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Sample records for continent ileocecal urinary

  1. The Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bihrle, R

    1997-11-01

    The right colon reservoir using a stapled plicated ileal efferent limb (Indiana continent urinary reservoir) has been demonstrated to be a reproducible durable form of continent diversion. The overall day and nocturnal continence rate of 94% compares favorably with all other forms of continent cutaneous diversion. Carefully following the technique of stapling and plicating the ileal efferent limb and ileocecal valve as described in this article nearly ensures adequate competence of the outlet valve. In the rare case in which incontinence occurs, it is almost always on the basis of high-pressure unit contractions of the reservoir. On occasion, patients who develop incontinence are observed to have high pressures within the reservoir despite complete detubularization of the right colon segment. When this problem is encountered it can be corrected successfully by adding an ileal patch augmentation to the previously detubularized reservoir. The issue of ureteral implantation in continent urinary diversions is as yet unsettled. Many authors have not used ureteral tenial tunnels and have reported a reflux rate of < 13%. Furthermore, these patients have not developed any long-term sequelae of their reflux. Although favorable results have been obtained without creating tunneled tenial reimplantation, we believe that continent cutaneous reservoirs are almost always colonized with bacteria, and an antireflux mechanism may offer protection against subsequent pyelonephritis. Closure of the reservoir traditionally has been conducted by hand at our institution; however, the development of smaller absorbable gastrointestinal anastomosis stapling devices offers the theoretic advantage of shortening the operative time. We anxiously await follow-up, including larger patient numbers and longer term follow-up of the absorbable staple technique. The use of continent cutaneous urinary diversion clearly has decreased as bladder replacement has become a more viable procedure over the past decade. Despite this, the urologic reconstructive surgeon must maintain the ability to perform continent cutaneous diversion in patients who are unwilling to accept the potential for nocturnal incontinence observed in all forms of bladder replacement as well as the patients who have ineffective sphincter mechanism or who need a urethrectomy due to their primary disease. PMID:9391530

  2. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented. PMID:20531385

  3. Promoting urinary continence in older women.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Alison

    2014-10-28

    Continence promotion involves informing and educating the public and healthcare professionals that urinary incontinence is not an inevitable part of ageing, and can be treated or at least made more manageable. While awareness of urinary continence is improving slowly, the taboo around discussing incontinence remains. Women are at increased risk of developing urinary incontinence as they grow older because of physiological, functional and cognitive changes. Healthcare professionals can identify women with bladder symptoms by routinely asking trigger questions and can promote continence through education about lifestyle choices that aggravate or ameliorate urinary incontinence. This article discusses the main risk factors associated with urinary incontinence in older women and the ways in which healthcare professionals can help to identify those with symptoms of urinary incontinence. PMID:25335630

  4. Robotic Intracorporeal Continent Cutaneous Urinary Diversion: Primary Description.

    PubMed

    Goh, Alvin C; Aghazadeh, Monty A; Krasnow, Ross E; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Stewart, Julie N; Miles, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to present the first report and describe our novel technique for intracorporeal continent cutaneous diversion after robotic cystectomy. After completion of robot-assisted cystectomy using a standard six-port transperitoneal technique, three additional ports are placed, and the robot is redocked laterally over the patient's right side in the modified lateral position. Our technique replicates step-by-step the principles of the open approach. Ileocolonic anastomosis, ureteroenteral anastomoses, and construction of a hand-sewn right colonic pouch are all performed intracorporeally. Tapering of efferent ileal limb and reinforcement of the ileocecal valve are performed via the extraction site, while the stoma is matured through a prospective port site. Successful robotic intracorporeal creation of a modified Indiana pouch was achieved. Operative time for diversion was 3 hours, with negligible blood loss, and without any intraoperative complications. No major (Clavien III-V) 90-day complications were observed. At a follow-up of 1 year, the patient continues to catheterize without difficulty. We demonstrate the first description of robotic intracorporeal continent cutaneous urinary diversion after robot-assisted cystectomy. We present a systematic minimally invasive approach, replicating the principles of open surgery, which is technically feasible and safe with a good functional result. PMID:25556514

  5. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  15. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (⩾4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in urinary continence and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Xiang; Chermansky, Christopher J; Birder, Lori A; Li, Longkun; Damaser, Margot S

    2014-10-01

    Urinary incontinence adversely affects quality of life and results in an increased financial burden for the elderly. Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lower urinary tract function, particularly with regard to normal physiological function and the pathophysiological mechanisms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). The interaction between BDNF and glutamate receptors affects both bladder and external urethral sphincter function during micturition. Clinical findings indicate reduced BDNF levels in antepartum and postpartum women, potentially correlating with postpartum SUI. Experiments with animal models demonstrate that BDNF is decreased after simulated childbirth injury, thereby impeding the recovery of injured nerves and the restoration of continence. Treatment with exogenous BDNF facilitates neural recovery and the restoration of continence. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, used to treat both depression and SUI, result in enhanced BDNF levels. Understanding the neurophysiological roles of BDNF in maintaining normal urinary function and in the pathogenesis of SUI and BPS/IC could lead to future therapies based on these mechanisms. PMID:25224451

  17. Development of urethral occlusive techniques for restoration of urinary continence.

    PubMed

    Burton, J H; Mikulich, M A; Timm, G W; Scott, F B; Attia, S L; Bradley, W E

    1977-01-01

    Three models of an artificial sphincter for treatment of urinary incontinence are described. Each of the models shares the two basic features of a cuff that encircles the urethra and a totally implantable hydraulic system for volitionally inflating the cuff to control the flow of urine. The models differ in the means by which pressure in the cuff is maintained below safe operating limits. In one model, pressure is regulated by a pressure-relief valve. This model has a clinical success rate of 66 percent over 5 years. The success rate has been increased by improvements in mechanical design, surgical technique, and patient selection. In another model, cuff pressure is regulated by means of a balloon which inflates at constant pressure as fluid is pumped into the balloon and cuff simultaneously to occlude the urethra. In the third model, pressure is also controlled by a balloon. To void, fluid is pumped from the cuff into the balloon. It then automatically flows back to the cuff through a fluid resistance to reestablish continence. Clinical trials of the balloon-regulated models are currently in progress. PMID:895596

  18. Use of continence pads to manage urinary incontinence in older people.

    PubMed

    Nazarko, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Urinary incontinence is a symptom that should be investigated and whenever possible treated in order to enable the person to regain continence. Sometimes, it is not possible or appropriate to promote continence, and the focus shifts to that of managing incontinence sensitively to enable the person to maintain dignity and avoid the complications of poorly managed urinary incontinence. This article examines how nurses and health professionals can promote wellbeing by assessing a person's need for incontinence pads, enabling the person to use the appropriate type of pad and minimising risks of skin damage, odour, embarrassment, and leakage. PMID:26252233

  19. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M.; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E.; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA).

  20. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the "cushion" of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  1. Evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary loss of urine that can influence the quality of life, personal hygiene and social interaction. The types of UI that most affect women are stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence. There are several risk factors that result in specific treatments. We aimed to investigate the evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy intervention and its associated factors. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 71 participants who were discharged from physiotherapy sector from August 2006 to April 2012 and met the inclusion criteria. Results Among the studied variables, the number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant association. The urinary continence appeared in 43.7% of the cases, and factors, performance of home exercises, and number of sessions showed a significant association. Conclusion The number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant relationship with each other. PMID:24839462

  2. Closure of the bladder neck in patients undergoing continent vesicostomy for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Reid, R; Schneider, K; Fruchtman, B

    1978-07-01

    The continent vesicostomy has been done on 24 patients, 10 of whom had severe urinary incontinence requiring closure of the bladder neck or urethra as well. Therefore, the bladder was converted to a closed cavity and intermittent catheterization is done through an abdominal stoma. No dressings or appliances are necessary. Bladder neck (or urethral) closure was successful in 8 of the 10 patients. One of the failures had been incontinent and was rendered continent on attempted bladder neck closure and there is urethral leakage at night in the other patient. Intermittent catheterization through a vesicostomy stoma has been cleaner and more aesthetically pleasing to the patients. The bladder neck closure has resulted in a dry perineum with fewer skin problems. PMID:671603

  3. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixtysix adult SB patients completed the RAND 36Item Health Survey (mSF36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (IQOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD 7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Fortyfive patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD 22.9) and mean IQOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD 21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF36 and IQOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between IQOL scales and most mSF36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (IQOL) or general health (mSF36) domains, although IQOL and mSF36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  4. Targeting community-dwelling urinary incontinence sufferers: a multi-disciplinary community based model for conservative continence services.

    PubMed

    St John, Winsome; Wallis, Marianne; James, Heather; McKenzie, Shona; Guyatt, Sheridan

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an argument that there is a need to provide services that target community-dwelling incontinence sufferers, and presents a demonstration case study of a multi-disciplinary, community-based conservative model of service delivery: The Waterworx Model. Rationale for approaches taken, implementation of the model, evaluation and lessons learned are discussed. In this paper community-dwelling sufferers of urinary incontinence are identified as an underserved group, and useful information is provided for those wishing to establish services for them. The Waterworx Model of continence service delivery incorporates three interrelated approaches. Firstly, client access is achieved by using community-based services via clinic and home visits, creating referral pathways and active promotion of services. Secondly, multi-disciplinary client care is provided by targeting a specific client group, multi-disciplinary assessment, promoting client self-management and developing client knowledge and health literacy. Finally, interdisciplinary collaboration and linkages is facilitated by developing multidisciplinary assessment tools, using interdisciplinary referrals, staff development, multi-disciplinary management and providing professional education. Implementation of the model achieved greater client access, improvement in urinary incontinence and client satisfaction. Our experiences suggest that those suffering urinary incontinence and living in the community are an underserved group and that continence services should be community focussed, multi-disciplinary, generalist in nature. PMID:15551672

  5. Influence of serum testosterone on urinary continence and sexual activity in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gacci, M; Corona, G; Apolone, A; Lanciotti, M; Tosi, N; Giancane, S; Masieri, L; Serni, S; Maggi, M; Carini, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how serum testosterone level (T) can affect urinary continence and erectile function in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). We included 257 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, those who had filled out preoperative quality of life questionnaires (University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)), and those who had T and total PSA sampled the day before surgery. We calculated correlations between T and age, body mass index (BMI), PSA, urinary function or bother (UF, UB) and sexual function or bother (SF, SB) and IIEF-5 in the whole population and in sub-populations with normal (?10.4?nmol?l?1) and low (<10.4?ng?ml?1) T using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. We evaluated differences in these parameters between patients with low and normal T using the unpaired samples t-test and MannWhitney test, and finally the correlation between UF and SF, UB and SB, and between PSA and T in the overall population, and separately in patients with low and normal T using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mean preoperative T was 13.5?nmol?l?1 and 23.7% of patients presented a low T. Mean age, mean BMI and mean preoperative total PSA at RP were 64.3 years, 25.9?kg?m?2 and 9.0?ng?ml?1, respectively. BMI was negatively correlated with T in the overall population (r=?0.266; P=0.02); moreover, patients with normal T presented lower BMI compared with patients with low T (25.7 vs 27.6: P=0.02). We found a significant correlation between SF scores and T in patients with normal T (r=0.1777: P=0.05). SF was significantly higher in patients with normal T compared with those with low T (74.8 vs 64.8: P=0.05). Furthermore, UF and UB were significantly correlated with SF (r=0.2544: P<0.01) and SB (r=0.2512: P=0.01), respectively, in men with normal T. Serum T was significantly correlated with PSA in men with low T (r=0.3874: P=0.0029), whereas this correlation was missed in the whole population and in men with normal T. The correlation between preoperative PSA and T in men with low T is in agreement with the saturation' model proposed by Morgentaler. The correlation between basal T and preoperative erectile function and urinary continence underlines the importance of assessing T before RP. PMID:20212520

  6. Morphological analysis of the urethral muscle of the male pig with relevance to urinary continence and micturition.

    PubMed

    Ragionieri, Luisa; Ravanetti, Francesca; Gazza, Ferdinando; Botti, Maddalena; Ivanovska, Ana; Cacchioli, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether the pig could be considered a suitable model to study lower urinary tract function and dysfunction, the pelvic urethra of 24 slaughtered male pigs were collected, and the associated muscles were macroscopically, histologically and histochemically analyzed. In cross-sections of the urethra, a muscular complex composed of an inner layer of smooth muscle and an outer layer of striated muscle that are not separated by fascial planes was observed. A tunica muscularis, composed of differently oriented smooth muscle bundles, is only evident in the proximal part of the pelvic urethra while, in the remaining part, it contributes to form the prostatic fibromuscular stroma. The striated urethral muscle surrounds the pelvic urethra in a horseshoe-like configuration with a dorsal longitudinal raphe, extending from the bladder neck to the central tendon of perineum. Proximally to the bladder, it is constituted of slow-twitch and fast-twitch myofibers of very small diameter, and embedded in an abundant collagen and elastic fiber net. Moving caudally it is gradually encircled and then completely substituted by larger and compact myofibers, principally presenting circular orientation and fast-twitch histochemical characteristics. So, like in humans, the cranial tract of the muscular system surrounding the pelvic urethra is principally composed of smooth musculature. The striated component cranially may have a role in blocking retrograde ejaculation, while the middle and caudal tracts may facilitate urine and semen flow, and seem especially concerned with the rapid and forceful urethral closure during active continence. Some differences in the morphology and structure between pigs and humans seem due to the different morphology of the 'secondary' sexual organs that develop from the urethral wall and to the different effect of gravity on the mechanics of the urinary system in quadruped and bipedal mammals. PMID:26573248

  7. [A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].

    PubMed

    Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

    1987-01-01

    The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the sphincteric area and slackening of the levator ani muscles, alone or in association, explain why urethral closure pressure drops. Sometimes this drop is followed by an increase in bladder pressure. PMID:3330102

  8. Long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Mainz I pouch): A retrospective study of a monocentric experience

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Fahd; Fellahi, Saad; Ouslim, Hicham; Mhanna, Tarik; El Houmaidi, Amine; Aynaou, Mohammed; Boteng, Paapa Dua; Barki, Ali; Nouini, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous reservoir (ICCR) and to review the late complications. Patients and methods In all, 756 patients underwent an ICCR in our department, with long-term follow-up data available in 50 patients. The inclusion criterion was ICCR regardless of the indication and the exclusion criteria were orthotopic neobladder or other continent urinary diversions not performed with the ileocaecum. Patients were followed to record primary outcomes and late complications. Complications were stratified according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The mean patient age was 44 years and pelvic malignancies were the first indication for urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 19 (9–36) years. A stoma stenosis was the most frequent outlet-related complication requiring re-intervention, followed by ischaemic outlet degeneration, and stoma incontinence. Six renal units (RUs) developed obstruction at the anastomotic site and were managed by open surgery. Three RUs had to be removed due to deterioration. A dederivation was necessary in three patients (6%). Conclusion The ICCR is a safe and established technique when an orthotopic pouch is impossible. The long-term follow-up shows acceptable complication rates and satisfactory continence conditions. However, large population studies are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:26609442

  9. [APPLICATION OF ILEOCECAL GASTROPLASTY IN EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Lazirskiy, V A

    2015-10-01

    Results of gastroplasty, using ileocecal intestinal segment in experimental animals were presented. Functional state of transplant was estimated using data of angiography, manometry, morphological investigations. In accordance to angiographic data sufficient blood supply of transplant was obtained from a. ileocolica. While manometric and roentgenologic investigations duodenal reflux into small intestine and esophagus was not revealed. Colono-small bowel reflux, determined using hydropression method, was registered in 150 - 170 mm H2O pressure. In accordance to results of morphological investigations in a large bowel reservoir the quantity of goblet cells and the mucus production have enhanced, promoting elimination of inflammation. PMID:26946669

  10. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Nurse-Led Continence Care Treatments for Chinese Primary Care Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether community-based nurse-led continence care interventions are effective in improving outcomes for adult Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Research Design and Subjects A case-controlled intervention study was conducted. An intervention group of 360 primary care patients enrolled into a nurse-led continence care programme were recruited by consecutive sampling. A control group of 360 primary care patients with LUTS identified by screening were recruited from the waiting rooms of primary care clinics by consecutive sampling. Both groups were monitored at baseline and at 12 months. Measures Outcome measures included symptom severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-efficacy, global health and self-reported health service utilization at 12-months. The effect of the continence care programme on symptom severity and HRQOL was assessed by the difference-in-difference estimation, using independent t-test and multiple liner regression. Chi-square test was used to compare the self-efficacy, global health and self-reported health service utilization between the two groups at 12-months. Results After adjusting for baseline severity and socio-demographics, the intervention group had significant improvements in LUTS severity (P<0.05) and HRQOL (P<0.05). Improvements in the amount of urine leakage were not significantly different between the two groups. A higher proportion of subjects in the intervention group reported increased self-efficacy (43.48% vs. 66.83%), improved global health condition (17.74% vs. 41.5%), having doctor consultation (18.5% vs. 8.06), having medication due to LUTS (26.50% vs.11.29%) and having non-drug therapy due to LUTS (59.5% vs.9.68%). Conclusions Community-based nurse-led continence care can effectively alleviate symptoms, improve health-related quality of life, and enhance self-efficacy and the global health condition of Chinese male and female primary care patients with LUTS. PMID:26076486

  11. The mechanism of continence after posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Angermeier, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care after a pelvic fracture urethral injury is a repair via a one-stage anastomotic posterior urethroplasty using a step-wise perineal approach. The initial injury, immediate postoperative management, and surgical repair can all affect urinary continence in these patients. Proximal continence mechanisms, particularly the bladder neck, are particularly important in maintaining urinary continence in these patients. Patients with bladder neck dysfunction should be counselled about the greater risk of urinary incontinence. PMID:26019981

  12. [A case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with ileocecal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Saruta, Masayuki; Sawada, Ryoichi; Ide, Daisuke; Arihiro, Seiji; Matsuoka, Mika; Katoh, Tomohiro; Tajiri, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ileocecal ulcer. A 31-year-old man was admitted with chief complaints of decreased body weight and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a round punched-out ulcer on the ileocecal valve. Initially, we suspected entero-Behet's disease and simple ulcer as the cause of the ileocecal ulcer. However, after histologic examination of tissue biopsies obtained during colonoscopy, we diagnosed the patient as having cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Based on the patient's white blood cell depletion and CMV enteritis, we performed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. The test was positive, and the diagnosis of AIDS was established. The number of patients with AIDS has been increasing in Japan; thus, we should consider the possibility of CMV enteritis and AIDS in young adult patients affected by ileocecal ulcer with no notable history. PMID:26440687

  13. Urinary reconstruction in vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal, renal abnormalities and limb defects association with chronic renal failure and penile duplication.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Masaki; Shishido, Seiichiro; Nihei, Hiroshi; Hamasaki, Yuko; Hyodo, Yoji; Kawamura, Takeshi; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Various urological complications in VATER association require careful management. A 15-year-old boy with VATER association, including a hypoplastic lower urinary tract and diphallia, presented with chronic kidney disease and incontinence after a right loop ureterostomy. In order to acquire urinary continence without renal function impairment, an ileocecal reservoir with umbilical catheterizable stoma was created as a urinary reconstruction. The ectopic posterior penis was resected for cosmetic reasons, and the stump of the hypoplastic urethra was opened at the perineal skin. Clean intermittent self-catheterization through the umbilicus using disabled bilateral limbs was then achieved. This report describes the management of VATER association in a patient with complicated urological anomalies. PMID:25115674

  14. [Leiomyosarcoma of ileocecal mesentery--a case report].

    PubMed

    Satomura, K; Irie, A; Ito, M; Tsuboi, K; Irie, R; Nanbu, H; Kawabe, K

    1993-09-01

    We report a case of leiomyosarcoma whose origin was near the root of ileocecal mesentery and extended into the retroperitoneum. Preoperative imaging examination, including CT, MRI and angiography clearly displayed its origin and retroperitoneal extension. These results contributed to treatment planning. PMID:8246871

  15. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  19. Ileocecal Intussusception in an Adult: the Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Adult intussusception is uncommon and requires a surgical approach. Malignancy is associated with 31% (43/137) of small bowel intussusception and 70% (74/106) of large bowel intussusception. Computerized tomography (CT) findings are pathognomonic for this condition. Often, the patient presents with long-standing, nonspecific complaints. A 63-year-old man presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain. CT demonstrated colonic inflammation. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ileocecal intussusception was performed. The pathology report revealed a lipoma of the cecum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged the fifth postoperative day. Despite a high incidence of malignancy, colonic or ileocecal intussusception can be successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Review of the literature and treatment options are discussed. PMID:16882431

  20. Continence and micturition: an anatomical basis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adarsh P; Mevcha, Amit; Wilby, Daniel; Alatsatianos, Anton; Hardman, John C; Jacques, Steven; Wilton, Joanne C

    2014-11-01

    Urinary incontinence remains an important clinical problem worldwide, having a significant socio-economic, psychological, and medical burden. Maintaining urinary continence and coordinating micturition are complex processes relying on interaction between somatic and visceral elements, moderated by learned behavior. Urinary viscera and pelvic floor must interact with higher centers to ensure a functionally competent system. This article aims to describe the relevant anatomy and neuronal pathways involved in the maintenance of urinary continence and micturition. Review of relevant literature focusing on pelvic floor and urinary sphincters anatomy, and neuroanatomy of urinary continence and micturition. Data obtained from both live and cadaveric human studies are included. The stretch during bladder filling is believed to cause release of urothelial chemical mediators, which in turn activates afferent nerves and myofibroblasts in the muscosal and submucosal layers respectively, thereby relaying sensation of bladder fullness. The internal urethral sphincter is continuous with detrusor muscle, but its arrangement is variable. The external urethral sphincter blends with fibers of levator ani muscle. Executive decisions about micturition in humans rely on a complex mechanism involving communication between several cerebral centers and primitive sacral spinal reflexes. The pudendal nerve is most commonly damaged in females at the level of sacrospinous ligament. We describe the pelvic anatomy and relevant neuroanatomy involved in maintaining urinary continence and during micturition, subsequently highlighting the anatomical basis of urinary incontinence. Comprehensive anatomical understanding is vital for appropriate medical and surgical management of affected patients, and helps guide development of future therapies. PMID:24615792

  1. Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic ileocecal resection for Crohn's disease in a child.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Okigami, Masato; Okita, Yoshiki; Hiro, Junichiro; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kusunoki, Masato

    2013-02-01

    We report the pediatric case of ileal Crohn's disease in which the patient underwent transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic ileocecal resection. A 14-year-old boy with severe growth disturbance presented with intestinal obstruction. Transanal double-balloon enteroscopy and contrast study during endoscopy revealed a cobble stone appearance and a severe stricture 15?cm in length located slightly proximal to the ileocecal valve. There was no evidence of fistula or abscess formation. Ileocecal resection was performed via an umbilical incision with conventional laparoscopic instruments, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Single-incision laparoscopic ileocecal resection is a good procedure for uncomplicated Crohn's disease patients in childhood. PMID:23347707

  2. Massive stone burden in an ileocecal pouch: A preventable condition?

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Barrieras, Diego; McCormack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of transition from the pediatric to the adult setting have been reported. We describe a case of massive stone burden in the ileocecal pouch of a patient lost to follow-up after his transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. Although we successfully managed the patient and retrieved the pouch stones without any complications, several surgical complications may occur in a patient with a history of extensive abdominal surgery and bladder exstrophy. This patients late complication might have been prevented with a more efficient transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. PMID:24940465

  3. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ileocecal junction with well differentiation adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuming; Li, Yan; Feng, Hua; Wang, Chengxin; Chen, Jiaxun; Liu, Lijiang

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are unique and rare tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells. Large cell neuroendocrine tumors have been found in almost every organ such as gastrointestinal tract, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, uterine cervix, urinary bladder and salivary gland, but primary sites in gastrointestinal tract and lung are the most frequent. These neoplasms show neuroendocrine differentiation in organizational structure, which requires further confirmation with immunohistochemistry or electron microscope. In immunohistochemistry staining, pure neuroendocrine areas are diffusely stained positive for synaptophysin (Syn), chromogranin (CgA) and CD56.At least two neuroendocrine markers (Syn, CgA or CD56) must be diffusely stained positive to establish a diagnosis for large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. We studied a rare case of large cell neuroendocrine tumor that was originated from the ileocecal junction and showed CgA, Syn and CD56 triple-negative. The tumor, however, showed typical morphologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine differentiation; it also exhibited well differentiation and a significant peritumoral lymphoid reaction. Furthermore, we also found the intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules through the electron micrograph examination. PMID:26071581

  4. Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Once the bladder has been removed or declared non-functional, some form of urinary diversion must be performed. The diversion can be as simple as bringing the ureters to the skin and as complicated as the creation of a functioning neobladder. The indications for and expectations of the most common types of diversion are explained. Some new techniques for continent diversion are described. PMID:21229045

  5. Lymphangitic spread from the appendiceal adenocarcinoma to the ileocecal valve, mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Tricia; Lim, Nicholas; Zenali, Maryam

    2015-02-21

    Due to the anatomical peculiarity of the appendix, diagnosis of tumors arising from this area can be challenging by clinicoradiologic means. We report a case of a rare primary appendiceal signet ring carcinoma with an uncommon presentation. An 86-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with subacute epigastric pain. Computed tomography demonstrated bowel wall thickening with fat stranding in the ileocecal region. The leading diagnostic consideration was inflammatory bowel disease. Upon colonoscopy, a swollen, distorted ileocecal valve was identified. The remaining colon was otherwise unremarkable. Extensive biopsy sampling of the ileocecal region and colon was performed. A lymphangitic signet ring carcinoma within the ileocecal region was diagnosed on biopsy; there was no dysplasia or carcinoma of the remaining biopsies. By cytomorphology and immunoprofile, a lymphangitic signet ring carcinoma of appendiceal origin was the primary consideration, further confirmed upon subsequent laparotomy. This case represents an unusual pattern of appendiceal tumor spread with localized, lymphangitic involvement, creating a milieu which closely simulates Crohn's disease on imaging modalities. PMID:25717258

  6. Ileocecal patch low rectal anastomosis in total colectomy: New idea for the prevention of fecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Valiullah; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Falahi, Azadeh; Abtahi, Shabnam; Kafaei, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Total colectomy is used in children with total colonic aganglionosis, Ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The purpose of this study was to maintain ileocecal valve and rectal-sparing surgery for the prevention of fecal incontinence in these children. Methods: From1990 to 2011, 14 children with diagnosis of UC, FAP and Hirschsprungs disease were operated. Total colectomy was done with the preservation of patch of cecum with ileocecal valve and half of the rectum with ileocecorectal anastomosis. Distal ileum designed as S shape pouch and ileocecal valve were preserved. In Hirschsprungs disease, posterior rectal myotomy was established. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54 months (ranged from 2 months to 18 years). Ten patients were male. Among 14 patients, Hirschsprungs disease, ulcerative colitis and FAP were seen in 10, 3, and one case, respectively. They were followed up annually. Clinical and endoscopic examinations were performed to evaluate the function of ileocecorectal anastomosis. They followed from 2 to 24 years. At first year, the patients experienced four to six bowel movements during the day and one at night. This frequency decreased over time. The main postoperative complications included recurrent enterocolitis (n=2), perianal fistula (n=2). Only 2 patients were suffering from some degree of fecal soiling. Conclusion: The results show that the Ileocecal patch- low rectal anastomosis in total colectomy leads to low complications and prevent fecal frequency and incontinence. It also increases absorptive function of ileum in children. PMID:24778783

  7. Adult right-sided Bochdalek hernia with ileo-cecal appendix: Almeida-Reis hernia

    PubMed Central

    Costa Almeida, C.E.; Reis, Luis S.; Almeida, Carlos M. Costa

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bochdalek hernia is one of the most common congenital abnormalities manifested in infants. In the adult is a rarity, with a prevalence of 0.176% of all diaphragmatic hernias. Right-sided Bochdalek hernias containing colon are even more rare, with no case described in the literature with ileo-cecal appendix. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors present a case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult female of 49 years old, presented with severe respiratory failure. During laparotomy for hernia correction, were found in an intrathoracic position the cecum and ileo-cecal appendix, the right colon and the transverse colon. DISCUSSION Although useful in patient evaluation, clinical history and physical examination are not helpful in making diagnosis because of their nonspecific character. CT scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Most of the times there is no hernial sac. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and it is always indicated even if asymptomatic. In general suture of the defect is possible. Due to patient's weak respiratory function we chose laparotomy by Kocher incision. CONCLUSION Being the first case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in the adult with a herniated ileo-cecal appendix, we name it Almeida-Reis hernia. PMID:23872263

  8. Comparing reconstruction with ileocecal graft to jejunal interposition pouch after total gastrectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Filho, Irami Arajo; Medeiros, Vtor Brasil; Pinheiro, Laza Arajo Mohana; Freire, Flvio Henrique Miranda Arajo; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Brando-Neto, Jos

    2007-01-01

    After total gastrectomy, the ileocecal graft may act as a reservoir and protect against reflux but give rise to transposition of the ileum and cause possible changes in bile acid metabolism and nutrition. This study compared the ileocecal graft and jejunal pouch. Male Wistar rats weighing 265 +/- 22 g were submitted to sham operation (S), ileocecal interposition graft (IIG), and jejunal pouch interposition graft (JP) after total gastrectomy. Eight weeks later, the esophagus was examined for evidence of esophagitis. Nutritional biochemistry and weight profile were documented preoperatively and 8 weeks after surgery. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Thirty-three rats were operated on and 30 survived for 8 weeks. Esophagitis occurred in seven JP rats. Body weight was significantly higher in IIG than in JP rats (p < .05). Normal glucose tolerance to intragastric glucose load was observed in sham and operated rats. JP rats had a significant decrease in serum albumin, glucose, transferrin, hemoglobin, iron, folate, and calcium, compared to sham (p < .05). Cobalamine was significantly lower in IIG rats than in JP rats (p < .05). In the IIG and JP groups, serum/hepatic total bile acid did not differ significantly from preoperative and sham values. In conclusion, the IIG interposition graft in rats prevented esophagitis, preserved nutrition, and did not interfere with enterohepatic total bile acid circulation. PMID:17365406

  9. [Evolution of urinary bladder substitution].

