specific questionnaire. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for bladder cancer from 1987 to 2002 at our institution. Of them, 79 (54%)

Eiji Kikuchi; Yutaka Horiguchi; Jun Nakashima; Takashi Ohigashi; Mototsugu Oya; Ken Nakagawa; Akira Miyajima; Masaru Murai

131

[Urinary incontinence - what can be done by the family doctor and when is the urologist needed?].  

PubMed

About 15% of the women and 10% of the men past the age of 65 years suffer from urinary incontinence. In most cases, accurate history taking can help differentiate between urge incontinence, stress incontinence and overflow incontinence, and is essential in choosing the appropriate treatment. Initial diagnostic testing can be conducted by the general practitioner, especially tests to exclude urinary tract infections or to rule out an overactive bladder. Patient education on changes to fluid intake and voiding habits as well as advice on suitable incontinence products are important first steps in the management of urinary continence. Also, drug treatment can be initiated in general practice. Patients with refractory urinary incontinence, particularly those who did not respond to anticholinergic medication, should be referred to a urologist for further evaluation since there may be an underlying tumour or other disorder of the bladder that is causing the incontinence. PMID:25270747

Keller, Isabelle Sonja; Brachlow, Jan Frederic; Padevit, Christian; Kurz, Michael; John, Hubert

2014-10-01

132

a rpartition traditionnelle du monde en cinq continents conduit  

E-print Network

Editoria a répartition traditionnelle du monde en cinq continents conduit à opposer l'Asie, où continent à un peuplement supérieur à celui de l'Amérique pour franchir le cap du milliard d'habitants en dépassant le milliard pourrait donner l'impression d'un continent très peuplé. Or, en réalité, la densité de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

A report from the 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Continence Society (October 15-19 - Beijing, China).  

PubMed

As Beijing was selected as the site for this year's International Continence Society (ICS) meeting, crowds of locals navigating through the subway train lines and tourists lining up for access to the Forbidden City and other landmarks were joined by a less numerous but a still significant number of researchers, scientists and practitioners working on urinary tract diseases and disorders going to the China National Convention Center to attend the podium and poster sessions. Located next to the Bird's Nest Olympic stadium and offering grand views over the Olympic park from the upper floor where non-discussion posters were displayed, the modern facilities allowed for a smooth, seamless meeting during which a number of highly relevant new findings were discussed. The following report summarizes selected presentations on pharmacotherapy and drug candidates for overactive bladder and other common diseases of the urinary tract. PMID:23170310

Rabasseda, X

2012-11-01

134

A "Stratospheric Drain" over the Maritime Continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is presented from operational rawinsonde data surrounding the maritime continent that the net mass flux near the tropopause is downward over this region, contrary to the behavior of current numerical models. The air is descending year-round, despite mean upward motion below and above the descending layer. This sinking implies the existence of a significant energy-removing process, which is argued to be the injection of cold air by overshooting convective clouds. The mass, energy, and horizontal momentum budgets are examined in reaching these conclusions. The implied cooling effect of convective overshoots can be simulated with a simple, parcel-sorting convective mixing model. The findings contradict the common view that the mean flow enters the stratosphere in this strongly-convecting region, and have important implications for transport of water vapor and other gases into the stratosphere.

Sherwood, Steve

1999-01-01

135

Dynamic Topography of Oceans and Continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large contrasts in surface topography are one of the most striking features of our planet. Contributions to topography range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal thickness and density structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle dynamics. Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle can elevate or depress the earth's surface even if the sources of buoyancy are deep in the mantle. However, direct observation of this ``dynamic topography'' has been elusive, because it is obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. Any potential confirmation of the role of dynamic topography, sheds light not only on the impact of mantle dynamics on surface processes, but also on the nature of mantle dynamics itself. For example, we expect dramatically different topographic signals from layered vs. whole mantle convection. We have learned a great deal about the consequences of dynamic topography for continental flooding and the formation of large sedimentary basins since the pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. [1989] and Gurnis [1990]. Recently, unequivocal signals of dynamically supported topography have been found in both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). In all three cases, the identifiable dynamic topography signal results from upwelling mantle. In regions associated with downwellings considerable controversy remains [e.g. Wheeler and White, 2002]. There is a hint in this result that relates to the ability of slabs to penetrate into the lower mantle and of upwellings to reach the surface from great depth. We review in this talk the evidence for dynamic topography in continents and oceans, and present some speculations related to the nature of layering in mantle convection.

Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Conrad, C. P.

2004-05-01

136

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... following risks are associated with any type of surgery for SUI: • Injury to the bladder, bowel, blood vessels, or nerves • Bleeding • Infection of the urinary tract or wound infections • Urinary problems after the procedure (difficulty urinating or urgency symptoms) • Problems ...

137

The role of anti-incontinence surgery in management of occult urinary stress incontinence.  

PubMed

Combining anti-incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery for patients with occult urinary stress incontinence is controversial. The concern is that some of these patients may remain continent after vaginal prolapse repair making the addition of anti-incontinence surgery unnecessary. However, this can be explained by the fact that the anterior vaginal repair has a curative effect on stress incontinence. Therefore, these patients are denied the more successful anti-incontinence surgery by treating their incontinence with vaginal repair. Once we are able to detect the true cases of occult urinary stress incontinence, all patients should be offered anti-incontinence surgery in combination of vaginal prolapse surgery. PMID:21927940

Malak, Mark

2012-07-01

138

What affects continence after anterior resection of the rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional results after anterior rectal resections are commonly considered satisfactory but variable percentages of postoperative incontinence are often reported. Continence was evaluated after 20 low anterior resections (LAR) and 13 high anterior resections (HAR) by means of clinical assessment, anorectal manometry, and evacuation proctography. Whereas all HAR patients had perfect continence, 10 patients (50 percent of the LAR group had

Giacomo Batignani; Iacopo Monaci; Ferdinando Ficari; Francesco Tonelli

1991-01-01

139

MidContinent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial

C. K. Lee; S. D. Jr. Kerr

1984-01-01

140

The state of stress within the Australian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault plane solutions, seismicity and < in situ > stress measurements point to a predominantly compres- sive state ofthe Australian continent. This stress is being relieved by brittle failure in the upper and middle regions of the crust only. The orientation of the axes of maximum compression varies conside¡ably across the continent. Most Australian earthquakes occur in tectonic provinces that

KURT LAMBECK; R. A. STEPHENSON; D. DENHAM

141

Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... after a bowel movement. Be sure to teach children how to wipe correctly. Having sex may also cause urinary tract infections in women ... front to back after bowel movements. Teach your child to wipe correctly. Urinate after having sex to help wash away bacteria. Use enough lubrication ...

142

Recycling of mafic lithologies during continent formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the continental crust is too silicic to have been derived directly as a melt from the mantle, so in order to balance the crust's composition with respect to basalt a missing mafic reservoir is needed. Thus, a multi-stage scenario is required to generate continental crust. First, basalt is extracted from the mantle. The basalt is then differentiated into felsic and mafic components, the latter of which is disposed of via various processes, loosely termed as delamination. Here, we discuss two of several possible crust formation scenarios. One mechanism is that of island accretion followed by further refinement by continental arc magmatism. Phanerozoic examples include the entire Cordilleran margin, extending from North to South America. The parental magmas are basaltic arc magmas generated in the mantle wedge. These arc basalts differentiate (by both fractional crystallization and re-melting of previously underplated basalt) into felsic and mafic lithologies, the former generating the crust and the latter residing in the deep crust in the form of "arc eclogites". The second mechanism is continent formation by underthrusting and stacking of oceanic lithospheres, a process likely to be confined to the Archean. In this scenario, as the underthrusted lithosphere heats up, serpentinized lithospheric mantle dehydrates, allowing the basaltic oceanic crust to undergo hydrous melting and generate felsic magmas. Such magmas rise up to form the crust, but the mafic residue remains in the underthrusted oceanic crust as eclogite. In both scenarios, the mafic residue or cumulate must be removed because there is little evidence that great quantities of these lithologies exist today within continents. In the arc accretion scenario, the mafic lower crust delaminates only after accretion. In the lithosphere stacking model, we propose that the underthrusted oceanic crust is later evacuated along the thrust faults without disturbing the peridotitic sections of the underthrusted lithospheres. The fate of these lithologies is uncertain. We speculate that underthrusted oceanic crust, once evacuated, may sink into the transition zone or deeper. As for the "arc-eclogites", some may heat up and melt soon after delamination because they are already warm. Such "arc-eclogites" would manifest themselves as fertile melting anomalies in the upper mantle.

Lee, C.; Hoink, T.; Luffi, P.; Lenardic, A.; Anderson, D.

2007-12-01

143

Urinary Schistosomiasis: Review  

PubMed Central

In this review, the clinical manifestations of urinary schistosomiasis are displayed from a pathogenetic perspective. According to the prevailing host’s immune response profile, urinary schistosomiasis may be broadly categorized into cell-mediated and immune-complex-mediated disorders. The former, usually due to Schistosoma haematobium infection, are attributed to the formation of granulomata along the entire urinary tract. As they heal with excessive fibrosis, they may lead to strictures, calcifications and urodynamic abnormalities. The main impact is lower urinary, the site of heaviest ovi-position. Secondary bacterial or viral infection is common, any may be incriminated in secondary stone formation of the development of bladder malignancy. Immune-complex mediated lesions are usually associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Circulating complexes composed of schistosomal gut antigens and different classes of immunoglobulins deposit in the kidneys leading to several patterns of glomerular pathology. The latter have been categorized under six classes based on the histological and immunofluorescence profile. These classes have been linked to respective clinical manifestations and depend on the stage of evolution of the host’s immune response, extent of associated hepatic fibrosis and co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis C. Secondary amyloidosis develops in 15% of such patients, representing a critical impairment of macrophage function. Conclusion: The wide clinicopathological spectrum of urinary schistosomiasis mirrors the evolution of the host’s immune response according to chronicity of infection, bacterial or viral co-infection and, in the case of glomerulonephritis, to the extent of hepatic co-morbidity.

Barsoum, Rashad S.

2012-01-01

144

Prevalence of abnormal urodynamic test results in continent women with severe genitourinary prolapse.  

PubMed

Twenty-two clinically continent women with severe genitourinary prolapse were evaluated urodynamically to determine the prevalence of urodynamic abnormalities that could lead to potential urinary incontinence. Urodynamic testing found an occult incontinence disorder in 13 women (59%), of whom four had urine loss during cough pressure profiles after pessary placement, four had uninhibited detrusor contractions during retrograde medium-fill water cystometry, and five had both stress urinary incontinence and an unstable bladder. Therefore, nine of the 22 patients (41%) had uninhibited detrusor contractions during urodynamic testing. However, uroflowmetry did not reveal voiding dysfunction in this group, although peak flow rates appeared to be lower in the subgroup of women manifesting uninhibited detrusor contractions. Associated symptoms of frequency, nocturia, and urgency occurred in 41% of the women in this study; four of nine (44%) who had normal urodynamic test results, five of 13 (38%) who had abnormal test results, and five of nine (56%) who had an unstable bladder. Therefore, associated symptoms could not be used to determine which women would have abnormal urodynamic test results. These preliminary results suggest that women with genitourinary prolapse may be at risk for an occult incontinence disorder that is masked by the prolapse and that could manifest after corrective surgery for prolapse. Urodynamic testing is suggested for women with genitourinary prolapse who present with or without symptoms of incontinence, so that more data can be obtained to determine the importance of abnormal test results. PMID:1553172

Rosenzweig, B A; Pushkin, S; Blumenfeld, D; Bhatia, N N

1992-04-01

145

A continent in chaos: Africa's environmental issues.  

PubMed

Half of Africa's almost 450 million inhabitants have no access to health services, while two-thirds lack safe drinking water, according to a 1991 report by the World Bank. Most Africans are also seriously affected by poverty, civil war, indoor and outdoor pollutants, diarrhea-causing microbes, tropical diseases such as malaria, rapid population growth, inadequate sanitation and sewage treatment, poor environmental management, corrupt government policies, desertification and deforestation, mining, and the overuse of pesticides and insecticides. Environmentally-related diseases compromise the continent's productivity, making it more difficult to generate revenue to fight the environmental health problems. Industrial pollutants remain rare, however, since almost 80% of sub-Saharan Africa remains pastoral or agro-pastoral. Even so, urbanization is exposing growing numbers of sub-Saharan Africans to hazardous and toxic wastes. Developing countries ship their most dangerous wastes to Africa because their own domestic environmental laws and the high costs of disposal make it difficult and expensive to dispose of them at home. The author discusses population growth in Africa; the lack of good data on the environment and health in Africa; infant and child mortality; water, sewage, and garbage; agriculture, mining, and industry; and sustainable development and the future. PMID:7713013

Clay, R

1994-12-01

146

Improvement of Continence Rate with Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Post-Prostatectomy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the evidence of the effect of pelvic floor muscle training on urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in four databases. Studies were grouped according to the intervention program (muscle training versus control and individual home-based versus physiotherapist-guided muscle training). Results: Eight studies were selected for meta-analysis after satisfying the selection criteria. The data show that pelvic floor muscle training improves continence rate in the short (RR = 2.16; p < 0.001), medium (RR = 1.45; p = 0.001) and long term (RR = 1.23; p = 0.019) after surgery. The number of randomized controlled trials and the heterogeneity in the study population and type of pelvic floor muscle training were the main limitations. Conclusion: Programs including at least three sets of 10 repetitions of muscle training daily appear to improve continence rate after radical prostatectomy. Our meta-analysis shows that muscle training programs for urinary incontinence provide similar results to those of physiotherapist-guided programs, therefore being more cost- effective. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427689

Arroyo Fernández, Rubén; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martín Correa, Ma Teresa; Ferri Morales, Asunción; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

2014-11-22

147

Study protocol: ICONS: Identifying continence options after stroke: A randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence following acute stroke is common, affecting between 40%-60% of people in hospital after a stroke. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for urinary incontinence and urinary incontinence after stroke, national audit data suggest incontinence is often poorly managed. Conservative interventions (e.g. bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training and prompted voiding) have been shown to have some effect with participants in Cochrane systematic reviews, but have not had their effectiveness demonstrated with stroke patients. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled pilot trial designed to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomised trial and to provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematic voiding programme for the management of continence after stroke. Stroke services will be randomised to receive the systematic voiding programme, the systematic voiding programme plus supported implementation, or usual care. The trial aims to recruit at least 780 participants in 12 stroke services (4 per arm). The primary outcome is presence/absence of incontinence at six weeks post-stroke. Secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of incontinence, quality of life and cost-utility. Outcomes will be measured at six weeks, three months and (for participants recruited in the first three months) twelve months after stroke. Process data will include rates of recruitment and retention and fidelity of intervention delivery. An integrated qualitative evaluation will be conducted in order to describe implementation and assist in explaining the potential mediators and modifiers of the process. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN08609907 PMID:21599945

2011-01-01

148

Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology. Although Doug cannot now write the synthesis of the INDEPTH-3 results from central Tibet, nor lead the final INDEPTH-4 campaign across the northern margin of Tibet that he was already planning, our picture of Tibet, and hence of all continent-continent collisions, has changed and grown far richer as a result of his efforts. Among other things, INDEPTH has traced the top of the Indian plate descending beneath the Himalaya, located the likely limit of penetration of Indian mantle beneath central Tibet, and amassed considerable evidence for widespread melt within the Tibetan crust. The first observation, identification of the suture in an active collision, was a natural outgrowth of Doug's earlier contributions to the geometry of the Applachians and Ouachitas. The second observation directly relates to Doug's interest in the evolution of the deep crust/uppermost mantle in old orogens through delamination. The last observation, that melt is widespread in Tibet, was perhaps the most surprising result of the INDEPTH surveys, and the one that Doug used to greatest effect in his synthesis of deformation and crustal evolution around the Tertiary Indus-Tsangpo suture. Doug's articulate and enthusiastic arguments on the inferred role of low viscosity of the middle crust of the Tibetan plateau have been widely echoed in the latest generation of models by many authors that appeal to the flow of crustal material outwards from the central plateau to its southern and eastern margins. This emphasis on crustal mobility in young continent-continent collisions is already influencing our interpretations of ancient orogens.

Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

2002-12-01

149

Hydraulic apparatus for a continously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic apparatus for a continously variable transmission for motor vehicles having a driving pulley with a fixed member and movable members. There are two movable members in the device that are actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening. In the patent it is indicated that a belt member spans the pulleys. Also contained within the apparatus are a number of different component parts performing critical functions. The first series of such components described is a hydraulic fluid reservoir and a hydraulic fluid pump for pumping the fluid from the reservoir. Two principal features of the apparatus which are interrelated and described in the patent are, first, a ratio selecting valve means for changing the speed ratio between the driving pulley and the driven pulley and, secondly, a change speed control valve for controlling the speed of changing speed ratios between the driving pulley and the driven pulley. The speed control means is described as consisting of a number of interrelated parts. The first part is a valve having a first and second land. The second member described is a first inlet passage supplied with hydraulic fluid which exerts force on the second land. Relatedly, a second inlet passage with hydraulic fluid that exerts force on the second land is described. Also characterized is a control means connected to the second inlet passage that supplies hydraulic fluid to the second land or drains the fluid in the second inlet passage. An outlet passage connected with the driving pulley cylinder and draining the fluid contained therein when hydraulic fluid is not supplied to the second and is also characterized. The last component described is a first biasing means to bias the first and to communicate the inlet with the outlet passage.

Ito, H.

1986-01-21

150

Urinary Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most commonly diagnosed and treated infectious disease in ambulatory practice.\\u000a Key principles in the management of UTI include empiric short-course therapy for appropriate patients, initiation of (or rapid\\u000a conversion to) effective oral therapy, implementing measures to prevent recurrent UTI, and avoiding antimicrobial therapy\\u000a for asymptomatic bacteriuria, aside from a few clearly indicated circumstances.

Dimitri M. Drekonja; James R. Johnson

151

Proceedings of the 1992 SPE mid-continent gas symposium  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the mid continent gas symposium. Topics covered included: enhanced recovery; including nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection; well completion; well logging; vehicles run on natural gas.

Not Available

1992-01-01

152

Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

1984-01-01

153

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310...

2011-04-01

154

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310...

2012-04-01

155

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310...

2013-04-01

156

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310 Section 876.5310 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5310...

2010-04-01

157

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876.5320 Section 876.5320 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320...

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876.5320 Section 876.5320 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320...

2011-04-01

159

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876.5320 Section 876.5320 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320...

2013-04-01

160

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876.5320 Section 876.5320 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320...

2012-04-01

161

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Nonimplanted electrical continence device. 876.5320 Section 876.5320 Food...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5320...

2014-04-01

162

Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

163

Differences in the quantity of elastic fibres and collagen type I and type III in endopelvic fascia between women with stress urinary incontinence and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the quantity of elastic fibres, collagen type I and collagen type III in the endopelvic fascia occur with female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A total of 54 patients participated in the study. They were divided into two groups (continent and incontinent) that were comparable with respect to age and

Andrej Cör; Matija Barbi?; Božo Kralj

2003-01-01

164

Current trends in the evaluation and management of female urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Despite its common occurrence and often seemingly obvious causes, female urinary incontinence requires a thorough and thoughtful evaluation for its proper diagnosis and treatment. With rare exceptions, urinary incontinence is the result of failure of the sphincter mechanism to resist bladder pressures encountered during daily activities. This may be the result of sphincter failure, overactivity of the bladder detrusor muscle or both. In uncomplicated cases, the diagnosis is usually based on an evaluation in the office. Urodynamic and cystoscopic study may be helpful in complex, resistant and recurring cases of urinary incontinence of any cause. Most cases of incontinence may be classified as stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence focuses on supplementing the urethral continence mechanisms, particularly the urethral supports and periurethral striated muscle function. The current paradigm for the treatment of urge incontinence centres on pharmacologic therapy, primarily by correcting detrusor overactivity with antimuscarinic drugs. Other therapies aimed at altering sensorimotor function may be used in resistant cases. The treatment of mixed urinary incontinence requires consideration of the contribution of each of its components. With proper diagnosis, effective treatment is possible for most patients. PMID:17098954

Smith, Phillip P.; McCrery, Rebecca J.; Appell, Rodney A.

2006-01-01

165

Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the vector electric field instrument observation onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The evolution of equatorial ionospheric irregularities will also be presented using data from the growing number of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers in the African region.

Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

2008-12-01

166

Overcoming the Stigma of Complications of Continent Cutaneous Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The introduction of continent cutaneous diversions have increased the acceptability and decreased the stigmata associated\\u000a with bladder cancer therapy. The understanding of the complications associated with continent cutaneous diversions is of vital\\u000a importance for individuals caring for bladder cancer patients. The utilization of such techniques requires significant understanding\\u000a of the immediate and long-term complications to allow for appropriate patient selection

Niels-Erik B. Jacobsen

167

Making and Breaking of a Continent: Following the Scent of Geodynamic Imprints on the African Continent Using Electromagnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African continent inherits a long history of continental accretion and breakup. The stage of "making" a continent goes back to the Archean, when the first continental masses formed cratons which mostly remained stable ever since. Subsequent collision of weaker continental masses was followed by several extension and compression episodes that resulted in the formation of super-continents. After the assemblage of Gondwana, a period of predominantly "breaking" , i.e., the breakup of super-continents, took over. The modern-day African continent exhibits different types of margins; continental rifting occurs side by side with recent collision. Since the late 1960s, magnetotelluric (MT) experiments have played an important role in studies of the electrical conductivity structure of Africa. The early results significantly shaped the MT community's understanding of continental-scale conductivity belts and basic characteristics of cratons and mobile belts on both crustal and lithospheric mantle scales for some decades. Modern MT studies in Africa have generally supported earlier results with high resistivities observed on cratons and low resistivities observed across mobile belts. Advances in instrumentation, data processing and interpretation resulted in higher-resolution images of the lithosphere, which in consequence induce an improved understanding of tectonic processes and geological prerequisites for the occurrence of natural resources. The high electrical conductivity of mobile belts and their relation to reactivated fault and detachment zones were often interpreted to characterize mobile belts as tectonic weak zones, which can accommodate stress and constitute zones along which continents can break. Recent breaking of the African continent can be studied on land across the East African rift; however, the lack of amphibian MT experiments across today's margins does not allow for good resolution of remnants of continental breakup processes. Naturally, the regions and the focus of the MT studies in Africa are diverse, but they all contribute to the story of making and breaking a continent.

Weckmann, Ute

2012-01-01

168

Urinary fistula and incontinence.  