    PubMed

    Kock, N G

    1992-11-01

    The historical background to the currently used methods for continent bladder substitution is shortly outlined. The significance for the patient's quality of life of various methods for bladder reconstruction or urinary diversion is briefly discussed. The importance of reservoir configuration for achieving a high compliant urinary receptacle is pointed out. Factors affecting reabsorption of urinary constituents are stressed and the significance of an antireflux mechanism is discussed. Currently the majority of patients undergoing cystectomy for cancer or for other reasons can be offered bladder substitutes providing continence and easy emptying; that is, complete control over voiding. This can be achieved by orthotopic bladder reconstruction or by diverting the urine to the augmented and valved rectum or to the skin via a continent intestinal reservoir. PMID:1492767

  10. A continent ileostomy device.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, J H; van Heerden, J A; Beart, R W; Kelly, K A; Phillips, S F; Taylor, B M

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving fecal continence by mechanical occlusion of an end-ileostomy is explored. Accordingly, progressive stomal occlusion with an indwelling occluding device was evaluated in four healthy patients with Brooke ileostomies. Pre-occlusion clinical and physiologic tests were done, including fat balance, intestinal transit time, ileal motility and absorption, ileal compliance, ileal radiography, and ileoscopy. Progressive stomal occlusion was then employed until periods of occlusion of 5 to 8 hours were achieved after 10 to 16 weeks. Pre-occlusion tests were then repeated. Patients mastered use of the occluding device rapidly, and the device achieved reliable stomal continence in each patient. Whereas ileal capacity was small initially, intermittent occlusion resulted in a large, capacious ileal reservoir. Fasting ileal motility was increased slightly by stomal occlusion, although intestinal transit during feeding was not altered. Also, ileal absorption of glucose, electrolytes, vitamin B-12, and fat were not changed, and ileal mucosa at the site of occlusion remained intact endoscopically. The authors concluded that chronic intermittent occlusion of a Brooke ileostomy with an indwelling stomal device achieved enteric continence without impairing intestinal function. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:6847281

  11. Geochemistry: Rise of the continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cin-Ty A.; McKenzie, N. Ryan

    2015-07-01

    The continents are archives of Earth's evolution. Analysis of the isotopic signature of continental crust globally suggests that buoyant, silicic continents began to form 3 billion years ago, possibly linked to the onset of plate tectonics.

  12. Immunization of adult hamsters against Clostridium difficile-associated ileocecitis and transfer of protection to infant hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, P H; Iaconis, J P; Rolfe, R D

    1987-12-01

    In this investigation, the role of antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in protecting hamsters against C. difficile-associated ileocecitis was examined. We also studied the transfer of protection against C. difficile-associated intestinal disease from immunized female hamsters to their infants. Adult female hamsters immunized parenterally with toxoid A or a mixture containing both toxoids A and B were protected against clindamycin-induced C. difficile-associated fatal ileocecitis. On the other hand, hamsters immunized with toxoid B or a broth filtrate from a nontoxigenic strain of C. difficile were not protected against C. difficile-induced ileocecitis. Antibody against the immunizing toxoid could be demonstrated in both the serum and the cecal contents of hamsters. Some infant hamsters from mothers immunized with toxoid A or AB were protected against C. difficile-associated ileocecitis, while infant hamsters from mothers immunized with toxoid B or a nontoxigenic broth filtrate were not protected against disease. Neutralizing antibodies to toxins A and B could be demonstrated in both maternal milk and serum, as well as in infant serum and intestinal contents. Foster-mothering experiments demonstrated that maternal protection of infants against C. difficile-associated ileocecitis was transferred to infant hamsters through breast milk. These results suggest that toxin A may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated ileocecitis in hamsters than toxin B. Furthermore, variations in the severity of C. difficile-associated illness in infants and adults may reflect the lack or presence of passively or actively acquired immunity against C. difficile toxins. PMID:3679541

  13. Retrosternal ileocolic esophageal replacement in children revisited. Antireflux role of the ileocecal valve.

    PubMed

    Touloukian, R J; Tellides, G

    1994-04-01

    The risk of postoperative reflux and pulmonary aspiration with straight colon or gastric tube esophageal replacement in children prompted us to reevaluate the presumed antireflux role of the ileocecal valve with retrosternal ileocolic interposition. This operation was done in eight patients with esophageal atresia (six) and lye stricture (two) from 19 to 50 months of age between 1983 and 1992. There were no operative deaths. The duration of follow-up ranged from 4 to 115 months. Barium swallow obtained in all patients showed unobstructed esophagoileocolic transit without reflux. Two patients with esophageal atresia had localized proximal anastomotic leaks, which healed spontaneously without stricture. In the two patients with lye ingestion ileoesophageal strictures developed that necessitated revision. None of the patients had postoperative respiratory complications or symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. All eight children have had their gastrostomy tubes removed, are eating a regular diet, and are growing well. In conclusion, the retrosternal ileocolic conduit provides an excellent substitute esophagus in selected pediatric patients, with potential advantages over delayed primary anastomosis or the straight colon or gastric tube interposition because of the antireflux role of the ileocecal valve. PMID:8159028

  14. Superior mesenteric artery Doppler waveform changes in response to inflammation of the ileocecal region.

    PubMed

    Erden, A; Cumhur, T; Oler, T

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we determined how Doppler waveforms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are affected by inflammatory processes in the ileocecal region. Twenty-two patients (aged 20-69 years) with ileocecal region inflammation (ICRI) were examined with duplex Doppler Ultrasonography to establish whether any significant changes were present in the mean blood flow parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index, pulsatility index, blood flow volume, and diameter of the SMA. The findings were compared with those of 22 volunteer controls. Mean blood flow volume in the SMA in patients with ICRI (1.128 +/- 0. 43 L/min) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that in the control group (0.643 +/- 0.19 L/min). The mean PSV (1.87 +/- 0.44 m/s) and the mean EDV (0.31 +/- 0.18 m/s) were also significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of the means in healthy subjects (mean PSV = 1.44 +/- 0.26 m/s and mean EDV = 0.20 +/- 0.05 m/s). ICRI, regardless of cause, increases both the flow velocities in the SMA and the flow volume to the SMA territory. PMID:9233882

  15. [Continence in low resections].

    PubMed

    Rosa, G; Girardi, S; Lolli, P; Ferrara, R; Fasoli, G L

    1994-01-01

    Anorectal function is an important problem after low anterior resection procedure. This paper reports the results from 14 patients undergoing to low resection at Surgical Pathology Institute of the University of Verona. In 12 cases the restoration of the bowel continuity has been obtained by colon-anal anastomosis (Parks Operation) and in 3 cases by colo-rectal anastomosis at the anorectal ring level. The patients have been examined in the preoperative and in the postoperative period by clinical and manometric study. The results confirm that low resection does not involve faecal continence. PMID:7788809

  16. Ileocecal-colonic intussusception caused by cecal adenocarcinoma A case report.

    PubMed

    Verre, Luigi; Rossi, Rachele; Gaggelli, Ilaria; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Podzemny, Vlasta; Tirone, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adults is an infrequent cause of intestinal occlusion that is usually due to neoplasm lesions. The unspecific nature of the clinical presentation often delays diagnosis. It is most commonly emergency explorative laparotomy which clarifies the etiology of the occlusion. The authors report a case of intestinal occlusion caused by ileocecal-colonic invagination with a small cecal adenocarcinoma as lead point, in a 74-year-old woman. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old woman came to the Emergency Department, complaining of crampy pain in the mid- and lower abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a "pseudokidney sign" apparently involving the cecum. Because there were no clear signs of occlusion, the patient was dicharged on the same day. Three days later, upon admission, the patient complained of episodes of abdominal pain with intervals of moderate well-being, associated with nausea, vomiting and an inability to pass stool (but not gas) for 36 hours. On clinical examination her abdomen was distended and tender on palpation in all quadrants, especially in the right iliac fossa where a large mass could be felt. Standard abdominal x-Ray documented gaseous distension of some loops of the jejunum-ileum with some air-fluid level. The patient underwent an abdominal CT scan which showed advanced intussusception that appeared to be ileocolic and multiple enlarged lymphnodes were found in the invaginated mesentery at the base of which there appears to be a thickening of the intestinal wall that is probably neoplastic in nature. The patient underwent explorative laparotomy. Ileocecal-colonic intussusception caused by a cecal growth 5 cm in diameter was found on examination of the surgical specimen. Histology showed that the cause of the large swelling of the ascending colon was a vegetating ulcerated adenocarcinoma (medium grade differentiation: G2), measuring 6.5x 4.0 cm, arising from a tubulovillous adenoma infiltrating the submucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of intussusception are caused by structural lesions, a large percentage of which are malignant, especially in the colon. In our patient the lead point was a small cecal polyp which, together with the last loop of the ileum and the ileocecal valve, was pulled into the ascending colon. Although most cases of intussusception in adults are diagnosed at the operating table, noninvasive diagnostic tools like ultrasonography and CT scanning are very useful. Treatment in adults is usually surgical and involves en bloc resection of the lesion. Manual reduction of the intussusception is not advisable because of the risk of dissemination if the lead point is malignant. KEY WORDS: Cecal adenocarcinoma, Itestinal resection, Intussusception in adults. PMID:23070265

  17. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced age and those with significant lower urinary tract symptoms prior to RARP should be counselled on the increased risk of urinary incontinence in the early stages. PMID:25737770

  18. Female urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, M; Gambacciani, M

    2015-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is more common than any other chronic disease, such as hypertension, depression or diabetes, with the prevalence estimated between 9 and 74%. Among the various forms of urinary incontinence, stress incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent (50%), with urgency incontinence (UUI) representing 11% and mixed type (MUI) 36% (3% not classified). Nowadays, the restoration of urinary continence is one of the greatest challenges for the well-being and quality of life of women. The introduction of minimally invasive surgical procedures changed the anti-incontinence surgery, leading to similar, or even better results as traditional, invasive techniques. The development of the mid-urethral slings offers a viable alternative to surgical correction of SUI. These further developments of mini-sling procedures are appropriate for local anesthesia, less traumatic, 'tension-free' (to ensure continence without obstruction), simple, rapid and repeatable. The latest minimally invasive approaches can be performed in day surgery, with clear advantages compared to traditional procedures. A novel approach through the use of vaginal laser techniques could represent an additional opportunity, as a non-invasive, outpatient method to treat SUI. PMID:26366798

  19. [Cystectomy and urinary diversion: Technique and support].

    PubMed

    Beauval, J-B; Grange, C; Roumigui, M

    2015-11-01

    Cystectomy and urinary diversion (Bricker ileal conduit or neobladder) are common modalities of care in urology requiring their attention. Oncological surgery as well as functional disorders in particular for neurogenic bladder are the main directions. The optimal decision must be multidisciplinary and requires the fundamental of stomatherapy that urology teams need to know in order to improve the management of the care plan. After cystectomy whose surgical approach depends on the cause (oncological vs other causes), urinary diversions may be non continent (cutaneous ureterostomy or Bricker ileal conduit) or continent (ileal neobladder most of the time.) The monitoring and patient's support remain two most important steps, particularly in cases of bladder diversion to monitor (protection of upper urinary tract, neobladder capacity) and patient education (learning of continence and good emptying). The choice of many surgical techniques must be adapted to the characteristics of the patient, after an informed discussion with the patient. PMID:26475233

  20. Continent cutaneous diversion and external genitalia reconstruction in a child with severe variety urogenital sinus and ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Khemchandani, Sajni I

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of a child with ambiguous genitalia and severe variety of urogenital sinus with a high vesico-vaginal confluence is challenging. This 4-year-old female child had solitary right kidney with ectopic ureter opening in high variety of urogenital sinus with hypo-plastic urinary bladder and incontinence. We describe genitourinary reconstruction with complete functional rehabilitation in this child. This complex problem was managed with continent urinary diversion with Penn pouch and refashioning of external genitalia, rendering continence and near normal female external genitalia. The child and parents are happy with continence and aesthetically normal external genitalia. PMID:25829673

  1. Ileocecal reservoir reconstruction with physiologic function after total mesorectal cancer excision.

    PubMed Central

    von Fle, M O; Degen, L P; Beglinger, C; Hellwig, A C; Rothenbhler, J M; Harder, F H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: After proctectomy for low rectal cancer and straight coloanal reconstruction, the main causes for increased daily stool frequency, urgency, and incontinence are the limited capacity and distensibility of the anastomosed colic segment in the pelvis. The authors postulated that a pedunculated (preserving the nerve) ileocecal interpositional graft (cecum-reservoir) placed between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal would greatly reduce these inconveniences. METHODS: The authors evaluated the safety, defecation quality, and anorectal physiology of such a neorectum in 20 consecutive patients with rectal carcinoma between 5 and 10 cm above the anal verge who underwent total mesorectal excision. RESULTS: No perioperative morbidity related to the technique and no mortality was observed in these 20 patients. Six months after the operation, 16 patients showed excellent and 4 patients good defecation quality, with maximal tolerable volumes, compliance, and mean colonic transit times comparable to age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. In addition, anal resting pressure was decreased, squeeze pressure was maintained, and the rectoanal inhibitory reflex remained positive in 80%. CONCLUSIONS: The cecum-reservoir as a neorectum, using an intact neurovascular colonic segment, is a safe technique, providing excellent defecation quality. It enables a nearly normal physiologic anorectal function, which is already seen 6 months postoperatively. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8757385

  2. Bladder agenesis and incomplete kidney duplication: Ileal reservoir with continent diversion as definitive treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Mendoza, Byron Alexis; González-Ledón, Fernando J.; Díaz-Pardo, Mario; Soto-Blanquel, Juan L.; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bladder agenesis is an extremely rare entity. A 12-year-old female patient presented with urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, visible vaginal introitus and urethra, and two holes at the vulvar vestibule. An investigation revealed bladder agenesis. Surgery confirmed the absence of bladder, and ileal reservoir in omega (Ω) was performed with continent diversion. At the 30-month follow-up, there was no complication in clean intermittent catheterization. PMID:25844102

  3. Mountain building processes during continent continent collision in the Uralides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Juhlin, C.; Ayala, C.; Tryggvason, A.; Bea, F.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Carbonell, R.; Seward, D.; Glasmacher, U.; Puchkov, V.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early 1990's the Paleozoic Uralide Orogen of Russia has been the target of a significant research initiative as part of EUROPROBE and GEODE, both European Science Foundation programmes. One of the main objectives of these research programmes was the determination of the tectonic processes that went into the formation of the orogen. In this review paper we focus on the Late Paleozoic continent-continent collision that took place between Laurussia and Kazakhstania. Research in the Uralides was concentrated around two deep seismic profiles crossing the orogen. These were accompanied by geological, geophysical, geochronological, geochemical, and low-temperature thermochronological studies. The seismic profiles demonstrate that the Uralides has an overall bivergent structural architecture, but with significantly different reflectivity characteristics from one tectonic zone to another. The integration of other types of data sets with the seismic data allows us to interpret what tectonic processes where responsible for the formation of the structural architecture, and when they were active. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the changes in the crustal-scale structural architecture indicate that there was significant partitioning of tectonothermal conditions and deformation from zone to zone across major fault systems, and between the lower and upper crust. Also, a number of the structural features revealed in the bivergent architecture of the orogen formed either in the Neoproterozoic or in the Paleozoic, prior to continent-continent collision. From the end of continent-continent collision to the present, low-temperature thermochronology suggests that the evolution of the Uralides has been dominated by erosion and slow exhumation. Despite some evidence for more recent topographic uplift, it has so far proven difficult to quantify it.

  4. Microbiomes of Unreactive and Pathologically Altered Ileocecal Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

  5. Microbiomes of unreactive and pathologically altered ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

  6. Surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sumit; Salle, Joao Luiz Pippi

    2013-08-01

    The surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder and congenital anomalies is challenging, and continues to evolve with new surgical innovations. The goal of these surgical procedures is to achieve complete and socially acceptable urinary dryness, while preserving volitional voiding where possible, without causing damage to the upper tracts. This review focuses on recent studies and highlights the pros and cons of these advances, based on our experience. The short-term success in achieving urinary continence has to be tempered with the long-term implications of these reconstructive procedures, about which our knowledge is limited. PMID:23832825

  7. Extended Diaper Wearing: Effects on Continence in and out of the Diaper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Rachel S. F.; Williams, W. Larry; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this

  8. Traveling the Continents and Cruising the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Glenda

    Elementary school students learn about the continents and the oceans by completing a variety of activities, games, and puzzles. Students learn to spell the names of the oceans and continents; recognize the locations, sizes, and shapes of the continents; and use directions on maps by completing a pretest, word searches, mazes, crossword puzzles,

  9. The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. PMID:23658862

  10. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  11. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  12. Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% 43.29% vs 100% 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during air insufflation 21.23 3.52 mmHg vs 16.10 3.39 mmHg. The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflation was not significantly different 101.08% 7.96% vs 100% 0%. The total symptom score for subjects with normal lactulose breath tests and subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not statistically different (13.30 4.09 vs 24.14 6.58). The ICV peak pressures during air insufflations were significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.005). The average percent difference of the area under the pressure curve in the ICV from cecum was significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.0012). Individuals with positive lactulose breath tests demonstrated symptom scores which were significantly higher for the following symptoms: not able to finish normal sized meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite and bloating. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal, subjects with a positive lactulose breath test have a defective ICV cecal distension reflex. These subjects also more commonly have higher symptom scores. PMID:23239918

  13. Does previous transurethral prostate surgery affect oncologic and continence outcomes after RARP?

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Kai; Katz, Benjamin F; Sehgal, Shailen S; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Su, Yu-Chen; Lightfoot, Andrew; Lee, Ziho; Llukani, Elton; Monahan, Kelly; Lee, David I

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on multiple oncologic and continence outcomes after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We performed a retrospective cohort study of a total of 2693 patients from 2007 to 2014 who underwent RARP. Patients were stratified into 49 patients who had previous TURP prior to RARP (group 1) and 2644 patients who had no TURP prior to RARP (group 2). We collected operative variables including estimated blood loss, operative time, and positive surgical margin (PSM) rates. Urinary continence, defined as 0 pads per day (PPD), and social continence, defined as 1-PPD, were also assessed. American Urological Association Symptoms Score (AUASS), overall ability to function sexually, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire were evaluated at 3 and 12months after RARP. Weakness of urinary stream (EPIC #4d) at 12months imposed a greater problem for group 1 patients with prior TURP compared to group 2 patients without prior TURP (p=0.012). PSM was not statistically significant between the two groups (p=0.110). Group 1 patients had a greater PSM rate (30.61%) as compared to group 2 (20.95%). PSM locations in group 1 patients showed the most common locations at the posterior and apex. The difference between the two groups for AUASS, overall sexual function, estimated blood loss, operative time, urinary continence, and social continence was not statistically significant. We examined the effect of previous TURP on postoperative RARP continence and oncologic outcomes. This data can be used to counsel those with prior TURP before RARP. PMID:26530840

  14. Improving continence services for older people from the service-providers perspective: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Alison; McKee, Kevin; Dahlberg, Lena; Gilhooly, Mary; Parker, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine in depth the views and experiences of continence service leads in England on key service and continence management characteristics in order to identify and to improve our understanding of barriers to a good-quality service and potential facilitators to develop and to improve services for older people with urinary incontinence (UI). Design Qualitative semistructured interviews using a purposive sample recruited across 16 continence services. Setting 3 acute and 13 primary care National Health Service Trusts in England. Participants 16 continence service leads in England actively treating and managing older people with UI. Results In terms of barriers to a good-quality service, participants highlighted a failure on the part of commissioners, managers and other health professionals in recognising the problem of UI and in acknowledging the importance of continence for older people and prevalent negative attitudes towards continence and older people. Patient assessment and continence promotion regardless of age, rather than pad provision, were identified as important steps for a good-quality service for older people with UI. More rapid and appropriate patient referral pathways, investment in service capacity, for example, more trained staff and strengthened interservice collaborations and a higher profile within medical and nurse training were specified as being important facilitators for delivering an equitable and high-quality continence service. There is a need, however, to consider the accounts given by our participants as perhaps serving the interests of their professional group within the context of interprofessional work. Conclusions Our data point to important barriers and facilitators of a good-quality service for older people with UI, from the perspective of continence service leads. Further research should address the views of other stakeholders, and explore options for the empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of identified service facilitators. PMID:23901026

  15. Ileocecal adenocarcinoma with overexpression of P53 protein metastasized to the thenar muscle: report of a rare case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Cuihua; Liu, Zhiyan; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Shuguang; Liu, Lian; Li, Jisheng; Yu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic malignancies of the hand are rare and metastases to the skeletal muscle from the gastrointestinal system are even much rare. Here we present a case of metastatic ileocecal adenocarcinoma to the thenar muscle, which is the first report of thenar muscle metastasis from ileocecal adenocarcinoma with P53 mutation. To date, only two other cases of thenar muscle metastasis have been documented, one is from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and the other is from rectal carcinoma. The present 67-year-old Chinese man of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the ileocecal region developed metastatic carcinoma in the right thenar eminence, which presented with swelling and pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right hand revealed a well-defined enhanced mass in the right thenar muscle. It was proved to be metastatic adenocarcinoma using core needle biopsy, which was supported to be gastrointestinal origination by positive immunoreaction with CDX2. Positive immunoreaction with P53 protein indicated the poor prognosis of the patient. Further systemic evaluation including computerized tomography scans revealed extensive metastases to liver, right kidney, right abdominal wall, left axillary and right subclavicular lymph nodes, and skin of the right thigh. Treatment was given with palliative systemic chemotherapy. After 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the swelling and pain of the right thenar were ameliorated, and the patient regained full use of his right hand and his quality of life was improved. The patient died of liver metastasis 9 months after the diagnosis of the right thenar metastasis. In conclusion, here we display a case of thenar skeletal muscle metastasis from P53 mutated ileocecal adenocarcinoma, who survived 9 months after diagnosis of the rare metastasis. If an oncological patient presents an intramuscular mass, muscle metastasis must be included in the differential diagnosis. Metastatic hand tumors generally indicate systemic spread, so the treatment is usually palliative and the prognosis is poor. The primary objective of treatment is improvement of the patient’s quality of life. PMID:26722571

  16. Santosh PGI pouch: A new innovation in urinary diversion

    PubMed Central

    Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To know the feasibility and outcome of the Santosh PGI pouch as a new innovative technique of continent cutaneous diversion (CCD) following cystectomy. Material and methods Twelve patients (eleven with carcinoma of the bladder and one with an exstrophy of the bladder) underwent CCD using the Santosh PGI pouch after cystectomy. A 50-cm segment of terminal ileum was isolated 15-20 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction. The ileal segment was folded into the form of an S configuration. On the antimesenteric border three longitudinal incisions were performed of about 7 cm in length. The terminal 8 cm portion of the distal part of the pouch was used for creating the intussuscepted nipple valve. Demucosalization of the interior of the nipple, fixing the nipple valve with the serosa of the pouch wall and wrapping of the catheterizable channel with a pouch wall for providing continence was done. The uretero-pouch anastomosis was done using the serosal lined tunnel technique. The catheterizable channel was brought out through the right rectus muscle. Results Median follow-up of the patients was 13.5 months. No significant complications were noted in the pouch reconstruction. Duration of the pouch reconstruction was around 75-110 min. Postoperatively, one patient had a UTI and another had paralytic ileus on the follow-up. All patients were doing regular CIC with acceptable continence of up to 400 ml. No ureteroileal anastomotic stricture or difficulty in catheterizing the pouch was seen. Conclusions The Santosh PGI pouch, which is a type of CCD, is technically feasible, easy to reconstruct with acceptable continence and offers minimal morbidity. PMID:26251752

  17. Posterior leukoencephalopathy following repair of an ileocecal anastomosis breakdown: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome refers to a constellation of neurologic symptoms related to temporary white matter changes. The disease typically presents in the context of an abrupt and drastic elevation in blood pressure (>180/110 mmHg). We report an unusual case of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a post-operative setting, with a blood pressure parameter generally tolerated by most patients. Case presentation We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian man who suffered acute onset visual acuity loss four days after an ileocecal anastomosis. A head magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed findings typically associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. His symptoms developed in the context of blood pressure parameters that are typically well tolerated in a post-operative setting (150-160/80-90 mmHg). He did not have a history of renal failure or immunosuppression. His symptoms resolved with aggressive blood pressure management. Conclusions Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome can occur in a post-operative setting with blood pressure parameters typically well-tolerated in most post-surgical patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment will minimize the risk of permanent neurologic injury. PMID:21247426

  18. Urinary Tract Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Urinary Tract Health: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is urinary tract health? The urinary (pronounced YOOR-uh-ner-ee ) tract― ...

  19. Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Urinary Incontinence | Bladder Training for Urinary Incontinence What is bladder training? Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It is generally used ...

  20. Azathioprine is More Effective than Mesalazine at Preventing Recurrent Bowel Obstruction in Patients with Ileocecal Crohns Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vidigal, Fernando Mendona; de Souza, Glucio Silva; Chebli, Liliana Andrade; da Rocha Ribeiro, Tarsila Campanha; Furtado, Maria Cristina Vasconcellos; Castro, Antonio Carlos Santana; Pinto, Andr Luis Tavares; do Valle Pinheiro, Bruno; de Lima Pace, Fabio Heleno; de Oliveira, Juliano Machado; de Oliveira Zanini, Karine Andrade; Gaburri, Pedro Duarte; Zanini, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Luiz Cludio; Chebli, Julio Maria Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with subocclusive Crohns disease (CD) who received azathioprine (AZA) therapy had lower re-hospitalization rates due to all causes and for surgical management of CD compared to those treated with mesalazine during a 3-year period. We investigated whether AZA also was effective for prevention of recurrent bowel obstruction. Material/Methods Rates of recurrent bowel occlusion were compared between patients treated with AZA and those treated with mesalazine. We assessed the time interval-off intestinal obstruction as well as the occlusion-free survival for both groups. Results There was a significantly lower cumulative rate of patients with recurrent subocclusion in the AZA group (56%) compared with the mesalazine group (79%; OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.678.6; P=0.003), with the number needed to treat in order to prevent 1 subocclusion episode of 3.7 favoring AZA. The occlusion-free time interval was longer in the AZA group compared with the mesalazine group (28.8 vs. 18.3 months; P=0.000). The occlusion-free survival at 12, 24, and 36 months was significantly higher in the AZA group (91%, 81%, and 72%, respectively) than in the mesalazine group (64.7%, 35.3%, and 23.5%, respectively; P<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions In an exploratory analysis of patients with subocclusive ileocecal CD, maintenance therapy with AZA is more effective than mesalazine for eliminating or postponing recurrent intestinal obstruction during 3 years of therapy. PMID:25370731

  1. Effect of azathioprine or mesalazine therapy on incidence of re-hospitalization in sub-occlusive ileocecal Crohns disease patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Glucio Silva; Vidigal, Fernando Mendona; Chebli, Liliana Andrade; Ribeiro, Tarsila Campanha da Rocha; Furtado, Maria Cristina Vasconcellos; de Lima Pace, Fbio Heleno; de Miranda Chaves, Leonardo Duque; de Oliveira Zanini, Karine Andrade; Gaburri, Pedro Duarte; de Azevedo Lucca, Fernando; Zanini, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Luiz Cludio; Chebli, Julio Maria Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the cost of Crohns disease (CD) treatment differs considerably, hospitalization and surgery costs account for most of the total treatment cost. Decreasing hospitalization and surgery rates are pivotal issues in reducing health-care costs. Material/Methods We evaluated the effect of azathioprine (AZA) compared with mesalazine on incidence of re-hospitalizations due to all causes and for CD-related surgeries. In this controlled, randomized study, 72 subjects with sub-occlusive ileocecal CD were randomized for AZA (23 mg/kg per day) or mesalazine (3.2 g per day) therapy during a 3-year period. The primary end point was the re-hospitalization proportion due to all causes, as well as for surgical procedures during this period evaluated between the groups. Results On an intention-to-treat basis, the proportion of patients re-hospitalized within 36 months due to all causes was lower in patients treated with AZA compared to those on mesalazine (0.39 vs. 0.83, respectively; p=0.035). The AZA group had also significantly lower proportions of re-hospitalization for surgical intervention (0.25 vs. 0.56, respectively; p=0.011). The number of admissions (0.70 vs. 1.41, p=0.001) and the length of re-hospitalization (3.8 vs. 7.7 days; p=0.002) were both lower in AZA patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-occlusive ileocecal CD treated with AZA had lower re-hospitalization rates due to all causes and for surgical management of CD compared to those treated with mesalazine during a 3-year period. The long-term use of AZA in ileocecal CD patients recovering from a sub-occlusion episode can save healthcare costs. PMID:23989915

  2. [Develooment of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders].

    PubMed

    Peco-Anti?, Amira; Miloevski-Lomi?, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence) during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age.This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction) are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome). Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in school- age children and have a negative effect on the child's feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant. PMID:26012136

  3. Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for

  4. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the

  5. What Characteristics Predispose to Continence in Nursing Home Residents?: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Susan; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Mrkved, Siv; Norton, Christine; Seim, Arnfinn

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare characteristics of both continent and incontinent residents in Nursing Homes (NHs) and to explore what predicts continence and severity of incontinence. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in nursing homes in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire on behalf of the patients. Results We found that 25.4% of the NH residents were continent, 31.8% had urinary incontinence alone, 2.6% had fecal incontinence alone and 40.2% had double incontinence. Continent residents were characterized by being in short-term care, shorter stay in NH, less cognitive and physical impairment, less Parkinson's disease, stroke, constipation, and less diarrhea and more independence in activities of daily living (ADL). Residents with fecal incontinence alone were characterized by more diarrhea, less cognitive impairment and less dependency in ADL such as feeding and grooming. Residents with urinary incontinence alone were characterized by having some degree of ADL dependency, less diarrhea, and less diabetes. Residents with double incontinence were characterized by being in long-term care, a longer length of stay in NH, cognitive impairment, stroke, constipation, diarrhea, and dependency in ADL. Severity of incontinence was associated with dependency in ADL and cognitive impairment, diarrhea, length of stay in NH and lower age. Conclusions About 25% of NH residents were continent. Double incontinence and urinary incontinence only were prevalent conditions in NHs, while FI alone was rarer. With the exception of diarrhea as a cause of FI, it appears that FI alone, UI alone, and DI may have common causes and development. Neurourol. Urodynam. 34:362367, 2015. 2014 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24470319

  6. Urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, J. Graham; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Skelly, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Murray

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine age-specific prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence (UI) among community-dwelling women. DESIGN A questionnaire survey used a modified Dillman method. SETTING Two family practice clinics in Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Questionnaires were mailed to 1082 women 45 years old and older. Ninety women were disqualified; 606 recipients responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported prevalence of UI and potential risk factors. RESULTS Overall response rate was 61% (606/992); 51% (311/606; 95% confidence interval 47.3% to 55.3%) reported an episode of UI during the last month. Of the 311 women reporting UI, 35.7% perceived it as a problem, 27% had had it for less than a year, 41.9% had had it for 1 to 4 years, and 31.1% had had it for 5 years or longer. Three kinds of UI were reported: 34% (106/311) reported stress UI, 14.5% (45/311) reported urge UI, and 51.4% (160/311) reported a mixed pattern. In multivariate analysis, the overall prevalence of incontinence increased significantly with usually having a cough, being troubled by swollen ankles, giving birth, ever smoking cigarettes, and being troubled by headaches. Stress UI was associated with usually having a cough and ever smoking cigarettes. Urge UI was associated with having troubles with constipation and swollen ankles. Mixed incontinence was associated with get sick more than other people, usually having a cough, taken hormones for menopause, and body mass index in the 50th to 75th percentile or greater. Age was not significantly associated with prevalence of UI or any of its subtypes. Only 40% of incontinent women indicated they had discussed urine loss with their physicians; 70% of these women felt satisfied with physicians responses. CONCLUSION Incontinence occurs in more than half of community-dwelling women 45 years old and older. Almost one of five women in the community reported UI that affected normal activities. Treating the effect of incontinence will require further understanding of womens coping skills and self-perceptions. Prevalence does not appear to increase with age. PMID:16926957

  7. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the bladder bulges into the vagina (prolapse). Artificial urinary sphincter . This is a device used to ... It is easier to do than placing an artificial urinary sphincter. Retropubic suspensions lift the bladder and ...

  8. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  9. Comparison of behavior therapy methods for urinary incontinence following prostate surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, A C; Chang, M K

    2000-06-01

    Americans are living longer. As a result, an increased number of pathologic prostates are being detected and treated. As a consequence of complications from surgical treatment, such as prostatectomy, urinary incontinence may occur. However, it is important to understand urinary continence in the male and the anatomic changes that result with prostatectomy. Having objective measures that are cost-effective and accessible can assist with equaling subjective and objective assessments of continence, as well as determining successful outcomes and the need for more complex behavioral treatments. PMID:11998139

  10. Deep Structure of the Indian Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-paul; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prakash; Burgos, Gael

    2014-05-01

    The Indian sub-continent experienced remarkable tectonic and geological events. Breakup of Indian subcontinent from the Gondwana supercontinent possibly due to a large plume, about 130 Myr ago. Paleomagnetic data demonstrates that the Indian continent moved northwards from 65Myr at exceptionally high speeds (18-20cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5cm/year after its collision with Asia approx 40Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (~100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from a 65Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, analysis of heat flow data and P-T estimates on mantle xenoliths from the Dharwar craton reveal low mantle heat flow, 14-20 mW m-2, that indicate a thick lithosphere beneath south India (Roy and Mareschal, 2011). Upper mantle heterogeneities and depth localization of anisotropy structures beneath India are poorly known. In order to solve these issues, we have to follow a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the lithospheric and asthenospheric structure underneath the Indian cratons and the Indian plate. Seismological studies (receiver functions, SKS splitting, anisotropic and surface waves studies of the Indian continent) in conjunction with heat flow, petrological and paleomagnetic data planning to be utilized to image and interpret the 3D-tomographic velocity and anisotropic structure of the whole continent and trace its evolution through time. In this work, we present the high resolution phase velocity maps with azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental and higher mode surface waves propagating across India.

  11. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  12. Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents.

    PubMed

    Gung, Yuancheng; Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2003-04-17

    For decades there has been a vigorous debate about the depth extent of continental roots. The analysis of heat-flow, mantle-xenolith and electrical-conductivity data all indicate that the coherent, conductive part of continental roots (the 'tectosphere') is at most 200-250 km thick. Some global seismic tomographic models agree with this estimate, but others suggest that a much thicker zone of high velocities lies beneath continental shields, reaching a depth of at least 400 km. Here we show that this disagreement can be reconciled by taking into account seismic anisotropy. We show that significant radial anisotropy, with horizontally polarized shear waves travelling faster than those that are vertically polarized, is present under most cratons in the depth range 250-400 km--similar to that found under ocean basins at shallower depths of 80-250 km. We propose that, in both cases, the anisotropy is related to shear in a low-viscosity asthenospheric channel, located at different depths under continents and oceans. The seismically defined 'tectosphere' is then at most 200-250 km thick under old continents. The 'Lehmann discontinuity', observed mostly under continents at about 200-250 km, and the 'Gutenberg discontinuity', observed under oceans at depths of about 60-80 km, may both be associated with the bottom of the lithosphere, marking a transition to flow-induced asthenospheric anisotropy. PMID:12700758

  13. Shaping Bladder and Bowel Continence in Developmentally Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Glenn

    1983-01-01

    A program to improve bowel and bladder continence with four developmentally retarded preschoolers used a regular schedule and social and liquid reinforcement, verbal reprimand, and correction for accidents. Ss showed improvement in bowel and bladder continence. (Author/CL)

  14. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876... catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular device used as a form... type of device includes the rectal catheter for continent ileostomy. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Agnew, Rona; Benedetti, Andrea; Thomas, Doneal; van den Heuvel, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. A second objective was to determine whether changes in incontinence-related knowledge and new uptake of risk-modifying behaviours explain these improvements. Setting 71 community organisations across the UK. Participants 259 women aged 60?years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions The three active interventions consisted of a single 60?min group workshop on (1) continence education (20 clusters, 64 women); (2) evidence-based self-management (17 clusters, 70 women); or (3) combined continence education and self-management (17 clusters, 61 women). The control intervention was a single 60?min educational group workshop on memory loss, polypharmacy and osteoporosis (17 clusters, 64 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was self-reported improvement in incontinence 3?months postintervention at the level of the individual. The secondary outcome was change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in incontinence-related knowledge and behaviours were also assessed. Results The highest rate of urinary symptom improvement occurred in the combined intervention group (66% vs 11% of the control group, prevalence difference 55%, 95% CI 43% to 67%, intracluster correlation 0). 30% versus 6% of participants reported significant improvement respectively (prevalence difference 23%, 95% CI 10% to 36%, intracluster correlation 0). The number-needed-to-treat was 2 to achieve any improvement in incontinence symptoms, and 5 to attain significant improvement. Compared to controls, participants in the combined intervention reported an adjusted mean 2.05 point (95% CI 0.87 to 3.24) greater improvement on the ICIQ from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in knowledge and self-reported risk-reduction behaviours paralleled rates of improvement in all intervention arms. Conclusions Continence education combined with evidence-based self-management improves symptoms of incontinence among untreated older women. Community organisations represent an untapped vector for delivering effective continence promotion interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT01239836. PMID:24334159

  16. Lithospheric properties on a continent-continent collisional scenario: the Pyrenean range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Campany, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montse; Muoz, Josep Anton

    2013-04-01

    Continent-continent collision is a fundamental tectonic process that plays a primary role in the development and evolution of continents. The Pyrenees resulted from the continental collision between the Iberian and European plates during the Alpine orogeny. This mountain range offers an unique opportunity to study orogenic processes due to the well constrained geological evolution and the significant amount of geophysical data available. In this paper present a joint quantitative interpretation of the available geophysical and geochemical data along two transects across the Pyrenean orogeny. These new results confirm the previous hypothesis of partial melting of the subducted Iberian lower crust and constrain the depth of the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). The bulk mantle electrical conductivity and seismic velocities have been modelled using the software package LitMod, which allows for coupled petrological and geophysical modeling of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework.

  17. Achieving continence in children with neurogenic bowel and bladder.

    PubMed

    Zickler, Candace F; Richardson, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Bowel and bladder continence is a major developmental accomplishment for a child and his or her family. Children with neurogenic bowel and bladder dysfunction, which occurs with myelomeningocele and other neural tube defects, have a physical inability to attain continence. However, children with these limitations can attain continence when the appropriate modifications to the traditional routines are made. Enabling the child to attain continence improves parental relationships and self-concept. The nurse who is working with children with myelomeningocele in schools, clinics, private offices, and home health care settings can play a vital role in helping a child with a neural tube defect achieve continence. PMID:15523417

  18. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

  19. Urinary Catheter Management

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    After colorectal resection surgery, early urinary catheter removal has been promoted as a part of the national Surgical Care Improvement Project. However, the decrease in urinary tract infection expected with this strategy must be balanced against an increased risk for urinary retention. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to summarize the evidence for and against early postoperative urinary catheter removal. For nonpelvic colorectal resection, the evidence supports removal of the catheter on postoperative day 1 for patients who are not at high risk for urinary retention, including patients with thoracic epidurals. For mid-to-low rectal surgery, the risk of urinary retention is increased, and catheter removal on day 3 to day 6 is recommended; however, the exact timing of removal cannot be recommended based on current studies. PMID:24436671

  20. [Urinary incontinence in men].

    PubMed

    Bauer, R M; Oelke, M; Hbner, W; Grabbert, M; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2015-06-01

    Stress urinary incontinence in men is predominantly iatrogenic whereby radical prostatectomy is the most common cause with persistent stress urinary incontinence rates varying between 10?% and 25?%. The first line therapy for postoperative male stress urinary incontinence is physiotherapy, especially pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. If conservative treatment fails to show sufficient improvement, surgical therapy is recommended. Several treatment options are currently available for the surgical treatment of male stress urinary incontinence including artificial sphincters, adjustable and functional sling systems, bulking agents and implantable balloon systems. PMID:26081822

  1. Urinary Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For More Information American Academy of Pediatrics Urology Care Foundation National Association for Continence National Kidney Foundation ... close to bedtime may also help. A health care provider can give guidance about how much a ...

  2. Urinary Incontinence in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... try medicines or a continence device—either an artificial sphincter or a catheter. For some men, surgery ... such as spinal cord injury or radical prostatectomy. Artificial sphincter: Some men may eliminate urine leakage with ...

  3. Relationship between mode of delivery and development of urinary incontinence: A possible link is demonstrated

    PubMed Central

    Saadia, Zaheera

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence is a major problem faced by many mothers and has been traditionally linked to diverse ways of delivery. However, there is still a lack of clinical data, which can corroborate this notion. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of urinary incontinence developed in women under different modes of delivery that have been used during childbirth. The study was conducted by considering three ways of delivery such as vaginal, cesarean section and the use of instruments during childbirth. The results were compared in each group in terms of number of women that developed or experienced urinary incontinence with those who have no problem at all or have minor problems. Methods The study was conducted at Qassim University Clinic, and Maternity and Child Hospital Buraidah from Jan–May 2015 as a descriptive cross sectional study. The objective was to determine the core reasons as to why women tend to develop some urinary incontinence after delivery. First 111 women without urinary incontinence and 100 women with urinary incontinence were asked retrospectively about the number of vaginal deliveries they had underwent. Then another group (111 without urinary incontinence and 100 with urinary continence were asked about the number of instrumental deliveries they had undegone. The same was repeated (111 women without urinary incontinence and 100 with urinary incontinence) for women with cesarean section. Results Having five or more vaginal births had a significantly (p<0.001) high risk for development of urinary incontinence (n=74, 66.67%) as compared to no urinary incontinence (n=8, 8.0%). In the group who had no cesarean section, there was a significantly (p <0 .001) larger proportion of participants with urinary problems (n = 100, 90.09%) than those without urinary problems (n = 61, 61.0%). For participants who have had an instrumental delivery, there was a significantly (p =0 .014) larger proportion of participants with urinary problems (n = 22, 19.82%) than those without urinary problems (n = 8, 8.0%). However, for participants that have not had an instrumental delivery, there was a significantly larger amount of participants without urinary problems than those with urinary problems (p <0 .001). Conclusion Women with 5 or more vaginal deliveries as well as instrumental deliveries were more liable to develop urinary incontinence in this study. This may be because vaginal deliveries and instrumental deliveries lead to perineal damage. This is further supported by the results of this study showing that women who never had cesarean section were more likely to report urinary incontinence PMID:26715925

  4. A "Stratospheric Drain" over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented from operational rawinsonde data surrounding the maritime continent that the net mass flux near the tropopause is downward over this region, contrary to the behavior of current numerical models. The air is descending year-round, despite mean upward motion below and above the descending layer. This sinking implies the existence of a significant energy-removing process, which is argued to be the injection of cold air by overshooting convective clouds. The mass, energy, and horizontal momentum budgets are examined in reaching these conclusions. The implied cooling effect of convective overshoots can be simulated with a simple, parcel-sorting convective mixing model. The findings contradict the common view that the mean flow enters the stratosphere in this strongly-convecting region, and have important implications for transport of water vapor and other gases into the stratosphere.

  5. Circular structures of the earth's continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briukhanov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Bush, Vil'iam Arturovich; Glukhovskii, Marat Zinov'evich; Zverev, A. T.; Kats, Ia. G.

    The relationship between the composition of the lithosphere and the circular structures (CSs) visible on remote images of the earth surface is investigated using space observations and geological, geophysical, geomorphological, and mapping data. The CSs are divided into classes according to their structural, or size, parameters (megastructures, macrostructures, mesostructures, ministructures, and microstructures) and their genetic types (e.g., nuclear, abyssal, metagenic, and exogenic). The distribution of these structural-genetic CS types on the earth's continents (with the exception of the Antarctic) is discussed, and the specificity of the features of these CS types is examined. Special attention is given to the correlations between the distribution of CSs and the regional distribution of metallogenic rocks.

  6. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  7. Influence of perineal prostatectomy on anal continence

    PubMed Central

    Guilger, Ndia Ricci; Jorge, Jos Marcio Neves; Costa, Renato Prado; Salla, Fernando Cesar; Teixeira, Magaly Gemio; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Perineal prostatectomy has been proposed as a less invasive and safe procedure, but the risk of anal incontinence has been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of perineal access on anal continence mechanisms after perineal prostatectomy. METHODS: From August 2008 to May 2009, twenty three patients underwent perineal prostatectomy. These patients were evaluated before surgery and eight months postoperatively using the Cleveland Clinic Anal Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score, and anorectal manometry. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 65 (range, 54-72) years, and the mean prostate weight was 34.5 (range, 24-54) grams. Gleason scores ranged from 6-7, and the mean Cleveland Clinic Anal Incontinence Score (meanstandard deviation) values were 0.91.9 and 0.71.2 (p>0.05) before and after surgery, respectively. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score did not change significantly after surgery. The mean values for anal manometric parameters before and after surgery were, respectively: Resting Pressures of 6423 mmHg and 6517 mmHg (p?=?0.763), Maximum Squeezing Pressures of 13041 mmHg and 11740 mmHg (p?=?0.259), High Pressure Zones of 3.00.9 cm and 2.70.8 cm (p?=?0.398), Rectal Sensory Thresholds of 7625 ml and 7135 ml (p?=?0.539), Maximum Tolerated Rectal Volumes of 15748 ml and 15656 ml (p?=?0.836), and Sphincter Asymmetry Indexes 22.49% and 14.45% (p?=?0.003). CONCLUSION: There was a significant decrease in the sphincter symmetry index after perineal prostatectomy. With the exception of the sphincter asymmetry index, perineal prostatectomy did not affect anal continence parameters. PMID:22189722

  8. The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing

  9. Developing an Internationally-Applicable Service Specification for Continence Care: Systematic Review, Evidence Synthesis and Expert Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Wagg, Adrian S.; Newman, Diane K.; Leichsenring, Kai; van Houten, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care. Objectives To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care. Method Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems. Results A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures. Conclusions This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and payers of health and social care could consider using to provide high-quality continence care. A shift towards a community-delivered, nurse-led model appears to be associated with clinical and cost-effective care for people with bladder and bowel incontinence. PMID:25121511

  10. Slab Rollback Instability and Super-Continent Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Super-continents coalesce over subduction zone complexes and their subsequent dispersal is usually attributed to heating and upwelling of continent-insulated mantle. This dispersal mechanism, however, requires considerable mantle internal heating. Alternatively, the super-continent configuration may be mechanically unstable and disperse regardless of heating mode. In particular, increased drag on plates or subducting slabs (e.g., by accumulating continents) causes them to slow down and trenches to rollback. Once subcontinental slabs are slightly separated, resistance to their descent increases, inducing further trench migration. Slabs thus undergo a rollback instability, which disperses super-continents. A simple theoretical model illustrates this instability and shows there are two equilibrium states, one unstable super-continent state where slabs are conjoined, and one stable state where slabs are widely separated. Slab rollback from the unstable to stable states occurs at typical slow tectonic speeds, and over a period commensurate with the age of ocean basins and the Wilson cycle.

  11. Stability, continence and breathing: the role of fascia following pregnancy and delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, D G; Lee, L J; McLaughlin, L

    2008-10-01

    Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PRPGP) has a prevalence of approximately 45% during pregnancy and 20-25% in the early postpartum period. Most women become pain free in the first 12 weeks after delivery, however, 5-7% do not. In a large postpartum study of prevalence for urinary incontinence (UI) [Wilson, P.D., Herbison, P., Glazener, C., McGee, M., MacArthur, C., 2002. Obstetric practice and urinary incontinence 5-7 years after delivery. ICS Proceedings of the Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol. 21(4), pp. 284-300] found that 45% of women experienced UI at 7 years postpartum and that 27% who were initially incontinent in the early postpartum period regained continence, while 31% who were continent became incontinent. It is apparent that for some women, something happens during pregnancy and delivery that impacts the function of the abdominal canister either immediately, or over time. Current evidence suggests that the muscles and fascia of the lumbopelvic region play a significant role in musculoskeletal function as well as continence and respiration. The combined prevalence of lumbopelvic pain, incontinence and breathing disorders is slowly being understood. It is also clear that synergistic function of all trunk muscles is required for loads to be transferred effectively through the lumbopelvic region during multiple tasks of varying load, predictability and perceived threat. Optimal strategies for transferring loads will balance control of movement while maintaining optimal joint axes, maintain sufficient intra-abdominal pressure without compromising the organs (preserve continence, prevent prolapse or herniation) and support efficient respiration. Non-optimal strategies for posture, movement and/or breathing create failed load transfer which can lead to pain, incontinence and/or breathing disorders. Individual or combined impairments in multiple systems including the articular, neural, myofascial and/or visceral can lead to non-optimal strategies during single or multiple tasks. Biomechanical aspects of the myofascial piece of the clinical puzzle as it pertains to the abdominal canister during pregnancy and delivery, in particular trauma to the linea alba and endopelvic fascia and/or the consequence of postpartum non-optimal strategies for load transfer, is the focus of the first two parts of this paper. A possible physiological explanation for fascial changes secondary to altered breathing behaviour during pregnancy is presented in the third part. A case study will be presented at the end of this paper to illustrate the clinical reasoning necessary to discern whether conservative treatment or surgery is necessary for restoration of function of the abdominal canister in a woman with postpartum diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA). PMID:19083692

  12. Space science education in the african continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseno, J. O.

    Through measurement and interpretation of the spectral, spatial and temporal variations in electromagnetic emissions and reflections from the Earth's surface, important information related to natural resources can be acquired. Furthermore, satellite technology has greatly improved the communication and positioning techniques world-wide. Consequently, space science now provides valuable and timely information about natural resources, which has become a major factor in sustainable development. The realization of the full potential of space science in the context of development in Africa requires adequate education and training in order to facilitate project formulation, planning, management and implementation. This, in turn, would lead to the formulation and adoption of national space science policies based on user needs and addressing both the short and long-term needs of a particular country. Space science education in Africa needs to address issues like (i) provision of programme, (ii) integration of the proposed techniques within the existing infrastructure, and (iii) training in Remote Sensing, Global Positioning System, Geographic Information System and other space science techniques, in order to ensure the successful implementation of space science projects within the continent. In this context, African universities ought to play a major role in space science training, research, consultancy and publication. Through international co-operation, it is possible to develop and support national, regional and international training programmes and international scientific exchange in Africa.