PubMed

It is estimated that as many as 3.5 million women worldwide suffer from obstetric urinary fistula. This public health tragedy is a result of obstructed labor and inadequate access to health care, and its eradication lies in prevention and treatment. Efforts at prevention should be made through targeted education and public intervention for improved nutrition, access to health care, and women's social status. Diagnosis and treatment in limited resource settings can occur, and there are specific recommendations regarding nonsurgical and surgical approaches to care. Treatment success may be complicated by social, psychological, and clinical factors, with reintegration a primary concern for this group of women. PMID:25565512

Hampton, Brittany Star; Kay, Allison; Pilzek, Anna

2015-01-01

169

Urinary dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary symptoms and complications in multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate the correlation of these symptoms and complications with urodynamic findings and disease characteristics (primary progressive, relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive). Fifty-two patients with MS were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into three clinical types: primary progressive, relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive. Urological symptoms and complications were recorded. Each patient underwent a urodynamic investigation. Patients were evaluated for overall disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We found that 22 patients had primary progressive, 18 patients had relapsing-remitting and 12 patients had secondary progressive MS. Urgency was the most frequent urinary symptom (65%). Urinary infection was the most frequent urinary complication (15%). Detrusor hyperreflexia was found to be the main bladder dysfunction (27%). Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia was found in 25% of patients, and detrusor hyporeflexia was detected in 6%. No relationship was found between urinary symptoms and urodynamic abnormalities (p>0.05) and between urinary complications and urodynamic findings (p>0.05). No significant correlation was found between disease characteristics and urinary symptoms, urinary complications or urodynamic findings (p>0.05). We suggest that the assessment of urological symptoms and urodynamic evaluation is critical for evaluating quality of life in MS. PMID:19560927

Nakipoglu, G F; Kaya, A Z; Orhan, G; Tezen, O; Tunc, H; Ozgirgin, N; Ak, F

2009-10-01

170

Urinary Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection that occurs in older populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Urinary infection in older men and women is usually asymptomatic and accompanied by pyuria. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria\\u000a is not indicated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Long-term care facility residents with chronic indwelling catheters are uniformly bacteriuric secondary to biofilm formation\\u000a on the catheter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A positive urine culture

Lindsay E. Nicolle

171

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level change  

E-print Network

Global tectonic and climatic control of mean elevation of continents, and Phanerozoic sea level continents, as well as mean elevation of individual continents, should be at the fundamental level controlled factors in controlling mean elevation of continents. The model is able to account for the positive

Zhang, Youxue

172

Non-surgical management of stress urinary incontinence: ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Non-surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is recommended as first-line therapy, yet few prospective studies and no randomized trials compare the most common non-surgical treatments for SUI.Purpose To present the design and methodology of the ambulatory treatments for leakage associated with stress (ATLAS) trial, a randomized clinical trial comparing three interventions for predominant SUI in women: intravaginal continence

Holly E Richter; Kathryn L Burgio; Patricia S Goode; Diane Borello-France; Catherine S Bradley; Linda Brubaker; Victoria L Handa; Paul M Fine; Anthony G Visco; Halina M Zyczynski; John T Wei; Anne M Weber

2007-01-01

173

Pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

This report describes an elderly patient with urinary symptoms who showed surface colonisation of the transitional mucosa of the bladder by an unusual haematoxophilic microorganism superficially resembling the "blue fuzz" seen in colonic biopsies showing intestinal spirochaetosis. Special stains showed that the organisms were Gram and Giemsa positive, weakly argyrophilic, and Ziehl-Nielsen negative. Immunostains were negative for Helicobacter pylori and electron microscopy revealed curious curved bodies, which were difficult to classify. Therefore, this condition was described as pseudospirochaetosis of the urinary bladder. The urinary symptoms regressed on treatment with ciprofloxacin. The clinicopathological relevance of these findings is discussed in the report. PMID:15790716

Chitale, S; Burgess, N; Barker, T H W; Roberts, P F

2005-04-01

174

Urostomy and health-related quality of life in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective.Urinary diversion may be an option in patients with disabling lower urinary tract dysfunction (DLUTD), refractory to conservative and minor invasive treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether urostomy improves quality of life and cost of surgery, in terms of complications, loss of kidney function and hospital stay, in these patients. Material and methods. This prospective study included 52 consecutive patients (nine men and 43 women) with various benign disorders. Twenty-six patients received an ileal conduit and 26 a continent cutaneous diversion. The patients completed the general health-related quality of life instrument WHOQOL-BREF and a urinary problem-specific quality of life instrument preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Length of hospital stay and complications were registered. Intravenous urography and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were performed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively. Results.Disease-specific and health-related quality of life improved significantly (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.05) in all domains except for social relationship, from preoperative to 12 months after surgery. There was no difference in improvement between patients with continent and those with incontinent diversion. Mean hospital stay was 14 days. Early and late complications required open surgery in 12 patients (23%). GFR was unchanged postoperatively. Conclusions.Urinary diversion improves health-related and disease-specific quality of life in patients with DLUTD refractory to conservative and minor invasive treatments. The burden of surgery is acceptable. Urinary diversion could be recommended more often in such patients. PMID:25370732

Schultz, Alexander; Boye, Birgitte; Jonsson, Olof; Thind, Peter; Månsson, Wiking

2015-02-01

175

Prevalence of urinary incontinence in patients receiving home care services.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a 1-day survey to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence among patients in four home care programs in southern Ontario and the characteristics of incontinent patients. Of the 2801 patients for whom the continence status was known, 22% were assessed as incontinent. The mean age of the incontinent patients was 74 (extremes 18 and 101) years, and 65% were women. A total of 89% had at least one functional disability in cognition, mobility, transferring in and out of bed or chair, or undoing garments. The incontinence was moderate to severe in 41% of the patients, and 95% of the family caregivers living with these patients viewed the incontinence as a problem. Palliative rather than remedial treatment was used most frequently; only 5% of the patients had undergone a urodynamic assessment in the previous year. Future research should emphasize the assessment of remedial interventions. PMID:3263180

Mohide, E A; Pringle, D M; Robertson, D; Chambers, L W

1988-01-01

176

[Operative treatment of female urinary incontinence with particular consideration of sexuality according to anatomical findings].  

PubMed

An evaluation of surgical treatment modalities for urinary incontinence shows that loop plasties are easy to use and with good short-term results with regard to achievement of urinary continence. However, in the light of reports of serious complications and the lack of long-term results, this indication must be reconsidered. In the framework of prolapse surgery Burch's colposuspension with sarcopexy and, possibly, rectopexy represents the standard therapy. Laparoscopic procedures are currently being evaluated. Experimental concepts such as, for example, tissue engineering for the reconstruction of a damaged sphincter apparatus or the use of hyaluronic acid as a bulking agent are potential procedures for the treatment of stress incontinence that need investigation, especially since these methods will probably not have visible negative impacts of the female patient's sexual function. What we need is an interdisciplinary project like that currently practiced in the German Centre for Pelvic Surgery. Objectives are the preservation and reattainment for female sexuality in the course of operations to achieve urinary continence and other pelvic interventions. PMID:17290327

Otto, T; Bornemeyer, K; Bagner, J W; El-Baz, A G; Wishahi, M; Otto, W

2007-01-01

177

Variations of human urinary proteome.  

PubMed

The study on dynamic analysis of human urinary proteome is the foundation that we discriminate certain various urinary proteins as potential bio-marker derived from the disease itself or normal physiological change. In our results, based on RPLC-MS/MS and spectral count to study pooled and individual urine samples and other researchers' studies, it can be known that the content of many urinary proteins maintain relatively stable. We have reason to believe that the relatively stable urinary protein is a very valuable resource as biomarkers. Many similar proteins such as prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase and apolipoprotein D proteins have been proved our hypothesis. The following field, the number, preservation and treatment methods of urine sample, the standardization of analysis method and data processing, and suitable quantitative method, is ought to the focus of future study. PMID:25355572

Chen, Yong

2015-01-01

178

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... urinary stones. The most commonly seen uroliths are calcium oxalate and struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate). While a special, ... diet can be prescribed to dissolve struvite stones, calcium oxalate stones need to be removed surgically. If the ...

179

Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology  

SciTech Connect

The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

Lyle, D.

1995-10-01

180

Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the great debates about extinction is whether humans or climatic change caused the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Evidence from paleontology, climatology, archaeology, and ecology now supports the idea that humans contributed to extinction on some continents, but human hunting was not solely responsible for the pattern of extinction everywhere. Instead, evidence suggests that the intersection of human

Anthony D. Barnosky; Paul L. Koch; Robert S. Feranec; Scott L. Wing; Alan B. Shabel

2004-01-01

181

Urinary incontinence and bladder endometriosis: conservative management.  

PubMed

Bladder endometriosis causes urinary symptoms including frequency, dysuria, cyclic haematuria and non-urinary pain symptoms. To our knowledge, the association of bladder endometriosis with urinary incontinence has not been described. We present the first case of bladder endometriosis that caused urinary symptoms including mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). A 34-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our urogynaecology clinic with a 18-month history of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A diagnosis of bladder endometriosis was performed on the basis of symptoms and imaging. The patient refused surgery and dienogest was prescribed. At the 12-month follow-up, all endometriosis-related symptoms and questionnaire scores had significantly improved, and there was resolution of the abnormal urodynamic findings. In reproductive-aged women suffering pain symptoms, bladder endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urinary incontinence and treatment with dienogest may lead to improvement of both urinary and pain symptoms. PMID:25182151

Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Salvatore, Stefano

2015-01-01

182

Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

CSTA Journal, 1995

1995-01-01

183

Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F?-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F?-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

Il'yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

2012-10-01

184

Catheter associated urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

2014-01-01

185

Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidative Status  

PubMed Central

Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

Il’yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

2012-01-01

186

Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent: focus on CYP450.  

PubMed

Countries in Africa have a high burden of communicable disease, and are experiencing an increase in noncommunicable diseases due to the effects of globalization, industrialization and urbanization. The costs incurred through adverse drug reactions and nonresponsiveness to therapy further aggravates the situation, and the application of pharmacogenetic principles is likely to provide some relief. Having undertaken an extensive evaluation of CYP450 reports in Africa, our objective was to map out areas of need based on regional disease burdens. The data confirms a paucity of CYP450 reports and illustrates large regions for which no population information exists. There is a dire need to address the health problems of Africa, and wide-scale pharmacogenetic profiling of these populations will add significantly to improving patient care on the continent. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent gives precedence to the profiling of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers, and defines the immediate need in the context of disease burden. PMID:24533717

Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

2014-02-01

187

The effect of continents on mantle convective stirring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the influence of continental lids on mantle convective stirring efficiency using numerical experiments and analytical theory at infinite Prandtl number with strong temperature dependence of viscosity. Differences between oceans and continents are accounted for by imposing heterogeneous surface boundary conditions for temperature and velocity. We measure the convective stirring efficiency using mixing times and Lyapunov exponent distribution. We quantify systematically the influence of the Rayleigh number, the horizontal extent of continental lids and the rheology on mantle convective stirring efficiency. The presence of continents increases the mantle temperature and therefore reduces mantle viscosity. This in turn leads to an increase of convective vigor and results in a drastic enhancement (3-6 fold, and possibly up two orders of magnitude increase) of mantle convective stirring efficiency.

Samuel, H.; Aleksandrov, V.; Deo, B.

2011-02-01

188

Tectonically buried continent/ocean boundary, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic-reflection sequence observed at depth beneath the south flank of the Benton Uplift in Arkansas is interpreted to mark the early Paleozoic continent/ocean boundary. The sequence is similar in both external and internal geometry to wedge-shaped features commonly observed in the narrow zone separating continental from oceanic basement on modern passive margins and interpreted as layered volcanic sequences. It is suggested that slope and rise sediments now exposed in the Benton Uplift were thrust in a “thin-skinned” fashion over the edge of the North American continent during initial stages of the Carboniferous Ouachita orogeny, but that later uplift and slight northward translation of the continental margin basement occurred in a more “thick-skinned” fashion, preserving the boundary wedge intact beneath the earlier thrust sheets. *Present address: Department of Geology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331

Lillie, Robert J.

1985-01-01

189

Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

de Wit, Maarten J.

190

Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

Bebout, D.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1993-09-01

191

Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

1983-08-01

192

GEOROC: Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, the Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents database (GEOROC) contains about 70,000 sample analyses. These include whole rock, mineral, and inclusion data from seven tectonic settings such as convergent margins, oceanic plateaus, and ocean islands. The database can be queried by several criteria including a handy precompiled file compilation, which can be downloaded for further examination.

2002-01-01

193

MidContinent rift: new frontier in an old area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-Continent rift (MCR) is a 2000-km-long intracontinental feature of middle Proterozoic age (1.1 Ga) that extends from Kansas northeastward through the Lake Superior basin and then southeastward through the lower peninsula of Michigan. The authors believe that rift-related marginal basins overlying axial basins and other structures associated with this feature may locally be prospective within four geographically identifiable rift

D. M. Jr. Davidson; M. G. Jr. Mudrey

1986-01-01

194

Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive extremes (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative extremes (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role for the overall impact of GPP extremes compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative extremes in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas extreme temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.

2014-06-01

195

Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake) and negative extremes (decrease in uptake) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

Zscheischler, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Reichstein, M.

2014-01-01

196

Sige social sur le continent amricain Cisco Systems, Inc.  

E-print Network

Siège social sur le continent américain Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134-1706 �tats-Unis http://www.cisco.com Tél. : +1 408 526-4000 +1 800 553-NETS (6387) Fax : +1 408 527-0883 Guide de l'utilisateur de l'Outil Web Cisco Unity Connection Interface téléphonique Version 7

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

197

Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed

A. Yu

1993-01-01

198

The Malone Antegrade Continence Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor

Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild

1995-01-01

199

American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents  

E-print Network

Continents Anders Pape Møller1 *, Diogo S. M. Samia2 , Mike A. Weston3 , Patrick-Jean Guay4 , Daniel T and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance: Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities

Blumstein, Daniel T.

200

Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents Rudi J. van der Ent,1  

E-print Network

Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents Rudi J. van der Ent,1 Hubert H. G. Savenije the Eurasian continent is responsible for 80% of China's water resources. In South America, the Río de la Plata of atmospheric moisture over continents, Water Resour. Res., 46, W09525, doi:10.1029/2010WR009127. 1

Saleska, Scott

201

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia)  

E-print Network

Sunda-Banda arc transition: Incipient continent-island arc collision (northwest Australia) A stages of continent-arc collision can be studied. We studied along the western limit of the collision be characteristic of young collisional systems at the transition from oceanic subduction to continent-arc collision

Rawlinson, Nick

202

THEME 2 : MODIFICATIONS DU CONTINENT ASIE AU COURS DE LA COLLISION  

E-print Network

THEME 2 : MODIFICATIONS DU CONTINENT ASIE AU COURS DE LA COLLISION 1. La collision Inde questions fondamentales 1) Quelle est la zone de déformation ? Les deux continents se déforment grands décrochements dans la déformation Tertiaire du continent Asiatique. Fait unique, nous avons pu

Déverchère, Jacques

203

Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia -Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition  

E-print Network

Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia - Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition Peninsula and Philippines are in the Asian summer monsoon regime while the Maritime Continent experiences part of the Maritime Continent where the annual cycle maximum occurs in fall. Analysis of the TRMM data

Chang, Chih-Pei

204

Toward constraining regional-scale fluxes of CO2 with atmospheric observations over a continent  

E-print Network

Toward constraining regional-scale fluxes of CO2 with atmospheric observations over a continent: 1 over the continent. To provide a global context for these data, we analyzed the GLOBALVIEW marine observations over a continent: 1. Observed spatial variability from airborne platforms, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D

205

Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus spider  

E-print Network

Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus-6409.2009.00406.x Agnarsson, I., Kuntner, M., Coddington, J. A. & Blackledge, T. A. (2009). Shifting continents was a sister relationship of Malagasy fauna to taxa from the African continent, and that most Malagasy lineages

Mathis, Wayne N.

206

Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus spider  

E-print Network

Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus-6409.2009.00406.x Agnarsson, I., Kuntner, M., Coddington, J. A. & Blackledge, T. A. (2010). Shifting continents was a sister relationship of Malagasy fauna to taxa from the African continent, and that most Malagasy lineages

Agnarsson, Ingi

207

Tectonic features of the incipient arc-continent collision zone of Taiwan: Implications for seismicity  

E-print Network

Tectonic features of the incipient arc-continent collision zone of Taiwan: Implications October 2008 Accepted 3 November 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: Accretionary wedge Arc-continent arc-continent collision, the structures vary markedly along-strike the collision zone so

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

208

How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

2010-01-01

209

New Caledonia a classic example of an arc continent collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SW Pacific island of New Caledonia presents a classic example of an arc-continent collision. This event occurred in the Late Eocene when elements of an intra-oceanic island arc system, the Loyalty-D'Entrecasteaux arc, which stretched SSE from near Papua New Guinea east of New Caledonia to offshore New Zealand, collided with micro-continental fragments that had rifted off eastern Gondwana (Australia) in the late Cretaceous. Intervening Late Cretaceous to Paleogene oceanic crust of the South Loyalty Basin was eliminated through eastward subduction beneath this west-facing intra-oceanic island arc. As with many arc-continent collisions elsewhere collision was accompanied by ophiolite emplacement. The erosional remnants of which are extensive in New Caledonia. Collision led to subduction flip, followed by extensive rollback in front of the newly established east-facing Vitiaz arc. Post-collisional magmatism occurred after slab break-off and is represented by small-scale granitoid intrusions. Additional important features of New Caledonia include the presence of a regionally extensive UHP metamorphic terrain consisting of blueschists and eclogites that formed during the subduction process and were rapidly exhumed as a result of the collision Not only was collision and associated orogeny short-lived this collision system has not been overprinted by any major subsequent collision. New Caledonia thus provides an exceptional location for the study of processes related to arc-continent collision in general.

Aitchison, J.

2011-12-01

210

Le infezioni delle vie urinarie.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infectionsUrinary tract infections (UTI) are amongst the most frequent bacterial infections and therefore are responsible for a significant fraction of antibiotic use, thus carrying a relevant social and economic burden. UTI may present as benign, uncomplicated cystitis or severe, life-threatening urosepsis. Due to the heterogeneity of UTI the European Section of Infections in Urology (ESIU) has introduced a phenotypical classification, based upon the clinical presentation, the risk factors and the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative pathogens. Presence of risk factors is a key point and could change dramatically the course of UTI. In scenario of uroseptic patients, early diagnosis and therapy are mandatory and a successful decompression of the obstructed urinary tract is predictor of survival. The multidisciplinary approach and a timely microbiological characterization are critical in this context. PMID:25451875

Foschi, Nazario; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Palermo, Giuseppe; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Sacco, Emilio

2014-12-01

211

Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse  

E-print Network

Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Female Urinary Disorders and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Richard S. Bercik, M.D. Director, Division of Urogynecology & Reconstruction Pelvic Surgery of Urogynecology & Reconstruction Pelvic Surgery Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences #12

Lee, Daeyeol

212

MP/H Rules Presentation - Urinary  

Cancer.gov

1 Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary 2 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, Tables and Illustrations 3 Introduction • Change in groupings – Previous: Kidney, ureter, renal pelvis • Bladder, ureter, renal pelvis – Lower urinary tract – Lined by

213

Urinary tract infection in older adults  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2013-01-01

214

Approach to urinary incontinence in women. Diagnosis and management by family physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE; To outline an approach to diagnosis and management of the types of urinary incontinence seen by family physicians. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Recommendations for diagnosis are based on consensus guidelines. Treatment recommendations are based on level I and II evidence. Guidelines for referral are based on the authors' opinions and experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Diagnoses of stress, urge, or mixed urinary incontinence are easily established in family physicians' offices by history and gynecologic examination and sometimes a urinary stress test. There is little need for formal diagnostic testing. Management by family physicians (without need for specialist referral) includes lifestyle modification, pelvic floor muscle strengthening, bladder retraining, and pharmacotherapy with muscarinic receptor antagonists. Patients with pelvic organ prolapse might require specialist referral for consideration of pessaries or surgery, but family physicians can provide follow-up care. Women with more complex problems, such as severe prolapse or failed continence surgery, require referral. CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is a common condition in women. In most cases, it can be diagnosed and managed effectively by family physicians. PMID:12790273

O'Neil, Barbara; Gilmour, Donna

2003-01-01

215

The Velocity Model of Chinese Continent Established by GNSS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the high precision repeated GNSS observations, the Multi-quadric equations interpolation method is used to establish the velocity model of Chinese continent's crustal movement. The valuable present-day horizontal and vertical crustal movement velocity images are obtained. The eastwardly movement trend of Chinese continent is quite evident, and there is a trend of clockwise rolling, from northeast to east, then to southeast. At the same time Chinese continent movement show the difference between east and west. In the west the trend is move towards the north and northeast, while in the east the trend is creep towards south and southeast, with a huge north dextral shear zone. The horizontal movement velocity approximately equals to 30-50mm/a.The background velocity model of China mainland in ITRF97 frame is also computed by GNSS velocity observations. The local background velocity model is extremely consistent with Europe -Asia tectonic plate's Euler direction and the spin rate provide by some global background field model such as NNR-NUVEL1A model, Sillard model and Larson model in the magnitude and the major tendency, with which we can analyze the characteristic of Chinese continent's crustal movement.Chinese continent's absolute shift mainly happens in the southwest area. In Ximalaya and Lhasa block the eastern movement is very apparent, and there is an apparent clockwise rotation in Qiangtang, Chuandian, Dianxi block. In Qiangtan block, it shift toward east, but in Chuandian block, it shift toward southeast, and then it shift southwest in Dianxi block. The magnitude is about 10~25mm/a, and they are quite obvious activity deformation belt, and the absolute movement of other area is not evident, mostly less than 10mm/a.The characteristic of vertical crustal movement in Chinese mainland is qualitative analysed: more than 70% of Chinese mainland are descended and the speed of descend is less than 20mm/a , the Qingzang plateau?Huabei plate(excluding Beijing area) and Yanshan plate are ascended with the speed less than 15mm/a. The holistic vertical crustal movement of West-North and East-South?West-South and East-North areas of China are shown an approximate slanting symmetry state.

Yao, Y.

2009-04-01

216

Urinary tract infection in adolescent boys.  

PubMed Central

Clinical and laboratory features of 21 adolescent males with urinary tract infections were studied. Sixty-seven percent were symptomatic and 80% revealed abnormalities on initial urinalysis. Forty-eight percent showed structural anomalies of the urinary tract. Recurrences were observed only in those having abnormalities of the urinary tract. PMID:8583488

Khan, A. J.; Schaeffer, H. A.; Evans, H.

1996-01-01

217

Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive substance in pregnancy. Relation to urinary electrolytes.  