  13. Current interventional management of male stress urinary incontinence following urological procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Ireneusz; Śledź, Emil; Ciechan, Janusz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Wiatr, Tomasz; Stangel-Wojcikiewicz, Klaudia; Chłosta, Piotr L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in surgical techniques and implementation of minimally invasive procedures, male stress urinary incontinence affects a substantial number of patients after prostatic surgery. In response to increasing demand of optimal treatment modality, new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter have recently been introduced. This review summarises the therapeutic surgical options with their outcomes in management of postprostatectomy stress incontinence. Material and methods We performed a literature review by searching the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases for articles published from January 2000 until April 2015 based on clinical relevance. Results Artificial urinary sphincter is currently considered the “gold standard” treatment of male stress urinary incontinence. Although the new devices in this group have recently been investigated, the AMS 800 remains the only widely used implant. Male slings and adjustable continence devices, achieve the social continence rates up to 60%. Periurethral injections of bulking agents, have limited efficacy of male stress incontinence. Argus sling and ProACT are both associated with substantial explantation rates. Stem cell therapy is a promising option but still requires additional testing. Conclusions The development of new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter is constantly progressing. Although recently introduced minimally invasive treatment options have not yet surpassed the outcomes of the artificial urinary sphincter they should continue to be evaluated and compared against the gold standard. PMID:26568879

  14. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in

  15. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... UTI and it isn't treated, it may lead to a kidney infection. Kidney infections may cause early labor. ... Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help prevent urinary tract ...

  16. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePLUS

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common on the ...

  17. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePLUS

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  18. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  19. [Urinary sediment analysis].

    PubMed

    Baños-Laredo, Martha E; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A; Cabiedes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Urinary analysis is one of the most requested tests in the clinical laboratory. This test includes the physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine. This last one allows for the observation of urinary sediment (US) in search of formed elements (cellular cast, leukocytes, etc.), with different diagnostic uses. Urinary analysis can be assessed by manual or automated methods. In the laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, US analysis is mainly oriented towards the assessment of renal function in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as this is a common clinical manifestation associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, its value lies mainly for diagnostic criteria and evaluation of kidney injury, as well as for several damage indexes directed to patients with SLE. In the last years, several groups have sought to establish new urinary biomarkers of kidney damage in patients with SLE; however, this requires a greater number of studies to determine their true diagnostic value in this patients group. PMID:21794729

  20. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  1. Are adults content or continent after repair for high anal atresia? A long-term follow-up study in patients 18 years of age and older.

    PubMed Central

    Hassink, E A; Rieu, P N; Severijnen, R S; vd Staak, F H; Festen, C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the current state of fecal and urinary continence in an extensive group of adults after operative correction for high anorectal malformations and how they cope with their incontinence. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Normal fecal continence is hardly to be expected after correction for high anorectal malformation; despite this, it is commonly accepted that for most patients fecal continence improves with growing age and that most adult patients have no problems. Until now, however, few long-term follow-up studies in small groups of adults have been performed to assess continence after operative repair for high anorectal malformation. METHODS: Fifty-eight adult patients (median age, 26.0 years; range, 18.1 to 56.9 years) with an operatively corrected high anorectal malformation were evaluated by questionnaire with respect to their current state of fecal and urinary continence and mode of control of defecation. RESULTS: Seven patients have a permanent ileostoma or colostoma. Of the 51 patients with anal defecation, 61% control defecation by themselves, whereas 35% control defecation by using enemas or bowel irrigations, and 4% do not have any control at all. Besides medical therapy, 65% take dietary measures to influence defecation. According to existing scoring methods, 41% reached good and 49% fair control of defecation, whereas only 10% had poor control. Current control of defecation was reached from a median age of 15.0 years (range, 5 to 31 years). CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the authors can say that after correction for high anorectal malformation nobody reached normal fecal continence. Most patients with anal defecation reached good and fair control of defecation, however. Of all 58 patients, 84% are satisfied with their level of cleanliness. PMID:8343000

  2. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hrl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  3. Doug Nelson's Contributions to our Understanding of Young Continent-Continent Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Brown, L. D.; Jones, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    K. Douglas Nelson, Department Chair and Jessie Page Heroy Professor of Earth Sciences at Syracuse University, died suddenly of heart failure on August 17th, 2002, age 49. At the time of his death he was at the heights of an increasingly distinguished career, and had, just prior to his death, agreed to be an invited speaker in this session of the 2002 Fall AGU meeting. Doug began his professional career as a field structural geologist, writing his PhD on the Newfoundland Appalachians, and as a post-doc in South Island, New Zealand. From there he went to Cornell University to join COCORP; he learned to interpret deep seismic reflection data and became hooked on the value of geophysics to the study of large-scale processes in mountain belts. He became one of the proponents of taking the COCORP methodology overseas, to the world's type example of young, continent-continent collisions, the Himalaya. For 10 years from 1992, by now a faculty member at Syracuse, Doug provided operational and intellectual leadership to the INDEPTH program (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya). His talk in this session would undoubtedly have focused on our new understanding of Tibet that resulted in large part from the work that he led and supervised. From the initial conception of INDEPTH as a single reflection profile across Earth's highest mountain range and largest plateau, the program grew through three major stages to encompass a full range of geophysical and geological surveys in a transect that now reaches from the High Himalaya across Tibet. Doug more than anyone was the enthusiastic integrator in the large multi-national group of investigators (from the U.S., China, Canada and Germany), not bound by a single technique, and best able to synthesize the seemingly disparate observations from all the techniques. In recent years he was particularly interested in the combination of magneto-telluric with seismic results to better constrain interpretation of deep geology. Although Doug cannot now write the synthesis of the INDEPTH-3 results from central Tibet, nor lead the final INDEPTH-4 campaign across the northern margin of Tibet that he was already planning, our picture of Tibet, and hence of all continent-continent collisions, has changed and grown far richer as a result of his efforts. Among other things, INDEPTH has traced the top of the Indian plate descending beneath the Himalaya, located the likely limit of penetration of Indian mantle beneath central Tibet, and amassed considerable evidence for widespread melt within the Tibetan crust. The first observation, identification of the suture in an active collision, was a natural outgrowth of Doug's earlier contributions to the geometry of the Applachians and Ouachitas. The second observation directly relates to Doug's interest in the evolution of the deep crust/uppermost mantle in old orogens through delamination. The last observation, that melt is widespread in Tibet, was perhaps the most surprising result of the INDEPTH surveys, and the one that Doug used to greatest effect in his synthesis of deformation and crustal evolution around the Tertiary Indus-Tsangpo suture. Doug's articulate and enthusiastic arguments on the inferred role of low viscosity of the middle crust of the Tibetan plateau have been widely echoed in the latest generation of models by many authors that appeal to the flow of crustal material outwards from the central plateau to its southern and eastern margins. This emphasis on crustal mobility in young continent-continent collisions is already influencing our interpretations of ancient orogens.

  4. Detachment Faults in Ocean Continent Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatschal, G.; Peron-Pinvidic, G.

    2005-12-01

    Ancient models of continental break-up conventionally juxtapose normal continental and oceanic crusts. However, deep-sea drilling in the Iberia margin and observations in the Alpine Tethys margins exposed in the Alps provide compelling evidence that these two crusts are separated by continental mantle commonly interpreted to be exhumed at the seafloor by lithospheric-scale detachment faulting. In the Iberia margin, detachment faults were interpreted to coincide with strong seismic reflections (e.g. S and H reflections) and have been drilled at ODP Sites 900, 1067 and 1068. Based on kinematic inversion of seismic sections and drill-hole data, it was shown that the detachment faults formed as a sequence of high-angle faults during a late stage of rifting in a previously thinned, less than 10 km thick crust at rates of 1 to 2 cm/yr. With ongoing extension, the faults rotated and changed from upward to downward concave faults enabling to exhume mantle rocks over tens of kilometres without producing a major seafloor topography. In the Alps, remnants of detachment faults belonging to the former Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) of the Alpine Tethys are spectacularly exposed in several places in SE Switzerland. Like in the Iberia example, these structures show break-aways towards the continent and cut oceanwards into serpentinized mantle peridotites. The detachment faults are covered either by extensional allochthons of continental origin or sediments, further oceanwards also by basalts. Detailed mapping combined with structural and petrological investigations show that these detachment faults were active in the stability field of serpentine. The detachment faults show a complex relationship to high- temperature mantle mylonites (>700C) and infiltrated mantle peridotites. Further studies are necessary to unravel the complex relationship between shallow and deep lithospheric deformation processes as well as between magmatic and hydration processes interacting with mantle exhumation along detachment faults. The available data favour the hypothesis that the detachment faults did not root into an asthenospheric mantle, but were more likely interacting with a weak subhorizontal decollement in the mantle. Such a weak zone may be related either to a hydration or an infiltration front at temperatures >700C. The 3D geometry of detachment faults in the OCT is very complex and shows some similarities with those observed at oceanic core complexes. In the Err nappe in the Alps, preserved detachment structures can be mapped over an area of about 30 km2. The mapped fault planes are either corrugated parallel to the transport direction or form lateral ramps reactivating pre-existing structures. Mapping of the reflections interpreted as detachment faults in the Iberia margin shows that on the scale of the margin, these structures form domes and ridges. Moreover, extensional allochthons overlying exhumed mantle can be correlated along strike with a series of fault-bounded blocks overlying strong intra-basement reflections interpreted as detachment faults. These observations suggest that detachment faults in OCT are poly-phase structures that form during a final stage of continental break-up and continue to deform after their exhumation at the seafloor. The scale, 3D geometry and the processes controlling the evolution of detachment faults in the OCT are not yet sufficiently constrained to draw some further conclusions or to compare them with oceanic core complexes.

  5. Potential oil corridor bisects Australian continent

    SciTech Connect

    Conolly, J.R.

    1983-03-01

    New oil discoveries, coupled with intensified exploration in the past four years, suggest that several of Australia's major onshore basins can be linked to form a potential oil corridor which will span the continent. As new oil discoveries, such as those at Blina in the Canning basin and in Jackson in the Eromanga basin, are made, this infrastructure will grow along the potential corridor and away from it to coastal waters. The corridor owes its origin in the main part to the geometry of ancient basic tectonics and subsequent sedimentation patterns. For instance, Ordovician oil-rich sequences linked the Canning and Amadeus basins, whereas Jurassic oil reservoirs cross the remainder of the eastern half of the corridor. Potential new discoveries are predicted for sequences which range in age from upper Proterozic to Neocomian and these can be reviewed within the corridor. Devonian reef trends flank the northern Canning basin while Ordovician carbonates and shales form potential fields throughout parts of the southern Canning basin. Oil reservoirs of Ordovician age occur in the western Amadeus basin but new plays exist in the basal Cambrian sands of the eastern Amadeus and potentially in the northern thrust sheet belt. Oil has now been found in rocks of Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age in the Cooper-Eromanga basin. New plays exist with the extensions of the central Eromanga basin where higher heat flow and deeper burial has matured younger Jurassic sources. The more established Surat basin has further potential in Permian and Triassic rocks as does the Mesozoic in the coastal Clarence-Moreton and Sydney basins.

  6. Postpartum stress urinary incontinence: lessons from animal models

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bradley C; Moore, Courtenay; Damaser, Margot S

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is associated with chronic SUI in later life, which is 240% more likely to occur in women who deliver vaginally than those who did not. The etiology of SUI is multifactoral and has been associated with defects in both neuromuscular and structural components of continence. Specifically, clinical studies have demonstrated that pudendal nerve damage occurs during vaginal delivery, supporting the concept that neuromuscular damage to the continence mechanism can result in postpartum SUI. Urethral hypermobility and the loss of pelvic floor support, such as that involved in pelvic organ prolapse, have also been associated with SUI. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate these injuries, individually and in combination, enabling researchers to gain further insight into their relative contributions to the development of SUI and the effectiveness of potential therapies for it. This article discusses the use of animal models of postpartum SUI in addition to the broad insights into treatment efficacy they provide. PMID:21113428

  7. Tablet-based screening improves continence management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beadnall, Heidi N; Kuppanda, Kushi E; OConnell, Annmaree; Hardy, Todd A; Reddel, Stephen W; Barnett, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether electronic continence questionnaires aid early identification and optimizes management of sphincter dysfunction in a multiple sclerosis clinic. Methods A custom designed, tablet-based cross-platform software tool was designed to capture validated multiple sclerosis (MS) patient-reported outcomes. An unselected cohort of MS patients from a tertiary referral clinic completed electronic tablet-based versions of the Bladder Control Scale (BLCS) and the Bowel Control Scale in the waiting room. Data were captured wirelessly on-the-fly and stored in a deidentified, secure database; and individual questionnaire results were immediately available to the treating neurologist in the electronic medical record. Scores of ?2 on either questionnaire generated an automated electronic referral to the clinic MS continence nurse (MS CN). Results One hundred and fifty-seven MS patients completed a total of 184 electronic continence test sets and on two occasions only the BLCS was completed. An automatic electronic referral for formal continence review was generated 128 times in 108 patients. Fifty-seven formal continence assessments were undertaken by the MS CN following automated referral. All reviews resulted in at least one clinical intervention being made. Interpretation Tablet-based data capture and automated continence referral using this software tool is an efficient, sensitive, and feasible method of screening MS patients for bladder and bowel dysfunction. Concordance with the results of formal continence assessment in this pilot study validates the use of this technology as a screening tool. PMID:26125042

  8. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the vector electric field instrument observation onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The evolution of equatorial ionospheric irregularities will also be presented using data from the growing number of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers in the African region.

  9. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  10. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (?3070 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 3.85 ?g/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (? = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  11. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  12. Knowledge and understanding of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Katherina; Hunter, Kathleen F.; Wagg, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate family physicians knowledge of, attitudes toward, and understanding of urinary incontinence (UI), as well as their perceptions of barriers to continence care, as a foundation for designing interventions to improve service provision for those in northern Alberta who suffer from UI. Design Descriptive survey using a standardized instrument. The survey instrument was completed either by telephone interview or on paper copy faxed back to the researchers, depending on participant preference. Setting Northern Alberta. Participants Random sample of family physicians (N = 158). Main outcome measures Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward UI, UI management practices, and barriers to providing UI care. Results Survey response rate was 10.6% (158 of 1488); 84.2% (133 of 158) of respondents practised in urban settings, 44.9% (71 of 158) had been in practice for fewer than 15 years, 24.1% (38 of 158) reported having no training in UI management since graduation, and 53.8% (85 of 158) reported that they proactively discussed UI with their patients. Overall, 70.0% of respondents felt fairly confident in managing UI. Most family physicians referred patients for specialist care, with few referrals to community services. Respondents thought that continence services were scarce, with long waiting times, and that such services were generally overstretched; they believed that although high-quality continence care was a personal priority, it was not a priority focus for their practice partnerships or networks. In terms of the highest ranked areas for improvement in UI management, increased awareness and understanding among physicians (ranked first by 28.5% of respondents), followed by dedicated incontinence clinics or nurses for referral (17.7%) and improving patient awareness and understanding (12.0%). Conclusion There continues to be considerable variation in knowledge about UI management and a relative overreliance on specialist care, despite well recognized difficulties in gaining access to services. Respondents believed that increased awareness among patients and health care providers coupled with greater access to continence services were key factors in improving care delivery. PMID:23851561

  13. Urinary melatonin in depression.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Devi, S P; Srinivasan, V

    1983-07-01

    This report is based on a study of 12 cases of depression (8 endogenous, 4 neurotic) with a view to explore the possible association between urinary melatonin and the illness prior to and following treatment. While cases of endogenous depression had low 24 hour as well as nocturnal urinary melatonin levels, the neurotic depressives showed higher than normal levels. A rise in the 24 hour melatonin levels occurred in all cases of endogenous depression though this did not apply, to the nocturnal levels. An association between melatonin levels with suicide behaviour, insomnia, psychomotor retardation and diurnal variation is discussed. PMID:21847281

  14. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the “black box” warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists’ assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem. PMID:18360547

  15. The effect of urinary incontinence status during pregnancy and delivery mode on incontinence postpartum. A cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Wesnes, SL; Hunskaar, S; Bo, K; Rortveit, G

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum and to study how continence status during pregnancy and mode of delivery influence urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum in primiparous women. Design Cohort study. Setting Pregnant women attending routine ultrasound examination were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Population A total of 12 679 primigravidas who were continent before pregnancy. Methods Data are from MoBa, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data are based on questionnaires answered at week 15 and 30 of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence 6 months postpartum is presented as proportions, odds ratios and relative risks (RRs). Results Urinary incontinence was reported by 31% of the women 6 months after delivery. Compared with women who were continent during pregnancy, incontinence was more prevalent 6 months after delivery among women who experienced incontinence during pregnancy (adjusted RR 2.3, 95% CI 2.22.4). Adjusted RR for incontinence after spontaneous vaginal delivery compared with elective caesarean section was 3.2 (95% CI 2.24.7) among women who were continent and 2.9 (95% CI 2.33.4) among women who were incontinent in pregnancy. Conclusion Urinary incontinence was prevalent 6 months postpartum. The association between incontinence postpartum and mode of delivery was not substantially influenced by incontinence status in pregnancy. Prediction of a group with high risk of incontinence according to mode of delivery cannot be based on continence status in pregnancy. PMID:19220234

  16. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reach your doctor, you can visit an urgent care center or hospital emergency room. The most important thing is to take action as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary tract infections. The first ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urethra or bladder. Couples who use lubrication during sex should use a water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly. Finally, drinking lots of water each day keeps the bladder active and bacteria free. Remember that although urinary tract infections are uncomfortable ...

  18. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  19. A review: the application of minimally invasive surgery to pediatric urology: lower urinary tract reconstructive procedures.

    PubMed

    Traxel, Erica J; Minevich, Eugene A; Noh, Paul H

    2010-07-01

    This paper is one-half of a 2 part review on minimally-invasive procedures in pediatric urology. This article focuses on lower tract procedures, including ureteroureterostomy, anti-reflux surgeries, creation of continent catheterizable channels, and augmentation cystoplasty. We note important articles on pure laparoscopic as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic lower urinary tract surgeries, concentrating on their techniques and outcomes. PMID:20303150

  20. Wrench faulting initiated by continent-continent collision between the Eratosthenes Seamount and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), located in the Eastern Mediterranean south of Cyprus, is considered to represent a continental fragment originating from the former African-Arabian continental margin. In the late Miocene the subduction of the African-Arabian Plate below the Anatolian Plate turned to continent-continent collision when the ESM collided with the island of Cyprus. This altered the tectonic pattern of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Since the ESM blocks the northward drift of the African Plate south of Cyprus, the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate (around 1cm/year) has to be compensated along wrench faults. The Baltim Hecateus Line (BHL) separates the ESM on its eastern side from the deep Levantine Basin. The BHL formed as an extensional fault system during the Triassic formation of the Levatine Basin. During the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene so called Syrian Arc inversion the BHL was reactivated. A set of recent multichannel seismic 2D lines (MCS), acquired with the R/V Maria S. Merian (MSM14-2) in 2010, will be presented here. The NW-SE trending lines show a transformal to transpressional nature of the Baltim Hecateus Line. We propose that the BHL converted to a transform fault during the incipient collision of the ESM with the island of Cyprus in order to compensate the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate. At the eastern rim of the ESM the BHL continues beneath a prominent bathymetric escarpment. Whereas the escarpment matches the trace of the BHL it is covered below the thick Messinian Evaporites south and north of the ESM. Owing to the ductile properties of salt the Messinian evaporites decouple the sub salt sediments from the supra salt sediments. As a result no direct observations of the BHL are possible. However, seismic imaging reveals thrust folds at the western side of the Levantine Basin pointing to a transpressional nature of the BHL. The overlying sediments are thinned as a reaction to the transform motion. Due to a dense spacing of MCS lines perpendicular to the strike of the Baltim Hecateus Line it was possible to trace the line also in the salt covered parts south and north of the ESM.

  1. AB052. Modified ureterosigmoidostomy (Mainz Pouch II) urinary diversion: 10 years experience and follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Panfeng; Yue, Zhongjin; Zhao, Yanzong; Yang, Faying; Hou, Zizhen; Wu, Gongjin; Bao, Junsheng; Zhai, Zhenxing; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhiping; Wang, Jiaji; Zuo, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report 10 years experience with Mainz Pouch II urinary diversion and to analyze its outcome. Materials and Methods From October 2004 to December 2014, 248 patients 205 men and 43 women (age range, 15 to 79 years, mean 59.8510.76) had underwent Mainz Pouch II urinary diversion at 26 institutions in Gansu Province, China. The indications for urinary diversions were invasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in 239 cases, squamous cell carcinoma of urethra in one and unoncological reasons in 8 cases. Clinical data and early complications were retrospective analysis. Data on long-term complications, continence behaviour, urinary frequency and patients assessment of the quality of life were investigated by follow-up. Results The median operative time for urinary diversion 120 minutes (range, 90-150 minutes), with a median estimated blood loss of 800 mL (range, 400-2,500 mL). Seven patients (2.82%) died in the perioperative period. Early complications were noticed in 66 patients (26.61%), such as intestinal fistula (6, 2.42%), pulmonary infection (5, 2.02%), ileus (4, 1.61%), pyelonephritis (4, 1.61%), deep venous thrombosis (2, 0.81%), pelvic infection (2, 0.81%), wound dehiscence (10, 4.03%), superficial wound infections (30, 12.10%), hemorrhagic shock (1, 0.40%), myocardial infarction (1, 0.40%) and rectovaginal fistula (1, 0.40%). Thirty-seven patients (n=241, 15.35%) were lost at follow-up and 204 patients were followed from 2 to 126 months (mean 47.9329.26 months). Eighty-five (n=204, 41.67%) passed away. Late complications occurred in 29.41% of patients (60/204), including uretero-intestinal anastomotic stricture (20, 9.80%, 24 of 400 renoureteric units, 6.00%), recurrent pyelonephritis (12, 5.88%), prolonged ileus (11, 5.39%), metabolic acidosis (11, 5.39%), incisional hernia (5, 2.45%), pelvic infection (1, 0.49%). Conclusions Mainz Pouch II is a simple and easy to mastered form of continent urinary diversion, with excellent continence rate and good quality of life. When the patient refused to have a incontinent urinary diversion, it may be used as a convenient and satisfactory alternative for cystectomized patients who are not suitable for orthotopic urinary diversion due to bladder cancer invasion of prostate or urethra.

  2. [Anal sphincter function and recto-anal continence].

    PubMed

    Kuhlbusch, R; Erckenbrecht, J F

    1987-07-01

    Recto-anal continence results from a complex interplay of motor, sensory and anatomical continence mechanisms. Accordingly, fecal incontinence may be due to motor defects, sensory defects, neurological defects, or defects of the reservoir function of the ano-rectum. In a study in 16 patients with fecal incontinence and 16 continent controls the question was examined, to which extent disturbances of the motor function of the internal and external anal sphincter contribute to the pathogenesis of fecal incontinence. Basal and squeeze anal sphincter pressures were not different in incontinent and continent patients. However, 8/16 incontinent patients showed no or only an insufficient increase of external anal sphincter function while squeezing. It is concluded that disturbances of the motor function of the anal sphincters contribute to fecal incontinence in only about one half of the patients. In addition, the pressure increase of the sphincters during squeezing is of more importance for recto-anal continence than the absolute height of the muscular force of the anal sphincters. PMID:3613812

  3. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thbaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic continents were geochemically isolated from the hydrosphere/atmosphere and mantle systems, and did not contribute significantly to the sedimentary records. 2/ These continents evolved under the possibly episodic drive of plate tectonic processes, and certainly also under the drive of the density inversion imposed by the greenstone/TTG stratigraphy. Thbaud and Rey (2013) emphasized that sagduction was able to drive crustal-scale deformation in the interior of continents, away from plate margins. Since this process occurred on flooded continents, an infinite fluid reservoir was available to feed crustal-scale hydrothermal circulations promoting the formation of craton-wide metal deposits in the interior of continents, far away from their margins. 3/ During the Neoarchean, the geochemical coupling between continents and the ocean/atmosphere and mantle systems grew stronger as continents slowly emerged and became mechanically strong enough to support mountain belts and orogenic plateaux. This coupling could have controlled the major environmental changes at the Archean-Proterozoic transition.

  4. Urinary markers of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Koenig, F; Jung, K; Schnorr, D; Loening, S A

    2000-07-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the second most common malignancy in the genitourinary tract. The majority of urothelial tumors are superficial when the patient first presents, but despite adequate resection of the primary lesion the recurrence rate is particularly high. In a small but significant group of patients the tumor is primary invasive or subsequently can progress and leads to death. Voided urine can be easily obtained and therefore diagnostic urine tests would be ideal for screening or follow up of TCC. Although many urinary markers have been described, none of them is used routinely in clinical practice. Promising tumor markers still need to be evaluated in multi-center clinical studies. Larger prospective trials are necessary in order to identify prognostic indicators that would help to predict disease progression or response to different treatment modalities (BCG, chemo-, radiotherapy, etc.). Hopefully, new diagnostic urine tests will allow to identify patients who will most benefit from early cystectomy with or without adjuvant treatment, bladder sparing protocols or systemic treatment. In this paper we have reviewed the literature and discuss, from the clinician's point of view, the current status of various diagnostic tests for urinary markers. [Lee SJ, Lee WE, Chang SG, Lee CH, Kim JI. A comparative study of telomerase, Lewis X, BTA, NMP22 and urinary cytology in bladder tumor. J Urol 1999;161(suppl):152.] PMID:10841921

  5. Geriatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, J G

    1992-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is now recognized as a prevalent, physically and emotionally disruptive, and costly health problem in the geriatric population. Because incontinence may be a manifestation of a subacute or reversible process within or outside of the lower urinary tract, and because effective treatment is available, it is important for primary care physicians to identify and appropriately assess incontinence in their geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patient includes a targeted history and physical examination, urinalysis, and simple tests of lower urinary tract function. Potentially reversible conditions that may be causing or contributing to the incontinence, such as delirium and urinary tract infection (UTI), should be identified and managed. Patients who may benefit from further testing, including urologic or gynecologic examination and/or complex urodynamic tests, should be identified and referred. Several therapeutic modalities can be used to treat geriatric UI. Behavioral therapies are noninvasive and effective, both in functional community-dwelling geriatric patients and in functionally impaired nursing home residents. Behavioral therapies include bladder training, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, scheduled toileting, habit training, and prompted voiding. Pharmacologic therapy is often used in conjunction with behavioral therapy. For stress incontinence, alpha-adrenergic drugs are used and can be combined with topical or oral estrogen therapy in women. For urge incontinence, pharmacologic treatment involves drugs with anticholinergic and direct bladder muscle relaxant properties. Pharmacologic therapy for overflow incontinence is generally not effective on a long-term basis. Surgical treatment is indicated when a pathologic lesion such as a tumor is diagnosed, or when anatomic obstruction is believed to be the cause of the patient's symptoms. Surgical treatment of stress incontinence can be highly effective in properly selected women. Nonspecific, supportive treatments are also important in managing geriatric UI. Education for patients and caregivers is critical for the success of most therapies. Environmental manipulations and the appropriate use of toilet substitutes are especially important in frail, functionally impaired patients. Highly absorbent adult undergarments are helpful for managing many patients, but should not be used as the initial response to incontinence, and are best used in conjunction with more specific treatment whenever possible. Chronic indwelling catheterization should only be used to manage incontinence when it is associated with clinically significant urinary retention, skin conditions that cannot heal because of incontinence, or severe illness that makes the catheter the most comfortable method of management.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1732088

  6. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on urinary saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306

  7. The Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone: Reactivation of an Ancient Continent-Continent Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) may represent reactivation of an ancient shear zone that accommodated left-lateral, transpressive motion of the Amazon craton during the Grenville orogeny. Several different lines of evidence support this concept including velocity models for the crust, earthquake hypocenter alignments, focal mechanism solutions, potential field anomalies, paleomagnetic pole positions, and isotopic geochemical studies. The ETSZ trends NE-SW for about 300 km and displays remarkable correlation with the prominent New York - Alabama (NY-AL) aeromagnetic lineament. Vp and Vs models for the crust derived from a local ETSZ earthquake tomography study reveal the presence of a narrow, NE-SW trending, steeply dipping zone of low velocities that extends to a depth of at least 24 km and is associated with the vertical projection of the NY-AL aeromagnetic lineament. The low velocity zone is interpreted as a major basement fault. The recent Mw 4.2 Perry County eastern Kentucky earthquake occurred north of the ETSZ but has a focal depth and mechanism that are similar to those for ETSZ earthquakes. We investigate the possibility that the proposed ancient shear zone extends into eastern Kentucky using Bouguer and aeromagnetic maps. The southern end of the ETSZ is characterized by hypocenters that align along planes dipping at roughly 45 degrees and focal mechanisms that contain large normal faulting components. The NY-AL aeromagnetic lineament also changes trend in the southern end of the ETSZ and the exact location of the lineament is ambiguous. We suggest that the southern portion of the ETSZ involves reactivation of reverse faults (now as normal faults) that mark the ancient transition between a collisional to a more transpressive boundary between Amazonia and Laurentia during the formation of the super continent Rodinia.

  8. The Effect of Asymptomatic Urethral Caruncle on Micturition in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Levend; Tarcan, Tufan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of asymptomatic urethral caruncle (UC) on micturition in women suffering from urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods A total of 232 patients participated in the study. UC was diagnosed in 50 of 232 patients with urinary incontinence during a physical examination in our clinic. All cases were divided into 2 groups: UC combined with urinary incontinence (group 1) and urinary incontinence only (group 2). Urodynamic evaluations were performed according to the International Continence Society standards. Results Both groups were similar in terms of voiding diary, pad test and residual urine volume. Urodynamic studies revealed no significant difference between group 1 and 2 (infravesical obstruction: 6% vs. 4.4%; overactive detrusor: 44% vs. 42.9% respectively). The rates of severe IPSS (37.8% vs. 20.9%) and severe cystocele (20.9% vs. 13.8%) were numerically higher in group 1 with no statistically significant difference. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is no effect of asymptomatic UC on lower urinary tract symptoms in women with urinary incontinence. Therefore, treating asymptomatic UC is unnecessary in these patients. However, during incontinence surgery, it is the surgeon's decision whether to treat asymptomatic UC. PMID:20428428

  9. Current trends in the evaluation and management of female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Phillip P.; McCrery, Rebecca J.; Appell, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite its common occurrence and often seemingly obvious causes, female urinary incontinence requires a thorough and thoughtful evaluation for its proper diagnosis and treatment. With rare exceptions, urinary incontinence is the result of failure of the sphincter mechanism to resist bladder pressures encountered during daily activities. This may be the result of sphincter failure, overactivity of the bladder detrusor muscle or both. In uncomplicated cases, the diagnosis is usually based on an evaluation in the office. Urodynamic and cystoscopic study may be helpful in complex, resistant and recurring cases of urinary incontinence of any cause. Most cases of incontinence may be classified as stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence focuses on supplementing the urethral continence mechanisms, particularly the urethral supports and periurethral striated muscle function. The current paradigm for the treatment of urge incontinence centres on pharmacologic therapy, primarily by correcting detrusor overactivity with antimuscarinic drugs. Other therapies aimed at altering sensorimotor function may be used in resistant cases. The treatment of mixed urinary incontinence requires consideration of the contribution of each of its components. With proper diagnosis, effective treatment is possible for most patients. PMID:17098954

  10. Continent X: The Geopolitical Lesson of Size, Shape, and Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byklum, Daryl

    1992-01-01

    Offers suggestions for teaching high school students about the relevance of a nation's size, shape, and location to its geopolitical influence. Includes a map of and suggested teaching procedures concerning the hypothetical "Continent X" and its five component nations. Suggests follow-up topics. (SG)

  11. Children's Estimations of the Sizes of the Continents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette

    1996-01-01

    Examines children's knowledge and understanding of global spatial relationships. Utilizing cut-outs of continents to estimate their size in relation to Europe, the students consistently underestimated the size of Asia and overestimated Australia. Possible reasons for this are discussed and teaching approaches suggested. (MJP)

  12. Choosing and using disposable body-worn continence pads.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rachel

    Disposable, body-worn pads are the product most commonly chosen to contain and absorb urine and faeces (Pomfret, 2000). The cost to the NHS of supplying continence pads has been estimated at 80 million pounds per annum (Euromonitor, 1999) and is a huge financial burden on local services. PMID:16052946

  13. Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

  14. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  15. Midurethral Slings for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the current review was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of midurethral slings compared with traditional surgery. Background This assessment was undertaken in order to update and expand upon the health technology & policy assessment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT, Gynecare Worldwide, a division of Ethicon Inc, a Johnson & Johnson company, Somerville, New Jersey) sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence published by the Medical Advisory Secretariat in February 2004. Since the publication of the 2004 assessment, a number of TVT-like sling alternatives have become available which employ the same basic principles as TVT slings: minimally invasive, midurethral placement, self-fixing, and tension-free. This update will evaluate the efficacy and safety of midurethral slings. Clinical Need Normal continence is controlled by the nervous system and involves co-ordination between bladder, urethra, urethral sphincter, and pelvic floor. Incontinence occurs when the relationship among the above components is compromised, either due to physical damage or nerve dysfunction. (1) Stress urinary incontinence is the most common form of urinary incontinence in women. It is characterized by the complaint of involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing when there is increased abdominal pressure without detrusor (bladder wall) contraction. (2) There are 2 factors which define stress urinary incontinence: a weakening in the support of the proximal urethra, causing urethral hyper-mobility and deficiency in the sphincter, causing urethral leakage. Both factors are thought to coexist. (1) Accurate tests are not available to distinguish these 2 types of stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is estimated to affect about 250,000 Canadian women and 8 million American women aged 65 and over. (3;4) The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence is very difficult to measure because women with stress urinary incontinence may not tell their health practitioner about their symptoms due to embarrassment associated with stress urinary incontinence. A cross-sectional postal survey of 15,904 adults aged 40 and over who were registered with a local GP in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, revealed that 18% to 34% of respondents had symptoms of SUI. (5) Just over 9% reported symptoms sometimes, while almost 3% reported symptoms most of the time. Stress urinary incontinence was most common for women in their 50s. A more recent study suggests that 24% of women aged 18 to 44 years and 37% of women aged 45 and over have symptoms of stress urinary incontinence. (6) Stress urinary incontinence has been associated with a broad range of psychosocial stress and disablement, such as difficulties with activities of daily living, avoidance of social activities, fear of unpleasant odour, and embarrassment. (7) Economic burden may include the cost of pads, drugs, and devices, and the inability to participate in the work force in severe cases. Midurethral Slings Suburethral slings differ according to several criteria including placement, approach, method of fixation, and sling material. This review will evaluate slings which fulfill all of the following criteria: Midurethral placement (as opposed to bladder neck placement) Self-fixing (no sutures, bone anchors, etc.) Minimally invasive (using local, epidural, or general anesthesia) Tension-free placement The different types of midurethral slings available vary according to 3 main parameters: Implant material, i.e., monofilament, multifilament, elastic, non-elastic, smooth, serrated, etc., Delivery instruments, i.e., needles, curved trocars, disposable, reusable, etc., Surgical approach As any one, or any combination of these parameters may vary across the different sling brands, it is difficult to ascribe observed differences in efficacy and safety across slings to any one factor. Review Strategy The literature published between January 2000 and February 20

  16. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karslıoǧlu, Ersin Hatice; Özalp, Elvan; Çayköylü, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients’ compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia. PMID:26792046

  17. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Karslıoǧlu, Ersin Hatice; Özalp, Elvan; Çayköylü, Ali

    2016-02-29

    Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance. Amitriptyline, desmopressin, ephedrine, and anticholinergics such as oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl are the most frequently used agents to treat incontinence. We think that the frequency of incontinence is higher than reported in the literature, and that follow-up routines should include a form of standardized screening for all possible adverse effects, including incontinence, of any given antipsychotic. In this article, we report a case of urinary incontinence as an adverse effect of paliperidone palmitate use during maintenance therapy in a patient with schizophrenia. PMID:26792046

  18. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  19. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S; Deschnes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  20. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  1. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Mrio Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osrio Silveira; da Silva, Fbio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mnica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Objective Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Methods Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10?M) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100?M), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1?M-100mM), ?,?-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100?M) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. Results SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective ?3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective ?-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, ?, ?-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Conclusions Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections observed the SCD patients. PMID:26241312

  2. Urinary infections in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478

  3. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI. PMID:16854356

  4. Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a continent-continent collisional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    When continents collide, can the orogenic crust be thickened by the process of wholesale underthrusting of the descending plate (Zhou & Murphy, 2005)? Actually, thick lithospheric plates collide after complete subduction of the oceanic plate in between. Thus, the role of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate must be considered to answer this question. As the descending plate, especially its former near-surface region, significantly dehydrates, the hydration of this mantle portion was studied. For this reason, pressure (P) - temperature (T) and T- H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLEX (Connolly, 2005). These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. It can be easily recognized from the produced graphs that considerable amounts of amphibole and chlorite can result from addition of some water to the dry ultrabasite. In the P-range 8 to 15 kbar, a maximum of nearly 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite forms when only 1.5 wt.% H2O is added at temperatures up to 700C. This amount of chlorite continuously disappears with rising temperatures up to 800C and somewhat more. In the given P-range, serpentine forms only below 600C and H2O contents >2 wt.% added. For example, at 550C and 5 wt.% H2O hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine, 10 vol.% of each chlorite and amphibole and very little biotite in the studied ultrabasite. As the hydration of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate would change its rheological properties, the following geodynamic scenario is conceivable: The tip of the descending continental plate hydrates this mantle portion and weakens it. This allows the buoyant tip of this plate to penetrate the lithospheric mantle close to the interface of mantle and overlying crust. As the dehydration of the penetrating continental crust continues by heating, the hydration and weakening of the mantle is also ongoing to cause a significant penetration and, thus, a wholesale thrusting of the descending plate under the other continental plate, eventually with a thin hydrated mantle region in between. For example, pelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of continental crust, can release about 2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 to 650C at 10-15 kbar (e.g. Massonne et al., 2013). A pile of 3 km of such rocks extending over 300 km perpendicular to the initial orogenic front could supply so much water to produce a 500 m thick weak zone in the mantle with about 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite over 3000 km. The termination of the underthrust process can be caused by heating of the frontal portion of the underthrust plate to 650C and more, which is then not anymore capable to hydrate the lithospheric mantle. Connolly, J.A.D., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 236, 524-541. Massonne, H.-J. et al., 2013. Lithos 156-159, 171-185. Zhou, H.-W. & Murphy, M.A., 2005. J. Asian Earth Sci. 25, 445-457

  5. Tectonically buried continent/ocean boundary, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A seismic-reflection sequence observed at depth beneath the south flank of the Benton Uplift in Arkansas is interpreted to mark the early Paleozoic continent/ocean boundary. The sequence is similar in both external and internal geometry to wedge-shaped features commonly observed in the narrow zone separating continental from oceanic basement on modern passive margins and interpreted as layered volcanic sequences. It is suggested that slope and rise sediments now exposed in the Benton Uplift were thrust in a thin-skinned fashion over the edge of the North American continent during initial stages of the Carboniferous Ouachita orogeny, but that later uplift and slight northward translation of the continental margin basement occurred in a more thick-skinned fashion, preserving the boundary wedge intact beneath the earlier thrust sheets. *Present address: Department of Geology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331

  6. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent: focus on CYP450.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Countries in Africa have a high burden of communicable disease, and are experiencing an increase in noncommunicable diseases due to the effects of globalization, industrialization and urbanization. The costs incurred through adverse drug reactions and nonresponsiveness to therapy further aggravates the situation, and the application of pharmacogenetic principles is likely to provide some relief. Having undertaken an extensive evaluation of CYP450 reports in Africa, our objective was to map out areas of need based on regional disease burdens. The data confirms a paucity of CYP450 reports and illustrates large regions for which no population information exists. There is a dire need to address the health problems of Africa, and wide-scale pharmacogenetic profiling of these populations will add significantly to improving patient care on the continent. Priority pharmacogenetics for the African continent gives precedence to the profiling of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers, and defines the immediate need in the context of disease burden. PMID:24533717

  7. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  8. Commissioning continence services--turning policy into action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sue

    2004-05-18

    Incontinence of urine and faeces is a major issue in health care today. The financial cost is enormous with the NHS purchasing an annual 80 m Pounds worth of absorbent products alone (Euromonitor, 1999). But the financial cost is only part of the equation. Incontinence also has a considerable impact on the quality of life of those who experience it. The nature and impact on quality of life varies among individuals. However, where expert services are available cure rates can exceed 50 per cent (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). This suggests that specialist continence services have a vital role to play in helping patients improve their incontinence or manage their continence problems more effectively. PMID:15176280

  9. Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

  10. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  11. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2014-06-01

    Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive extremes (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative extremes (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role for the overall impact of GPP extremes compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across continents indicates that most negative extremes in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas extreme temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  12. Diurnal Variability and Kelvin Wave Propagation Through Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.; Baranowski, D. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Matthews, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 10 year series of the equatorial Kelvin waves obtained from the analysis of TRMM precipitation were examined to evaluate the impact of the diurnal variability of convection on the wave propagation through Maritime Continent. The convection in the Kelvin waves appears to be strongly phase locked in the area of the Maritime continent with the pronounced afternoon maximum. The diurnal phase locking is also evident as Kelvin waves propagate trough the Indian Ocean basin, suggesting that at least some Kelvin waves in this area are forced by the diurnally varying heat source related either to the convection over the land such as Eastern Africa or Madagascar, or over ocean areas with the high SST variability. We examine the hypothesis that the "matching" of the convective phase of the waves with the afternoon maximum of convection over Sumatra influences the wave strength after it crosses the Maritime Continent and can contribute to MJO propagation. The observational results based on observed Kelvin waves are supported by the results of the shallow water model of the interaction of the dry Kelvin wave with the diurnally oscillating heat source.

  13. Residual topography and lithospheric structure of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, I.; Baranov, A.; Danesi, S.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    Antarctica has been the subject of considerable interest in the past few years, following the International Polar Year. The structure of its crust at a continental scale is however still known with large uncertainty. A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (AntMoho), merging copious information from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data has been analyzed: mostly seismic experiments, as well as receiver functions and geological studies, ranging from DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent seismic receiver function studies. AntMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography. Residual topography is obtained by removing the isostatic contribution of the crust from the observed topography. Long-wavelength residual topography is interpreted as dynamic response to large scale mantle convection and density contrasts. Our calculations show that significantly different inferences on lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics may result from the variance in Moho depth recorded in the different models. A better knowledge of Moho depth and, more generally, crustal structure for Antarctica at a continent scale is a goal with likely consequences for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

  14. Comparative estimate of volcanism intensity on continents and in oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Ronov, A.B.; Khain, V.E.; Balukhovskii, A.N.

    1980-12-01

    A quantitative estimate of the volume of volcanogenic rocks and the volcanism intensity during different stages in the Earth's development indicates that the total volume of the tholeiitic basalts of Layer II of the oceans exceeds by 20 times that of the synchronous late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics of the continents and is almost 5 times greater than the volume of the volcanogenic rocks of the entire Phanerozoic sequence of the continents. The absolute maxima of volcanism, determined on the basis of the area and volume of the corresponding volcanics, belong to the Late Cretaceous and Miocene intervals. Changes in the volcanic eruption areas took place synchronously in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The volcanism intensity, expressed in the volume of its products in km/sup 3/ per m.y., increases in the oceans from Late Jurassic to Pliocene time. During the Riphean and Vendian intervals, the volcanism intensity on the continents remained at an extremely low level, then increased during early Paleozoic time, and underwent a marked jump, beginning in the Devonian Period. Since Late Jurassic time, the intensity of global volcanism increased unusually sharply and reached its culmination during Neogene time.

  15. A comparison of bladder neck preservation and bladder neck reconstruction for urinary incontinence after radical retro pubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Honarmand, Ramin; Khorrami, Mohammad Hataf; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and will include about 30% of all malignancies in men. Since the initial report of the anatomic radical prostatectomy, refinements in the surgical technique have been made. Several studies show that bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy makes improve early return of urinary continence, erectile function or both. However, some clinical trials have suggested little difference between the return of continence while using modifications. In this study, we compared outcomes of BNP and bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 60 patients at a referral university hospital from March 2010 to March 2012. Study population was all patients candidate for RRP (RRP in this period. All patients divided into two groups, A and B (30 patients in each group). Group A (n = 30) who preserved bladder neck (BNP) and Group B (n = 30) who had BNR. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) before and at 2, 6, 9, 12 and18 months after surgery, anastomotic stricture symptoms, positive bladder neck margin, Gleason score and urine incontinence were compared between two groups. Also, we compared bladder neck contracture, urinary continence and positive surgical margin rates after BNP and BNR while retropubic prostatectomy in 24 months period follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.81 7.15 years (range, 50-74 years). After a follow-up period of 24 months, the PSA rising was not different between the two groups. After 2 months, 19 (63.33%) of patients in A group and the same number in B group were continent (P = 0.78). Stricture of the bladder neck at the anastomosis site requiring transurethral dilation occurred in 7 (23.33%) and 3 (10.0%) patients in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Although there was no difference in prevalence and duration of return of urinary continence after the operation between two groups, but results of our study showed that stenosis of the bladder neck was lower in BNP. Hence in the group of BNP, need for further operation and overflow incontinency due to the obstruction of urinary tract will be less likely than BNR and patients have better long time (24 months) urinary continence. PMID:25709654

  16. Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

  17. Short bowel syndrome after continence-preserving procedures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jon S; Gilroy, Richard; Sudan, Debra

    2008-01-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) can result from a variety of conditions, including postoperative complications and malignancy. Continence-preserving operations are generally performed for either ulcerative colitis (UC) or familial polyposis (FAP). These procedures can be associated with high morbidity and the potential for future malignancy. Our aim was to determine the causes and consequences of SBS in patients undergoing these procedures. Twenty-four patients (12 men and 12 women) 18 to 64 years of age were identified with SBS after continence-preserving procedures. Eighteen had pelvic procedures, and six had continent ileostomies. All SBS patients had a proximal ostomy. Remnant length measured <60 cm in five patients, 60-120 cm in ten patients, and >120 cm in nine patients. Overall 13 patients required long-term PN. Four FAP patients with desmoid tumors died. One patient with UC underwent intestinal transplant and expired. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 192 months. Overall 14 patients had UC, nine had FAP, and one had functional disease. Eight patients with an initial diagnosis of UC had subsequent Crohn's disease necessitating further resection and pouch excision. Eight patients (five with UC, two FAP, and one with functional disease) had postoperative complications, including obstruction or mesenteric ischemia requiring resections. One UC patient developed adenocarcinoma in a continent ileostomy. Seven of the nine FAP patients required resection for desmoid tumors. Six of these underwent resection alone. Three died at 10, 11, and 13 months after SBS from liver failure and sepsis while awaiting transplant. One patient has recurrent desmoid at 30 months, another is alive and well at 48 months, and the other patient, who was not a transplant candidate, died from an unrelated cardiac operation at 23 months. A single patient underwent resection with simultaneous multivisceral transplantation. SBS can develop after continence-preserving procedures. This occurs with inflammatory bowel disease when unsuspected Crohn's disease is present or complications occur. SBS related to desmoid tumors has a poor prognosis in patients undergoing resection alone. A more aggressive approach to intestinal transplantation in these patients may be warranted. PMID:17968630

  18. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Urans, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent. PMID:7924599

  19. Urinary Incontinence and Levels of Regular Physical Exercise in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Da Roza, T; Brando, S; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R N; Duarte, J A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different levels of regular physical exercise on the frequency of urinary incontinence in young nulliparous women from the northern region of Portugal. Participants (n=386) self-reported demographic variables, frequency, and time spent practicing organized exercise per week, as well as completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. The level of exercise was calculated based on the time (in minutes) usually spent per week in organized exercise. 19.9% of Portuguese nulliparous women reported incontinence symptoms. Considering the distribution of urinary incontinence among the different quartiles of organized exercise, women from the 4(th)quartile (those who train for competitive purposes) demonstrated highest relative frequency (p=0.000) and a 2.53 greater relative risk to develop (95% CIs,1.3-2.7) incontinence compared to women from the 1(st) quartile (inactive). Women who practice exercise for recreational purposes (2(nd) and 3(rd) quartiles) did not show significant differences in the urinary incontinence prevalence and relative risk of developing it compared to women from the 1(st) quartile. The results showed that women participating in organized exercise involving high volume training for competition are potentially at risk of developing urinary incontinence, although organized exercise undertaken without the intent to compete seems to be safe for maintaining urinary continence. PMID:25875315

  20. [Urinary incontinence and prolapse. Medical treatment and functional treatment].

    PubMed

    Galaup, J P

    1990-10-01

    Urinary continence implies that the variations of the vesical pressure does not exceed the capacities of the cervico-urethral closure system. The aim of the various methods of treatment is to have a beneficial action on those two parameters: drug therapy will mainly reduce the intra-vesical pressure (parasympatholytics...) and also improve the urethral tone (alpha-adrenergics...), or have a mixed effect on both systems (tricyclic antidepressants, oestrogens...). The side effects are often numerous due to the impact on the vegetative or neuromuscular system. The re-education is complemented by: local and general kinesitherapy, sensorial retrocontrol, associated or not to electrotherapy. Motivation and active participation of the patient are essential. The indications covers all the various pathologies (perineal insufficiency, defects in the body pattern, prolapse, sphincteral insufficiency, transmission problems, vesical instability, urethral instability) and concerns patients of all age groups. PMID:2263830

  1. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care

  2. Implementation of clinical guidelines for female urinary incontinence: a comparative analysis of organizational structures and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Knight, Ruth; Procter, Susan

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore and compare the development of continence services in two contrasting trusts. The first was a community trust which had initiated a top-down purchaser-led continence service. The second was a combined acute and community trust which had introduced a bottom-up, organic continence service based on staff development. The research used a qualitative, interpretative design. Evidence-based guidelines for female urinary incontinence (FUI) were analysed and key organizational features elicited. These were used to frame and analyse 20 semi-structured interviews with a range of community-based professionals who provided a service to women suffering from urinary incontinence. The interviews identified practitioner knowledge and awareness of the evidence pertaining to the management and treatment of FUI and also the features of the organizational structure of service provision in their locality which facilitated or constrained the implementation of evidence-based treatment in this area. The findings suggest that evidence-based guidelines were more closely adhered to in practice, in the trust using organic approaches to service development. Top-down, purchaser led approaches were more prescriptive and circumscribed the scope of professional practice. This adversely affected access to services for women suffering from urinary incontinence. Organic approaches to service development produce more flexible, responsive services. It is difficult, however, to integrate this approach with strategic planning as the flexibility required maybe incompatible with managerial responsibilities for defining roles and organizational functions. PMID:11560644

  3. Components of the Urinary System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  4. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 57 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ?104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  5. Catchment sediment yield in Africa: a continent-wide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Broeckx, Jente; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    While several studies compiled and analyzed measured contemporary catchment sediment yield (SY, [t/km²/y]) values for various regions of the world, Africa remains strongly underrepresented in these studies. We therefore conducted a review on published SY data for Africa, explored the spatial variability of these SY data and examined which environmental factors explain this variability. We collected SY measurements of at least one year for 682 African catchments across the continent (> 8340 catchment-years) from 84 publications and reports. Catchment areas range from 0.02 km² to > 3,800,000 km². Observed SY values range between 0.2 and 15,699 t/km²/y (median: 160 t/km²/y, average: 634 t/km²/y). Correlation and partial correlation analyses showed that spatial variation of SY in Africa is mainly explained by differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. Other factors such as lithology, catchment area or reservoir impacts showed less clear correlations. Based on these findings we propose a simple regression model that allows simulating the observed regional patterns of SY in Africa fairly well. This model predicts an average SY of 42 t/km²/y for the entire African continent, a value that corresponds closely to earlier estimates of the sediment output of the African continent to the oceans. The fact that SY shows the strongest correlation with seismic activity, while climatic variables explain little of the observed variation can be considered surprising as Africa is relatively inactive in terms of seismic activity and is characterized by a very large climatic variability. This suggests that processes such as tectonically related rock-fracturing and earthquake-triggered landslides may have a stronger influence on contemporary SY-values than previously assumed.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Related to Parturition-Induced Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guiting; Shindel, Alan W.; Banie, Lia; Deng, Donna; Wang, Guifang; Hayashi, Narihiko; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms underlying stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at the tissue level are poorly understood. Objective To study genetic and molecular alterations in the urethra of animals with experimentally induced SUI. Design/Setting/Participants Cohort analysis of primiparous 2-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats with experimentally induced SUI versus those who did not develop SUI in a university research laboratory setting Intervention Within 24 h of parturition, rats underwent intravaginal balloon dilation and bilateral ovariectomy. Transvesical cystometry was performed 12 wk after parturition. Rats were classified as continent (C) or incontinent (I) according to the results of cystometry. Measurements The expression of over 22,000 genes in urethral tissue from the two groups was assessed with the use of an oligo microarray. The expression of relevant genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of small mothers against decapentaplegic 2 (Smad2), one of the differentially expressed genes, was extensively studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Regulation of Smad2 activity by transforming growth factor-? (Tgf-?) was assessed in cultured urethral smooth muscle cells (USMCs). Results & Limitations After intervention, 14 (58.3%) rats remained continent and 10 (41.7%) became incontinent. There were significant differences in the expression of 42 urethral genes between continent and incontinent rats. The expression of genes involved in the TGF cellular signaling pathway (Smad2), collagen breakdown (matrix metalloproteinase 13 [Mmp13]), and smooth muscle inhibition (regulator of G-protein signaling 2 [Rgs2]) was significantly increased in the incontinent group. Smad2 protein expression was significantly upregulated in the incontinent rats. In cultured USMCs, Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation increased after Tgf-? treatment. Conclusions Genes important in inflammation, collagen breakdown, and smooth muscle inhibition are upregulated in the urethras of female rats with parturition-associated incontinence. PMID:18372098

  7. Currents in the mantle and the geology of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. Tuzo

    1991-02-01

    This paper is the first of a series which have considered the possible effects of currents in the mantle upon continents. It mentions effects of aging in oceans upon the direction of slope of coastal peneplains. When oceans are young the coasts are cliffs from which peneplains dip downward on the inland side. As the margins separate from the ridge they cool and the slopes reverse. It suggests how Jeffreys' arguments against convection currents breaking the lithosphere can be avoided and discusses the possibility that upwelling has penetrated beneath the southwestern United States.