PubMed

High concentrations of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) have been identified in amniotic fluid and in blood during pregnancy. In this study, urine from healthy women was analyzed for DLIS during pregnancy and following delivery, and levels were related to various clinical and urinary findings. Urinary DLIS increased progressively during pregnancy, having a linear relation to gestational week (DLIS = 0.032 week + 0.46, Syx = 0.52, r = 0.46, p less than 0.01), and fell to nonpregnant values during the first postpartum day. The urinary DLIS level correlated with urinary creatinine (r = 0.50, p less than 0.01) and urinary calcium (r = 0.56, p less than 0.01) levels. When adjusted for the gestational week, the urinary DLIS level also correlated with urinary potassium (r = 0.48, p less than 0.01), creatinine (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01), and magnesium (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01) levels. After adjustment for the urinary creatinine level, only the relation of urinary DLIS and urinary calcium levels remained significant (r = 0.44, p less than 0.05). The urinary DLIS level was not found to be related to systemic blood pressure. The ratios of sodium to potassium (r = -0.43, p less than 0.05) and calcium to magnesium (r = 0.37, p less than 0.05) were also related to gestational week but were independent of the urinary DLIS level. Thus, urinary DLIS increases progressively during pregnancy and falls to nonpregnant values on the first postpartum day, the urinary DLIS level can be related to urinary creatinine, urinary potassium, and urinary magnesium levels, and when adjusted for the urinary creatinine level, the urinary calcium level relates independently to the urinary DLIS level. PMID:3618628

Friedman, H S; Abramowitz, I; Nguyen, T; Babb, B; Stern, M; Farrer, S M; Tricomi, V

1987-08-01

218

Retrieval methods for urinary stones.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for urinary stone disease in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with urinary stone disease and had stones retrieved by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of stones, metabolic profiles, retrieval modalities and end result of treatment in terms of stone clearance were assessed. Instances of failure, incomplete clearance and complication events were noted. Based on the experiences, a flowchart was created for appropriate decision-making in urinary stone management. The modalities of retrieval included nephrectomy, nephrolithotomy, pyelo-nephrolithotomy, extended pyelolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, cystolithotomy, urethrolithotomy, ESWL, PCNL, URS, cystolithotripsy, urethrolithotripsy and spontaneous passage. The clearance rate of stone was maximum in open surgery. The extent of stone clearance by ESWL depended on various factors. PCNL was mostly limited by the difficulties in achieving puncture at the stone site. Availability of a variety of flexible nephroscopes also altered the success rate of the procedure. There were good success rates in pushing stones from the ureter to the pelvis followed by PCNL. In patients who had successful PCNL, postoperative morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of the number of days of hospitalization, time taken for return to work, absence of urinary leak, site infection, urinoma formation and urinary tract infection. URS was performed in many patients and stones retrieved. However, the indication for the procedure remains doubtful as the size of most of the stones thus retrieved was less than 6 mm. These would have passed out spontaneously or with chemotherapeutic support. URS, lithotripsy and basketting were confronted by upward migration of stones to the kidney, requiring further procedures for retrieval. Introduction of double J stents helped in relieving urinary obstruction, particularly in patients presenting with anuria, but retained stents, forgotten stents and failed stone retrieval were common following the procedure. The procedure of URS was simplified by the presence of dilated ureter in spontaneous stone passers or those with distal obstruction and proximal dilatation. It is concluded from the study that open surgery still remains the sheet anchor of treatment of urinary stones in many patients in Kerala. Newer lesser invasive procedures should be ethically selected. Decisions should be patient based, taking into consideration the economic feasibility for the procedure proposed. PMID:19834701

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Nair, Nandu; Varma, Gayathri; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

219

Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

220

First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

2014-01-01

221

Structural aspects of Mid-Continent rift system in Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Humboldt fault zone and the faulted Abilene anticline are among many prominent north-northeast to south-southwest-trending structures in northeastern Kansas that occur in Paleozoic rocks as a result of renewed movement of faults associated with the Mid-Continent rift system (MRS). The Humboldt fault zone consists of a number of anastomosing fault segments with high-angle, normal or reverse displacements of up to 600 m. Most of this movement occurred during the Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian. Domal culminations, some of which bear oil, and rhomboid-shaped grabens, are recognized.

Berendsen, P.; Newell, K.D.; Blair, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))

1989-08-01

222

MAGSAT and aeromagnetic data in the North American continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American continent for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.

1981-01-01

223

GEOROC: Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GEOROC (Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and Continents) is intended to become a global geochemical database containing published chemical and isotopic data as well as extensive metadata for rocks, minerals and melt/fluid inclusions. GEOROC currently covers igneous rocks from island arcs, oceanic islands, and large igneous provinces such as seamounts, oceanic plateaus, submarine ridges, and oceanic and continental flood basalts. It contains thousands of entries for whole rock, mineral, and inclusion geochemical data. The database can be searched by bibliography, tectonic setting, geographic coordinates, chemistry, or petrography. The results of a customized query can be directly downloaded in an Excel compatible (comma delimited text) format.

224

Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients  

PubMed Central

In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

2013-01-01

225

Major odorants released as urinary volatiles by urinary incontinent patients.  

PubMed

In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

2013-01-01

226

Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration in the continent of China  

SciTech Connect

The geological structure of the continent of China, which is formed by the amalgamation of three small-sized paleocratons and their peripheral orogenic belts, is very complex. Six big sedimentary basins developed on it: four of them are composite basins on the paleocratons; the other two basins are superimposed on the orogenic belts. In addition, there are a large number of small to middle-sized non-marine sedimentary basins. Up to now, the proved geological reserves in the continent of China are: oil, above 16 billion tons; natural gas, 1000 billion cubic meters. Last year, the annual oil output was more than 140 million tons; natural gas output reached 16 billion cubic meters. The six big basins are still the major exploration potential area. On the other hand, a lot of small to middle-sized reservoirs will be discovered in the small to middle-sized non-marine basins and coal-bearing basins in North China. Qiang Tang Basin and coalbed gas are two favorable frontiers.

Xiaoguang Tong (China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corp., Beijing (China))

1996-01-01

227

Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration in the continent of China  

SciTech Connect

The geological structure of the continent of China, which is formed by the amalgamation of three small-sized paleocratons and their peripheral orogenic belts, is very complex. Six big sedimentary basins developed on it: four of them are composite basins on the paleocratons; the other two basins are superimposed on the orogenic belts. In addition, there are a large number of small to middle-sized non-marine sedimentary basins. Up to now, the proved geological reserves in the continent of China are: oil, above 16 billion tons; natural gas, 1000 billion cubic meters. Last year, the annual oil output was more than 140 million tons; natural gas output reached 16 billion cubic meters. The six big basins are still the major exploration potential area. On the other hand, a lot of small to middle-sized reservoirs will be discovered in the small to middle-sized non-marine basins and coal-bearing basins in North China. Qiang Tang Basin and coalbed gas are two favorable frontiers.

Xiaoguang Tong [China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corp., Beijing (China)

1996-12-31

228

Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents  

PubMed Central

The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

2014-01-01

229

Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

2010-07-01

230

Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

1997-01-01

231

Riverine nitrogen export from the continents to the coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of riverine nitrogen flux calculations that were prepared for the International Nitrogen Initiative's current global assessment of nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future (Galloway et al., 2004). We quantified anthropogenic and natural inputs of reactive nitrogen (N) to terrestrial landscapes and the associated riverine N fluxes. Anthropogenic inputs include fossil-fuel derived atmospheric deposition, fixation in cultivated croplands, fertilizer use, and the net import in human food and animal feedstuffs. Natural inputs include natural biological N fixation in forests and other noncultivated vegetated lands, and fixation by lightning. We use an empirical model relating total N inputs per landscape area to the total flux of N discharged in rivers based on watershed data from contrasting ecosystems spanning multiple spatial scales. With this approach, we simulate riverine N loads to the coastal zone and to inland waters from the continents. Globally, rivers exported about 59 Tg N yr-1, with 11 Tg N yr-1 transported to dry lands and inland receiving waters, and 48 Tg N yr-1 transported to the coastal zone. Rates of riverine N loss vary greatly among the continents, reflecting the regional differences in population and the associated anthropogenic N inputs. We compare our estimates to other approaches that have been reported in the literature. Our work provides an understanding of the sources of N to landscapes and the associated N fluxes in rivers, and highlights how anthropogenic activities impact N cycling around the world.

Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Howarth, Robert W.; Galloway, James N.; Dentener, Frank J.; Green, Pamela A.; VöRöSmarty, Charles J.

2006-03-01

232

Self-consistent formation of continents on early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of continents on Earth. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-continents after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that continents can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.

Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique

2013-04-01

233

Fluid Percolation Within AN Ocean-Continent Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Divergent plate boundaries, such as ocean-continent transitions (OCT) are the perfect target to study mechanisms activated during extension leading to localisation of deformation. The Platta-Totalp massifs in the Eastern Central Alps (Grison, Switzerland) represent a type example of a zone of exhumed continental mantle and offer a complete stratigraphic sequence of an OCT. A detailed study of the geochemistry and microstructures is undertaken to characterise the deformation in such setting. The mantle rocks are spinel lherzolites and harzburgites, into which gabbros and basaltic dykes were intruded, and are partially covered by ophicarbonates. Previous work across the Platta reveals that mantle rocks close to the continent may represent spinel peridotite mixed with (garnet)-pyroxenite layers while the ultramafic rocks at some distance from the continent are pyroxenite-poor peridotites that equilibrated in the plagioclase stability field (Muntener et al. 2004). Fieldwork across the mantle sequence shows localization of deformation with metric or centimetric shear-zones. Peridotites in shear-zones close to the continent have an ultra-mylonitic texture, and contain amphibole testifying fluid percolation. In a centimetric shear-zone amphibole is observed within a matrix made up of a mixture of pyroxenes, olivine, amphibole and spinel with a grain size from 1 to 8 ?m, and as round grains (grain size from 30 to 50?m) embedded in the fine-grained matrix. The host peridotite, which is also deformed, contains larger grains of amphibole with a grain size up to 400 ?m. The chemical composition of the amphibole changes from large to small grains, increasing in K2O and decreasing in TiO2 (wt%) indicating an evolution of the percolating fluid during the localisation of deformation. Another ultra-mylonite (grain size ~ 5?m) from the same mantle sequence displays unmixed areas of clinopyroxene-amphibole and olivine-orthopyroxene, which are folded together. The chemical composition of the amphibole has a lower TiO2 and K2O content than in the other sample. From the continent to the ocean, the clinopyroxene shows a decrease in Na2O for a similar Cr2O3 (wt%) content. However, clinopyroxene compositions indicate a decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and Cr2O3 (wt%) and homogenisation of the compositions in the fine-grained matrix in the entire sequence suggesting a concordant decrease in temperature. A detailed study of the peridotite textures and geochemistry is combined with analysis of the crystallographic preferred orientation using the EBSD method to determine the deformation mechanisms activated during extension. Mapping of individual porphyroclastic clinopyroxenes and large grains of amphiboles within the host (deformed) peridotite display cumulative misorientation angles up to 35 degrees. Moreover, the patterns of dispersion indicate intra-grain composite deformation leading to a grain size reduction. Our preliminary results indicate fluid percolation and chemical variation during localisation of deformation. This study will constrain the localisation of the deformation related to decreasing temperatures and fluid percolation within extensional setting such as OCT. Ref: Muntener et al. 2004, EPSL, 221, 293-308

Kaczmarek, M.; Reddy, S. M.

2013-12-01

234

Urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion was measured in children with idiopathic urolithiasis (15 girls and 10 boys; mean (SD) age 6.2 (2.4) years) and in healthy controls (10 girls and 14 boys; mean (SD) age 6.8 (3.8) years). GAG excretion was expressed as a GAG/creatinine (mg/g) ratio and was evaluated using dimethylmethylene blue. In healthy control children, the mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratio was 31.67 (12.76) and it was similar in girls and boys. The children with idiopathic urolithiasis had significantly lower mean (SD) GAG/creatinine ratios than controls (22.59 (7.35)). Therefore, urinary GAG excretion may be important in the disease process in children with urolithiasis, as it is in adults.?? PMID:10325710

Akcay, T.; Konukoglu, D.; Dincer, Y.

1999-01-01

235

Urinary Tract Infections In Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent diseases in medical practice. Some definitions and epidemiology\\u000a of UTI and bacteriuria are discussed, as well as host susceptibility and defense mechanisms. Aspects of infection in young\\u000a women and in the elderly are reported, emphasizing microbiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Finally, epidemiologic\\u000a and clinical aspects of fungal UTI are

R. M. Ribeiro; P. Rossi; H. G. C. Guidi; J. A. Pinotti

2002-01-01

236

OxyContin® as Currency: OxyContin® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

2012-01-01

237

Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle with implications ranging, inter alia, from water management to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological models or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5° spatial resolution when averaged over the defined regions. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. In some regions, the satellite-based products (GLEAM and MOD16) show a different seasonal behaviour compared to the other products. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the suitability and the differences between products in each climatic region. Through an improved understanding of the causes of differences between these products and their uncertainty, this study provides information to improve the quality of evaporation products for the African continent and, consequently, leads to improved water resources assessments at regional scale.

Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2014-01-01

238

Effectiveness of a program of therapeutic exercises on the quality of life and lumbar disability in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence.  

PubMed

Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) is a common condition and can cause social isolation and decreased quality of life. The literature demonstrates that perineal exercises are effective in promoting urinary continence and lumbar stability. This uncontrolled (group) pilot study, using a pre-test-post-test design, investigated whether a weekly session of Holistic Gymnastics(®) conducted during a one-year period, could change outcomes in a group of twenty women diagnosed with SUI. In the first and last evaluation, the subjects underwent a clinical examination and were asked to complete two questionnaires, one regarding quality of life and the other about lumbar disability. Improvement in the quality of life was observed in nine out of ten domains. There was also an improvement in lumbar disability. These results suggest that a program with therapeutic exercises can be effective in controlling urinary incontinence and improve the quality of life and lumbar disability in woman with SUI. PMID:25603747

Lacombe, Adriana de Carvalho; Riccobene, Virginia Martello; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans

2015-01-01

239

Stone symptoms and urinary deposits.  

PubMed

There is a general belief among the public and clinicians that urinary stone problem is always associated with symptoms like pain, dysuria and haematuria. Many patients stop medical treatment when they are symptom free and return with excruciating pain, dysuria and haematuria either alone or in combination. The objective of this study was to determine stone activity in an individual patient by assessing the urinary deposits at the time of the visit to the stone clinic and correlate with the presence or absence of symptoms at that time. 418 patients who attended the stone clinic in 2007 with proved urinary stone disease, including stone, colic and crystalluria, were studied. Presence or absence of symptoms at the time of presentation was recorded. Minimum of two samples of urine was collected (early morning and random) to assess the presence and extent (1-5) of urinary deposits namely red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid and phosphate. The scores obtained were correlated with the presence or absence of symptoms by logistic regression. Of the 418 patients studied, 238 had symptoms and 180 had no symptoms. The total score of the deposits of patients with symptoms was 1,215 with a mean of 3.39 per patient against the score of 350 in the patients without symptoms with a mean of 2.99. This difference was not statistically significant. The total values and mean scores of the urinary deposits of all patients grouped together were RBC 561 (3.51), PC 434 (3.29), COM 177 (3.34), COD 237 (3.25), phosphate 113 (3.23) and uric acid 43 (1.95). Comparison of the total values and mean scores of the deposits of the patients with and without symptoms showed the variations as RBC 428 (3.51) versus 133 (3.5) PC 341 (3.38) versus 93 (3.0), COM 143 (3.25) versus 34 (3.78), COD 190 (3.88) versus 47 (1.96), phosphate 76 (3.3) versus 37 (3.1) and uric acid/ammonium urate 37 (1.95) versus 6 (2.0). Of these, the RBC, PC, uric acid and phosphates were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the presence of COD was significantly more in patients with symptoms (P < 0.05) and COM was significantly more in patients without symptoms (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the presence or absence of symptoms does not alter the presence and extent of urinary deposits significantly in the urinary stone patients. COD was more in symptomatic patients and COM was more in the asymptomatic patients. This contrast could be due to the morphology of the COD crystal which is dipyramidal and produces injury to urolthelium whereas COM is dumbbell shaped and produces lesser injury and lesser symptoms. PMID:19888570

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

2010-02-01

240

Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention  

PubMed Central

Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials. PMID:22760907

Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

2012-01-01

241

Urinary Tract Infections in Female Patients  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no urinary tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with urinary tract infections, there is a higher incidence of urinary tract abnormalities. The author presents a plan of management for various clinical problems. PMID:21249064

Thompson, S. Elmer

1989-01-01

242

Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.  

PubMed

Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

2005-08-16

243

Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands  

PubMed Central

Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

2005-01-01

244

Was Cambrian explosion the result of wandering continents?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ancient, colossal burst in the diversity of life may be attributable to an equally colossal shift in the distribution of Earth's land masses, researchers from the California Institute of Technology have proposed. Using paleontologic, geochemical, and geomagnetic data, magnetogeobiologist Joseph Kirschvink and colleagues have theorized that the “Cambrian Explosion” of life—a period about 500 million years ago when new types of plants and animals emerged at a rate 20 times the normal evolutionary rate—may have been caused by dramatic changes in the positions of Earth's continents.“Life diversified like crazy about half a billion years ago, and nobody really knows why,” said Kirschvink. “It began 530 million years ago, and about 15 million years later life's diversity had stabilized at much higher levels. What actually happened is one of the outstanding mysteries of the biosphere.”

Carlowicz, Michael

245

Muscle-Derived Cells for Treatment of Iatrogenic Sphincter Damage and Urinary Incontinence in Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the urinary sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transplantation. Methods. 222 male patients with stress urinary incontinence and sphincter damage after uroloical procedures were treated with transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. The transplanted cells were investigated after cultivation and prior to application by immunocytochemistry using different markers of myogenic differentiation. Feasibility and functionality assessment was achieved with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Results. Follow-up was at least 12 months. Of the 222 treated patients, 120 responded to therapy of whom 26 patients (12%) were continent, and 94 patients (42%) showed improvement. In 102 (46%) patients, the therapy was ineffective. Clinical improvement was observed on average 4.7 months after transplantation and continued in all improved patients. The cells injected into the sphincter were at least ~50% of myogenic origin and representative for early stages of muscle cell differentiation. Conclusions. Transurethral injection of muscle-derived cells into the damaged urethral sphincter of male patients is a safe procedure. Transplanted cells represent different phases of myogenic differentiation. PMID:22919359

Gerullis, H.; Eimer, C.; Georgas, E.; Homburger, M.; El-Baz, A. G.; Wishahi, M.; Borós, M.; Ecke, T. H.; Otto, T.

2012-01-01

246

Plate-Tectonic Setting of the Mid-Continent Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. The West and Central African rifts (WCAR), a failed rift system, formed as part of the Early Cretaceous regional extension during the separation of Africa and South America. Once seafloor spreading was established along the entire margin, extension soon stopped within Africa, leaving a failed rift. Shortly afterwards, ~85-80 Ma, motion reversed on some of the normal faults of the WCAR, probably associated with compression due to the collision of Africa with Europe. While it was active, the MCR likely resembled the present East African rift system, which has been extending for about the last 30 my, with one end in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea having largely evolved to seafloor spreading, while the other has diffuse continental extension. Thus rather than viewing the MCR as an isolated, failed, extensional zone within a stable continent, it may have been part of a larger rift system formed during a short extensional phase within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny, perhaps extending eastward of the Grenville Front. This extensional phase would have ended on the MCR before the continental collisions that produced the Grenville front, the most inland Grenville deformation. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to compression, perhaps from collisions around Rodina's margins, would not be unexpected because the MCR would be a relatively weak intraplate zone due to higher crustal temperatures and faults. This reactivation might be similar to the Paleozoic deformation in the central US due to the collisions at the margins of North America.

Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Merino, M.; Keller, R. G.; Flesch, L. M.

2012-12-01

247

Mapping the Western Boundary of the North American Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite progress in understanding the tectonic history of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), the characteristics of mantle fabric/flow and the definition of the tectonic boundary between cratons (east/northeast) and terranes (west) remain poorly understood due to limited data coverage. In this study we present greatly improved constraints on the mantle lithosphere using data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta NEtwork (CRANE), a newly installed broadband array in southern-central Alberta and parts of Saskatchewan. The SKS splitting parameters determined from multiple Mw>6.5 earthquakes are well correlated for stations in the vicinity of the Canadian Rockies. A northeast-southwest trending fast direction is consistent with the present-day absolute plate motion, and is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress. In contrast, substantially lower splitting times and northwest-southeast fast-splitting orientations are observed beneath eastern-central Alberta, a region characterized by enhanced heat-flow and below-average seismic velocities. The anomalous shear-wave splitting patterns could be the mantle expression of a hidden tectonic boundary between stable continent and accreted terranes. Base on this hypothesis, streamlined mantle flow around the edges of moving continental `keels' could induce strong north-south oriented horizontal strain. Geometrical imperfections such as a divot or an abandoned plume conduit on the continental root could cause further disruptions to the mantle flow beneath this region, giving rise to both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. While the mantle flow pattern beneath the entire WCSB remain debatable, the sharp change in splitting parameters across central Alberta could mark the western edge of the North American continent.

Gu, Y. J.; Kocon, K.; Okeler, A.

2009-12-01

248

[Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].  

PubMed

First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

Ziskind, Bernard

2009-12-01

249

Observation of trapped light within the radiation contin-Chia Wei Hsu1,2  

E-print Network

Observation of trapped light within the radiation contin- uum Chia Wei Hsu1,2 , Bo Zhen1 , Jeongwon in a contin- uum of radiation modes--that is not due to symmetry incompatibility5­8,10­16 . Such a bound 1 #12

Soljaèiæ, Marin

250

Oceans and continents - Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considered analysis is concerned with an evaluation of the constraints placed on thermal models of the oceans and continents, taking into account observations and modern plate tectonic concepts. Particular attention is given to three sets of measurements, related to heat flow, subsidence rates on continents and for oceans, and the distribution of area versus age of the ocean floor.

J. G. Sclater; Barry Parsons; Claude Jaupart

1981-01-01

251

Geotectonic evolution of late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. The kinematic progression of the arc-continent collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain

L. Teng

1990-01-01

252

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents  

E-print Network

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents A. Lenardica May 2005 Abstract It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above. The theory predicts that parameter regimes exist for which increased continental insulation has no effect

Manga, Michael

253

Use of A Monti Channel For Administration of Antegrade Continence Enemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSuccess with Malone antegrade continence enemas (MACE) requires reliable access to the colon and a customized enema regimen. Use of the appendix in situ provides a natural and well-vascularized conduit. When the appendix is absent or inadequate, alternative techniques are required. We report our experience using Monti channels to administer antegrade continence enemas.

Elizabeth B. Yerkes; Richard C. Rink; Mark P. Cain; Anthony J. Casale

2002-01-01

254

Recurrent urinary tract infection in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are common among young healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. Women with recurrent UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens, which is due to a greater propensity for uropathogenic coliforms to adhere to uroepithelial cells. Risk factors for recurrent UTI include sexual intercourse, use of

Thomas M Hooton

2001-01-01

255

Recurrent urinary tract infections in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widejly misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice.

Raheela Mohsin; Khurram Mutahir Siddiqui

2010-01-01

256

URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

257

Assessment of urinary dysfunction in the elderly.  

PubMed

This article discusses the significance of specific signs and symptoms in the history and physical examination as they apply to the lower urinary tract in the geriatric population. The relevant use of urodynamics, cystoscopy, and other innovative techniques that aid in the assessment of urinary dysfunction will be covered. PMID:2405981

Douenias, R; Yalla, S V; Badlani, G H

1990-02-01

258

Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive  

E-print Network

1 Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major, along with the lower part of the digestive system #12;6 Basic Anatomy of the Urinary System Kidneys lie in an aquatic insect larva Basic Anatomy of the Respiratory System I Air enters through the nose Inside nose

Brown, Christopher A.

259

Imaging in urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved urinary tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were over 5 years of age. All children had a micturating cystourethrogram and a 99mTc (technetium) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Forty two of the 188 kidneys were scarred and 70 of the kidneys had VUR. Only 37.1% of the kidneys with reflux were scarred but 61.9% of the scarred kidneys had VUR. In children of less than 1 year, 48% of kidneys with VUR were scarred whereas 70.6% of scarred kidneys had reflux. In children between 1 and 5 years of age only 36.4% of kidneys with VUR were scarred but 63.2% of scarred kidneys had VUR. There is good correlation between the detection of a scarred kidney on DMSA and the presence of vesicoureteric reflux. However the detection of reflux particularly in children over 1 year of age shows poor correlation with renal scarring. This suggests that the primary imaging in children over 1 year of age presenting with a urinary tract infection should be of the kidney: a cystogram should be performed only if the DMSA scan is abnormal. PMID:1661570

Gleeson, F V; Gordon, I

1991-11-01

260

Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

2014-01-01

261

A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th and U typically show increases due to their association in clays and oxides in the profile. These geochemical relationships underpin the first model prediction. In the case where no gamma-ray data is available or where the bedrock is very low in radioelements (e.g. basalt, quartz-rich sandstone) surface relief is used as surrogate in the second prediction model. The two models are combined to generate a weathering intensity index of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity index has been developed for erosional landscapes but also provides useful information on deposition processes and materials. The weathering intensity prediction is evaluated with surface geochemistry (compared with geochemical indices) and previous regolith-landform mapping. The use of the weathering intensity index in natural resource management and mineral exploration is discussed.