  8. MAGSAT and aeromagnetic data in the North American continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American continent for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.

  9. Exploring the dark continent with fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkwright, John W.; Wang, David Hsiao-Chuan; Maunder, Simon A.; Blenman, Neil G.; Underhill, Ian; Patton, Vicki; Dinning, Phil G.

    2014-05-01

    The lower gastrointestinal tract has been referred to as the `Dark Continent' of the human body because it is so hard to access without resorting to a surgeon's blade. In response to an unmet clinical need we have developed a fibre optic manometry catheter that is now in clinical use across Australia and New Zealand. The unparalleled detail of colonic activity that these devices provide is being hailed as ground breaking by global experts. In this paper we present the design and clinical application of the catheters, and also some of the (sometimes surprising) requirements of our clinical colleagues.

  10. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  11. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  12. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  13. Rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group Rickettsia on three continents.

    PubMed

    Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John

    2003-06-01

    Rickettsia honei (also known as strain TT-118) has been detected on three continents. Originally isolated in Thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on Flinders Island (Australia) in 1993 and in Texas (USA) in 1998. On each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. The original isolate (Thai Tick Typhus strain TT-118) was from a pool of larval Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks. Later it was detected in I. granulatus from Rattus rattus. Its pathogenicity for humans has not yet been confirmed in Thailand, but it is possibly responsible for the Spotted Fever Group human rickettsiosis in Thailand. The strain from Texas (USA) was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense ticks taken from cattle. Its pathogenicity for humans has not yet been confirmed in Texas. However, this tick is known to bite humans. The strain from Flinders Island (Australia) described as R. honei, has been isolated from patients with "Flinders Island Spotted Fever" and from Aponomma hydrosauri ticks taken from blue-tongue lizards (Tiliqua nigrolutea), tiger snakes (Notechis ater humphreysi), and copperhead snakes (Austrelaps superbus) on Flinders Island. The ecology of R. honei in this location is unusual in that reptiles, rather than mammals, are the vertebrate hosts. PMID:12860601

  14. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  15. Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-Continent as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-Continent, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.

  16. Treatment of continence in people with learning disabilities: 3.

    PubMed

    Stanley, R

    Behaviourism is a model of intervention for people with a learning disability which focuses on observable behaviour and methods of changing it. The behaviourist strategies do not typically place high value on some of the diagnostic labels that have been considered in the first two articles of this series (Vol 5(6): 364-8; Vol 5(8): 492-8). Rather, the behaviourist is concerned with the behaviours a particular individual shows. Behaviour modification is a particular methodology within psychotherapy that has many interpretations, ranging from a rigid orthodoxy through to an eclectic ecumenicism of theoretical models. The third article in this series on the management of continence in people with a learning disability examines the behavioural strategies that have been historically and are currently available to practitioners. The legacy of behaviour modification (1970s style) means that staff do sometimes perceive such strategies as treatment, whereas in fact the treatment is a combination of designing the environment, designing individual programmes and designing specific ways of developing more valuing forms of continence management. PMID:9015995

  17. The place of science in a continent at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Koech, D K

    2001-01-01

    I have mentioned it before and I want to repeat it now, that we in Africa share a common history, heritage and basic problems of development. We, therefore, have an inescapable responsibility of pooling our talents and resources in shaping our common destiny. In fulfillment of its mission, AFHES, through its organized con notgresses and this Journal, is an invaluable vessel for enabling us to promote better health for the peoples of this continent. Africa is a continent endowed with great potential that, for one reason or an notother, has been ignored or misused, resulting in the current crisis now enveloping the continent. There is the escalating debt burden, falling agricultural productivity and the ever-increasing population. Efforts to improve the situation are hampered by adverse factors such as malnutrition, HTV/AIDS, malaria and other causes of ill health; wars, poor environmental management and the ever-worrisome problem of refugees. At the sunrise of the 21st Century, we must wake up and reverse the current trend by focusing our resources on priority areas of development. The fight for freedom from the yoke of colonialism and the traumatic experience of apartheid has been won. In some African countries, however, the winning of the fight for freedom has opened up a new fight, a fight that is more fierce and bloody than that which set us free. These include civil strife and internecine wars giving rise to a new black Diaspora, which is far greater than the one experienced during the period of slavery and slave trade. People supposed to build these nations have either been killed or forced into exile. Those intellectually endowed have sought refuge in safer and economically developed countries and, by the same process, also weaken the al notready weak economies of their mother countries. They have, therefore, helped to strengthen the already strong economies of the developed nations. This is indeed, a sad situation that poses a formidable challenge to the future well being of the conti notnent. Civil strife has resulted in the increased numbers of displaced persons and has caused a big setback in the fight against diseases and causes of ill health. In addition, there are new challenges created by emergence of new infections, re-emergence of diseases that had been put under control; and the changing epidemiological patterns and manifestations of existing diseases. Since disease and ill health know no bound notary, we must all be prepared to find solutions to diseases and causes of ill health that continuously haunt this continent. As health experts, we are concerned. We should not be responding to health emergencies occasioned by civil strife. We need peace as it will guarantee not only freedom and personal security, but it will also guarantee our future and the future of those to come after us. We are well aware that as is the case with developed nations, the development of our continent rests on the utilization of research findings, which must be useful, contextual and must stand the test of time. This is our mission and our hope. Africa is at the crossroads. We must not despair or quit, lest we become irrel notevant both to ourselves and to the rest of mankind. Let African governments give science a chance. As I have said several times before and I am still saying it now, quitters never win and winners never quit. We have no alternative but to be winners! PMID:17650041

  18. Self-consistent formation of continents on early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of continents on Earth. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-continents after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that continents can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.

  19. Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidative Status

    PubMed Central

    Ilyasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

  20. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Stroke and brain tumor are well-known brain diseases. The incidence of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in these patients ranges from 14% to 53%, mostly overactive bladder (OAB), and is higher when the frontal cortex is involved. This presumably reflects damage at the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and other areas that regulate (mainly inhibit) the micturition reflex. White-matter disease (WMD) is a chronic, bilateral form of cerebrovascular disease, leading to a high prevalence of OAB (up to 90%). Since WMD is particularly common in the elderly, WMD may be one of the anatomic substrates for elderly OAB. Traumatic brain injury and normal-pressure hydrocephalus are rather diffuse brain diseases, which cause OAB with a prevalence rate of 60-95%. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between LUTD and the frontal cortex in these diseases. Data on other brain diseases, particularly affecting deep brain structures, are limited. Small infarctions, tumors, or inflammatory diseases affecting the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and cerebellum lead to mainly OAB. In contrast, similar diseases affecting the brainstem lead to either OAB or urinary retention. The latter reflects damage at the periaqueductal gray and the pontine micturition center that directly relay and modulate the micturition reflex. Urinary incontinence (UI) in brain disease can be divided into two types: neurogenic UI (due to OAB) and functional UI (immobility and loss of initiative/cognition). These two types of UI may occur together, but management differs significantly. Management of neurogenic UI includes anticholinergic drugs that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier easily. Management of functional UI includes behavioral therapy (timed/prompted voiding with physical assistance and bladder/pelvic floor training) and drugs to treat gait as well as cognition that facilitate continence. These treatments will maximize the quality of life in patients with brain diseases. PMID:26003249

  1. [Magnetic urethral closure device. Negative outcome after implantation for the treatment of female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Anding, R; van Ahlen, H; Mller, S C; Latz, S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a negative outcome after implantation of a magnetic urethral closure device, consisting of one part screwed into the pubic bone and one part as a vaginal cone, for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence gradeIII. Continence was never achieved for the patient. The urethra narrowed over time due to erosion and scarring and the patient started intermittent catheterization, because spontaneous micturition was not possible. The magnet was broken, the bladder neck was eroded, several fragments were found in the bladder, and numerous fragments were scattered throughout the small pelvis. Surgery consisted of removing most of the fragments, followed by bladder neck closure and suprapubic diversion. PMID:25989875

  2. Nightly sildenafil use after radical prostatectomy has adverse effects on urinary convalescence: Results from a randomized trial of nightly vs on-demand dosing regimens

    PubMed Central

    Hyndman, Matthew Eric; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Mettee, Lynda Z.; Su, Li-Ming; Trock, Bruce J.; Pavlovich, Christian P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a report on urinary function results from a randomized trial of nightly versus on-demand sildenafil after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP), a secondary objective. We analyzed the effects of these sildenafil administration schemes on urinary health-related quality of life after RP. Methods: In total, 100 potent men were equally randomized to nightly and on-demand sildenafil 50 mg after minimally-invasive RP for 1 year. Health-related quality of life questionnaires were administered at various postoperative intervals. Urinary function was assessed using appropriate expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC) subscales. Analyses of covariance and linear mixed-effects modeling were used to compare the effects of treatment over time on urinary recovery, controlling for age, nerve-sparing score, and time from surgery. Results: The nightly (n = 50) and on-demand (n = 50) sildenafil groups were well-matched at baseline. Nightly sildenafil patients had worse EPIC urinary bother and urinary irritative/obstructive subscale scores at 3 and 6 months after RP, even after controlling for multiple variables. On mixed-model analyses, the differences between groups for these EPIC subscales (4.9 and 2.5, respectively) were greater than documented thresholds for clinical significance. Increasing nerve-sparing score was associated with improvements in EPIC urinary summary, bother, incontinence, and function scores; time from surgery was associated with improvements in all EPIC urinary health-related quality of life subscales. Conclusions: In this specific population and drug dose, we found that on-demand short-acting phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) dosing may be more effective after RP to maximize early urinary health-related quality of life. In preoperatively potent men, nightly sildenafil 50 mg impaired urinary health-related quality of life more than on-demand use in the early months after nerve-sparing RP, independent of effects on urinary continence. PMID:26788231

  3. Simulation of active tectonic processes for a convecting mantle with moving continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.; Kaban, M.; Mooney, W.; Reigber, C.; Schwintzer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models are presented that simulate several active tectonic processes. These models include a continent that is thermally and mechanically coupled with viscous mantle flow. The assumption of rigid continents allows use of solid body equations to describe the continents' motion and to calculate their velocities. The starting point is a quasi-steady state model of mantle convection with temperature/ pressure-dependent viscosity. After placing a continent on top of the mantle, the convection pattern changes. The mantle flow subsequently passes through several stages, eventually resembling the mantle structure under present-day continents: (a) Extension tectonics and marginal basins form on boundary of a continent approaching to subduction zone, roll back of subduction takes place in front of moving continent; (b) The continent reaches the subduction zone, the extension regime at the continental edge is replaced by strong compression. The roll back of the subduction zone still continues after closure of the marginal basin and the continent moves towards the upwelling. As a result the ocean becomes non-symmetric and (c) The continent overrides the upwelling and subduction in its classical form stops. The third stage appears only in the upper mantle model with localized upwellings. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  4. OxyContin as Currency: OxyContin Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  5. Vaginal delivery following single incision sling (TVT-Secur) for female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Di Carlo, Costantino; Formisano, Carmen; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence has become minimally invasive owing to the introduction of the transobturator route first and then single incision devices for positioning of mid-urethral slings. Although a number of case reports in the literature describe pregnancies successfully terminated both by vaginal delivery and cesarean section following mid-urethral sling positioning, there is still no definitive consensus on which is the preferred mode of delivery in these patients. We report a case of spontaneous vaginal delivery at term in a 41-year-old multiparous woman two years after the positioning of a single incision sling (TVT-Secur). The patient remained continent throughout the gestation and in the following 24?months. This case seems to further support the concept that sling procedures for stress urinary incontinence do not represent an absolute contraindication to spontaneous vaginal delivery, although the preferred mode of delivery must be assessed on an individual basis. PMID:22925452

  6. Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle with implications ranging, inter alia, from water management to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological models or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African continent using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African continent spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5 spatial resolution when averaged over the defined regions. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. In some regions, the satellite-based products (GLEAM and MOD16) show a different seasonal behaviour compared to the other products. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the suitability and the differences between products in each climatic region. Through an improved understanding of the causes of differences between these products and their uncertainty, this study provides information to improve the quality of evaporation products for the African continent and, consequently, leads to improved water resources assessments at regional scale.

  7. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (δ(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, δ(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (δ(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF δ(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of δ(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593

  8. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery- ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, ...

  9. Dysfunction of the continent ileostomy: clinical features and bacteriology.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, D G; Phillips, S F; Kelly, K A; Weinstein, W M; Gilchrist, M J

    1983-01-01

    The pathogenesis and treatment of dysfunction of the continent ileostomy was investigated in 12 patients, five of whom had asymptomatic malabsorption and seven of whom had acute complaints. The number of anaerobic bacteria in jejunal aspirates was increased in patients with pouch malfunction (range 10(3) to 10(8)/g aspirate), but the microbiology of ileal effluent and the morphology of the ileal mucosa could not be correlated with dysfunction. Bile acid breath tests and lactose tolerance tests were not, however, reliable indicators of jejunal bacterial overgrowth. The symptoms, the malabsorption, and the number of jejunal and ileal anaerobic bacteria decreased in patients during treatment with metronidazole, implicating overgrowth of anaerobic bacterial flora in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6826102

  10. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their last appearance datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacialinterglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  11. Was Cambrian explosion the result of wandering continents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    An ancient, colossal burst in the diversity of life may be attributable to an equally colossal shift in the distribution of Earth's land masses, researchers from the California Institute of Technology have proposed. Using paleontologic, geochemical, and geomagnetic data, magnetogeobiologist Joseph Kirschvink and colleagues have theorized that the Cambrian Explosion of lifea period about 500 million years ago when new types of plants and animals emerged at a rate 20 times the normal evolutionary ratemay have been caused by dramatic changes in the positions of Earth's continents.Life diversified like crazy about half a billion years ago, and nobody really knows why, said Kirschvink. It began 530 million years ago, and about 15 million years later life's diversity had stabilized at much higher levels. What actually happened is one of the outstanding mysteries of the biosphere.

  12. Convergent structure of multitrophic communities over three continents.

    PubMed

    Segar, Simon T; Pereira, Rodrigo A S; Compton, Steve G; Cook, James M

    2013-12-01

    Ecological theory predicts that communities using the same resources should have similar structure, but evolutionary constraints on colonisation and niche shifts may hamper such convergence. Multitrophic communities of wasps exploiting fig fruits, which first evolved about 75MYA, do not show long-term 'inheritance' of taxonomic (lineage) composition or species diversity. However, communities on three continents have converged ecologically in the presence and relative abundance of five insect guilds that we define. Some taxa fill the same niches in each community (phylogenetic niche conservatism). However, we show that overall convergence in ecological community structure depends also on a combination of niche shifts by resident lineages and local colonisations of figs by other insect lineages. Our study explores new ground, and develops new heuristic tools, in combining ecology and phylogeny to address patterns in the complex multitrophic communities of insect on plants, which comprise a large part of terrestrial biodiversity. PMID:24134201

  13. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  14. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Snchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Cline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsne; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  15. Mapping the Western Boundary of the North American Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Kocon, K.; Okeler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Despite progress in understanding the tectonic history of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), the characteristics of mantle fabric/flow and the definition of the tectonic boundary between cratons (east/northeast) and terranes (west) remain poorly understood due to limited data coverage. In this study we present greatly improved constraints on the mantle lithosphere using data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta NEtwork (CRANE), a newly installed broadband array in southern-central Alberta and parts of Saskatchewan. The SKS splitting parameters determined from multiple Mw>6.5 earthquakes are well correlated for stations in the vicinity of the Canadian Rockies. A northeast-southwest trending fast direction is consistent with the present-day absolute plate motion, and is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress. In contrast, substantially lower splitting times and northwest-southeast fast-splitting orientations are observed beneath eastern-central Alberta, a region characterized by enhanced heat-flow and below-average seismic velocities. The anomalous shear-wave splitting patterns could be the mantle expression of a hidden tectonic boundary between stable continent and accreted terranes. Base on this hypothesis, streamlined mantle flow around the edges of moving continental `keels' could induce strong north-south oriented horizontal strain. Geometrical imperfections such as a divot or an abandoned plume conduit on the continental root could cause further disruptions to the mantle flow beneath this region, giving rise to both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. While the mantle flow pattern beneath the entire WCSB remain debatable, the sharp change in splitting parameters across central Alberta could mark the western edge of the North American continent.

  16. Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-continents, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-continents also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.

  17. Moho depth and residual topography of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Alexey; Molinari, Irene; Morelli, Andrea; Danesi, Stefania

    2013-04-01

    A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (ANTMoho), merging information retrieved from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data have been analyzed: from active seismic prospection,including DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent passive seismic receiver function and geological studies. ANTMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. The oldest Archean and Proterozoic crust of East Antarctica has a thickness of 36-56 km (with an average of about 41 km). The continental crust of the Transantarctic Mountains, the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilkes Basin has a thickness of 30-40 km (with an average Moho of about 30 km). The youngest rifted continental crust of the West Antarctic Rift System has a thickness of 16-28 km (with an average Moho of about 26 km). The mean Moho depth of the whole model is 33.8 km. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography -- an indicator of dynamic response to large-scale mantle flow. We adopt the semianalytical methodology implemented in the HC code (developed and maintained by Prof. T. Becker). The spatial resolution is limited by the L=127 of the input model. The Transantarctic Mountains appear not to be isostatically compensated, such as the neighboring Wilkes Subglacial Basin. East Antarctica on a large scale does not show significant uncompensated topography. There are however some smaller-scale residual topography features, that correlate with sub-glacial topography and that may indicate some limitation in resolution or laterally-variable crustal density. Better knowledge of crustal structure is therefore an important tool for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

  18. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Snchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Cline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsne; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 19992008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.012.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.19.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.98.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.57.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 6080% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 26 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.110.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.040.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  19. Diseases of the Equine Urinary System.

    PubMed

    McLeland, Shannon

    2015-08-01

    Uncommon diseases of the equine urinary system span a variety of etiologies and frequently have nonspecific clinical presentations. Because of the infrequency of equine urinary disease and inconsistencies in clinical symptoms, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of urinary disease in this species may be challenging. This article reviews various diseases of the equine urinary system, morphologies, and potential discriminating clinical and clinicopathologic presentations to aid the clinician in determining a definitive diagnosis in practice. PMID:26021521

  20. Integrating yoga therapy in the management of urinary incontinence: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vinchurkar, Suhas Ashok; Arankalle, Dhananjay Vijay

    2015-04-01

    A 63-year-old overweight female prediagnosed of stress urinary incontinence presented with exacerbated events of urine leakage. She was advised a residential lifestyle and behavioral program, primarily consisting of a monitored yoga therapy module, apart from her ongoing anticholinergic medicine, for 21 days. Assessments were based on a frequency volume chart, a bladder diary for the entire duration of treatment, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form questionnaire on the days of admission and discharge. A total of 1.9 kg of weight loss was observed during her stay. Usage of pad, as reported in her diary, reduced from 3 to 1 per day. Her International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form score reduced from 16 to 9, indicating better continence. She expressed subjective well-being and confidence in her social interactions. This is probably the first case report demonstrating feasibility of integration of yoga therapy in the management of urinary incontinence. PMID:25539839

  1. Stones and urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Miano, Roberto; Germani, Stefano; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The term infection stones refers to calculi that occur following urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by urease-producing gram-negative organisms. They consist of magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and monoammonium urate. Alkaline urine is most favorable to their formation. Urinary tract obstruction, neurogenic bladder, voiding dysfunction, temporary or indwelling urinary catheters, distal renal tubular acidosis and medullary sponge kidney are considered the main risk factors for developing infection stones. Urinalysis and urine culture are essential for diagnosis. A typical finding on imaging is a moderately radiopaque, staghorn or branched stone. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone fragments and by eradicating UTI. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches is available. Metaphylactic treatment is mandatory to prevent recurrences. The relationship between urinary stones and UTIs is well known and shows two different clinical pictures: (1) stones that develop following UTIs (infection stones) which play a key role in stone pathogenesis, and (2) stones complicated by UTIs (stones with infection) which are metabolic stones that passively trap bacteria from coexistent UTIs and may consist of calcium or non-calcium. This article presents an overview of infection stones, analyzing the epidemiology, composition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this type of calculi. PMID:17726350

  2. Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj

    2012-04-01

    Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis. PMID:22919142

  3. Mullerianosis of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj

    2012-01-01

    Mullerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis. PMID:22919142

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, Jos; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  5. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, Jos; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  6. Recent Aeromagnetic Anomaly views of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.

    2012-04-01

    Antarctica is a keystone within the Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents. However, despite intense geological research along the coastal fringes of Antarctica, the interior of the continent remains one of the most poorly understood regions on Earth. Aeromagnetic investigations are a useful tool to help disclose the structure and the evolution of continents from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic and Antarctica is no exception. Here I review a variety of aeromagnetic studies in East and West Antarctica performed since the completion of the first generation ADMAP -Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project- in 2001. In western Dronning Maud, in East Antarctica, aeromagnetic data help delineate the extent of the Jurassic Jutulstraumen subglacial rift that is flanked by remnants of a Grenvillian-age (ca 1.1. Ga) igneous province and magmatic arc. Different magnetic signatures appear to characterize the Coats Land block but reconnaissance surveys are insufficient to fully delineate the extent and significance of the Coats Land block, a possible tectonic tracer of Laurentia within Rodinia (Loewy et al., 2011). Further in the interior of East Antarctica, a mosaic of distinct and hitherto largely unknown Precambrian provinces has recently been revealed by combining aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data with models of crustal thickness constrained by gravity modeling and seismology (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major collisional suture may lie between the Archean Ruker Province and an inferred Proterozoic Gamburtsev Province but the age of final assembly of central East Antarctica remains uncertain and controversial. I favour a Grenville-age collisional event (linked to Rodinia assembly) or possibly older Paleoproteroic collision, followed by intraplate reactivation, as opposed to Neoproterozoic or Early Cambrian collision linked to East-West Gondwana assembly (Boger, 2011). New aerogeophysical surveys over Prince Elizabeth and Queen Mary Land could test this hypothesis further and contribute towards understanding the role that the inherited Precambrian architecture exerted on the location and development of the East Antarctic Rift System, which was active both before and during Gondwana break-up. Over Wilkes Land, aeromagnetic data offer tantalizing new glimpses into the extent of Precambrian basement provinces that have been extensively studied in formerly adjacent Australia. An over 1,900 km long magnetic low is traced from a new magnetic anomaly compilation along the margin of the Archean-Proterozoic Mawson continent, and is interpreted as delineating part of a Neoproterozoic rift system that heralded Rodinia break-up. Aeromagnetic data are also helping in deciphering Phanerozoic crustal growth along the paleo-Pacific active margin of Gondwana. In northern Victoria Land aeromagnetic anomaly interpretation, coupled with geochemical and structural observations is clarifying the architecture and evolution of Cambro-Ordovician terranes that were affected by the Ross Orogen. In the Antarctic Peninsula aeromagnetic and aerogravity data suggest the existence of several distinct arc provinces that may have docked against the Gondwana margin during the Cretaceous age Palmer Land event. Aeromagnetic interpretation over the West Antarctic ice sheet provides new insights into the extent of Cenozoic magmatism and rift basins within the West Antarctic Rift System and into the inland extent of the Jurassic Weddell Sea Rift

  7. GOCE observations for Mineral exploration in Africa and across continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The gravity anomaly field over the whole Earth obtained by the GOCE satellite is a revolutionary tool to reveal geologic information on a continental scale for the large areas where conventional gravity measurements have yet to be made (e.g. Alvarez et al., 2012). It is, however, necessary to isolate the near-surface geologic signal from the contributions of thickness variations in the crust and lithosphere and the isostatic compensation of surface relief (e.g. Mariani et al., 2013) . Here Africa is studied with particular emphasis on selected geological features which are expected to appear as density inhomogeneities. These include cratons and fold belts in the Precambrian basement, the overlying sedimentary basins and magmatism, as well as the continental margins. Regression analysis between gravity and topography shows coefficients that are consistently positive for the free air gravity anomaly and negative for the Bouguer gravity anomaly (Braitenberg et al., 2013; 2014). The error and scatter on the regression is smallest in oceanic areas, where it is a possible tool for identifying changes in crustal type. The regression analysis allows the large gradient in the Bouguer anomaly signal across continental margins to be removed. After subtracting the predicted effect of known topography from the original Bouguer anomaly field, the residual field shows a continent-wide pattern of anomalies that can be attributed to regional geological structures. A few of these are highlighted, such as those representing Karoo magmatism, the Kibalian foldbelt, the Zimbabwe Craton, the Cameroon and Tibesti volcanic deposits, the Benue Trough and the Luangwa Rift. A reconstruction of the pre-break up position of Africa, South and North America is made for the residual GOCE gravity field obtaining today's gravity field of the plates forming West Gondwana. The reconstruction allows the positive and negative anomalies to be compared across the continental fragments, and so helps identify common geologic units that extend across both the now-separate continents. Tracing the geologic units is important for mineral exploration, which is demonstrated with the analysis of correlations of the gravity signal with selected classes of mineral occurrences, for instance those associated to Greenstone belts. Alvarez, O., Gimenez M., Braitenberg C., Folguera, A. (2012) GOCE Satellite derived Gravity and Gravity gradient corrected for topographic effect in the South Central Andes Region. Geophysical Journal International, 190, 941-959, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05556.x Braitenberg C., Mariani P., De Min A. (2013) The European Alps and nearby orogenic belts sensed by GOCE, Boll. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, doi:10.4430/bgta0105 Braitenberg C. (2014) Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-continents, J.of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (in Review). Mariani P., Braitenberg C., Ussami N. (2013). Explaining the thick crust in Parana' basin, Brazil, with satellite GOCE-gravity observations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 45, 209-223, doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2013.03.008.