Wilford, J.

2013-12-01

262

Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=??0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

2014-01-01

263

The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

Zbar, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

264

The ocean-continent transition of western Iberia  

SciTech Connect

The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.

Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. (Inst. of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Lab., Surrey (United Kingdom)); Boillot, G. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranchesur-Mer (France)); Recq, M. (Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France))

1991-08-01

265

Antegrade continence enemas in the management of intractable faecal incontinence.  

PubMed Central

The introduction of the Malone procedure has improved the outlook for children with severe faecal incontinence. Phosphate and saline enemas are administered through the exteriorized appendix in antegrade fashion to achieve evacuation and ensure cleanliness. The appendix functions as a non-refluxing catheterizable channel: If it is not available for use, a tubularized caecal flap is a safe alternative. We have constructed Malone stomas using the appendix in 20 patients and another seven patients have undergone the caecal flap modification. The mean age was 8.6 years. Eleven of the patients were boys and 16 (59%) were girls. Six children required dilatation or revision of their stomas for stenosis. One developed small bowel obstruction and another has stopped using the stoma. The results of the continence enemas were considered to be very good by the vast majority of patients and their carers. Our recent experience suggests that bisacodyl may be a valuable adjunct to the antegrade enemas of phosphate and saline. We believe that this procedure may be extended with benefit to adults with serious faecal incontinence in whom standard measures have failed. PMID:7769583

Kiely, E M; Ade-Ajayi, N; Wheeler, R

1995-01-01

266

The Dynamics of Organic Matter Cycling on the Continents and in the Oceans T.I. Eglinton  

E-print Network

The Dynamics of Organic Matter Cycling on the Continents and in the Oceans T.I. Eglinton Geological, occurring both on the continents and in the oceans, and exerting hysteresis in the carbon cycle. #12;

Simon, Emmanuel

267

Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.

Everett, Charles J. [Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 295 Calhoun Street, P.O. Box 250192, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)], E-mail: everettc@musc.edu; Frithsen, Ivar L. [Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 295 Calhoun Street, P.O. Box 250192, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)], E-mail: frithse@musc.edu

2008-02-15

268

Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocol-biopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including ?1-microglobulin, ?2-microglobulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

O'Riordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S; Iozzo, Renato V; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S

2008-07-01

269

Copyright 2012 by the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society J WOCN March/April 2012 S21 Copyright 2012 Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2012 by the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society J WOCN March/April 2012 S21 Copyright © 2012 Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012;39(2S):S21-S29. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Cooper, Robin L.

270

Highlights of 1983 industry activity in Mid-Continent - good signs in difficult times  

SciTech Connect

Drilling activity in the Mid-Continent has suffered from the industry slump. Mid-Continent industry activity, however, remains surprisingly strong when compared to the total United States. In 1982, four Mid-Continent basins ranked inthe top ten based on total completions. Two provinces - Anadarko basin and Chautauqua platform - ranked in the top ten based on drilling and completion expenditures. Despite mature development of most Mid-Continent producing provinces, 1982 exploratory drilling continued strong and yielded good success. Seven Mid-Continent provinces ranked in the top ten based on density of wildcat drilling activity. Four provinces ranked in the top ten based on number of wildcats and best success ratios. Coupled with active exploratory drilling both Oklahoma (+ 2.8%) and Kansas (+ 3.8%) increased their annual crude-oil production. Average 1982 oil well initial potentials increased by 30% to 30 bbl/day in Kansas and by 9% to 58 bbl/day in Oklahoma. The increased productive potential coupled with lower drilling costs indicates the potential for improved investment return for Mid-Continent wells. The 1983 drilling and exploratory activity are reviewed to highlight positive factors and trends that support continued healthy industry activity in the Mid-Continent.

Stark, P.H.

1983-08-01

271

Urinary tract infection in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Up to 11.3% of girls and 3.6% of boys will have had a urinary tract infection (UTI) by the age of 16 years, and recurrence of infection is common. Vesicoureteric reflux is identified in up to 40% of children being investigated for a first UTI, and is a risk factor for, but weak predictor of, renal parenchymal defects. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment of acute urinary tract infection in children? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 25 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (short initial intravenous antibiotics, long initial intravenous antibiotics, initial oral antibiotics, single-dose or single-day courses of oral antibiotics, short courses of oral antibiotics, long courses of oral antibiotics, immediate empirical antibiotics, delayed antibiotics, prolonged delay of antibiotics, prophylactic antibiotics); immunotherapy; surgical correction of minor functional abnormalities; and surgical correction of moderate to severe vesicoureteric reflux. PMID:21733199

2010-01-01

272

The Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID): Validity and Responsiveness to Change in Women Undergoing Non-Surgical Therapies for Treatment of Stress Predominant Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Aims The Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID), a 6-item urinary incontinence (UI) symptom questionnaire, was developed and validated to distinguish stress and urge UI. This study’s objective was to evaluate QUID validity and responsiveness when used as a clinical trial outcome measure. Methods Participants enrolled in a multi-center trial of non-surgical therapy (continence pessary, pelvic floor muscle training or combined) for stress-predominant UI completed baseline and 3-month diaries, the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) and QUID. Data from all treatment groups were pooled. QUID internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?) and convergent/discriminant validity (Pearson correlations) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed with 3-month score outcomes and distribution-based measurements. Results 444 women (mean age 50) were enrolled with stress (N=200) and mixed (N=244) UI; 344 had 3-month data. Baseline QUID Stress and Urge scores (both scaled 0-15, larger values indicating worse UI) were 8.4 ± 3.2 and 4.5 ± 3.3, respectively. Internal consistency of QUID Total, Stress and Urge scores was 0.75, 0.64 and 0.87, respectively. QUID Stress scores correlated moderately with UDI-Stress scores (r=0.68, p<0.0001) and diary stress UI episodes (r=0.41, p<0.0001). QUID Urge scores correlated moderately with UDI-Irritative scores (r=0.68, p<0.0001) and diary urge UI episodes (r=0.45, p<0.0001). 3-month QUID Stress and Urge scores improved (4.1 ± 3.4 and 2.2 ± 2.7, both p<0.0001). QUID Stress score Effect Size (1.3) and Standardized Response Mean (1.2) suggested a large change after therapy. Conclusion The QUID has acceptable psychometric characteristics and may be used as a UI outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:19787711

Bradley, Catherine S.; Rahn, David D.; Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Barber, Matthew D.; Nager, Charles W.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.; Abel, Robert B.; Spino, Cathie; Richter, Holly E.

2009-01-01

273

Management of Patients with Urinary Calculi  

PubMed Central

A retrospective survey was made of 305 patients with proved urinary calculi. When those patients with a solitary stone were compared with those with multiple stones no diagnostically helpful difference was noted in the prevalence of abnormal serum or urine biochemistry, urinary infection, or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract. The same was true of the stone composition and the need for surgery. It seems that neither routine radiological examination nor regular follow-up is likely to help identify patients whose stones are going to recur. PMID:4819174

Powis, S. J. A.; Black, J.; Macdougall, J. A.; Clews, J. W.

1974-01-01

274

Ricardo Baeza-Yates Speaks Out on CS Research in Latin America, His Multi-continent Commute for  

E-print Network

Ricardo Baeza-Yates Speaks Out on CS Research in Latin America, His Multi-continent Commute research as we are doing now at Yahoo!. I have heard of telecommuting, but not between continents. How do continent? SIGMOD Record, December 2007 (Vol. 36, No. 4) 35 #12;Right, I view it as a single lab. In some

275

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications on Atmospheric Circulations at High Southern Latitudes*  

E-print Network

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications) ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that winds in the lower atmosphere over the Antarctic continent are among the mean annual and seasonal airflow patterns over the Antarctic continent to compare with previous

Howat, Ian M.

276

Constraints on the current rate of deformation and surface uplift of the Australian continent from a new  

E-print Network

Constraints on the current rate of deformation and surface uplift of the Australian continent from of the current rate of deformation and surface uplift for the Australian continent are derived by integration of a new seismic database and show that parts of the continent are currently experiencing deformation

Sandiford, Mike

277

Long-wavelength tilting of the Australian continent since the Late Cretaceous Lydia DiCaprio a,b,  

E-print Network

Long-wavelength tilting of the Australian continent since the Late Cretaceous Lydia DiCaprio a Discordance paleo-shoreline Global sea level and the pattern of marine inundation on the Australian continent, downward tilting of the continent to the northeast by 300 m since the Eocene. This downward tilting

Müller, Dietmar

278

Convection under a lid of finite conductivity in wide aspect ratio models: Effect of continents on the  

E-print Network

Convection under a lid of finite conductivity in wide aspect ratio models: Effect of continents continent-like heterogeneities. Indeed, the presence of a finitely conducting lid on top of a convective ratio models: Effect of continents on the wavelength of mantle flow, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B08403, doi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

CNTb, a set of scripts for batch processing and statistical analysis of photon correlation spectroscopy data via CONTIN inversion  

E-print Network

spectroscopy data via CONTIN inversion I. Echavarri Franco, J. Combet, and F. Schosseler Institut Charles allowing a batch inversion of series of photon correlation spectroscopy data files via CONTIN with a single is needed to test the reproducibility and the reliability of CONTIN output in difficult experimental

Boyer, Edmond

280

Mantle dynamics of continent-wide Cenzoic subsidence and tilting of Australia1 Lydia DiCaprio1*  

E-print Network

Mantle dynamics of continent-wide Cenzoic subsidence and tilting of Australia1 2 Lydia DiCaprio1-scale flooding history of the continent to24 mantle convection since 50 Ma. Subduction-driven geodynamic models produce the observed continent-wide subsidence with29 300 m of northeast downward tilt since the Eocene

Müller, Dietmar

281

The big crunch: Physical and chemical expressions of arc/continent collision in the Western Bismarck arc  

E-print Network

The big crunch: Physical and chemical expressions of arc/continent collision in the Western subduction calc-alkaline low-K tholeiite arc­continent collision zone The Western Bismarck arc of Papua New Guinea provides a unique setting in which to study both the seismic and chemical expressions of arc­continent

Sandiford, Mike

282

Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas  

SciTech Connect

The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-continent. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.

Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

1997-02-13

283

Mid-Continent rift: new frontier in an old area  

SciTech Connect

The Mid-Continent rift (MCR) is a 2000-km-long intracontinental feature of middle Proterozoic age (1.1 Ga) that extends from Kansas northeastward through the Lake Superior basin and then southeastward through the lower peninsula of Michigan. The authors believe that rift-related marginal basins overlying axial basins and other structures associated with this feature may locally be prospective within four geographically identifiable rift segments: Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Michigan. Source is the most problematic aspect of exploration potential along this structure. Calculations of source rock availability leads us to predict ultimate recoverable reserves of less than 5 billion bbl of oil or 15 tcf of gas alone the MCR. Source beds are probably restricted in areal extent, and they are old (Proterozoic-lower Paleozoic). Both organic and inorganic sources are possible. Adequate volumes of reservoir rock have been identified in all rift segments. The most promising hosts are rift-related clastics of Proterozoic age, or more extensive basal Paleozoic sands that locally occur in marginal basins along and in sheets adjacent to the MCR. Migration is assumed to have occurred under normal hydrodynamic conditions (load) with close spatial proximity between source and reservoir units. Permeability problems related to diagenesis are not anticipated. The authors postulate that both structural and stratigraphic traps probably occur. Fault-related structures vary in style within the various rift segments: rotated, half-graben in Kansas; overthrust and normal in Iowa; and high-angle reverse in Minnesota and Michigan. Unconformities involving Proterozoic and possibly Paleozoic units may occur in all segments. Seals along faulted structures are assumed to be gouge-related and their effectiveness will depend on the abundance and types of clay within individual faults.

Davidson, D.M. Jr.; Mudrey, M.G. Jr.

1986-05-01

284

Antarctica and IGY: New Frontiers in "A Continent for Science"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica was established as a laboratory for cooperative international science during the last IGY, and remains an unparalleled model of successful international research. The scientific foundations established in the IGY have led to significant advances in understanding processes in the solid earth, the atmosphere, the oceans, the cryosphere and the global climate system. It is increasingly clear that deciphering the feedbacks and interactions between these spheres is required to comprehend the earth system as a whole, hence understanding the unique Antarctic geodynamic environment is imperative. Yet, in many respects, Antarctica remains an unexplored frontier of the earth system. The Antarctic geoscience community has begun planning a new era of earth science exploration projected to reach fruition at the time of the IGY golden jubilee (see: http://www.geology.ohio-state.edu/agg-group/). International cooperation will be organized through SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). An `Antarctic Geophysical Decade' will include experiments at unprecedented scales across the continent, enabled by new technologies. Coordinated airborne and marine geophysical surveys, drilling (offshore and through the ice sheet to bedrock), deployment of GPS and seismic arrays, topical geological studies, and modeling studies, integrated with the wealth of new and upcoming satellite-derived data, will allow us to make the next leaps forward in understanding questions such as: 1) how changing ice mass loads influence lithospheric stress/strain regimes; 2) how glacial isostatic adjustment and the tectono-thermal structure of the lithosphere control modern ice sheet dynamics; 3) inception, growth and fluctuations of Antarctic ice sheets and interhemispheric a/synchroneity; 4) climate sensitivity to forcing factors such as continental-scale paleogeography, volcanism, erosion/sedimentation; 5) the origin and evolution of subglacial lakes and their life forms; and 6) the mode and tempo of supercontinent assembly and dispersal, and relations to global climate change and biotic evolution through earth history.

Wilson, T.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Deconto, R.; Finn, C.; Harwood, D.; Leventer, A.; Ritzwoller, M.; Tulaczyk, S.

2002-12-01

285

Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic  

SciTech Connect

Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

Egorov, A.Yu. (Aerogeologiya, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

286

Stratigraphy, structure, and extent of the East Continent Rift Basin  

SciTech Connect

The proven existence of pre-Mt. Simon sedimentary rocks named the Middle Run Formation in southwestern Ohio led to the establishment of the Cincinnati Arch Consortium, a joint industry-government partnership to investigate the areal extent, nature, and origin of this new unit. Utilizing available well, seismic, and potential-field data, the consortium has shown that the Middle Run was deposited in a Precambrian rift basin, named the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These data indicate the ECRB assemblage consists of a large folded and faulted wedge of interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks, unconformably overlain by Cambrian strata. This wedge is estimated to be thickest (up to about 22,000 feet) on the western edge, where it is in fault contact with Grenville Province rocks. To the west, the ECRB may extend as far as central Illinois and postdates the Precambrian Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks. The contact between the ECRB and this older province appears to be in part an angular unconformity and in part block faulted. The northern limit of this basin was not encountered in the study area; this may indicate a connection with the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan. In central Kentucky, the boundary conditions are more complex. It appears that the ECRB is constricted between a large block of the Granite-Rhyolite Province to the west and the Grenville Front on the east. Large Cambrian extensional structures (Rough Creek Graben and Rome Trough) were overprinted on the Granite-Rhyolite and Grenville Provinces. The ECRB may have acted as a stable block between these Cambrian features. The relationships of the ECRB to overlying Paleozoic features may be profound. Indeed, the ECRB may prove to be the reason for the very existence of the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches.

Wickstrom, L.H. (Cincinnati Arch Consortium and Ohio Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

287

The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

1981-01-01

288

Urinary incontinence triggered by stretching exercises.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old female patient who experienced urinary urgency after having stretching exercises of her legs is presented. Stretching of the legs are thought to be responsible for conus medullaris tethering which in turn causes urinary complaints. What is interesting in this case is that her complaints about urinary urgency stopped as she quit stretching exercise movements of her legs. There are some examples of such cases in the literature. The urinary urgency after stretching exercises warned us to investigate this patient in regard to tethered conus medullaris. Tethering of the conus medullaris can be temporary and can cause reversible functional disorders of the bladder. Incontinence at any age should be evaluated cautiously as it could be a sign of an underlying important developmental failure. PMID:22665007

Selcuki, Deniz; Selcuki, Mehmet; Erturk, Ali R?za

2012-01-01

289

Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

1986-01-01

290

Continent-continent collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique continent-continent collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps is larger than needed to support surface topography, and is offset from its topographic high, consistent with dynamic thickening of the Pacific crust by the mantle thickening. Teleseismic shear wave splitting is evidence of a wide zone of distributed strain for the mantle portion of the plate boundary. The collective set of results from the South Island projects have led to a number of subsequent studies by various teams, based on follow-up questions, expanded observational expertise, and international collaborative alliances with in particular the New Zealand science community. These studies include a search for the full width of Pacific/Australian distributed mantle strain using marine OBS studies, the transition from strike-slip to plate boundary subduction to the north, the search and discovery of seismic tremor on the Alpine fault, and high resolution geophysical characterization of Alpine fault seismogenesis. The success of geophysically imaging a narrow island using both marine sides led different SIGHT scientists to carry out expanded efforts to study North Island subduction and separately Taiwan mountain building. These efforts benefited and were largely motivated from multi-disciplinary, multi-national collaborations as typically supported by the NSF Continental Dynamics program.

Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

2012-12-01

291

Urinary fistulas: What does the evidence say?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary fistulas are well-recognized, iatrogenic complications in developed countries that require timely diagnosis and tailored\\u000a management. Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is the most common type of urinary fistula. Depending on the size, mechanism of injury,\\u000a time of discovery, evidence of active inflammation, and experience of the surgeon, a wide range of treatment options exist\\u000a for VVF. Most fistulas can be promptly

Ja-Hong Kim; Ariana L. Smith; Shlomo Raz

2008-01-01

292

Urinary tract infection: a moving target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infection is an old problem that continues to present new challenges. The purpose of this special edition is\\u000a to pull together new basic scientific information regarding the pathogenesis of infection and to review the state of the art\\u000a in the evaluation and treatment of urinary tract infection in some of the more complex or challenging clinical settings. The

Werner W. Hochreiter; Wade Bushman

1999-01-01

293

Salt-Fluoridation and Urinary Fluoride Excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary fluoride excretion under different conditions was examined using a fluoride ion activity electrode. The mean 24-hour urinary fluoride excretion in adult women was 0.89 mg in Basel with water-fluoridation at the 1 ppm level. In two women using a domestic salt with 250 mg F\\/kg the mean fluoride excretion was 1.04 mg and in three persons working in a

H. J. Wespi; W. Bürgi

1971-01-01

294

Antimicrobial mechanisms of the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urinary tract is a key system to maintain the homeostasis of the human body. It is relatively open to the outside environment,\\u000a the perineum, a region highly colonized by bacteria. Bacteria can even be found in urine of healthy individuals. Still, urinary\\u000a tract infections are far less frequent than it could be expected under these conditions. The high resistance

Milan Chromek; Annelie Brauner

2008-01-01

295

Geological controls on BSR occurrences in the incipient arc-continent collision zone off southwest Taiwan  

E-print Network

Geological controls on BSR occurrences in the incipient arc-continent collision zone off southwest, and tectonic features can be observed. Four major occurrences of BSR types of ridge type, basin type, submarine

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

296

Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.  

PubMed

Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern. PMID:25451882

Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

2014-12-23

297

The European Continent : Surface Expression of Upper Mantle Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface topography of Europe shows important variations, most of which are relatively well explained by isostatic compensation of density contrasts within the crust and lithosphere. However, not all of the density contrasts leading to topography reside within the lithosphere. The crucial problem is how to detect the extra topography signal, in addition to that associated with both crustal and lithospheric anomalies. Forte and Perry, 2000 estimate the amplitude of the dynamic topography by removal of the crustal isostatic topography signal from the surface of the Earth. Faccenna and Becker, 2010 infer the equivalent dynamic topography from the normal stress generated at the surface by mantle viscous flow driven by thermal anomalies. Here we consider the correlation between residual topography and mantle residual gravity anomalies. As shown by Pekeris, 1935 and Hager et al., 1985, the viscous mantle flow that is driven by the thermal density contrasts is responsible for the long-wavelength gravity anomalies observed at the surface. They have demonstrated that the gravitational effects of surface deformation caused by the flow is opposite in sign and comparable in magnitude to that of the driving density contrast. The 1°x1° recently assembled European crustal model, EPCrust (Molinari and Morelli, 2011) is used to estimate the effects of the isostatic crust and the mantle residual gravity anomalies. We calculate the correlation matrix between the residual topography and the mantle residual gravity anomalies and we define the regions where the sublithospheric mantle density, below the European continent, contributes to surface topography. To recover the residual topography, the effects of the isostatic crust is estimated with the Panasyuk and Hager (2000) algorithm and subtracted from the observed elevation (ETOPO-1). The mantle residual gravity anomalies are estimated as the differences between the produced gravity field of EPCrust and the observations. 3-D images of the European upper mantle isotropic shear-wave speeds and mass densities, recently recovered by combined inversion of surface-wave information and GRACE satellite gravity data (Tondi et al., 2012) are used to select the regions where the residual topography and the residual mantle gravity anomalies are strongly correlated (correlation coefficient is equal to 1). We assume surface uplift processes with negative density anomalies and downward pull with positive anomalies. Our work shows a strong correlation among the areas where, on the basis of our assumptions, the mantle dynamics have surface expression and the areas of low values of radial anisotropy: (1) the southern margins of the East European Craton, (2) the North-Eastern edges of the Arabian Plateau, (3) the northern edge of the CEVP (Central European Volcanic Province), (4) the North-Eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Iceland.

Tondi, M. R.; Schivardi, R.; Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.

2012-12-01

298

Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental changes to the total discharge of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. While it is unclear if the Teays River ever flowed into the St. Lawrence drainage or developed as a westward-flowing tributary to the buried Mahomet valley in Illinois, both the ancestral Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers originated as headwaters of the St. Lawrence basin before being rerouted as part of the Mississippi basin. The areas formerly drained by the Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers comprise ~8% of the modern Mississippi River basin, and modern discharge from those areas represent ~14% of the mean annual discharge of the Mississippi River. The transfer of this drainage area and discharge to the Mississippi basin is mirrored by an equivalent loss from the St. Lawrence system during the Quaternary as a direct result of glacially-driven drainage system reorganization.

Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

2013-12-01

299

Localisation of edge driven convection beneath the Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mantle plumes are frequently invoked to explain the widespread occurrence of intraplate volcanism. However, many volcanic provinces do not conform to this paradigm and, hence, alternative explanations are required for a number of hotspots around the world. To date, these include: (i) lithospheric cracking; (ii) ductile removal of lithosphere via gravitational instability; (iii) glacial rebound; (iv) slab tear; (v) shear induced melting of the asthenosphere; and (vi) edge driven convection (EDC). In the latter case, a variety of studies have shown that a step change, or sharp transition in depth to the base of the lithosphere, drives a small-scale thermally induced convective instability, which can result in dynamic melting of upwelling mantle. However, intraplate volcanic centres in the vicinity of lithospheric steps (e.g. between continental shield regions and young lithosphere) only manifest at isolated locations, and show little tendency to elongate parallel to the lithospheric step, which might be expected for such a phenomenon. The Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia is the most recent example of intraplate volcanism on the Australian continent, with the last eruption dated at approximately 4.5 ka. It comprises over 700 eruption points with an east-west distribution, which is roughly perpendicular to current plate motion. The basaltic plains are generally less than 60 m thick, implying a low eruption volume, whilst topographic response is of the order of 100 m. Evidence for the mantle source of the NVP has so far been equivocal, but a general consensus is emerging that an underlying mantle plume is unlikely. In this study, we present new 3-D teleseismic tomography results, which suggest that the source of the NVP is confined to the upper mantle. Motivated by these results, we use a new and detailed lithospheric thickness model of southeast Australia to examine the influence of out-of-plane variations in thickness on EDC, via geodynamical models. The main lithospheric step occurs to the north of the NVP, but strong variations are evident in the third dimension. Our results show that significant localisation and amplification of mantle upwelling occurs almost directly beneath the NVP, as a result of the out-of plane effects. Moreover, the inclusion of current plate motion in the calculations adds a shear component to the flow, which: (i) further localises the edge-driven cell to the uppermost mantle; and (ii) has the effect of subduing EDC along lithospheric steps that lie approximately parallel to plate motion. These results have significant implications for the study of intraplate volcanism in various parts of the world.

Rawlinson, Nicholas; Davies, Rhodri

2014-05-01

300

Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

1995-02-01

301

Treatment of mixed urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a prevalent condition and imposes a significant impact on a woman's quality of life. Treatment is often challenging, as a single modality may be inadequate for alleviating both the urge and stress component. Materials and methods A MEDLINE search was conducted regarding English-language literature pertaining to the pathophysiology, diagnosis of, and treatment for MUI. Non-English language articles were considered if they could be translated into English using GOOGLE translator. Results The identification of an ideal single treatment has also been made more challenging by the poor characterization of the pathophysiology of MUI. Behavioral and lifestyle modification, as well as pelvic floor muscle therapy, should be considered first-line options for all women with MUI. Treatment of the urge component with anti-muscarinics is effective; however the stress component is likely to persist after therapy. Anti-incontinence surgery may have a positive impact on both the stress and urge components of MUI, with emerging evidence suggesting that transobturator MUS may be associated with lower rates of de novo and persistent urge component compared to other procedures. The presence of concomitant, preoperative detrusor overactivity has not been consistently associated with postoperative outcomes. Conclusions The optimum treatment of MUI may often require multiple treatment modalities. While surgery may have a positive impact on both the urge and stress component, its implementation should be approached with caution and patients should be carefully selected. Detailed informed consent in women with MUI cannot be overstated. PMID:24578878

Gomelsky, Alex

2011-01-01

302

Cranberry and urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of clinical signs and symptoms arising from the genitourinary tract plus the presence of one or more micro-organisms in the urine exceeding a threshold value for significance (ranges from 102 to 103 colony-forming units/mL). Infections are localized to the bladder (cystitis), renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis) or prostate (acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis). Single UTI episodes are very common, especially in adult women where there is a 50-fold predominance compared with adult men. In addition, recurrent UTIs are also common, occurring in up to one-third of women after first-episode UTIs. Recurrences requiring intervention are usually defined as two or more episodes over 6 months or three or more episodes over 1 year (this definition applies only to young women with acute uncomplicated UTIs). A cornerstone of prevention of UTI recurrence has been the use of low-dose once-daily or post-coital antimicrobials; however, much interest has surrounded non-antimicrobial-based approaches undergoing investigation such as use of probiotics, vaccines, oligosaccharide inhibitors of bacterial adherence and colonization, and bacterial interference with immunoreactive extracts of Escherichia coli. Local (intravaginal) estrogen therapy has had mixed results to date. Cranberry products in a variety of formulations have also undergone extensive evaluation over several decades in the management of UTIs. At present, there is no evidence that cranberry can be used to treat UTIs. Hence, the focus has been on its use as a preventative strategy. Cranberry has been effective in vitro and in vivo in animals for the prevention of UTI. Cranberry appears to work by inhibiting the adhesion of type I and P-fimbriated uropathogens (e.g. uropathogenic E. coli) to the uroepithelium, thus impairing colonization and subsequent infection. The isolation of the component(s) of cranberry with this activity has been a daunting task, considering the hundreds of compounds found in the fruit and its juice derivatives. Reasonable evidence suggests that the anthocyanidin/proanthocyanidin moieties are potent antiadhesion compounds. However, problems still exist with standardization of cranberry products, which makes it extremely difficult to compare products or extrapolate results. Unfortunately, most clinical trials have had design deficiencies and none have evaluated specific key cranberry-derived compounds considered likely to be active moieties (e.g. proanthocyanidins). In general, the preventive efficacy of cranberry has been variable and modest at best. Meta-analyses have established that recurrence rates over 1 year are reduced approximately 35% in young to middle-aged women. The efficacy of cranberry in other groups (i.e. elderly, paediatric patients, those with neurogenic bladder, those with chronic indwelling urinary catheters) is questionable. Withdrawal rates have been quite high (up to 55%), suggesting that these products may not be acceptable over long periods. Adverse events include gastrointestinal intolerance, weight gain (due to the excessive calorie load) and drug-cranberry interactions (due to the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism). The findings of the Cochrane Collaboration support the potential use of cranberry products in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, in light of the heterogeneity of clinical study designs and the lack of consensus regarding the dosage regimen and formulation to use, cranberry products cannot be recommended for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs at this time. PMID:19441868

Guay, David R P

2009-01-01

303

Cellular organization of urinary acidification.  

PubMed

The turtle bladder contains transport systems for active sodium absorption, electrogenic proton secretion, and bicarbonate secretion (coupled to chloride absorption) that are functionally separate and occur in specialized epithelial cells. Maneuvers that alter the intracellular acid-base state, such as changes in PCO2, cause marked changes in the apical membrane area of alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (CA) cells by addition or retrieval of membrane vesicles but have no effect on the granular cells that transport sodium. The apical cell membrane of alpha-CA cells contains characteristic rod-shaped intramembrane particles (RSP) by freeze fracture and is coated on its cytoplasmic side with studs. A subpopulation of CA cells (beta-type), which is characterized by apical microvilli, fails to exhibit an apical response to CO2 stimulation and does not reveal RSPs or studs at its apical membranes; instead, these elements can be demonstrated at the basolateral membrane. The reversal in the polarity of these elements as well as physiological evidence suggest that beta-type cells are responsible for bicarbonate secretion. Structure-function studies of CO2 stimulation of H+ secretion by alpha-CA cells indicate that the secretion rate (JH) correlates with apical membrane area and numbers of RSPs. The view that RSPs represent arrays of transmembrane channels and that studs represent catalytic units of H+ pumps is supported by quantitative considerations but remains to be proven. Urinary acidification is regulated not only by changes in the number of H+ pumps but also by the intrinsic properties of the H+ pump itself. For a given pump population, JH is closely controlled by the delta microH across the active transport pathway. PMID:2426975

Steinmetz, P R

1986-08-01

304

Representations of OxyContin in North American newspapers and medical journals  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There are public concerns regarding OxyContin (Purdue Pharma, Canada) and charges within the pain medicine community that media coverage of the drug has been biased. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare representations of OxyContin in medical journals and North American newspapers in an attempt to shed light on how each contributes to the ‘social problem’ associated with OxyContin. METHODS: Using searches of newspaper and medical literature databases, two samples were drawn: 924 stories published between 1995 and 2005 in 27 North American newspapers, and 197 articles published between 1995 and 2007 in 33 medical journals in the fields of addiction/substance abuse, pain/anesthesiology and general/internal medicine. The foci, themes, perspectives represented and evaluations of OxyContin presented in these texts were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Newspaper coverage of OxyContin emphasized negative evaluations of the drug, focusing on abuse, addiction, crime and death rather than the use of OxyContin for the legitimate treatment of pain. Newspaper stories most often conveyed the perspectives of law enforcement and courts, and much less often represented the perspectives of physicians. However, analysis of physician perspectives represented in newspaper stories and in medical journals revealed a high degree of inconsistency, especially across the fields of pain medicine and addiction medicine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of negative representations of OxyContin is often blamed on biased media coverage and an ignorant public. However, the proliferation of inconsistent messages regarding the drug from physicians plays a role in the drug’s persistent status as a social problem. PMID:22059195

Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark; Haydt, Susan

2011-01-01

305

Lower urinary tract development and disease  

PubMed Central

Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

306

Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors  

PubMed Central

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm–Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

2014-01-01

307

Lower urinary tract development and disease.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies of the lower urinary tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomaliesc such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUVs). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease, and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, the bladder, and the urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, the bladder and the urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the postgenomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

2013-01-01

308

Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention' and 'PVR'. Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is defined by the International Continence Society as 'a non-painful bladder, which remains palpable or percussable after the patient has passed urine'. Abrams was the first to choose a residual urine volume >300 mL to define CUR as he considered it the minimum volume at which the bladder becomes palpable suprapubically. The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) guidelines define CUR as a postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) of >1000 mL. No studies have specifically addressed the problem of quantifying the minimum amount of urine present in the bladder to define CUR. Nor did we find any publications objectively assessing at what amount of urine a bladder can be palpable. The ability to feel a bladder may rely on variables (i.e. medical skills and patient habitus). There is a marked variability of PVR, so the test should be repeated to improve precision. As defining CUR is difficult, structured management is challenging. Nearly all prospective trials exclude men with CUR from analysis, possibly anticipating a poor outcome and a high risk of complications. However, men with CUR are a clinically important group, comprising up to 25% of men undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Definition of CUR is imprecise and arbitrary. Most studies seem to describe the condition as either a PVR of >300 mL in men who are voiding, or >1000 mL in men who are unable to void. This confusion leads to an inability to design and interpret studies; indeed most prospective trials simply exclude these patients. There is a clear need for internationally accepted definitions of retention to allow both treatment and reporting of outcomes in men with LUTS, and for such definitions to be used by all investigators in future trials. PMID:22452619

Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

2012-12-01

309

Urostomy and urinary pH.  

PubMed

Significant variations of urinary pH can cause problems for all human beings, but these problems are magnified when an individual has a urostomy. Most significant stomal and peristomal complications are related to an alkaline urine including hyperkeratosis; stoma bleeding, incrustation, and ulceration; stoma stenosis; urinary tract infection; odor; and urinary calculi. Treatment of these conditions includes both external and internal measures. External methods of treatment involve keeping urine away from the stoma and the peristomal skin by use of a correctly fitting clean appliance and a night drainage system. Vinegar solution compresses can help to restore the acid mantle of the skin. Internal methods of treatment that are advocated in the literature include ingestion of cranberry juice and ascorbic acid to promote urine acidity. Increasing oral intake of fluids is the least risky method to promote the production of acidic, dilute urine, and results are equally effective. PMID:1637908

Walsh, B A

1992-01-01

310

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2013-04-01

311

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2014-04-01

312

21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

2011-04-01

313

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

314

How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs.?Design and Methods:?This ethnographic study explored continence care from the perspectives of NH stakeholders, including residents and interdisciplinary team members. Data were collected through participant observation, interviews, and archival records.?Results:?Human relations dimensions of organizational culture influenced continence care by affecting institutional missions, admissions and hiring practices, employee tenure, treatment strategies, interdisciplinary teamwork, and group decision making. Closed system approaches, parochial identity, and an employee focus stabilized staff turnover, fostered evidence-based practice, and supported hierarchical toileting programs in one facility. Within a more dynamic environment, open system approaches, professional identity, and job focus allowed flexible care practices during periods of staff turnover. Neither organizational culture fully supported interdisciplinary team efforts to maximize the bladder and bowel health of residents.?Implications:?Organizational culture varies in NHs, shaping the continence care practices of interdisciplinary teams and leading to the selective use of treatments across facilities. Human relations dimensions of organizational culture, including open or closed systems, professional or parochial identity, and employee or job focus are critical to the success of quality improvement initiatives. Evidence-based interventions should be tailored to organizational culture to promote adoption and sustainability of resident care programs. PMID:20008040

Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

2010-01-01

315

Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scaling law for the heat flux out of a convective fluid covered totally or partially by a finitely conducting lid is proposed. This scaling is constructed in order to quantify the heat transfer out of the Earth's mantle, taking into account the effect of the dichotomy between oceans and continents, which imposes heterogeneous thermal boundary conditions at the surface of the mantle. The effect of these heterogeneous boundary conditions is studied here using simple two-dimensional models, with the mantle represented by an isoviscous fluid heated from below and continents represented by nondeformable lids of finite thermal conductivity set above the surface of the model. We use free-slip boundary conditions under the oceanic and continental zones in order to study in an isolated way the possible thermal effect of continents, independently of all mechanical effect. A systematic study of the heat transfer as a function of the Rayleigh number of the fluid, of the width of the lid, and of its thermal properties is carried out. We show that estimates of continental lithosphere thickness imply a strong insulating effect from continents on mantle heat loss, at least locally. The heat flux below continents was low in the past and of the order of the present one if the continental thickness has remained broadly constant over the Earth's history.

Grigné, C.; Labrosse, S.; Tackley, P. J.

2007-08-01

316

Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport  

SciTech Connect

Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

1984-02-01

317

Urinary fistulae after partial nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the risk factors and natural history of urinary fistula (UF) after partial nephrectomy (PN), as their incidence has been reported to be 3–6% in large series of PN but there are few reports of the risk factors associated with the development of UF after PN, and the natural history of UF in a large group of patients. Patients and Methods This was a retrospective review of 1118PN at one tertiary-care institution. Most patients had a drain placed in the perinephric space after surgery. Fifty-two patients were identified as having a UF if they had persistent flank drainage for >14 days after surgery, or presented with evidence of a UF after the drain had been removed. Risk factors for development and the course of the UF are reported. Results Fifty-two patients developed a UF after PN (4.4%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 3.5–6.1%) The rate of a persistent urine leak (defined as drain fluid consistent with urine for >2 weeks after surgery) was 4.0 (95% CI 2.9–5.3)%. The overall rate of delayed UF presentation was only 0.4 (0.09–0.9)%. Patients who developed a UF had larger tumours (3.5 vs 2.6cm, P = 0.03), a higher estimated blood loss (400 vs 300mL, P < 0.001), and longer ischaemia time (50 vs 39min, P < 0.001) than patients who did not develop a UF. Differences in tumour histology, laterality, multifocality, type of surgery (laparoscopic vs open), and intraoperative collecting system entry were not statistically different in patients who did or did not develop a UF. Patients with tumours of >2.5cm were twice as likely to develop a UF than patients with tumours of <2.5cm (P = 0.02). Most patients were managed conservatively with a percutaneous drain until the UF resolved, if they were asymptomatic. Overall, in 36 patients (69%) the fistula resolved with no intervention, while 16 (31%) required intervention. Stenting was the commonest intervention (15%). No patient required re-operative open surgery. Conclusion The rate of development of UF after PN is low. Tumour size, blood loss and ischaemia time were all associated with the development of a UF. In most patients with a urine leak immediately after surgery the UF will resolve with no intervention, and can be managed conservatively with patience, in the absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:20230384

Kundu, Shilajit D.; Thompson, R. Houston; Kallingal, George J.; Cambareri, Gina; Russo, Paul

2015-01-01

318

Association between urinary symptoms at 7 years old and previous urinary tract infection.  

PubMed Central

The association between current micturition habits and previous urinary tract infection was analysed among 3553 school entrants aged 7 years by means of a questionnaire. A high incidence of urinary infection, confirmed by urine culture, was found (145 (8.4%) in the 1719 girls and 32 (1.7%) in the 1834 boys). There was a significant association between current symptoms that were suggestive of disturbed bladder function and previous urinary tract infection, but only among girls who were over 3 years of age at the time the first episode was diagnosed. PMID:2001110

Hellström, A; Hanson, E; Hansson, S; Hjälmås, K; Jodal, U

1991-01-01

319

Urinary incontinence: medical and psychosocial aspects.  

PubMed

Recognition has been growing over the past two decades that urinary incontinence is a rather widespread condition among older adults. Prevalence rates of about 30% for any incontinence and about 5% for severe incontinence among older adults were suggested by several European studies and have recently been confirmed by American studies. The rates are typically higher among women than men. Despite these findings, much about the true distribution of urinary incontinence remains to be firmly established. The proportion of different types and the differences between sexes, ages, and races need to be confirmed using representative population samples and valid measures of incontinence. These distributions cannot be accurately described using clinical populations. Perhaps because urinary incontinence is viewed as highly embarrassing, it has not been a focus of media coverage or public discussion. More attention by the media and by health-care professionals would build public awareness of the condition. Older adults and their caregivers need to know that urinary incontinence is common and treatable, so that they will identify it promptly and bring it to their physicians' attention. Health-care providers and social workers must also be alert to the possibility of incontinence among their clients. They should be prepared to ask older patients directly, because many patients may disregard urine loss or be too embarrassed to mention it. Currently, much of the management of urinary incontinence appears to be self-devised. Many incontinent persons have not talked to a physician about their problem. The largest proportion of those who attempt to control their urine loss use absorbent products or try to avoid loss by awareness of toilet locations and frequent toileting. Reliance on these methods is unfortunate because much progress has been made in developing diagnostic and treatment procedures for urinary incontinence. For example, surgical procedures to rectify an incompetent sphincter have been shown to be effective and are generally accepted. There are a number of medications effective for controlling detrusor instability. Further, various behavioral techniques appear to be promising as noninvasive initial interventions for many patients. We are on weaker ground regarding the prevention of and early intervention in urinary incontinence. The existing epidemiological data on the development of incontinence are poor. We do not know the proportion of urinary incontinence that is transient and the proportion that is chronic or established. Nor do we know the risk factors for onset and progression of the condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2514773

Herzog, A R; Diokno, A C; Fultz, N H

1989-01-01

320

Urinary free corticosteroid excretion and renal function.  

PubMed Central

Theoretically urinary free corticosteroid excretion should be affected by renal function and this would make it a less sensitive index of hypercortisolaemia. In 28 consecutive urine samples there was a clear relationship (r = 0.83; P less than 0.001) over a range of creatinine clearances 0.3-200 ml/min. Although an allowance could be made for renal function this would not necessarily improve the discrimination of normal from abnormal. Until data comparing corrected to uncorrected urinary free corticosteroid excretion become available, we recommend a short dexamethasone test as the initial investigation in patients with suspected hypercortisolaemia and abnormal plasma creatinine concentrations. PMID:670422

Gilliland, J; Phillips, P J

1978-01-01

321

MR Urography in the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of MR urography in depicting the urinary tract. Methods: 33 patients with urinary tract abnormalities were additionally evaluated with MR urography. 25 had dilated upper urinary tracts because of urinary obstruction and 8 had normal tracts. MR urography was performed with a 1,5T magnet using a heavy T2w sequence (3D-IR-TSE) in the coronal plane. Images

G. Louca; K. Liberopoulos; A. Fidas; Z. Nikolakopoulou; M. Lykourinas; K. Strigaris

1999-01-01

322

Urinary C4 excretion in systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourth component of complement (C4) in urine was measured in 19 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Urinary C4 was detectable in all SLE patients using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In 11 of 13 patients whose urinary C4 was serially measured, a decrease of urinary C4 was found in parallel with a decrease of disease activity of SLE.

Yoshiteru Ueda; Kohei Nagasawa; Hiroshi Tsukamoto; Takahiko Horiuchi; Seiji Yoshizawa; Tomomi Tsuru; Isao Furugo; Yoshiyuki Niho

1995-01-01

323

L'Afrique, un continent et ses territoires en mondialisation Frdric Giraut, Universit Joseph Fourier, UMR PACTE & IRD  

E-print Network

1 L'Afrique, un continent et ses territoires en mondialisation Frédéric Giraut, Université Joseph certainement qui touche le plus durement et le plus spécifiquement le continent africain, y compris dans son presse lorsqu'ils tentent d'évaluer le niveau de développement et la participation du continent à la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Constant dimensionality of fault roughness from the scale of micro-fractures to the scale of continents  

E-print Network

of continents François Renard,1,2 Thibault Candela,1,3 and Elisabeth Bouchaud4,5 Received 12 October 2012 of continents, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1029/2012GL054143. 1. Introduction [2] In the present study, we-scales. At the scale of the whole Earth's crust, the corrugated shapes of several continents, such as the West coast

325

MY NASA DATA Contributed Lesson 3: Comparisons of Snow Cover on Different Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each continent. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each continent for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each continent, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.

Scearce, Deann

2012-08-22

326

1992 estimate of undiscovered conventional oil resources in the mid-continent  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored review of recent oil resource estimates, seven AAPG members met in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in August 1992, to evaluate mid-continent undiscovered recoverable conventional oil resources. As a result of this investigation, a major upward revision was made to a 1989 study by the United States Department of the Interior. Mean estimates of undiscovered recoverable conventional oil in the mid-continent are 3.2 billion bbl of oil (no economic parameters) and 2.72 billion bbl of oil ($20.00/bbl, 1992 dollars), 69% and 56% higher, respectively, than the previous study. The mid-continent was subdivided into basin/uplift/shelf areas for this study, and resources assigned to each.

Voris, R.H.

1993-09-01

327

Urethral closure pressure with stress--a comparison between stress-incontinent and continent women.  

PubMed

Stress incontinence has been said to occur as a consequence of a low urethral pressure and defective pressure transmission from the abdomen to the urethra due to descent of the bladder neck area. Equipment suitable for dynamic pressure measurements has been used to analyse the losses of urethral pressure that lead to incontinence. The pressure transmission from abdomen to urethra was found to be incomplete in both continent and stress-incontinent women. There was also significant loss of smooth muscle tone in the urethral wall after repeated straining, leading to a still narrower margin between the urethral pressure and the leakage treshold in both continent and stress-incontinent women. The main factor determining the degree of continence or incontinence seemed to be the urethral closure pressure at rest . As long as this pressure is sufficiently high, leakage during sudden stress will not occur. PMID:568337

Bunne, G; Obrink, A

1978-01-01

328

Effects of continents on Earth cooling: Thermal blanketing and depletion in radioactive elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimate of mantle heat flow under continental shields are very low, indicating a strong insulating effect of continents on mantle heat loss. This effect is investigated with a simple approach: continents are introduced in an Earth cooling model as perfect thermal insulators. Continental growth rate has then a strong influence on mantle cooling. Various continental growth models are tested and are used to compute the mantle depletion in radioactive elements as a function of continental crust extraction. Results show that the thermal blanketing effect of continents strongly affects mantle cooling, and that mantle depletion must be taken into account in order not to overestimate mantle heat loss. In order to obtain correct oceanic heat flow for present time, continental growth must begin at least 3 Gy ago and steady-state for continental area must be reached for at least 1.5 Gy in our cooling model.

Grigné, Cécile; Labrosse, Stéphane

329

Indicators of climate change for the African continent derived from radiosondes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we study the interannual variability of different parameters calculated from radiosonde data in the African continent. Data used in the analysis were a subset of the National Climatic Data Center Upper Air Digital Files of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) (CARDS). This work show the climatic trends in the studied region during the period and from 1973 to 1998). Results show that radiosonde stations were useful for this analysis in the African continent. Main oscillations and the relationship with the Northern Annular Mode and El Niño-Southern Oscillation were also studied.

Añel, J. A.; Gimeno, L.; Tesouro, M.; de La Torre, L.; Nieto, R.; Ribera, P.; García, R.; Hernández, E.