  8. A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th and U typically show increases due to their association in clays and oxides in the profile. These geochemical relationships underpin the first model prediction. In the case where no gamma-ray data is available or where the bedrock is very low in radioelements (e.g. basalt, quartz-rich sandstone) surface relief is used as surrogate in the second prediction model. The two models are combined to generate a weathering intensity index of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity index has been developed for erosional landscapes but also provides useful information on deposition processes and materials. The weathering intensity prediction is evaluated with surface geochemistry (compared with geochemical indices) and previous regolith-landform mapping. The use of the weathering intensity index in natural resource management and mineral exploration is discussed.

  9. First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

  10. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  11. Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

    1996-04-15

    Project will develop a prototype for a digital and hard-copy atlas of petroleum fields and reservoirs in the northern Mid-continent region. A limited number of reservoirs in Kansas are to be included in the prototype project, but the goal is to expand beyond the prototype atlas to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, the Williston basin portion of Montana, the Denver-Julesburg basin of eastern Colorado and southeastern Colorado. Primary products of the prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases covering two selected petroleum plays in Kansas. `Pages` and data schema for the first field studies of the atlas have been developed and are accessible through the World-Wide-Web. The atlas structure includes access to geologic, geophysical and production information at levels from the regional, to the field to the individual well. Several approaches have been developed that provide efficient and flexible screening and search procedures. The prototype of the digital atlas is accessible through the Kansas Geological Survey Petroleum Research Section (PRS) HomePage (The Universal Resource Locator [URL] is http://www.kgs. ukans.edu/PRS/PRS.html). The DPA HomePage is available directly at http://www.kg.ukans.edu/DPA/dpaHome.html. Technology transfer is underway through the use of monthly electronic updates and the on- line availability of DPA products. Quarterly Progress Reports are posted on the digital Petroleum Atlas HomePage.

  12. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  13. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Nio years and later MJO phases compared with non El Nio years and earlier MJO phases. During El Nio periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  14. Convective Transport of Trace Gases in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Passage of air through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is the major route for troposphere to stratosphere transport. The UK CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign took place in the West Pacific in January/February 2014. The field campaign was based mainly in Guam (13.5oN, 144.8oE) and had three components: CAST with the NERC FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft; the NASA ATTREX project based around the Global Hawk; the NCAR-led CONTRAST campaign based around the Gulfstream V (HIAPER) aircraft. Together, these aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. The CAST team also made ground-based and ozonesonde measurements at the ARM site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea during February 2014, and halocarbon measurements were made at several West Pacific sites. I will present an overview of the CAST campaign along with the results of high resolution global Unified Model studies and NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) trajectory calculations to look at the transport of air into the TTL in convective systems over the Maritime continent and West Pacific. I will focus on the transport of air from in and around the boundary layer and will assess the possible importance of natural and anthropogenic emissions for TTL composition.

  15. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-10-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  16. The ocean-continent transition of western Iberia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. ); Boillot, G. ); Recq, M. )

    1991-08-01

    The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.

  17. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be 'dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  18. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  19. Major odorants released as urinary volatiles by urinary incontinent patients.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

  20. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

  1. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. December 1976 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in many countries of the world. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning. Population statistics are included for five continents and many countries. Data for the continents include population in 1976, projected population in 2000,

  2. Renal Function Outcomes and Risk Factors for Risk Factors for Stage 3B Chronic Kidney Disease after Urinary Diversion in Patients with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Shingo; Koie, Takuya; Narita, Takuma; Hosogoe, Shogo; Yamamoto, Hayato; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Tohru; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of urinary diversion on renal function, we retrospectively investigated renal function over 5 years after urinary diversion using a propensity score matching strategy. Methods Between May 1996 and November 2013, 345 consecutive adult patients underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in our hospital; one hundred and fifteen patients with more than a 5-year follow-up were enrolled. Propensity scores were calculated using logistic analysis, and the data used in the analyses included age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), clinical tumor stage, presence of cardiovascular disease; hypertension; and type 2 diabetes and preoperative eGFR at the initial visit. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors for stage 3B chronic kidney disease (CKD) after the different types of urinary diversion. Results Continent and incontinent diversion were performed in 68 and 47 patients, respectively. The mean preoperative eGFR was significantly lower in the incontinent than in the continent group (P < 0.001). In propensity score-matched patients (n = 34 each), no significant differences were observed in pre- and postoperative eGFR and 5-year eGFR decrease rates between the groups. In the incontinent group, the number of postoperative stage 3B CKD patients was significantly increased than the continent group. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors significantly associated with stage 3B CKD at 5 years after surgery were older age, eGFR before surgery, incontinent diversion (cutaneous ureterostomy), and postoperative hydronephrosis. Conclusions The types of urinary diversion had no significant impact on renal function decline, whereas older age, preexisting impaired renal function, postoperative hydronephrosis, and cutaneous ureterostomy were independent risk factors for stage 3B CKD at 5 years after radical cystectomy. PMID:26901860

  3. Tissue-engineered urinary conduits.

    PubMed

    Kates, Max; Singh, Anirudha; Matsui, Hotaka; Steinberg, Gary D; Smith, Norm D; Schoenberg, Mark P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2015-03-01

    The role of tissue engineering in the cystectomy population rests on the principle of sparing healthy intestinal tissue while replacing diseased bladder. Over the last 25years advances in cell biology and material science have improved the quality and durability of bladder replacement in animals. The neo-urinary conduit ([NUC]-Tengion) employs autologous fat smooth muscle cells which are seeded onto synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds. This seeded construct is then implanted in the patient and purportedly regenerates native urinary tissue to serve as a passive channel connecting the ureters to the skin surface. Preclinical animal studies as well as the first phase I human trial implanting the NUC are reviewed. While the ultimate goal of creating a durable, effective, tissue-engineered conduit is still in its infancy, important technical and experimental strides have been made. PMID:25677229

  4. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence. PMID:16854357

  5. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  6. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Wllner, J; Janzen, J; Pannek, J

    2016-01-01

    Melanosis of the bladder is rare. Only 10cases have been described in the literature. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal paralysis. During the diagnostic work-up which included cystoscopy, black spots in the bladder wall were observed. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign suburothelial melanosis. Thus, with cystoscopic suspicion of a malignancy (melanoma), a biopsy is mandatory and regular cystoscopic follow-up is recommended. PMID:26358438

  7. Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since urinary biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising urinary biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, urinary proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis. PMID:20127204

  8. Continence in patients with spina bifida: long term results.

    PubMed Central

    Malone, P S; Wheeler, R A; Williams, J E

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of urinary diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The remaining 81 responders emptied their bladders by a variety of techniques including normal voiding, straining, expression, clean intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters, or they dribbled urine continuously. Only 31 (38%) of this group were reliably dry. Ninety four of 109 (86%) responders regularly sat on the toilet to evacuate their bowels and most used some aid such as manual evacuation, laxatives, suppositories, or enemas. Fifty five of 104 (53%) responders soiled regularly, 31 (56%) of whom were also wet. Forty seven per cent of dry patients (24/51) were faecally incontinent. Only 25 of 104 (24%) patients responding to all questions were reliably clean and dry. PMID:8129429

  9. Oxygen isotopes in Samoan lavas: Confirmation of continent recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Rhea K.; Eiler, John M.; Hart, Stanley R.; Jackson, Matthew G.

    2008-07-01

    Lavas from the Samoan volcanic chain show the most enrichedgeochemical signatures ever documented in oceanic lavas (87Sr/86Sras high as 0.7205). In order to test the hypothesis that theirsource contains a component of recycled upper continental crust,we measured oxygen isotope compositions of olivine phenocrystsfrom these lavas. Correlations between {delta}18O of olivines (5.11{per thousand}-5.70{per thousand})and 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb of whole rocks, as well as Ce/Pband Nb/Th ratios of whole rocks, indicate that (1) measured{delta}18O are primary, mantle-derived values, and (2) the enrichedmantle source of these lavas contains continental crust or itsderivative sediments. The observed trend between {delta}18O and 87Sr/86Srcan be fit using either clastic marine sediment or continentalcrust values of {delta}18O, Sr concentration, and 87Sr/86Sr, but onlythose for clastic marine sediments are compatible with traceelement modeling. We conclude that the enriched source for Samoanbasalts was created by sedimentation of continent-derived materialinto a marine environment, followed by subduction and mixingwith ambient mantle.

  10. Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A.Yu. )

    1993-09-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

  11. Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

  12. Sedimentary Response to Arc-Continent Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-continent collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.

  13. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  14. Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

    1997-02-13

    The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-continent. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.

  15. Stratigraphy, structure, and extent of the East Continent Rift Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, L.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The proven existence of pre-Mt. Simon sedimentary rocks named the Middle Run Formation in southwestern Ohio led to the establishment of the Cincinnati Arch Consortium, a joint industry-government partnership to investigate the areal extent, nature, and origin of this new unit. Utilizing available well, seismic, and potential-field data, the consortium has shown that the Middle Run was deposited in a Precambrian rift basin, named the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These data indicate the ECRB assemblage consists of a large folded and faulted wedge of interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks, unconformably overlain by Cambrian strata. This wedge is estimated to be thickest (up to about 22,000 feet) on the western edge, where it is in fault contact with Grenville Province rocks. To the west, the ECRB may extend as far as central Illinois and postdates the Precambrian Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks. The contact between the ECRB and this older province appears to be in part an angular unconformity and in part block faulted. The northern limit of this basin was not encountered in the study area; this may indicate a connection with the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan. In central Kentucky, the boundary conditions are more complex. It appears that the ECRB is constricted between a large block of the Granite-Rhyolite Province to the west and the Grenville Front on the east. Large Cambrian extensional structures (Rough Creek Graben and Rome Trough) were overprinted on the Granite-Rhyolite and Grenville Provinces. The ECRB may have acted as a stable block between these Cambrian features. The relationships of the ECRB to overlying Paleozoic features may be profound. Indeed, the ECRB may prove to be the reason for the very existence of the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches.

  16. Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting continence. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34+ cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to urinary incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:24179600

  17. Urinary tract infections in children. An update.

    PubMed Central

    Zelikovic, I; Adelman, R D; Nancarrow, P A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common and frequently recurring condition in children. The susceptibility of the host, the presence of urinary tract abnormalities, and the virulence of the urinary pathogens are of primary importance in the development of the infection. Renal parenchymal scarring, hypertension, and renal insufficiency are well-established complications of the infection in children. To reduce the risk of renal damage, diagnosis and treatment must be prompt. The diagnosis demands radiologic evaluation of the urinary tract in all boys, all children younger than 5 years, all patients with voiding dysfunction, and school-aged girls with recurrent infection to identify those patients with vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction, or other urinary tract abnormalities. Both voiding cystourethrography and renal ultrasonography are the initial examinations to use to determine the next appropriate study. Children with vesicoureteral reflux or with recurrent urinary tract infections should receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy and should be observed closely to prevent renal scarring. PMID:1441497

  18. Systemic implications of urinary stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Miller, Joe; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is the third most common condition affecting the urinary tract. It contributes to a great deal of morbidity for both men and women, and cost the United States (US) over 5.3 billion dollars in 2000 alone. Moreover, it is associated with systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, these systemic diseases may be contributing to the rising incidence in urinary stone disease. Previously described mechanisms of stone formation attribute stone development and growth to the urinary milieu. While this may partly influence the process, it cannot account for the associations between systemic diseases and stones observed in large community-based studies. Here we present a review of the evidence demonstrating a link between urinary stone disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. We believe a vascular etiology for the initiation of urinary stones may tie these processes together. PMID:26816692

  19. Prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Shamliyan, Tatyana; Wyman, Jean; Bliss, Donna Z; Kane, Robert L; Wilt, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for urinary (UI) and fecal (FI) incontinence in adults in long-term care (LTC) settings and in the community, the effectiveness of diagnostic methods to identify adults at risk and patients with incontinence, and to review the effectiveness of clinical interventions to reduce the risk of incontinence. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, and Cochrane Databases. REVIEW METHODS Observational studies were reviewed to examine the prevalence and incidence of UI and FI and the association with risk factors. The effects of treatments on patient outcomes were analyzed from randomized controlled and multicenter clinical trials. The diagnostic values of the tests were compared from the original epidemiologic studies of different designs. Of the 6,097 articles identified, 1,077 articles were eligible for analysis. RESULTS The prevalence of UI, FI, and combined incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Cognitive impairment, limitations in daily activities, and prolonged institutionalization in nursing homes were associated with a higher risk of incontinence. Stroke, diabetes, obesity, poor general health, and comorbidities were associated with UI and FI in community dwelling adults. Parity, anal trauma, and vaginal prolapse in women and urological surgery and radiation for prostate cancer in men are risk factors for UI and FI. Intensive individualized management and rehabilitation programs improved continence status in nursing home residents and adults after stroke. Self-administered behavioral interventions including pelvic floor muscle training with biofeedback and bladder training resolved UI in incontinent women. Electrical stimulation and sacral neuromodulation improved urge UI, but improvement for FI was inconsistent. Tension-free vaginal tape procedures and modified surgical techniques for prolapse to support the bladder neck resolved stress UI in the majority of treated women. Behavioral treatments of FI resulted in small improvements in severity and quality of life related to incontinence. The effects on FI of surgical techniques for hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, rectal cancer, and anal fissures are not consistent across studies. Surgical interventions in patients with ulcerative colitis resulted in the same rates of fecal continence when compared to each other. The few clinical interventions to treat FI that were tested in well-designed trials had no clear evidence of better effects of the compared treatments. Instrumental outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments did not correlate with patient outcomes. Epidemiologic surveys to detect persons at risk and patients with undiagnosed UI have the same diagnostic value and less cost compared to professional examinations and diagnostic tests. Self-reported questionnaires and scales have unsatisfactory validity to diagnose FI. CONCLUSIONS Epidemiologic surveys are cost-effective ways to estimate the prevalence of UI in large nationally representative population groups. Routine clinical evaluation should include an assessment of the risk factors, symptoms, and signs of incontinence. Pregnant or menopausal women, women with vaginal prolapse, males treated for prostate disease, patients with rectal prolapse, and frail elderly and nursing home residents are high risk groups. Individualized management programs can improve continence in LTC facilities but are hard to sustain. Regular monitoring and documentation of the continence status in relation to implemented continence services should be quality of care indicators for nursing homes. Pelvic floor muscle trainings with biofeedback can resolve incontinence and improve quality of life. Surgery is effective in curing stress UI in females. Clinical interventions for UI in males and for FI in adults need future investigation. A list of research recommendations is offered. PMID:18457475

  20. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials. PMID:22760907

  1. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Fosfomycin▿

    PubMed Central

    Maraki, Sofia; Samonis, George; Rafailidis, Petros I.; Vouloumanou, Evridiki K.; Mavromanolakis, Emmanuel; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against urinary isolates in a region in Greece that exhibits considerable antimicrobial resistance by evaluating retrospectively relevant susceptibility data retrieved from the microbiological library of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. We examined 578 urinary isolates. In total, 516 (89.2%) were susceptible to fosfomycin; 415 isolates were gram negative, and 101 isolates were gram positive. Fosfomycin appears to exhibit good levels of in vitro activity against the examined urinary isolates. PMID:19687248

  2. Female urinary incontinence: effective treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Castro, R A; Arruda, R M; Bortolini, M A T

    2015-04-01

    Urinary incontinence is a dysfunction that tremendously affects women's quality of life, involving social, emotional and economic aspects. Although various treatments for urinary incontinence have been described, it is important to know which of them are truly effective. This review seeks to determine the current available therapies for women with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome, based on the best scientific evidence. PMID:25307986

  3. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  4. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Scheimann, Reinhard; Woolnough, Steve; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Experiments are in progress to determine the impact of better resolving other boundary conditions, such as coastlines.

  5. Urinary disorders and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jaclyn; Sweet, Genevieve; Shindel, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder urinary incontinence and female sexual dysfunction are common in women, but often go unreported and/or untreated. All of these conditions can have a markedly negative impact on quality of life. There is a growing body of evidence that sexual and urinary problems are often comorbid and possibly synergistic in women. Increasingly robust evidence indicates that management of urinary concerns may enhance sexual function and quality of life. It is important for health care providers who see women to consider both urinary and sexual health concerns during patient encounters. Additional research attention to the interrelationships between these genitourinary disorders is warranted. PMID:23716031

  6. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial medications with a known side effect of urinary retention are also associated with urinary retention during flight. However, not all cases of urinary retention surrounded medication use inflight. It is also known that UTI is a terrestrial cause of urinary retention. Furthermore, the treatment of urinary retention with a urinary catheter may be more likely to initiate a UTI in space than on the ground, as aseptic techniques can be particularly challenging with an inexperienced provider in a free-floating environment. Inflight urinary retention and UTI have proven to be highly associated and urinary risks should be considered collectively when planning for space flight.

  7. Continent-continent collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique continent-continent collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps is larger than needed to support surface topography, and is offset from its topographic high, consistent with dynamic thickening of the Pacific crust by the mantle thickening. Teleseismic shear wave splitting is evidence of a wide zone of distributed strain for the mantle portion of the plate boundary. The collective set of results from the South Island projects have led to a number of subsequent studies by various teams, based on follow-up questions, expanded observational expertise, and international collaborative alliances with in particular the New Zealand science community. These studies include a search for the full width of Pacific/Australian distributed mantle strain using marine OBS studies, the transition from strike-slip to plate boundary subduction to the north, the search and discovery of seismic tremor on the Alpine fault, and high resolution geophysical characterization of Alpine fault seismogenesis. The success of geophysically imaging a narrow island using both marine sides led different SIGHT scientists to carry out expanded efforts to study North Island subduction and separately Taiwan mountain building. These efforts benefited and were largely motivated from multi-disciplinary, multi-national collaborations as typically supported by the NSF Continental Dynamics program.

  8. The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

  9. The European Continent : Surface Expression of Upper Mantle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, M. R.; Schivardi, R.; Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    The surface topography of Europe shows important variations, most of which are relatively well explained by isostatic compensation of density contrasts within the crust and lithosphere. However, not all of the density contrasts leading to topography reside within the lithosphere. The crucial problem is how to detect the extra topography signal, in addition to that associated with both crustal and lithospheric anomalies. Forte and Perry, 2000 estimate the amplitude of the dynamic topography by removal of the crustal isostatic topography signal from the surface of the Earth. Faccenna and Becker, 2010 infer the equivalent dynamic topography from the normal stress generated at the surface by mantle viscous flow driven by thermal anomalies. Here we consider the correlation between residual topography and mantle residual gravity anomalies. As shown by Pekeris, 1935 and Hager et al., 1985, the viscous mantle flow that is driven by the thermal density contrasts is responsible for the long-wavelength gravity anomalies observed at the surface. They have demonstrated that the gravitational effects of surface deformation caused by the flow is opposite in sign and comparable in magnitude to that of the driving density contrast. The 1°x1° recently assembled European crustal model, EPCrust (Molinari and Morelli, 2011) is used to estimate the effects of the isostatic crust and the mantle residual gravity anomalies. We calculate the correlation matrix between the residual topography and the mantle residual gravity anomalies and we define the regions where the sublithospheric mantle density, below the European continent, contributes to surface topography. To recover the residual topography, the effects of the isostatic crust is estimated with the Panasyuk and Hager (2000) algorithm and subtracted from the observed elevation (ETOPO-1). The mantle residual gravity anomalies are estimated as the differences between the produced gravity field of EPCrust and the observations. 3-D images of the European upper mantle isotropic shear-wave speeds and mass densities, recently recovered by combined inversion of surface-wave information and GRACE satellite gravity data (Tondi et al., 2012) are used to select the regions where the residual topography and the residual mantle gravity anomalies are strongly correlated (correlation coefficient is equal to 1). We assume surface uplift processes with negative density anomalies and downward pull with positive anomalies. Our work shows a strong correlation among the areas where, on the basis of our assumptions, the mantle dynamics have surface expression and the areas of low values of radial anisotropy: (1) the southern margins of the East European Craton, (2) the North-Eastern edges of the Arabian Plateau, (3) the northern edge of the CEVP (Central European Volcanic Province), (4) the North-Eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Iceland.

  10. Neural control of the lower urinary and gastrointestinal tracts: supraspinal CNS mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Drake, M J; Fowler, C J; Griffiths, D; Mayer, E; Paton, J F R; Birder, L

    2010-01-01

    Normal urinary function is contingent upon a complex hierarchy of CNS regulation. Lower urinary tract afferents synapse in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and ascend to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), with a separate nociception path to the thalamus. A spino-thalamo-cortical sensory pathway is present in some primates, including humans. In the brainstem, the pontine micturition center (PMC) is a convergence point of multiple influences, representing a co-ordinating center for voiding. Many PMC neurones have characteristics necessary to categorize the center as a pre-motor micturition nucleus. In the lateral pontine brainstem, a separate region has some characteristics to suggest a "continence center." Cerebral control determines that voiding is permitted if necessary, socially acceptable and in a safe setting. The frontal cortex is crucial for decision making in an emotional and social context. The anterior cingulate gyrus and insula co-ordinate processes of autonomic arousal and visceral sensation. The influence of these centers on the PMC is primarily mediated via the PAG, which also integrates bladder sensory information, thereby moderating voiding and storage of urine, and the transition between the two phases. The parabrachial nucleus in the pons is also important in behavioral motivation of waste evacuation. Lower urinary tract afferents can be modulated at multiple levels by corticolimbic centers, determining the interoception of physiological condition and the consequent emotional motor responses. Alterations in cognitive modulation, descending modulation, and hypervigilance are important in functional (symptom-based) clinical disorders. PMID:20025025

  11. Is anterior genital tract trauma associated with complaints of postpartum urinary incontinence?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Leeman, Lawrence M; Kleyboecker, Sallie; Pukite, Mary; Manocchio, Regina; Albers, Leah L

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated whether anterior genital trauma is associated with urinary incontinence after vaginal birth. A prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to mapping of trauma at birth and assessment of continence postpartum. Trauma was categorized into intact, anterior (periuretheral, clitoral, labial), perineal or both. Incontinence was defined as a positive response to the question, "Since the birth of your baby, have you leaked urine when you did not mean to?" and social impact assessed by the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7). Of 554 eligible women, 436 (79%) provided incontinence data 3 months postpartum. Genital trauma was common, occurring in 80% of women: in 148 (34%) trauma was anterior, 119 (27%) had both anterior and perineal trauma and 80(18%) had only perineal trauma. Since delivery, 27% (118/436) women leaked urine. Fewer had IIQ-7 scores greater than 0, at 55/436 (12%). Women with anterior trauma, 29/148 (20%), were less likely to complain of incontinence than all others, 89/288 (31%) (P = 0.01). Urinary incontinence is common after giving birth, although most women have mild symptoms. Anterior trauma is not associated with increased complaints of urinary incontinence. PMID:17429558

  12. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection can occur. If you have a urinary catheter, germs can travel along the catheter and cause ... tract infection (or CA-UTI). What is a urinary catheter? A urinary catheter is a thin tube placed ...

  13. Urinary Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ross, Ashley E; Sokoll, Lori J; Partin, Alan W; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2016-02-01

    In light of the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen-based screening, controversy persists surrounding the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Given its anatomic proximity to the prostate, urine has been proposed as a noninvasive substrate for prostatic biomarkers. With greater understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis and significant technological advances, the breadth of potential biomarkers is substantial. In this review, the authors aim to provide an evidence-based assessment of current and emerging urinary biomarkers used in the detection and prognostication of PCa and high-grade PCa, with particular attention on clinically relevant findings. PMID:26614026

  14. Approach to urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if symptoms are prolonged, then a seven day course of antibiotics should be given. Selected group of patients benefits from low-dose prophylactic therapy. Upper urinary tract infection may need in-patient treatment. Treatment of acute prostatitis is 30-day therapy of appropriate antibiotics and for chronic bacterial prostatitis a low dose therapy for 6-12 months may be required. It should be noted that no attempt should be made to eradicate infection unless foreign bodies such as stones and catheters are removed and correctable urological abnormalities are taken care of. Treatment under such circumstances can result only in the emergence of resistant organisms and complicate therapy further. PMID:20535247

  15. Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Olivia Vella, Josefa Elizabeth; Nair, Nithin; Ferryman, Stephen Robert; Athavale, Ramanand; Latthe, Pallavi; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Mllerianosis of the urinary bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder mllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts with associated fibrosis and distortion of the bladder wall may mimic malignancy on cystoscopy, as may the infiltrative growth pattern sometimes evident histologically. Recognition of this complex diagnostic entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigation. There is a clinical association with endometriosis and past pelvic surgery. PMID:21632636

  16. [Serious urinary infections and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Njeh, M; Baati, S; Sellami, D; Kechaou, M; Rekik, S; Mhiri, M N

    1996-01-01

    Retention of infected urine in the upper urinary tract which is due to obstruction is a serious condition during pregnancy. The authors report their experience on five cases and propose attitudes to adopt against such emergency. Ultrasounds allow accurate diagnosis of the obstruction and may be helpful to find its etiology. Plain X ray film could be of interest mainly for stone recognition after the third month of gestation. Surgical treatment, when possible allows either relief of obstruction and cure of the original disease, otherwise performance of percutaneous nephrostomy represents a better way of drainage until the end of pregnancy. PMID:8766152

  17. Advances in Urinary Tract Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopy in veterinary medicine has become the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment in the subspecialty of small animal urology over the past decade. This subspecialty is termed endourology. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of endoscopic-assisted alternatives using interventional endoscopic techniques has become appealing to both owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common urologic procedures being performed in veterinary medicine. PMID:26440205

  18. [Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

  19. Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence: response to behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Meaglia, J P; Joseph, A C; Chang, M; Schmidt, J D

    1990-09-01

    Urinary incontinence after prostatectomy can be psychologically and socially disabling. We reviewed our experience with 27 patients who were incontinent between 5 and 198 months after either radical retropubic, total perineal or transurethral prostatectomy. These patients were entered into our bladder behavior clinic, which was administered by nursing staff with physician supervision. Patients were strongly encouraged to discontinue the incontinence devices, and were then evaluated for the type and extent of incontinence. Perineal exercises were demonstrated in detail, tested for their correct use via simultaneous rectal and abdominal examination, and applied to the pattern of incontinence. Patients were evaluated frequently for compliance and their progress was followed with instruction repeated as needed. Pharmaceutical agents were not used. Among the 24 patients evaluable over-all improvement in the number of incontinent episodes was 56.6% (p less than 0.001). Two patients (8.3%) achieved total continence, 10 (42%) improved greatly, 4 showed moderate improvement and 8 (33%) showed essentially no change. Transurethral and perineal prostatectomy patients improved by 74 and 61%, respectively, versus only 33% in the radical retropubic group (p = 0.14). In addition, patients who previously underwent transurethral resection before total prostatectomy did worse (18%) than did those who did not (67%). We conclude that a significant number of patients who are incontinent after prostatectomy (especially those without a prior transurethral resection) can improve dramatically with a behavioral training program that provides a strong support system. PMID:2388325

  20. Urinary kallikrein excretion in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J; Berger, M; Petrusick, T W; Travis, L B

    1982-05-01

    Urinary kallikrein, as a reflection of the intrarenal kallikrein, is distinct from plasma kallikrein. The kallikrein-kinin system, activated via antigen-antibody complexes, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute transplant rejection. We studied urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, protein, and kallikrein following renal transplantation in nine patients, In four patients who took steroids daily and were followed from the time of transplantation (without rejection episodes), urinary kallikrein remained stable (3.7 +/- 0.5 EU/24 hr, x +/- SEM). Since sodium-retaining steroids influence urinary kallikrein excretion, two patients were studied 2 and 3 months post-transplantation while receiving alternate-day prednisone. Values from urinary kallikrein in these patients did not differ from those in patients taking steroids daily (3.7 +/- 0.5 versus 2.7 +/- 0.3 EU/24 hr). In three patients experiencing acute rejection episodes, urinary kallikrein excretion rose markedly (24 to 260 EU/24 hr) and remained elevated until the patients became oliguric. Furthermore, this rise occurred 1-3 days before the clinical diagnosis of rejection was made. For the group as a whole there was no significant correlation between urinary kallikrein excretion, the excretion of sodium or potassium, or urine volume. Although the number of patients studied is small, the increases observed in urinary kallikrein suggest that activation of the intrarenal kallikrein-kinin system is associated with acute transplant rejection. PMID:7047034

  1. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because

  2. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  3. Urinary tract infections. An overview.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, O B

    1987-06-01

    Urinary tract infection remains the most prevalent infection acquired by hospitalized patients. The association with manipulations of the urinary tract is well known and the etiology of these infections is studied in detail. The excess cost of preventable UTI has not been established. It may be negligible for the single case but a high prevalence of nosocomial UTI could add substantially to hospital expenses. Differences in practices of bladder drainage between hospitals and countries have been identified, and educational efforts would seem effective in the management of incontinent patients when hospitalized. Though the infection is often self-limiting, when the catheter is removed, complications are seen. The lower survival with bacteriuria in old age is best explained by the presence of fatal disease in bacteriuric patients. Prevention of the infection with the catheter in situ is discouraging, and measures intended to interfere with the endogenous source of infection have largely failed or postponed infection. A radical approach to the use of indwelling catheters in hospitalized patients may seem the only way out, requiring highly skilled nursing care instead. PMID:3607932

  4. The continent-ocean transition of the Pearl River margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameselle, A. L.; Ranero, C. R.; Franke, D.; Barckhausen, U.