2003-04-01

330

[Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

2005-01-01

331

Host pathogenesis in urinary tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the result of an interaction between bacterial virulence and host defense factors that compete to invade or protect the host, respectively. Research over the past 30 years has demonstrated that vaginal colonization with uropathogens precedes most UTIs. Receptivity of the vaginal mucosa for uropathogens is an essential initial step in vaginal mucosa colonization. When vaginal

A. J. Schaeffer; Nithya Rajan; Qing Cao; B. E. Anderson; Denise L. Pruden; Julia Sensibar; J. L. Duncan

2001-01-01

332

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and

Tetsuro Muratani; Tetsuro Matsumoto

2004-01-01

333

Urinary tract pathogens and resistance pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEpidemiology and resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens in paediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) show large inter-regional variability, and rates of bacterial resistance are changing due to different antibiotic treatment. Empiric therapy to treat UTI should be tailored to the surveillance data on the epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens to reduce treatment failures and emergence of bacterial resistance within

R. Chakupurakal; M. Ahmed; D. N. Sobithadevi; S. Chinnappan; T. Reynolds

2010-01-01

334

Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?  

PubMed

The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80 %). Most of our patients (65 %) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37 %), followed by diabetes mellitus (27 %) and neurologic disease (25 %). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45 % had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35 % had lower urinary tract infection, and 20 % had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9 %), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72 %) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98 % to nitrofurantoin, and 77 % to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iñiguez, I; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Coira, A; García-País, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

2014-11-22

335

Effects of exercise on the urinary proteome.  

PubMed

Exercise-induced proteinuria has been observed and studied for more than a century. It was found that different sport disciplines alter the urinary proteome in different ways. Moderate-intensity exercise results in increased glomerular filtration, meaning that medium-sized proteins are excreted in higher amounts, while high-intensity exercise of short duration also increases the excretion of low molecular weight proteins as a result of tubular dysfunction. Exhaustive exercise may lead to the excretion of hemoglobin or myoglobin, which changes the urinary proteome considerably. Studies comparing protein maps of different sport types compared to a control group showed that quality and quantity of urinary proteins are interindividually different. In addition, urine samples collected before and after exercise exhibit substantially different protein patterns even from the same person. Therefore, further studies investigating the urinary proteome are desirable. As the variation of protein content and composition in urine are generally much higher than in other matrices, respective studies need to be well controlled and homogenous groups of volunteers should be chosen. In addition to the sport-related physiological and biochemical interest, exercise-induced protein changes also need to be considered for biomarker measurements from urine samples for kidney or other diseases. PMID:25355575

Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

2015-01-01

336

[Genital prolapse and urinary incontinence: a review].  

PubMed

Genital prolapse frequently coexists with lower urinary tract symptoms. The first difficulty is to detect occult incontinence masked by the prolapsed organs. Rates of detection are not the same with the different clinical maneuvers (manual, pessary, cotton swab, speculum, etc.). The second difficulty is to choose a management strategy. Through a recent analysis of the literature, this paper suggests recommendations. PMID:24260842

Hermieu, Jean-François; Le Guilchet, Thomas

2013-01-01

337

Ureaplasma urealyticum serotypes in urinary tract disease.  

PubMed Central

Ureaplasma urealyticum cultures from 124 patients with urinary tract disease were serotyped by indirect immunofluorescence, using antisera to serotypes I to VIII. A similar range of serotypes was recovered from first-voided, midstream, and bladder-aspiration (SPA) urine, upper urinary tract samples, and vaginal swabs. Serotype VI was predominant (44/124) among the samples, whereas serotypes V (1/124 samples) and VII (0/124 samples) were uncommon. Twenty of 124 cultures contained more than one serotype, and three cultures were untypeable. Serotypes cultured from bladder urine were also present in vaginal and urethral samples, although these samples often carried additional serotypes. Consecutive SPA samples from the same patient invariably contained the same serotype, whereas some consecutive midstream urine samples showed a loss or gain of serotypes with time. One patient carried the same serotype in SPA urine over a period of 13 months. The pattern of serotypes recovered from the urinary tract was similar irrespective of the sampling site, the site of infection, the clinical diagnosis and renal function of the patient, and the presence or absence of other microorganisms. Colonization above the urethra and association with urinary tract disease appeared to be serotype independent. PMID:3700599

Hewish, M J; Birch, D F; Fairley, K F

1986-01-01

338

CE Certificate - Urinary Bladder online training  

Cancer.gov

Certificate of Attendance The Participant is hereby granted 2 CEUs for attending the Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Bladder, Ureter, Renal Pelvis and Other Urinary - Breeze online training NCRA Event Number 2006-246 VtÜÉÄ [t{Ç ]É{ÇáÉÇ

339

Urinary porphyrin patterns in hepatic porphyrias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The characteristic patterns of distribution of the urinary porphyrins with eight to four carboxyl groups are of relevance in the diagnosis of hereditary and acquired forms of hepatic porphyria. Whereas the excretion types in acute intermittent and in variegate porphyria both show alternating predominance of uro- and coproporphyrin, in hereditary coproporphyria coproporphyrin can be the only extremely elevated component.

Manfred Doss

1971-01-01

340

Ultrasound-guided urinary bladder biopsy through a urinary catheter in a bitch.  

PubMed

A 34.4 kg 5 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. The dog had a recent onset of hematuria and stranguria but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the urinary bladder. The dog was sedated and a 10-French rubber catheter that had the blunt end removed was passed from the urethra to the urinary bladder. Using ultrasound guidance, ellipsoid cup biopsy forceps were advanced through the rubber catheter to the urinary bladder mass and biopsies were successfully obtained. The dog was discharged from the hospital a few hours after the procedure. Histopathology of the mass was consistent with polypoid cystitis. Follow-up surgical removal of the polyp was uneventful, and histopathology confirmed the presurgical biopsy diagnosis. Procurement of urinary bladder biopsies through a urinary catheter with ultrasound guidance was used as a minimally invasive alternative to either cystoscopy or surgery in a bitch. Use of this technique achieved a diagnosis without the need for specialized endoscopic equipment, anesthesia, or surgery. PMID:25251433

Lopez, Julio; Norman, Brian C

2014-01-01

341

Use of urinary gram stain for detection of urinary tract infection in childhood.  

PubMed Central

In this study, urinary culture, urinary Gram stain, and four tests within the urinalysis, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, microscopyfor bacteria, and microscopyforpyuria, were examined in 100 children with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Our purpose was to determine the validity of the urinary Gram stain compared with a combination of pyuria plus Gram stain and overall urinalysis (positiveness of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, microscopy for bacteria, or microscopy for white blood cell). Of 100 children, aged two days to 15 years, 70 (70 percent) had a positive urinary culture: 40 girls (57 percent) and 30 boys (43 percent). Escherichia coli was the most common isolated agent. The sensitivity and specificity of the urinary Gram stain were 80 percent and 83 percent, and that of the combination of pyuria plus Gram stain 42 percent and 90 percent, and that of the overall urinalysis 74 percent and 3.5 percent respectively. Our findings revealed that neither method of urine screen should substitute for a urine culture in the symptomatic patients in childhood. PMID:12230312

Arslan, Sükrü; Caksen, Hüseyin; Rastgeldi, Levent; Uner, Abdurrahman; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odaba?, Dursun

2002-01-01

342

Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.  

PubMed

Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving ?1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:23441811

Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

2013-07-01

343

Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Outcomes in Adult Myelomeningocele Patients: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of sophisticated treatment of bladder dysfunction and hydrocephalus allows the majority of SB patients to survive into adulthood. However, no systematic review on urological outcome in adult SB patients is available and no follow-up schemes exist. Objectives To systematically summarize the evidence on outcome of urinary tract functioning in adult SB patients. Methods A literature search in PubMed and Embase databases was done. Only papers published in the last 25 years describing patients with open SB with a mean age >18 years were included. We focused on finding differences in the treatment strategies, e.g., clean intermittent catheterization and antimuscarinic drugs versus early urinary diversion, with regard to long-term renal and bladder outcomes. Results A total of 13 articles and 5 meeting abstracts on urinary tract status of adult SB patients were found describing a total of 1564 patients with a mean age of 26.1 years (range 3–74 years, with a few patients <18 years). All were retrospective cohort studies with relatively small and heterogeneous samples with inconsistent reporting of outcome; this precluded the pooling of data and meta-analysis. Total continence was achieved in 449/1192 (37.7%; range 8–85%) patients. Neurological level of the lesion and hydrocephalus were associated with incontinence. Renal function was studied in 1128 adult patients. In 290/1128 (25.7%; range 3–81.8%) patients some degree of renal damage was found and end-stage renal disease was seen in 12/958 (1.3%) patients. Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy and detrusor-overactivity acted as adverse prognostic factors for the development of renal damage. Conclusions These findings should outline follow-up schedules for SB patients, which do not yet exist. Since renal and bladder deterioration continues beyond adolescence, follow-up of these individuals is needed. We recommend standardization in reporting the outcome of urinary tract function in adult SB patients. PMID:23119003

Veenboer, Paul W.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

2012-01-01

344

Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67  

SciTech Connect

Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. (Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka (Japan))

1990-04-01

345

The Burden of Urinary Incontinence and Urinary Bother Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Background Data describing urinary health in elderly, community-dwelling prostate cancer (PCa) survivors are limited. Objective To elucidate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary bother, and incontinence in elderly PCa survivors compared with peers without PCa. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of 5990 participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Research Group, a cohort study of community-dwelling men ?65 yr. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis We characterized urinary health using self-reported urinary incontinence and the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI). We compared urinary health measures according to type of PCa treatment in men with PCa and men without PCa using multivariate log-binomial regression to generate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results and limitations At baseline, 706 men (12%) reported a history of PCa, with a median time since diagnosis of 6.3 yr. Of these men, 426 (60%) reported urinary incontinence. In adjusted analyses, observation (PR: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.21; p = 0.01), surgery (PR: 4.68; 95% CI, 4.11–5.32; p < 0.0001), radiation therapy (PR: 1.64; 95% CI, 1.20– 2.23; p = 0.002), and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) (PR: 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35–2.99; p = 0.0006) were each associated with daily incontinence. Daily incontinence risk increased with time since diagnosis independently of age. Observation (PR: 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00–1.78; p = 0.05), surgery (PR: 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10–1.42; p = 0.0008), and ADT (PR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.26–1.79; p < 0.0001) were associated with increased AUA-SI bother scores. Cancer stage and use of adjuvant or salvage therapies were not available for analysis. Conclusions Compared with their peers without PCa, elderly PCa survivors had a two-fold to five-fold greater prevalence of urinary incontinence, which rose with increasing survivorship duration. Observation, surgery, and ADT were each associated with increased urinary bother. These data suggest a substantially greater burden of urinary health problems among elderly PCa survivors than previously recognized. PMID:23587870

Kopp, Ryan P.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Wang, Patty Y.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Parsons, J. Kellogg

2014-01-01

346

Apparent polar wandering for the Atlantic-bordering continents: Late Carboniferous to Eocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a compilation of reliable paleomagnetic pole positions from five continental plates (North America, Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, and South America) for ten time intervals ranging from Late Carboniferous to Eocene. Only well-dated results obtained by demagnetization techniques have been used. Paleomagnetic poles are plotted with respect to the paleo-positions of the continents, as reconstructed from correlations of

R. van der Voo; R. B. French

1974-01-01

347

Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

1974-01-01

348

Educational Visions from Two Continents: What Tagore Adds to the Deweyan Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this global village, it is relevant to look at two educational visionaries from two continents, John Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore. Dewey observed that the modern individual was depersonalized by the industrial and commercial culture. He, thus, envisioned a new individual who would find fulfillment in maximum individuality within maximum…

Samuel, Francis A.

2011-01-01

349

Paleogeographic maps of the continents bordering the Indian Ocean since the Early Jurassic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic data from the African plate from the Early Jurassic onward are used to produce a set of 30 paleopoles, from which an apparent polar wander path is obtained. Based on this path, other continents bordering the Indian Ocean and blocks involved in the collision of India with Eurasia are situated in an absolute paleogeographic frame fixed with respect to

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1988-01-01

350

New Views of an Old Continent: A Tectonics Lab Exercise Using Geophysical Maps of Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students are given five different map views of the continent of Australia: Geology, Gravity Anomaly, Magnetic Anomaly, Digital Elevation, and Satellite Image, and asked to investigate and interpret these different data sets. The primary goal is to introduce students to the potential of geophysical data for regional geologic and tectonic investigations.

Greene, David

351

Oil and gas developments in north MidContinent in 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common to the Committee on Statistics of Drilling District 12 area are the recent exploration activities associated with the Central North American rift system or Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA), a major feature that runs from the Lake Superior area south into Kansas. Kansas had a very active year with 7,451 completions, 45 more than those reported in 1983. The success

S. E. Paul; R. Coubrough; D. L. Gordon; J. M. Mossler; B. W. Netzler; R. Peters; D. Woltz

1985-01-01

352

Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-continent great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...

353

Manipulation of the Family Photo Album: Esther Parada's Transplant--A Tale of Three Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author focuses on Esther Parada's non-traditional use of the Web to communicate her art, and offers a critique of Parada's work, "Transplant: A Tale of Three Continents," and suggestions for critiquing Web art in the school classroom. Parada creates an intersection between this new medium and the more traditional medium of…

Eggemeyer, Valerie

2004-01-01

354

Laser light scattering immunoassay: An improved data analysis by CONTIN method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser light scattering immunoassay (LIA) is a diagnostic method for the detection of antibody by monitoring the agglutination of antigen carrier particles mediated by antibody, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) as probe. We have used this method for the detection of antibody to P. falciparum that cause malaria. The data were analysed using CONTIN method and the superiority of the

Thomas Antony; Anita Saxena; K. B Roy; H. B Bohidar

1998-01-01

355

Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents  

E-print Network

Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents C. J. Tackley (2007), Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application April 2007; published 1 August 2007. [1] A scaling law for the heat flux out of a convective fluid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Lost Continents? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify continent shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)

Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette

1996-01-01

357

Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology  

E-print Network

Pathology Service "Keen Minds to Explore the Dark Continents of Disease: A History of the Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Robert Young, MD. The rich history of pathology at the Massachusetts General. This book offers a detailed account of the history of the Mass General Pathology department, a unique view

Mootha, Vamsi K.

358

Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

359

A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

1991-01-01

360

Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard assessment  

E-print Network

LETTERS Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard earthquakes on plate boundaries. Plate tectonics gives no insight, however, into where and when earthquakes interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely heavily on the assumption that the locations of small

Stein, Seth

361

Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.

Kane, M.F.

1972-01-01

362

IN SITU MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA IN 127 PATIENTS: A 6YEAR EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:The initial description of the Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) relied on a reversed, tunneled and reimplanted appendix. In 1999 we reported our in situ technique that uses windows developed in the appendiceal mesentery for imbrication. We present our long-term results.

C. D. ANTHONY HERNDON; RICHARD C. RINK; MARK P. CAIN; MICHELLE LERNER; MARTIN KAEFER; ELIZABETH YERKES; ANTHONY J. CASALE

2004-01-01

363

Trends in Abuse of OxyContin and Other Opioid Analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004  

E-print Network

Trends in Abuse of OxyContin® and Other Opioid Analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004 Theodore of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of OxyContin® abuse

Steinbach, Joe Henry

364

Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS {<=}5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG {>=}2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base.

Thomas, Carys [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Keyes, Mira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Liu, Mitchell [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, Surrey, BC (Canada); Moravan, Veronika [Surveillance and Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2008-10-01

365

Urinary metal concentrations among female welders.  

PubMed

As part of a Canada-wide study of women entering non-traditional trades [Women's Health in Apprenticeship Trades - Metalworkers and Electricians (WHAT-ME)], we examined spot urine samples from women welders in Alberta to determine whether urinary metal concentrations exceeded those of the general population, to compare levels to previously published urinary concentrations in male welders and to examine the relationship with welding tasks. Women mailed-in urine samples collected close to the time of completing a detailed exposure questionnaire, including welding tasks on their most recent day welding at work. Of 53 welders working in their trade, 45 had urinary creatinine >0.3-?3.0g l(-1) and were included in analyses. Seven metals were examined for which both population and male welder urinary concentrations were available: cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Principal component analysis was used to extract three components from natural log transformed creatinine-corrected metal concentrations. Of the 45 women, 17 reported more than one main task. Overall two thirds worked in fabrication, a third on pipe welding, and smaller numbers on repair, in construction or other tasks: manual metal arc welding was reported by 62%, semi-automatic arc welding by 47%, and arc welding with a tungsten electrode by 15%. In multiple regression analyses, little relation was found between urinary metals and task or type of welding, except for cadmium where lower levels were seen in those reporting semi-automatic manual welding (after adjustment for age and smoking). The proportion of women welders exceeding the selected general population 95th percentile was high for manganese (96%) and chromium (29%). Urinary metal concentrations were similar to those reported for male welders with only manganese, with a geometric mean in women of 1.91 µg g(-1) creatinine, and perhaps copper (11.8 µg g(-1) creatinine), consistently lower in male welders. Although not evident from the task analysis reported here, differences in exposure by sex may be explained by type of welding or by other work practices. A closely comparable cohort of male welders would be necessary to examine this hypothesis more fully. PMID:25359273

Arrandale, Victoria H; Beach, Jeremy; Cembrowski, George S; Cherry, Nicola M

2015-01-01

366

BRAIN ACTIVITY DURING BLADDER FILLING IS RELATED TO WHITE MATTER STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN OLDER WOMEN WITH URINARY INCONTINENCE  

PubMed Central

Evidence from longitudinal studies in community-dwelling elderly links complaints of urgency and urinary incontinence with structural white matter changes known as white matter hyperintensities (WMH). How WMH might lead to incontinence remains unknown, since information about how they relate to neural circuits involved in continence control is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WMH in altered brain activity in older women with urgency incontinence. In a cross-sectional study, we measured WMH, globally and in specific white matter tracts, and correlated them with regional brain activity measured by fMRI (combined with simultaneous urodynamic monitoring) during bladder filling and reported 'urgency'. We postulated that increase in global WMH burden would be associated with changes (either attenuation or reinforcement) in responses to bladder filling in brain regions involved in bladder control. Secondly, we proposed that such apparent effects of global WMH burden might be specifically related to the burden in a few critical white matter pathways. The results showed that regional activations (e.g. medial/superior frontal gyrus adjacent to dorsal ACG) and deactivations (e.g. perigenual ACG adjacent to ventromedial prefrontal cortex) became more prominent with increased global WMH burden, suggesting that activity aimed at suppressing urgency was augmented. Secondary analyses confirmed that the apparent effect of global WMH burden might reflect the presence of WMH in specific pathways (anterior thalamic radiation and superior longitudinal fasciculus), thus affecting connections between key regions and suggesting possible mechanisms involved in continence control. PMID:20302947

Tadic, Stasa D.; Griffiths, Derek; Murrin, Andrew; Schaefer, Werner; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Resnick, Neil M.

2010-01-01

367

Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Primary melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. As far as we know, 19 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports. Case Presentation. We present a 71-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 5-cm-size mass located in the bladder trigone. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) revealed a malignant melanoma. Evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. The patient deceased five months later before radical treatment could be performed. Conclusion. This is one more reported case of primary melanoma of the urinary bladder. The previously reported cases of bladder melanoma are reviewed. Therapy and prognosis are discussed. PMID:22606629

El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; Ahallal, Youness; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2011-01-01

368

Urinary Bladder Stone Complicating Ventriculovesical Shunt  

PubMed Central

The standard treatment for hydrocephalus is either a ventriculoperitoneal or a ventriculo-atrial shunt. However, these conventional shunts may be associated with considerable complications and high revision rates which make these familiar shunts inappropriate for a certain subset of patients. A rare complication is reported associated with an unusual procedure in a 42-year-old woman who had had a ventriculovesical shunt for four years. She presented with recurrent urinary tract infections, haematuria and urge incontinence, and was discovered to have a large vesical stone over the vesical end of the shunt. She was treated with open suprapubic cystolithotomy and the redirection of the shunt to the peritoneal cavity. The patient was followed up for 12 months postoperatively and remained free of any urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24516748

Ibrahim, Ahmed K.

2014-01-01

369

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

SciTech Connect

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

370

Botanical medicines for the urinary tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)

Eric Yarnell

2002-01-01

371

Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urinary tract aspergillosis is uncommon even in the era of increased frequency of invasive mycoses. Experience is largely\\u000a a function of isolated case reports and rare case series or reviews. The majority of cases involve transplant recipients predominantly\\u000a following renal transplantation but is also reported in other immunocompromised states such as AIDS and uncontrolled diabetes\\u000a mellitus. Most cases represent haematogenous

Geetha Sivasubramanian; Jack D. Sobel

372

Plasma cell infiltration of the urinary bladder.  

PubMed

We report a novel entity of plasma cell bladder infiltration without other demonstrable disease. The patient had severe irritative voiding symptoms, hematuria, and a diffuse mucosal infiltrate with 90% plasma cells. Although the patient demonstrated some clinical and pathologic evidence consistent with interstitial cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis, a predominant finding of focal plasma cell infiltration of the urinary bladder suggests a new or previously unrecognized clinical entity. PMID:15245959

Thaxton, C S; Eggener, S E; Schaeffer, A J

2004-07-01

373

Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder during pregnancy.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder that was diagnosed during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of its kind to be reported in the literature. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy were useful for making an accurate diagnosis in this case. The diagnosis was confirmed by suprapubic transcutaneous needle biopsy. The tumor was resected approximately 3 years after diagnosis, during which period the patient delivered a normal baby by caesarian section. PMID:12823699

Mizuno, Kentaro; Sasaki, Shoichi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

2003-07-01

374

Biocide Activity against Urinary Catheter Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial effects of essential oils against bacteria associated with urinary catheter infection was assessed. Tests were performed on 14 different bacterial species cultured either planktonically or as biofilms. Biofilms were found to be up to 8-fold more tolerant of the test agents. Higher antimicrobial tolerance was also evident in tests conducted in artificial urine. Eugenol exhibited higher antimicrobial effects against both planktonic cells and biofilms than did terpinen, tea tree oil, and cineole. PMID:24247129

Jordan, Rachael P. C.; Waters, Mark G. J.; Stickler, David J.; Williams, David W.

2014-01-01

375

Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.  

PubMed Central

Possible aetiological factors for urinary incontinence were examined in a prevalence study among a random sample of 1000 women aged 18 and over. Infective factors were not markedly associated with incontinence but mechanical factors such as parity and obesity were. No association was found, however, between a history of perineal damage at childbirth and incontinence. Women with incontinence had on average a higher score for a 'neuroticism' trait elicited by questionnaire than women without the disorder. PMID:7069357

Yarnell, J W; Voyle, G J; Sweetnam, P M; Milbank, J; Richards, C J; Stephenson, T P

1982-01-01

376

Therapy of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This article deals with many options in utilizing drugs commonly used in the therapy of uncomplicated urinary tract infections\\u000a (UTIs), their doses and recommended durations of treatment. In addition, it discusses general and specific accompanying measures\\u000a related to the decrease in prevalence, relapses and recurrences of UTIs, including some of the factors involved in patient\\u000a adherence or discontinuation of

R. M. Ribeiro; P. Rossi; A. M. Pacetta; J. M. Haddad; J. A. Pinotti

2002-01-01

377

Urinary steroids in women with androgenic alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the nature of the hormonal overproduction in androgenic alopecia.Design and methods: Urinary steroid metabolites were measured after enzyme hydrolysis and methoxym-silyl derivatization by capillary gas chromatography in 56 women with androgenic alopecia and in 17 control healthy laboratory women workers.Results: Elevated C19 metabolites of testosterone and androstendione, hyperandrogenemia (p < 0.01), and increased cortisol (p < 0.01)

Susan Juricskay; Enikõ Telegdy

2000-01-01

378

Nervous network for lower urinary tract function  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, sensory signaling in the urinary bladder has been largely attributed to direct activation of bladder afferents. There is substantive evidence that sensory systems can be influenced by non-neuronal cells, such as the urothelium, which are able to respond to various types of stimuli that can include physiological, psychological and disease-related factors. The corresponding release of chemical mediators (through activation of a number of receptors/ion channels) can initiate signaling mechanisms between and within urothelial cells, as well as other cell types within the bladder wall including bladder nerves. However, the mechanisms underlying how various cell types in the bladder wall respond to normal filling and emptying, and are challenged by a variety of stressors (physical and chemical) are still not well understood. Alterations or defects in signaling mechanisms are likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of bladder disease with symptoms including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency and pain. This review will discuss some of the components involved in control of lower urinary tract function, with an emphasis on the sensor and transducer roles of the urothelium. PMID:23088378

Birder, Lori A

2014-01-01

379

Urinary ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in 1126 female subjects.  

PubMed

?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its metabolic precursor ?-butyrolactone (GBL) are often implicated in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), although definitive confirmation of GHB/GBL ingestion is complicated by GHB's endogenous nature and rapid elimination following ingestion. Multiple studies have attempted to establish a discriminant limit (generally 10 mg/L) above which urinary GHB concentrations can be considered consistent with GHB/GBL consumption. To supplement the currently available data, a rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the analysis of GHB (following acidic conversion to GBL) and used to analyze urine samples collected from 1126 women (mean = 0.84 mg/L, median = 0.68 mg/L, range = 0.00-5.5 mg/L). GHB concentrations were shown to be independent of urinary pH (within the range 4.6-9.3), age (within the range 18-35 years), body mass index (within the range 13.8-36.3), and race. Adjusting GHB concentrations with respect to urinary specific gravity had little effect on the mean value (0.91 mg/L) and range (0.0-7.76 mg/L), although a statistically significant trend of increasing GHB concentration with specific gravity could be observed. Our results can be taken to offer further support for the 10 mg/L discriminant limit for GHB administration in antemortem urine samples. PMID:21073808

Brailsford, Alan D; Cowan, David A; Kicman, Andrew T

2010-11-01

380

Genetics of human congenital urinary bladder disease.  

PubMed

Lower urinary tract and/or kidney malformations are collectively the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children, and they are also likely to account for a major subset of young adults requiring renal replacement therapy. Advances have been made regarding the discovery of the genetic causes of human kidney malformations. Indeed, testing for mutations of key nephrogenesis genes is now feasible for patients seen in nephrology clinics. Unfortunately, less is known about defined genetic bases of human lower urinary tract anomalies. The focus of this review is the genetic bases of congenital structural and functional disorders of the urinary bladder. Three are highlighted. First, prune belly syndrome, where mutations of CHRM3, encoding an acetylcholine receptor, HNF1B, encoding a transcription factor, and ACTA2, encoding a cytoskeletal protein, have been reported. Second, the urofacial syndrome, where mutations of LRIG2 and HPSE2, encoding proteins localised in nerves invading the fetal bladder, have been defined. Finally, we review emerging evidence that bladder exstrophy may have genetic bases, including variants in the TP63 promoter. These genetic discoveries provide a new perspective on a group of otherwise poorly understood diseases. PMID:23584850

Woolf, Adrian S; Stuart, Helen M; Newman, William G

2014-03-01

381

The experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation by a single surgeon in 15 years.  

PubMed

Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence owing to sphincter incompetence. We reviewed our experience in AUS implantation. From 1995 to 2009, 19 patients underwent 25 AUS implantations performed by a single surgeon. The cause of incontinence was sphincter incompetence, which was secondary to prostate surgery, neurogenic bladder, radiation, and post-traumatic urethral lesion. Twenty-three prostheses were placed in the bulbar urethra for male patients: 11 AUS cuffs were placed through the perineal approach and 12 through the penoscrotal approach. Two procedures were applied over the bladder neck for the female patients. Through a retrospective review of charts, continence and complications were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 50.0 ± 42.9 months (range: 2-146 months). There were 16 successful surgeries (64%), and these patients were free from the need for a pad. In eight surgeries (32%), the devices were removed due to infection, while one implantation (4%) was unsuccessful due to perforation into the bulbar urethra. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) in failure rates between patients who received radiotherapy (100%) and other patients (22.7%). There was no statistically significant difference in dry and revision rates (p > 0.05) between the perineal and penoscrotal approach. Accordingly, over half of the patients with total incontinence benefitted from AUS implantation. In consideration of the high failure rate for patients receiving radiotherapy, caution should be exercised in the use of implantation. Secondary implantation has a satisfactory success rate in selected patients. The same success rate was noted for both perineal and penoscrotal approaches. PMID:23465419

Shen, Yuan-Chi; Chiang, Po-Hui

2013-03-01

382

Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session. PMID:21753868

Santacreu, Marta; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

2011-01-01

383

Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (?105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and vaginal estrogen therapy effectively reduce symptomatic UTI episodes and should be considered in patients with recurrent UTIs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Establishing a diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in older women requires careful clinical evaluation with possible laboratory assessment using urinalysis and urine culture. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be differentiated from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in older women should not be treated. PMID:24570248

Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2014-01-01

384

Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:24235796

Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

2013-01-01

385

The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

2014-01-01

386

Non-invasive diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence sub types using wavelet analysis, shannon entropy and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is a common female disorder. Although generally not a serious condition, it negatively affects the lifestyle and daily activity of subjects. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most versatile of several incontinence types and is distinguished by physical degeneration of the continence-providing mechanism. Some surgical treatment methods exist, but the success of the surgery mainly depends upon a correct diagnosis. Diagnosis has two major steps: subjects who are suffering from true SUI must be identified, and the SUI sub-type must be determined, because each sub-type is treated with a different surgery. The first step is straightforward and uses standard identification methods. The second step, however, requires invasive, uncomfortable urodynamic studies that are difficult to apply. Many subjects try to cope with the disorder rather than seek treatment from health care providers, in part because of the invasive diagnostic methods. In this study, a diagnostic method with a success rate comparable to that of urodynamic studies is presented. This new method has some advantages over the current one. First, it is noninvasive; data are collected using Doppler ultrasound recording. Second, it requires no special tools and is easy to apply, relatively inexpensive, faster and more hygienic. PMID:21424394

Tufan, Kadir; Kara, Sad?k; Latifo?lu, Fatma; Ayd?n, Sinem; K?r??, Adem; Ozkuvanc?, Unsal

2012-08-01

387

Acquired urinary incontinence in the bitch: update and perspectives from human medicine. Part 3: The urethral component and surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in dogs. Surgery may be recommended if the animal does not respond to medical treatment or becomes refractory. In this third part of a three-part review, surgical options for the treatment of USMI are described. Colposuspension is the most frequently described procedure and offers a fair prognosis, with about 50% of the dogs being continent after surgery and most of the reminder being improved or more responsive to medical treatment. Urethropexy offers a similar success rate, but with a higher rate of complications. Endoscopic injection of collagen is an attractive technique due to its minimally invasive nature and low risk of adverse effects. Initial results may however deteriorate with time. Other procedures have been reported, but involve a low number of cases and have resulted in variable success rates. In women, stress urinary incontinence is mainly treated by minimally invasive procedures involving vaginal placement of sub-urethral slings. PMID:19926505

Claeys, Stéphanie; Noël, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick

2010-10-01

388

Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

Smith, Ryan P., E-mail: smithrp@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Benoit, Ronald [Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2011-11-01

389

Lower urinary tract obstruction in the fetus and neonate.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the most recent literature regarding congenital lower urinary tract obstruction in the fetus and newborn. Lower urinary tract obstruction is a heterogeneous group of rare diagnoses that have significant potential for in utero mortality and long-term morbidity in survivors. The diagnosis and management of the most common causes are reviewed. In addition, the current state of prenatal intervention for congenital lower urinary tract obstruction is discussed. PMID:25155733

Clayton, Douglass B; Brock, John W

2014-09-01

390

Accumulation of 'anti-continent' at the base of the mantle and its recycling in mantle plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental crust is a unique reservoir of light elements in the solid Earth; it possesses an intermediate composition and is believed to have been created principally along volcanic arcs, which are major sites of terrestrial andesitic magmatism. Mantle-derived arc magmas are, however, generally mafic or basaltic. A simple mechanism to overcome this apparent dilemma and generate andesitic melts in such a setting is through the partial remelting of an initial mafic arc crust by heat supplied from underplating basaltic magmas. An antithesis to the formation of continental crust in this way should be the production of refractory melting residue, here referred to as 'anti-continent'. This anti-continent is likely to detach from arc crust as a result of a density inversion and descend into the upper mantle. High-pressure experiments demonstrate that sinking anti-continent is, in contrast to the subducting oceanic crust, always denser than the surrounding mantle, suggesting that it penetrates through the upper-lower mantle boundary, without stagnation, and accumulates at the base of the mantle to form a 200-400 km thick mass known as the D? layer. Geochemical modeling provides further evidence that this accumulating anti-continent contributes to a deep-seated hotspot source. Therefore, through complementary processes, Earth creates buoyant continents and dense anti-continents at the top and the base of the mantle, respectively, and has recycled portions of anti-continent in mantle plumes.

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ozawa, Haruka; Hirose, Kei; Hanyu, Takeshi; Ohishi, Yasuo

2014-10-01

391

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

392

Urinary tract infection in individuals with spinal cord lesion.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection is the most frequently reported secondary impairment in individuals with spinal cord lesion. The most prevalent risk indicator is an indwelling catheter. Hydrophilic catheters for clean intermittent catheterization may induce lower rates of bacteriuria and long-term urethral complications. Due to chronic bacterial infection within biofilms, an antibacterial treatment based on a urinary culture of bacteria in the urine and its antimicrobial susceptibility may fail to eradicate catheter-associated urinary tract infection. No commercially available drugs are sufficiently active against the bacteria in a mature biofilm. Biomaterials may be modified to decrease the formation of a biofilm. Silver alloy catheters are effective in preventing urinary tract infection when indwelling urinary catheterization is necessary. The risk of systemic argyria in long-term use needs to be evaluated. Suprapubic cystostomy drainage in patients with neurogenic bladder is preferred to an indwelling urethral catheter. In cases of recurring urinary tract infection in patients with a permanent urinary catheter, it may be beneficial to change the catheter every 1 or 2 weeks. There is some evidence that cranberry products may prevent urinary tract infection. In the future, bacterial interference and vaccination may be a possibility for prevention of urinary tract infection. PMID:11753133

Biering-Sørensen, Fin

2002-01-01

393

Relationship of multispectral satellite data to land surface evaporation from the Australian continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on NOAA-9 AVHRR and Nimbus-7 SMMR satellite data, satellite indices of vegetation from the Australian continent are calculated for the period of May 1986 to April 1987. Visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectances and the normalized difference (ND) vegetation index are calculated from the AVHRR sensor. The microwave polarization difference (PD) is also calculated as the difference between the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at 37 GHz. ND, PD, VIS, and NIR indices were plotted against rainfall and water balance estimates of evaporation. It is concluded that direct satellite monitoring of annual evaporation across the Australian continent using PD or VIS satellite indices of vegetation biomass appears possible for areas with evaporation less than 600 mm/y and that use of the ND relationship at continental scale may underpredict monthly evaporation of forests relative to agriculture.

Smith, R. C. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

1990-01-01

394

Image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition, US east coast  

SciTech Connect

Strong wide-angle reflections from the Moho were recorded by ocean-bottom seismic instruments during the 1988 Carolina Trough multichannel seismic experiment, in an area where the Moho is difficult to detect with vertical-incidence seismic data. Prestack depth migration of these reflections has enabled the construction of a seismic image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition of a sedimented passive margin. The Moho rises across the margin at a slope of 10{degree}-12{degree}, from a depth of about 33 km beneath the continental shelf to 20 km beneath the outer rise. This zone of crustal thinning defines a distinct, 60-70-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. The authors interpret the Moho in the Carolina Trough as a Jurassic feature, formed by magmatic intrusion and underplating during the rifting of Pangea.

Holbrook, W.S.; Purdy, G.M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)); Reiter, E.C.; Toksoez, M.N. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

1992-03-01

395

The danger of imperfect regulation: OxyContin use in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

Drug companies aggressively market their products to increase sales and economic rewards. Different countries have different regulatory regimes for controlling promotion. In the United States control rests directly with the Food and Drug Administration whereas Canada relies on a mixture of voluntary self-regulation and an autonomous agency. Each method has significant weaknesses. We examine these weaknesses by analyzing the promotion of OxyContin (the time release version of the opioid oxycodone) by Purdue in Canada and the United States. We then look at the association between promotion and the misuse and abuse of OxyContin in both countries. Finally, we advance specific recommendations for regulating promotion for drugs that may have a high abuse potential. PMID:22156088

Lexchin, Joel; Kohler, Jillian Clare

2011-01-01

396

Was the Mid-Continent Rift part of a successful seafloor-spreading episode?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ~1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR), the 3000-km long largely-buried feature causing the largest gravity and magnetic anomaly within the North American craton, is traditionally considered a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension. We propose instead that the MCR formed as part of the rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian northeast South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established. A cusp in Laurentia's apparent polar wander path near the onset of MCR volcanism, recorded by the MCR's volcanic rocks, likely reflects the rifting. This scenario is suggested by analogy with younger rifts elsewhere and consistent with the geometry and timing of Precambrian rifting events including the MCR's extension to southwest Alabama along the East Continent Gravity High, southern Appalachian rocks having Amazonian affinities, and recent interpretation of large igneous provinces in Amazonia.

Stein, Carol; Stein, Seth; Merino, Miguel; Keller, G. Randy; Flesch, Lucy; Jurdy, Donna

2014-05-01

397

Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an attempt to manage urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. The device was originally developed to manage urinary urge incontinence; however, it has also been used in patients with urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. SNS is intended for patients who are refractory to behaviour, drug, and/or interventional therapy. There are 2 phases in the SNS process: first, patients must undergo a test stimulation phase to determine if they respond to sacral nerve stimulation. If there is a 50% or greater improvement in voiding function, then the patient is considered a candidate for the next phase, implantation. Review Strategy The standard Medical Advisory Secretariat search strategy was used to locate international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles published from 2000 to November 2004. The Medical Advisory Secretariat also conducted Internet searches of Medscape (1) and the manufacturer’s website (2) to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. In addition, the Web site Current Controlled Trials (3) was searched for ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the role of sacral nerve stimulation in the management of voiding conditions. Summary of Findings Four health technology assessments were found that reviewed SNS in patients with urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and/or urinary retention. One assessment was found that reviewed SNS in patients with fecal incontinence. The assessments consistently reported that SNS was an effective technology in managing these voiding conditions in patients who did not respond to drug or behaviour therapy. They also reported that there was a substantial complication profile associated with SNS. Complication rates ranged from 33% to 50%. However, none of the assessments reported that they found any incidences of permanent injury or death associated with

2005-01-01

398

Churchill's soft-underbelly approach onto the European continent - a missed opportunity. Study project  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes Winston Churchill's World War II proposal to enter the continent of Europe via the Balkans, the soft-underbelly. It considers the failure of the United States to have a national policy or grand strategy in place upon which to weigh such proposals. The American, British, and Russian perspectives are then reviewed, conclusion drawn, and suggestions made for a future strategy in Europe.

Lawton, J.P.

1986-05-12

399

Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade continence enema procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications of the Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review

A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau

1999-01-01

400

Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number

Y. Wang; Y. Xia; H. Dong; X. Dong; K. Yang; Z. Dong; L. Huang

2005-01-01

401

Early Eocene Arc–Continent Collision in Kamchatka, Russia: Structural Evolution and Geodynamic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The major event in the Cenozoic evolution of the Kamchatka orogen was the Early Eocene collision of the Ozernoy-Valagina (Olutorsky)\\u000a arc terrane with the continental margin of Asia. The arc–continent collision developed progressively from southwest to northeast\\u000a from the Early Eocene in South Kamchatka to the early Mid Eocene in the Olutorsky region. The nature of the continental margin\\u000a of

E. Konstantinovskaya

402

Gravity modeling of the ocean-continent transition along the South Atlantic margins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity, magnetic, and seismic data have been used to examine changes in crustal structure of conjugate portions of the South Atlantic volcanic margins south of the Walvis Ridge-Rio Grande Rise hot spot tracks. We have constructed 18 seismically constrained crustal-scale gravity models of the ocean-continent transition: 12 across the African margin and 6 across the South American margin. We attribute

Diana Dragoi-Stavar; Stuart Hall

2009-01-01

403

Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

2003-01-01

404

New results from physical modelling of arc–continent collision in Taiwan: evolutionary model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the analysis of the geological data and the results from 2D and 3D experimental modelling of arc–continent collision in Taiwan reveal the following major stages in this process: (1) failure and thickening of the subducting crust of the Chinese continental margin under the frontal part (accretionary prism) of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since ca. 6–7Ma; (2) uplift (squeezing)

A. I. Chemenda; R.-K. Yang; J.-F. Stephan; E. A. Konstantinovskaya; G. M. Ivanov

2001-01-01

405

A bioassessment approach for mid-continent great rivers: the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) are to (1) develop\\u000a and demonstrate, in collaboration with states, an assessment program yielding spatially unbiased estimates of the condition\\u000a of mid-continent great rivers; (2) evaluate environmental indicators for assessing great rivers; and (3) assess the current\\u000a condition of selected great river resources. The purpose of

T. R. Angradi; D. W. Bolgrien; T. M. Jicha; M. S. Pearson; B. H. Hill; D. L. Taylor; E. W. Schweiger; L. Shepard; A. R. Batterman; M. F. Moffett; C. M. Elonen; L. E. Anderson

2009-01-01

406

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 14, PAGES 2707-2710, JULY 15, 2001 Effects of continents on Earth cooling: thermal  

E-print Network

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 14, PAGES 2707-2710, JULY 15, 2001 Effects of continents shields are very low, indicating a strong insulating effect of continents on mantle heat loss. This effect is investigated with a simple approach: continents are introduced in an Earth cooling model as perfect thermal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

1 FEBRUARY 2004 665C H A N G E T A L . On the Relationship between Western Maritime Continent Monsoon Rainfall and  

E-print Network

1 FEBRUARY 2004 665C H A N G E T A L . On the Relationship between Western Maritime Continent) and the Maritime Continent monsoon rainfall during 1979­2002. The study indicates that the correlations are mostly the Maritime Continent (Ramage 1968), which consists of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the surrounding land

Li, Tim

408

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 49, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2011 3593 The K&C PALSAR Mosaic of the African Continent  

E-print Network

&C PALSAR Mosaic of the African Continent: Processing Issues and First Thematic Results Gianfranco D. De-polarization (HH and HV) mosaic for the entire African continent at spatial resolution on the order of 100 m system with a pixel spacing of 0.8333 mdeg (roughly 100 m at the equator). continent. A snapshot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Stein et al. MCR evolution 2.4.14 Was the Mid-Continent Rift part of a successful seafloor-spreading episode?1  

E-print Network

Stein et al. MCR evolution 2.4.14 1 Was the Mid-Continent Rift part at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059, USA.20 (cstein@uic.edu)21 22 Abstract:23 The ~1.1 Ga Mid-Continent and consistent with the MCR's extension to32 southwest Alabama along the East Continent Gravity High, southern

Stein, Seth

410

Megaconference V Reaches Five Continents http://www.osc.edu/press/releases/2003/megaconference.shtml 1 of 3 9/19/2008 12:34 PM  

E-print Network

Megaconference V Reaches Five Continents http://www.osc.edu/press/releases/2003/megaconference.shtml 1 of 3 9/19/2008 12:34 PM Megaconference V Reaches Five Continents More than 1000 people from over 200 institutions in 27 countries on five continents dialed into the 5th Annual Megaconference

Calyam, Prasad

411

Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: hans.geinitz@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, Monika [Sektion Psychoonkologie, Klinik fuer Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Pehl, Christian [Medizinische Klinik, Kreiskrankenhaus Vilsbiburg, Vilsbiburg (Germany); Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Busch, Raymonde [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

2011-04-01

412

Pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine response in infants across 4 continents??  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination. Objective Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world. Methods We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe). Results We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs. Conclusions Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world. PMID:24290283

Smolen, Kinga K.; Ruck, Candice E.; Fortuno, Edgardo S.; Ho, Kevin; Dimitriu, Pedro; Mohn, William W.; Speert, David P.; Cooper, Philip J.; Esser, Monika; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Marchant, Arnaud; Kollmann, Tobias R.

2014-01-01

413

International study of a continence device with 12-hour wear times.  

PubMed

This international, phase III, 215-day, open-label, non-randomized, multicentre study assessed the safety and efficacy of 12-hour wear times with a novel colostomy continence control device in participants with end colostomies. Study stages were usual pouching (21 days), wafer transition (14 days), device 'ramp-up' for 4, 6, and 8 hours (21 days), and 12-hour device wear (159 days). Of the 78 participants enrolled, 66 wore at least one device, and 45 completed treatment. Median device wear time was 11 hours per day during the final stage. Adverse events were reported by 12%, 7%, and 56% of participants during the usual pouching stage (0.01 events per participant per day), wafer transition stage, and device-wear stages (0.01 events per participant per day), respectively. No detrimental effects were seen on stoma vascularity or the normal gastrointestinal flora. The daily leakage-free rate was 0.89 for any leakage and 0.93 for type 2 leakage (e.g. not contained under the wafer). Most participants (87%) rated the ability of the device to restore continence as 'good' or 'very good'. Overall, the study showed that the continence control device was safe and effective for wear times up to 12 hours per day in colostomy patients. PMID:22096802

Durnal, Ann M; Maxwell, Terri R; Kiran, Ravi P; Kommala, Dheerendra

414

Drifting Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a teacher-led demonstration of continental drift and includes a math worksheet for students involving the calculation of continental drift over time. Students will understand what continental drift is, why it occurs, and how earthquakes occur because of it.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

415

21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

2011-04-01

416

21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

2013-04-01

417

21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

2012-04-01

418

21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

2014-04-01

419

Microtomographic Analysis of Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging—optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning—to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n = 5), severe urethral stenosis (n = 2), urethral diaphragm (n = 2), or physical kinking (n = 1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation “posterior urethral valves” should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated. PMID:23977847

Siebert, Joseph R.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Cox, Liza L.; Glass, Ian A.; Cox, Timothy C.

2014-01-01

420

Microtomographic analysis of lower urinary tract obstruction.  

PubMed

Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydroureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging-optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning-to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n ?=? 5), severe urethral stenosis (n ?=? 2), urethral diaphragm (n ?=? 2), or physical kinking (n ?=? 1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation "posterior urethral valves" should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated. PMID:23977847

Siebert, Joseph R; Smith, Kenneth J; Cox, Liza L; Glass, Ian A; Cox, Timothy C

2013-01-01

421

Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system, the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).

Meghraoui, Mustapha

2014-05-01

422

Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

Howe, Pam; Adams, John

2015-01-14

423

Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.  

PubMed

Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark. PMID:12522584

Yarnell, Eric

2002-11-01

424

Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases  

PubMed Central

Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility. This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23550267

Lee, Young-Suk

2013-01-01

425

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

2013-01-01

426

[Etiology of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary pathogens].  

PubMed

With the objective of knowing the common etiological agents in urinary infection and comparing its antimicrobial susceptibility in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we analyse all the urine bacteriological exams from the Serviço de Patologia Clínica do Centro Hospitalar do Nordeste, EPE - Unidade Hospitalar de Bragança, during a two years period (April 2004 to March 2006). During this period, 4018 urine bacteriological exams were made. The cultural exam was positive in 572 samples (144 from nosocomial infections and 428 from community-acquired urinary infections). The Escherichia coli was the more isolated strain (68,4 %), followed by Klebsiella spp (7,9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6,1%) and Proteus mirabilis (5,2%). Concerning to antimicrobial susceptibility, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed a high resistance to the antimicrobials Amoxicillin, Piperacillin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidim and Quinolones. For Enterobacteriaceae Imipenem, Amikacin and Netilmicin were the antimicrobials with more level of susceptibility. Imipenem and Amikacin were the more efficient antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Concerning to the susceptibility for the same etiological agent, in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we founded statistical significant differences in the antimicrobials Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid and Collistin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in the group of antimicrobials from Quinolones for the Proteus mirabilis. In the other identified agents there were no statistical significant differences for antimicrobials. This study it allows making use of data necessary for the knowledge of etiologic urinary infection agents in Bragança and provides the information about the antimicrobials resistance, which were necessary to initiate an adequate empirical treatment and to elaborate treatment guides. PMID:18331698

Correia, Carlos; Costa, Elísio; Peres, António; Alves, Madalena; Pombo, Graça; Estevinho, Letícia

2007-01-01

427

Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent  

E-print Network

Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) ...

Wei, Jun

428

Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

429

Renal Failure Caused by Malakoplakia Lesions of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

?alakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition of the urogenital tract. The most frequently affected organ is urinary bladder. This condition has features of a granulomatous inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. In this study, we presented a case of urinary bladder malakoplakia associated with advanced obstructive uropathy and renal failure.

Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Chelioti, Eleni; Tsavari, Aikaterini; Koulia, Kalliroi; Papalexandrou, Alexia; Efthymiou, Evdokia; Tsilivigkou, Maria; Vasilakaki, Thivi

2014-01-01

430

Clomipramine-induced urinary retention in a cat.  

PubMed Central

A 10-year-old, female, spayed shorthair with presumed psychogenic alopecia was treated with clomipramine (1 mg/kg body weight/day). The cat developed urinary retention within 2 days. Clomipramine was discontinued. Clinical signs resolved over the next 7 days. The urinary retention was attributed to the anticholinergic effects of clomipramine. PMID:10200885

Pfeiffer, E; Guy, N; Cribb, A

1999-01-01

431

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated  

E-print Network

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated with a vasopressin analogue of highly concentrated urine. Chronic stim- ulation of the urinary concentrating activity of sheep kidneys for 3 weeks. The vasopressin treated sheep (n = 11) were given subcutaneous injections of 12.5 µg of d

Boyer, Edmond

432

Separation methods applicable to urinary creatine and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary creatinine has been analyzed for many years as an indicator of glomerular filtration rate. More recently, interest in studying the uptake of creatine as a result of creatine supplementation, a practice increasingly common among bodybuilders and athletes, has lead to a need to measure urinary creatine concentrations. Creatine levels are of the same order of magnitude as creatinine levels

Truis Smith-Palmer

2002-01-01

433

Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to examine risk factors for urinary tract infection in postpartum women. Study Design: Subjects (n = 931) with maternal urinary tract infections and control subjects (n = 1862) were identified by using a linked Washington State birth certificate and Birth Events Records Database for the years 1987-1993; stratified analysis was performed by using Mantel-Haenszel procedures. Results: Increased

Margot A. Schwartz; Chia C. Wang; Linda O. Eckert; Cathy W. Critchlow

1999-01-01

434

Urinary tract infection in the renal transplant patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection contracted by recipients of renal allografts in the post-transplantation period. Fungi and viruses can also cause UTIs, but infections caused by these organisms are less common than those caused by bacteria. Both the lower and upper urinary tract (encompassing grafted or native kidneys) can be affected. Factors that

Ruth M de Souza; Jonathon Olsburgh

2008-01-01

435

Correlates of extramedical use of OxyContin® versus other analgesic opioids among the US general population  

PubMed Central

Background There has been substantial public and media attention regarding extramedical use of OxyContin®, but few studies focus on the characteristics of extramedical OxyContin® users and whether they differ from extramedical other opioid users. Methods We used data from 8,218 respondents who were past-year extramedical opioid analgesic users in the 2005 and 2006 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We investigated differences in socio-demographic and psychiatric characteristics associated with past-year extramedical OxyContin® use (n=1,144) versus extramedical other opioid analgesics use (n=7,074). Data on opioid sources was compared among past-month users. We also compared extramedical opioid users (n=8,218) versus other drug users (n=16,214), and individuals with an analgesic disorder who had past-year extramedical OxyContin® use (n=339) versus those with other opioid use (n=820). Results Past-year opioid users were more likely than users of other illegal drugs to be more educated and have a past-year major depressive episode. Past-year OxyContin® users were more likely than other opioid users to be 18–25 years old (aOR=1.9[1.1,3.2]), and have mental health and deviant behavior problems. Those with past-year analgesic disorder who used OxyContin® were more likely to be younger, sell illegal drugs (aOR=2.5[1.5,4.2]), and use illegal drugs than those who used other opioids. Past-month OxyContin® users were more likely than past-month other opioid users to buy analgesics from drug dealer/other stranger and obtain opioid analgesics from multiple sources. Conclusion Our findings point out differences between OxyContin® and other opioid users that might help prevention specialists and assist efforts to curb opioid analgesics diversion. PMID:18706774

Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Zhu, Hong; Chilcoat, Howard D.

2009-01-01

436

Effect of Anastomosis Level on Continence Performance and Quality of Life after Colonic J-pouch Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mesorectal excision (TME) has become the recommended method for treatment of cancer in the middle or lower third of\\u000a the rectum. Thus very low anastomoses are necessary to preserve continence, and pouch reconstruction is favored. It is unclear\\u000a whether the level of anastomosis is important for continence and quality of life in colonic J-pouch reconstruction. In this\\u000a investigation all

Susanne Otto; Anton J. Kroesen; Hubert G. Hotz; Heinz J. Buhr; Martin Kruschewski

2008-01-01

437

Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

2012-01-01

438

Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.  

PubMed

Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ?40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

2014-11-01

439

Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272

Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

2013-01-01

440

Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in older people. Unfortunately, UTI is commonly overdiagnosed and overtreated on the basis of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The diagnosis of a UTI in the older patient requires the presence of new urinary symptoms, with or without systemic symptoms. Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose infection in this population, however, the evidence for its use is limited. There is overwhelming evidence that asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated. Catheter associated urinary tract infection accounts for a significant amount of hospital-associated infection. Indwelling urinary catheters should be avoided where possible and alternatives sought. The use of narrow spectrum antimicrobial agents for urinary tract infection is advocated. Local guidelines are now widely used to reflect local resistance patterns and available agents. Guidelines need to be updated to reflect changes in antimicrobial prescribing and a move from broad to narrow spectrum antimicrobials. PMID:21753872

Beveridge, Louise A; Davey, Peter G; Phillips, Gabby; McMurdo, Marion ET

2011-01-01

441

Refertilization-driven destabilization of subcontinental mantle and the importance of initial lithospheric thickness for the fate of continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continents are underlain by thick, cold thermal boundary layers. Thermal contraction should render these boundary layers negatively buoyant and unstable; this is why old, cold oceanic lithospheres subduct. However, the ancient lithospheric roots of many continents appear to have existed for billions of years. In the common view, this preservation is due to the fact that the thermal boundary layers are compositionally distinct from the ambient mantle in that they are highly melt-depleted and dehydrated; the former provides positive buoyancy and the latter provides strength. Here, we show using mantle xenoliths that the Precambrian South China Block originally was underlain by highly depleted mantle, but has been refertilized via silicate melts generated from the asthenosphere. It is now more fertile than the ambient convecting mantle and is intrinsically denser by more than 1.5%. Achieving sufficient melt generation for refertilization is only possible if the lithosphere is thin enough to provide “headspace” for decompression melting. Thus, continental boundary layers thinner than the maximum depth of melting should experience refertilization, whereas thicker continents would altogether suppress melting and hence the potential for refertilization. We propose that refertilization, once initiated, will destabilize the base of the continent; this in turn will increase the amount of “headspace” and promote further refertilization, resulting in a positive feedback that could culminate in lithospheric destruction. By contrast, continents that are thick enough may not experience significant refertilization. This suggests that initial lithospheric thickness, as well as lithospheric composition, may be important for defining the fate of continents.

Zheng, J. P.; Lee, C.-T. A.; Lu, J. G.; Zhao, J. H.; Wu, Y. B.; Xia, B.; Li, X. Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Liu, Y. S.

2015-01-01

442

Association of Urinary Lipocalin-2 with Lupus Nephritis  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Lupus nephritis (LN) is the main cause of mortality and disability in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Therefore, utilizing a reliable and non-invasive method for serial measurements of renal function seems to be necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of urinary lipocalin-2 as a biomarker of renal involvement in SLE patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty two lupus patients in this cross sectional study were divided into two groups: patients with and without nephritis. For each group, urinary lipocalin-2, values were measured and reported according to urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine. Urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine sensitivity and specificity for identifying biopsy-proven nephritis were calculated, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. Results : The mean urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine value of patients with biopsy-proven LN was 2.99 ± 4.1 ng/mg, and in non-LN patients was 1.16 ± 1.27 ng/mg. Urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine levels in LN patients were significantly higher than those in non-LN patients (P- Value = 0.03). In LN patients, urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine significantly correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.68; P = 0.0001). Using a cutoff value of 0.896 ng/mg, urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine had a sensitivity of 89.7% and a specificity of 39.1% for identifying SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN. The area under the ROC curve was 0.664 ± 0.076 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.52-0.81 (P=0.04). Analysis of variance showed that urinary lipocalin-2/creatinine is the same in different classes of LN (P-value=0.28). Conclusion: An important clinical conclusion is that measurement of urinary Lipocalin-2 may result in earlier diagnosis of LN. PMID:24171081

Sharifipour, Farzaneh; Zeraati, Abbasali; Sahebari, Maryam; Hatef, Mohammadreza; Naghibi, Masih; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Azarian, Amir Abbas; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Samadi, Katayoun

2013-01-01

443

Antibiotic resistance of urinary tract pathogens and evaluation of empirical treatment in Turkish children with urinary tract infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in the causative microorganisms of urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood is a growing problem. The aims of this study were to assess the resistance patterns of urinary isolates to commonly used antimicrobials and to evaluate the options for empirical treatment of UTI. A prospective cross-sectional analysis of bacteria isolated from children with UTI

Selçuk Yüksel; Burcu Öztürk; Asl? Kavaz; Z. Birsin Özçakar; Banu Acar; Haluk Güriz; Derya Aysev; Mesiha Ekim; Fato? Yalç?nkaya

2006-01-01

444

Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

2005-12-01

445

Crustal breakup and continent-ocean transition at South Atlantic conjugate margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic reflection and refraction profiles, and potential field data, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modeling and plate reconstructions are used to study the evolution of the central and south segments of the South Atlantic conjugate margins. The central segment is characterized by a hyperextended continent-ocean transitional domain that shows evidence of rotated fault blocks and a detachment surface active during rifting. A polyphase rifting evolution mode, associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere, is substantiated for the central segment that is not a "magma-poor" end-member. Increase of volcanic activity during the late stages of rifting may have "interrupted" the extensional system implying a failed exhumation phase that was replaced instead by continental breakup and emplacement of fully igneous crust. The continent-ocean transitional domain along the "magma-dominated" south segment is characterized by a large volume of flood basalts and high-velocity/high-density lower crust. The northern province of the south segment is characterized by symmetrical seaward-dipping reflections and symmetrical continent-ocean transitional domain. The influence of the Tristan da Cunha plume on this province is very likely. The central province of the south segment is characterized by along-strike tectonomagmatic asymmetry, which can be caused by the initial continental stretching and accompanying magmatism rather than by the subsequent seafloor spreading. The Tristan da Cunha plume on the central province may have influenced the volume of magmatism but did not necessarily alter the process of rifted margin formation, implying that the central province of the south segment may have much in common with "magma-poor" margins.

Blaich, Olav A.; Faleide, Jan Inge; Tsikalas, Filippos

2011-01-01

446

Imaging the North American continent using waveform inversion of global and USArray data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of USArray during the last decade has produced dense sampling of the central part of the North American continent with broadband seismic data. Regional tomography is now mapping the deep structure of the continent in great detail, in particular beneath the western US where USArray initiated. At the scale of the entire continent, however, the resolution of seismic imaging is uneven, much poorer away from the footprint of the array than beneath it. Important questions regarding the deep structure, lateral extent and evolution of the North American Craton, most of it not covered by USArray, thus remain difficult to answer. Here we present a new model of the upper mantle beneath North America constrained by waveform fits of 717 thousand vertical-component, broadband seismograms, of which over 228 thousand are from the Transportable Array component of USArray, a few tens of thousands from other USArray-affiliated stations, and the rest from global networks and arrays. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S waveforms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with highly complementary USArray and global-network subsets within it, produces improved resolution for a variety of features in North American upper mantle, compared to other available models. The internal structure of the North American Craton is resolved in detail. The lithosphere beneath the 1 Ga failed Mid-Continental Rift shows wavespeeds not as high as beneath surrounding cratons; it was probably altered. The sharp northern boundaries of the cratonic lithosphere closely follow the coastlines, with North America's and Greenland's lithospheric roots clearly separate. Sharp velocity gradients in western Canada indicate that the craton boundary at depth closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front at the surface. High velocities between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing evidence for the recently proposed ‘MacKenzie Craton’, unexposed at the surface.

Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

2014-09-01

447

Micro-continents offshore Western Australia: implications for East Gondwana reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern part of the Western Australian margin formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between the East Gondwanan continents India, Australia and Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous. However, understanding the basin evolution along this margin has been hampered by a lack of data from the offshore Perth Abyssal Plain, and from the conjugate Greater Indian margin, which was highly deformed during collision with Eurasia. The Batavia Knoll and Gulden Draak Knoll are two prominent, previously unsampled, bathymetric features located >1600 km offshore Australia that have typically been assumed to be igneous features. In late 2011, successful dredges on the western flanks of both knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are micro-continents. Felsic orthogneiss and granite from Gulden Draak and Batavia knolls yield 2.8 Ga, 1.3-1.2 Ga and 540-510 Ma U-Pb zircon ages. The affinity of these geological samples, coupled with existing geological sampling and geophysical data, allow us to test alternative reconstructions for East Gondwana breakup. A number of alternative models have been proposed for the pre-rift configuration of Australia and Antarctica. Competing models make very different predictions for the kinematics of Mesozoic rifting that produced the basins along the Southern Australian margin; the magnitude of extension during rifting; and how mapped Paleozoic and Proterozoic geological terranes and fault zones can be correlated between Australia and Antarctica. We will present reconstructions that reconcile our new samples from Indian Ocean micro-continents with observations from India, Antarctica, Australia, and the evolution of the Indian Ocean.

Whittaker, Joanne; Williams, Simon; Halpin, Jacqueline; Daczko, Nathan; Gardner, Robyn

2014-05-01

448

The Emerging Legacy of USArray: New Views of the Architecture of the North American Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the decade that preceded the new millennium, seismologists on several continents dared to think big: envisioning, designing, and then building seismic arrays of unprecedented quality, resolution, and scale. In the US, their vision became USArray: thousands of broadband seismometers spanning the continent, professionally deployed, superbly maintained, with data ready in realtime quite literally at one's fingertips. For many young (and not so young) seismologists the building of USArray, particularly the Transportable Array, marks the crucial event of their scientific careers. An important part of the legacy of USArray will be an improved understanding of the architecture of the North American continent - one of its seminal motivations. A more dimly perceived motivation, but perhaps more important aspect of its legacy, will be its impact on the discipline of seismology. The impacts are profound and broad, but I will speak only about one small area: the transformation of array-based surface wave seismology. Innovations stimulated by USArray include the creation of ambient noise tomography, the reformulation of the tomographic inverse problem in terms of local differential filters applied to observed travel time and amplitude fields, the extrication of subtle signals that reveal robust and independent information about anisotropy in the crust and mantle, and the joint interpretation with other kinds of geophysical data. Interpreting the results of these innovations in a Bayesian framework helps to define another legacy of USArray, the replacement of single models with statistical distributions of model variables that can be assimilated by researchers in other fields or by seismologists in the future. As we transition to considering the scientific legacy of USArray, it is important to remember Beno Gutenberg's faith in the power of data to resolve scientific dispute. As he stated in the next to last sentence of his remarkable book Physics of the Earth's Interior: "THE DATA MUST BE GREATLY AMPLIFIED AND STRENGTHENED" (Gutenberg's emphasis). Upcoming generations of seismologists will be well served to heed Gutenberg's advice and follow the example of the designers of USArray.

Ritzwoller, M. H.

2013-12-01

449

The role of preoperative urodynamic testing in stress-continent women undergoing sacrocolpopexy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to describe results of reduction testing in stress-continent women undergoing sacrocolpopexy and to estimate whether stress leakage during urodynamic testing with prolapse reduction predicts postoperative stress incontinence. Three hundred twenty-two stress-continent women with stages II—IV prolapse underwent standardized urodynamics. Five prolapse reduction methods were tested: two at each site and both performed for each subject. Clinicians were masked to urodynamic results. At sacrocolpopexy, participants were randomized to Burch colposuspension or no Burch (control). P-values were computed by two-tailed Fisher’s exact test or t-test. Preoperatively, only 12 of 313 (3.7%) subjects demonstrated urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) without prolapse reduction. More women leaked after the second method than after the first (22% vs. 16%; p = 0.012). Preoperative detection of USI with prolapse reduction at 300ml was pessary, 6% (5 of 88); manual, 16% (19 of 122); forceps, 21% (21 of 98); swab, 20% (32 of 158); and speculum, 30% (35 of 118). Women who demonstrated preoperative USI during prolapse reduction were more likely to report postoperative stress incontinence, regardless of concomitant colposuspension (controls 58% vs. 38% (p = 0.04) and Burch 32% vs. 21% (p = 0.19)). In stress-continent women undergoing sacrocolpopexy, few women demonstrated USI without prolapse reduction. Detection rates of USI with prolapse reduction varied significantly by reduction method. Preoperative USI leakage during reduction testing is associated with a higher risk for postoperative stress incontinence at 3 months. Future research is warranted in this patient population to evaluate other treatment options to refine predictions and further reduce the risk of postoperative stress incontinence. PMID:18185903

Visco, Anthony G.; Brubaker, Linda; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly E.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Fine, Paul; Zyczynski, Halina; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne M.

2008-01-01

450

Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above the convecting mantle, inhibit the Earth's internal heat loss. We present theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments to test the validity of this intuitive and commonly used assumption. A scaling theory is developed to predict heat flow from a convecting mantle partially covered by stable continental lithosphere. The theory predicts that parameter regimes exist for which increased continental insulation has no effect on mantle heat flow and can even enhance it. Partial insulation leads to increased internal mantle temperature and decreased viscosity. This, in turn, allows for the more rapid overturn of oceanic lithosphere and increased oceanic heat flux. Depending on the ratio of continental to oceanic surface area, global mantle heat flow can remain constant or even increase as a result. Theoretical scaling analyses are consistent with results from numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. Applying our results to the Earth we find, in contrast to conventional understanding, that continental insulation does not generally reduce global heat flow. Such insulation can have a negligible effect or even enhance mantle cooling, depending on the magnitude of the temperature dependence of mantle viscosity. The theory also suggests a potential constraint on continental surface area. Increased surface area enhances the subduction rate of oceanic lithosphere. If continents are produced in subduction settings this could enhance continental growth up to a critical point where increased insulation causes convective stress levels to drop to values approaching the lithospheric yield stress. This condition makes weak plate margins difficult to maintain which, in turn, lowers subduction rates and limits the further growth of continents. The theory is used to predict the critical point as a function of mantle heat flow. For the Earth's rate of mantle heat loss, the predicted continental surface area is in accord with the observed value.

Lenardic, A.; Moresi, L.-N.; Jellinek, A. M.; Manga, M.

2005-06-01

451

This is Africa: an introduction to medical operations on the african continent.  

PubMed

This article regarding Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical operations in Africa is an introduction to a follow-on series of articles that will address in more detail pertinent medical topics which pertain to operations on the African continent. Medical operations in Africa require dynamic and systematic approaches that consider the myriad challenges, yet offer flexible solutions applied as situations and environments dictate. We believe this series of articles will be of high interest to readers and provide key information that will be germane to future SOF operations. PMID:25344718

Givens, Melissa L; Lynch, James H

2014-01-01

452

Inhomogeneous islands and continents in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model  

E-print Network

We present some recent developments in our study of inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking phases in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. First, we investigate different kinds of one- and two-dimensional spatial modulations of the chiral condensate within the inhomogeneous "island" and compare their free energies. Next, we employ the Polyakov-loop extended version of the model to study the effects of varying the number of colors on the inhomogeneous region. Finally, we discuss the properties of an inhomogeneous "continent" which appears in our model at higher chemical potentials, and analyze its origin.

Stefano Carignano; Michael Buballa

2011-11-18

453

Trace gas measurements from whole air samples collected over the Antarctic continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whole air samples collected aboard the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) were analyzed in a field laboratory set up at Punta Arenas, Chile, in August and September, 1987. Mixing ratios obtained from gas chromatographic analyses of these samples are presented for N2O, CFCl3, CFCl2, C2F3Cl3, CH3CCl3, CH4, and CO. Variations in the mixing ratios of these gases along the individual flight paths of the aircraft are used as tracers to indicate the history of air masses over and near the Antarctic continent.

Heidt, L. E.; Vedder, J. F.; Pollock, Walter H.; Henry, Bruce E.; Lueb, Richard A.

1988-01-01

454

Gravity domains and assembly of the North American continent by collisional tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gravity trend map of North America, based on a horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient map produced from gravity data for Canada and the conterminous United States, is presented and used to define a continental mosaic of gravity trend domains akin to structural domains. Contrasting trend characteristics at gravity domain boundaries support the concept of outward growth of the continent primarily by accretionary tectonics. Gravity patterns, however, indicate a different style of tectonics dominated in the development of now-buried Proterozoic orogenic belts in the south-central United States, supporting a view that these belts formed along the leading edge of a southward-migrating Proterozoic continental margin.

Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

1988-01-01

455

Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-Continent Collision Beneath Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc-continent collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of continents. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The Taiwan arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one of the most active arc-continent collisions in the world. The current plate motions and surface geology are well understood, making Taiwan an ideal location for geophysical investigations of this important tectonic process. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER) project was initiated in 2004 to image the lithospheric structure beneath Taiwan. The project includes the acquisition of both active and passive seismic data plus detailed magnetotellurics (MT) surveys. MT is a passive geophysical technique which records time variations of natural electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth and can determine the subsurface resistivity. This parameter can be used to constrain lithospheric composition and strength. Over the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, 82 long-period MT soundings were acquired in Taiwan. The fieldwork was accomplished by collaboration between the University of Alberta and National Central University of Taiwan. In fall 2007, collection of additional broadband MT will complement these data. The long-period data were processed using robust techniques and remotely referenced with a station on the PengHu islands (~100km from the nearest site) to reduce the influence of cultural noise. The conductive Taiwan strait separating PengHu from the mainland acts as an effective attenuator of cultural EM fields. Two closely spaced parallel transects across central Taiwan are formed by 46 of these stations with a nominal spacing of 5km. Dimensionality analysis of these transects using the McNeice-Jones tensor decomposition algorithm reveal local 3-D effects in some data. However, an overall regional 2-D strike direction is defined that is parallel to the coastline of Taiwan. Regularized 2-D inversions of these transects image conductive sedimentary rocks in the western foreland basin and an east dip