    2013-12-01

    Rifted continental margins form by lithospheric extension and break-up. The continent to ocean transition (COT) architecture depends on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes, and thus, to study the COT variability of different systems is key to understand rifting. We use MCS data and magnetic lineations across the Pearl River margin (PRM) of South China Sea to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The structure of the PRM presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. We reprocessed about 2250 km of MCS data along 4 regional, crustal-scale lines and found that 3 of them possibly display the COT. The time-migrated seismic sections show differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, in the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections, that we interpret to represent clear continental and oceanic domains. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope passing abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. Comparatively the oceanic crust has a highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. The PRM shows arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin displays abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a change in the tectonic structure from NE to SW. On the two NE-most lines, crustal thinning and break-up occur over 20-40 km wide segments. To the SW, continental extension occurred over a comparatively broader ~100-110 km segment of tilted fault-block structure. We interpret, that this 3D structural variability and the narrow COT was caused by the lateral NE to the SW propagation of a spreading center. In the NE, early spreading center propagation during ongoing rifting stopped continental stretching, causing an abrupt break-up and a narrow COT to seafloor spreading. Later arrival of spreading center propagated to the SW, resulted in a comparatively broader segment with fault-block structures of extended continental crust. However, the COT to clear oceanic crust is narrow. Spreading center propagation in the basin is however not a simple phenomena and ridge jumps and abrupt cessation of spreading contributed to form narrow COT that laterally change to highly thinned continental crust segments. We suggest that the tectonic architecture of continental extension and the abrupt COT along the PRM have been controlled by 3D oceanic spreading center propagation to a degree larger than by the local lithospheric structure during rifting.

  5. LINET Lightning Characteristics Observed on 4 Different Continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, H.; Betz, H.-D.; Schmidt, K.; Calheiros, R. V.; May, P.; Houngninou, E.; Scialom, G.

    2009-04-01

    During recent field campaigns DLR operated its six-station VLF/LF lightning detection network LINET in co-operation with the University of Munich and nowcast GmbH as well as local partners in 4 different continents. For TROCCINOX (Tropical convection, cirrus and nitrogen oxides experiment) the network was set in Sao Paulo state in Brazil during Jan/Feb 05, for the tropical EU SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment) campaigns during Nov/Dec 2005 and Jan/Feb 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, for AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) in Benin/W-Africa during June-Nov 2006 and for measurements in Southern Germany during June-August 2005. Using the same experimental set up in all areas it became possible to compare the lightning characteristics for the different climatic regions and also to assess the relative significance for lightning NOx production. Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin), land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia) and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia). Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak wet monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N-Australia. The frequency of occurrence of such days was by far the largest in N-Australia. In accordance with radar observed storm structures, the intra-cloud stroke mean emission heights were found distinctly different in Germany (8 km) as compared to the tropics (up to 12 km in N-Australia). The fraction of intra-cloud strokes (compared to all strokes) was found to be relatively high in Brazil and Australia (0.83 and 0.74, respectively) as compared to Benin and Germany (0.67 and 0.69, respectively). Using stroke peak currents and vertical location information, lightning NOx (LNOx) production under defined standard conditions can be compared for the different areas of observation. LNOx production per standard stroke was found to be most efficient for the N-Australian and S-German thunderstorms whereas the yield from Brazilian and W-African strokes was nearly 40% less. On the other hand, the main NO contribution in Brazil was from intra-cloud (IC) strokes whereas in Benin it was due to cloud-to-ground (CG) components. For the German and Australian strokes both stroke types contributed similar amount to the total NO outcome.

  6. [Plastic repair of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Bondar', G V; Bulava, V V; Panova, L A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observations of 76 patients in whom an artifical urinary bladder was constructed from the rectum are presented. 52 patients were operated upon for cancer of the urinary bladder, total papillomatosis, a metastasis of uterine cancer in the bladder, cancer of the sigmoid with the urinary bladder involvement, sarcoma and cancer of the prostate with the bladder involvement. 17 patients were operated upon for extrophy, 7 -- for cancer of the urethra. An isolation of the rectum is followed by ligation of the upper rectal and vein. Fifteen patients died postoperatively due to peritonitis (6), ascending infection of the urinary tract (4), postoperative shock (I), phlegmon of the minor pelvis (I). In late postoperative period an artificial urinary bladder provides for reservoir and excretory functions. PMID:997414

  7. Fragmentation and assembly of the continents, mid-carboniferous to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, E.

    1983-02-01

    Eighteen maps are presented which show the motions of the major continents following the break up of Pangaea in the Early to Mid-Jurassic. Palaeolatitudes are determined palaeomagnetically, while palaeolongitudes are derived mainly from sea floor spreading evidence. It is shown that the break up begins with the opening of the southern North Atlantic in the Mid-Jurassic and extends north and south in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. Concurrently, the northern continents move northwards away from the southern continents, while a continuous east-west seaway is formed between these continents in the Cretaceous. The Arctic, Indian, and Antarctic Oceans are then created by the successive fragmentation of continents. Maps showing the disposition of land in the Permian are presented which are based on the palaeomagnetic evidence and the idea of minimizing the motions required to bring the continents into their known Early Jurassic configuration. In addition, palaemagnetic results from smaller crustal fragments are reviewed and the evidence for the former dismemberment of Eurasia and the western part of the North American cordillera is presented. It is concluded that these results indicate that most orogenies are to some degree collisional in nature.

  8. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome. PMID:26751805

  9. Urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed Central

    McKerrow, W; Davidson-Lamb, N; Jones, P F

    1984-01-01

    During 1968-77, 572 consecutive children with one or more positive urine cultures who were referred by their family doctors to one paediatric surgical outpatient clinic were investigated and prospectively recorded. An abnormality requiring treatment was found in 45%. The yield of positive findings and need for operation were greater in those referred after one infection than in those with recurrent infection. Among those under 2 years old 90% had an abnormality. One third of children with vesicoureteric reflux showed renal scarring at the time of first attendance. The results of medical and surgical treatment over five to 15 years of follow up were analysed. They emphasised the importance of culturing the urine whenever there may be urinary infection in a child and of investigating immediately those with a positive urine culture. PMID:6430447

  10. Urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis is a common problem worldwide especially in areas of the hot climate like Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to study the characteristics of urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia and to report the following: Composition of urinary stones, age and gender distribution, seasonal variation of stone development, comorbid conditions associated with stone development and the incidence of urinary stones. Methods: All urinary stones that were submitted to the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, previously Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization for analysis from January 2011 through January 2013 were analyzed. Results: A total of 384 urinary stones were collected and submitted for analysis from 347 patients. There was a male predominance with a male: female ratio of 3.9:1. The average age was 48.5 ± 12.8 years. Weight abnormality was predominant in both genders, and especially females. Calcium-based stones constituted the great majority (84.6%) followed by uric acid stones (12.8%). The other forms of stones were rare. More stones were recovered during the hot season, May to September. The calculated annual incidence of urolithiasis was 111/100,000 individuals. Conclusion: Calcium based stones are the most common urinary stones observed in Eastern Saudi Arabia. There is a clear association between the diagnosis of urinary stones and the hot season PMID:26834393

  11. Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    ORiordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N.; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N.; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocolbiopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including ?1-micro-globulin, ?2-micro-globulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

  12. [Epidemiological aspects of the female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Chmel, R; Novckov, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine, which makes social and hygienic problem. It is a symptom with different causes. According to the typical clinical manifestation it is classified as stress, urge, reflex and paradox urinary incontinence. Loss of small amount of urine related to the increase of intraabdominal pressure (during coughing, sneezing or running) is characteristic for stress urinary incontinence. Sudden and uncontrollable voiding with loss of greater amount of urine is typical for urge incontinence. Reflex incontinence means that urinary bladder is emptying without voiding. Paradox incontinence is caused by an acquired smooth muscle weakness of the bladder and it manifests with incomplete emptying and with growing residual urine. Prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age. Significant increase of female urinary incontinence symptoms is found in fifth and sixth decade. Urinary incontinence in young women is more a dynamic than a permanent symptom but the postmenopausal incontinence obviously does not disappear spontaneously. Urge and mixed incontinence are less frequent than stress symptomatology (between 10 and 15%). According to the prevalence studies only 1,5 to 6% of incontinent women are looking for a medical help. Because the urge symptoms are more limiting, the patients with urge incontinence are searching treatment possibilities more often than those with stress incontinence. PMID:15807294

  13. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Charles J. Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-02-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.

  14. The Ocean-Continent Boundary Effect on Seismic Noise Recorded on Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Capdeville, Y.; Farra, V.; Mangeney, A.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic noise in the period band 3-10s is generated at the surface of the ocean by the interaction of ocean gravity waves. Noise signal is dominated by Rayleigh waves and is recorded worldwide, both on the ocean seafloor and on continent. Microseismic Rayleigh waves, like any other elastic wave, loose energy when traveling from the ocean to the continent. Thus, the noise records on continent are affected by the propagation of microseismic waves, especially across the boundary between the ocean and the continent, the main structural boundary along the source-receiver path. At the ocean-continent boundary, Rayleigh waves dissipate a significant amount of energy (e.g. McGarr, 1969) and noise Love waves may be generated (e.g. Gregersen, 1977). In order to investigate the effect of the ocean-continent boundary on seismic noise records, we simulate the propagation of the seismic wavefield across the seafloor using the spectral-element method in the secondary microseismic period band (3-10s). A single noise source is located at the surface of the ocean and the signal is recorded at the seafloor, both in deep and shallow ocean regions and on continent. The seismograms computed in a model with continental slope are compared to those computed in a model with flat seafloor, for varying periods and slopes. In the presence of the continental slope, the seismic records are affected by a secondary virtual source, generated by the seafloor topography. The effect of the spatial distribution of noise sources is also investigated.

  15. Heat Flow Partitioning Between Continents and Oceans - from 2D to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Cooper, C. M.; Lenardic, A.

    2010-12-01

    Scalings derived from thermal network theory explain how the presence of continents can influence the Earth’s overall heat loss. Intuitively, it may seem that increasing the proportion of a planet’s surface area covered by continents would decrease the efficiency of heat transfer given that continents do not participate in convective overturn. However, this ignores the potential feedback between the insulating effect of continents and the temperature-dependent viscosity of the mantle (Lenardic et al, 2005, Cooper et al, 2007). When this feedback is considered, a clear regime exists in which the partial stagnation and insulation of the surface by buoyant continental crust can lead to an increase in heat flow compared to the uninsulated case. The numerical results used to verify the scalings have mostly been conducted in two dimensions in order to cover a very wide range of Rayleigh number, fraction of continental coverage, and continental thickness. However as more recent results show that the configuration of the crust also plays a role in determining the heat flow partitioning and global heat flow (See Lenardic et al, “Continents, Super-Continents, Mantle Thermal Mixing, and Mantle Thermal Isolation” in this session), we have begun to repeat this exhaustive and exhausting 2D study in 3D. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006. Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.

  16. Adjustment of urinary concentration to urinary volume in relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations: an evaluation of urinary heavy metals and organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of urinary volume on adjusted and nonadjusted urinary excretion of 11 heavy metals and organic substances were examined in relation to plasma and erythrocyte concentrations in 19 metal workers under conditions of water restriction and loading. Blood lead concentrations in these workers ranged from 25 to 59 micrograms/dl. The results indicated that: urinary volume significantly affects not only nonadjusted urinary concentration for all substances, but also affects timed excretion and concentrations adjusted to urinary specific gravity and to urinary creatinine for most substances; the concentration adjusted to urinary volume is, on the other hand, independent of urinary volume; and urinary excretion of lead and mercury is related more closely to erythrocyte concentration than to plasma concentration. This last finding reflects complex renal excretory mechanisms for these heavy metals.

  17. Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Simpson, Christine A; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Caseria, Donna M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-03-01

    To determine the usefulness of urinary urea as an index of dietary protein intake, 10 postmenopausal women were enrolled in and completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over feeding trial from September 2008 to May 2010 that compared 10 days of a 45-g whey supplement with 10 days of a 45-g maltodextrin control. Urinary nitrogen, urinary calcium, urinary urea, and bone turnover markers were measured at days 0, 7, and 10. Paired sample t tests, Pearson's correlation statistic, and simple linear regression were used to assess differences between treatments and associations among urinary metabolites. Urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine rose from 12.3±1.7 g/g (99.6±13.8 mmol/mmol) to 16.8±2.2 g/g (135.5±17.8 mmol/mmol) with whey supplementation, but did not change with maltodextrin. Whey supplementation caused urinary calcium to rise by 4.76±1.84 mg (1.19±0.46 mmol) without a change in bone turnover markers. Because our goal was to estimate protein intake from urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we used our data to develop the following equation: protein intake (g/day)=71.221+1.719×(urinary nitrogen, g)/creatinine, g) (R=0.46, R(2)=0.21). As a more rapid and less costly alternative to urinary nitrogen/urinary creatinine, we next determined whether urinary urea could predict protein intake and found that protein intake (g/day)=63.844+1.11×(urinary urea, g/creatinine, g) (R=0.58, R(2)=0.34). These data indicate that urinary urea/urinary creatinine is at least as good a marker of dietary protein intake as urinary nitrogen and is easier to quantitate in nutrition intervention trials. PMID:23438496

  18. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edition of a review first published in 1997. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS and reference lists of articles up to 23 May 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antischistosomal drugs and drug combinations compared to placebo, no intervention, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two researchers independently screened the records, extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. The primary efficacy outcomes were parasitological failure (defined as the continued presence of S. haematobium eggs in the urine at time points greater than one month after treatment), and percent reduction of egg counts from baseline. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR), and continuous data as mean difference (MD), alongside their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate we combined trials in meta analyses or tables. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 30 RCTs enrolling 8165 participants in this review. Twenty-four trials were conducted in children in sub-Saharan Africa, and 21 trials were over 20 years old. Many studies were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias due to inadequate descriptions of study methods. Praziquantel On average, a single 40 mg/kg dose of praziquantel reduced the proportion of people still excreting eggs in their urine by around 60% compared to placebo at one to two months after treatment (treatment failure: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.59, 864 participants, seven trials, high quality evidence). The proportion of people cured with praziquantel varied substantially between trials, from 22.5% to 83.3%, but was higher than 60% in five of the seven trials. At one to two months following praziquantel treatment at 40 mg/kg, the mean number of schistosome eggs in the urine was reduced by over 95% in five out of six trials (678 participants, six trials, high quality evidence). Splitting praziquantel 40 mg/kg into two doses over 12 hours probably has no benefits over a single dose, and in a single trial of 220 participants the split dose caused more vomiting (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.86) and dizziness (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.94). Metrifonate A single dose of metrifonate 10 mg/kg reduced egg excretion (210 participants, one trial, at eight months), but was only marginally better than placebo at achieving cure at one month (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.94, 142 participants, one trial). In a single trial comparing one, two and three doses, the absolute number of participants cured improved from 47% after one dose to 81% after three doses (93 participants, one trial, low quality evidence). Two small trials compared 40 mg/kg single dose praziquantel with two or three doses of 10 mg/kg metrifonate and found no clear evidence of differences in cure (metrifonate 2 x 10 mg/kg at one month: RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.34, 72 participants, one trial; metrifonate 3 x 10 mg/kg at three months: RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.57, 100 participants, one trial. In one trial both drugs performed badly and in one trial both performed well. Other drugs Three trials have evaluated the antimalarial artesunate; with inconsistent results. Substantial antischistosomal effects were only seen in one of the three trials, which was at unclear risk of bias due to poor reporting of the trial methods. Similarly, another anti-malarial mefloquine has been evaluated in two small trials with inconsistent effects. Adverse events were described as mild for all evaluated drugs, but adverse event monitoring and reporting was generally of low quality. Authors' conclusions Praziquantel 40 mg/kg is the most studied drug for treating urinary schistosomiasis, and has the strongest evidence base. Potential strategies to improve future treatments for schistosomiasis include the combination of praziquantel with metrifonate, or with antimalarial drugs with antischistosomal properties such as artesunate and mefloquine. Evaluation of these combinations requires rigorous, adequately powered trials using standardized outcome measures. Plain Language summary Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis What is urinary schistosomiasis and how is it treated? Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection of people with the parasitic worm Schistosoma haematobium. These worms live in blood vessels around the infected person's bladder and the worm releases eggs which are released in the person's urine. If the urine is passed into ponds or lakes, the eggs can hatch and infect people that are washing or swimming there. Infection can cause blood in the urine and if left untreated can eventually lead to anaemia, malnutrition, kidney failure, or bladder cancer. Urinary schistosomiasis is diagnosed by looking for worm eggs in the urine. The disease occurs mainly in school-aged children and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa. The drug currently recommended for treatment is praziquantel, which can be given as a single dose, but other drugs such as metrifonate, artesunate, and mefloquine have also been evaluated. After examining the research published up to 23th May 2014, we included 30 randomized controlled trials, enrolling 8165 children and adults. What does the research say? On average, the standard dose of praziquantel cures around 60% of people at one to two months after treatment (high quality evidence), and reduces the number of schistosome eggs in the urine by over 95% (high quality evidence). Metrifonate, an older drug no longer in use, had little effect when given as a single dose but an improved effect when given as multiple doses two weeks apart. Two trials compared three doses of metrifonate with the single dose of praziquantel and found similar effects. Two more recent trials evaluated a combination of artesunate and praziquantel compared to praziquantel alone. In one trial artesunate improved cure and in one it made no difference. Authors conclusions Future treatments for schistosomiasis could include combining praziquantel with metrifonate, or with artesunate, but these need to be evaluated in high quality trials. PMID:25099517

  19. Modeling Supercontinent Cycles in 3D Spherical Convection Simulations With Multiple Continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. R.; Bunge, H.

    2004-12-01

    In 1966 J. Tuzo Wilson suggested that the Atlantic Ocean basin had closed and then reopened, a process now commonly termed the Wilson Cycle. Since then, numerous paleomagnetic studies have shown that Wilson's original idea may be extended to describe a global cycle, punctuated by the periodic formation of supercontinents such as Pangea, Rodinia, and Nuna, separated by time scales of several hundred million years (Myr). It is generally accepted that these motions are coupled to large scale mantle convection. Early two dimensional (2D) mantle convection models demonstrated the dynamic feasibility of such supercontinent cycles. However, fully 3D spherical mantle convection models incorporating multiple continents have yet to be explored. Here we present the first high resolution, 3D spherical mantle convection models with multiple continents. A global grid spacing of ˜50 km permits us to model vigorous convection at Rayleigh number 107. We study models incorporating between two and ten continents in predominantly internally heated flow with radially stratified viscosity. From these models we find that continents aggregate and disperse cyclically, with periods of several 100 Myr. Supercontinents remain intact for roughly 200 Myr. Moreover, the presence of multiple continents promotes the development of mantle thermal heterogeneity on the longest length scales (spherical harmonic degrees 1 and 2) in some models. These results agree well with geologic observations and place dynamic constraints on global mantle flow models.

  20. Quality audit--a review of the literature concerning delivery of continence care.

    PubMed

    Swaffield, J

    1995-09-01

    This paper outlines the role of quality audit within the framework of quality assurance, presenting the concurrent and retrospective approaches available. The literature survey provides a review of the limited audit tools available and their application to continence services and care delivery, as well as attempts to produce tools from national and local standard setting. Audit is part of a process; it can involve staff, patients and their relatives and the team of professionals providing care, as well as focusing on organizational and management levels. In an era of market delivery of services there is a need to justify why audit is important to continence advisors and managers. Effectiveness, efficiency and economics may drive the National Health Service, but quality assurance, which includes standards and audit tools, offers the means to ensure the quality of continence services and care to patients and auditing is also required in the purchaser/provider contracts for patient services. An overview and progress to date of published and other a projects in auditing continence care and service is presented. By outlining and highlighting the audit of continence service delivery and care as a basis on which to build quality assurance programmes, it is hoped that this knowledge will be shared through the setting up of a central auditing clearing project. PMID:7551434

  1. Lichen sclerosus and acute urinary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkswell, J; Nathan, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of acute urinary obstruction due to early lichen sclerosus disease is described. In this case both histological corroboration and efficacy of potent topical steroid have been beneficial. Images PMID:1607195

  2. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the catheter tubing. Top of page Resources for healthcare professionals: The following online resources provide more information ... Urinary Tract Infections, 2009 IDSA Guidelines NHSN - National Healthcare Safety Network SHEA/IDSA Practice Recommendation: Strategies to ...

  3. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  4. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... younger than 6 years old and affects more boys than girls. It's often treated with steroids. Urinary tract infections ( ... tract (the bladder and urethra). UTIs affect both boys and girls, but in school-age children, girls are more ...

  5. Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 69. Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Wyman J, Wilt TJ. Systematic review: randomized, controlled ... TA, Wyman JF, Ping R, Wilt TJ, Kane RL. Male urinary incontinence: Prevalence, risk factors, and preventive ...

  6. Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

  7. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    PubMed

    Okr?g?a, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract. PMID:24934526

  8. Urinary tract infections in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M

    2014-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters. PMID:25440128

  9. Urinary tract infection and hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Hlya; Ozek, Eren; Unver, Tamer; Biyikli, Ne?e; Alpay, Harika; Cebeci, Dil?at

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns with asymptomatic, unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two weeks of life. Jaundiced infants, otherwise clinically well, less than two weeks of ages, with a total bilirubin level above 15 mg/dl were eligible for the study. A bilirubin work-up including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) level, as well as urinalysis and a urine culture were performed in all patients. Patients with UTI, defined as more than 10,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single pathogen obtained by bladder catheterization, were evaluated for sepsis. Renal function tests and renal ultrasound were performed in cases with UTI. During follow-up, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) were performed as well. A total of 102 patients were enrolled. The bilirubin work-up of patients did not demonstrate any significant underlying disorder. None of the infants had a high direct bilirubin level. UTI was diagnosed in eight (8%) cases [Enterobacter aerogenes (3/8:38%), Enterococcus faecalis (2/8:25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2/8:25%) and Escherichia coli (1/8:12%)]. Of those eight patients, only four (50%) had pyuria. Bacteriuria was present in seven (88%) patients. The sepsis screen was negative in all but one case with a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level. None of the patients had a positive blood culture. Renal function tests were within normal levels in all patients. Renal ultrasound showed urinary tract abnormalities in three (38%) patients (hydronephrosis, n=1 and pelviectasis, n=2). VCUG was performed in all patients during the study period and one had unilateral grade 3-4 reflux, while only one patient had a diverticulum of the bladder. DMSA was performed in seven patients and none had renal scars. It is of importance that UTI can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced infants even in the first week of life. Although it is well known that UTI is a common cause of prolonged jaundice, urine culture should be considered in the bilirubin work-up of infants older than three days of age with an unknown etiology. PMID:16562786

  10. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agr, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern. PMID:25451882

  11. The effects of size, configuration and distribution of continents on the efficiency of heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Moresi, L. N.; Lenardic, A.

    2011-12-01

    The addition of continents to the surface of a planet alters its interior dynamics; understanding this alteration is critical to understanding the thermal evolution of the Earth. Specifically, the increase in temperature induced by continental insulation can be compensated by an increase in the heat loss through the overturn of the oceanic lithosphere, thus contradicting the predicted reduction of global heat loss due to presence of continents (e.g., Lenardic et al, 2005; Cooper et al, 2006; Lenardic et al, 2011). We reconfirm this counterintuitive result with three-dimensional simulations. In addition, we explore variations in the configuration of continents on the surface. Within simulations with equivalent continental coverage, but varying configuration, there is a competition between the lateral size of the blocks and the natural horizontal scale of the convection pattern which influences the stability of the models over time, and the efficiency of heat transport. Smaller continental blocks tend to induce a stable planform with upwellings permanently avoiding the blocks. However, in cases with larger continental blocks, the imposed scale is larger than the preferred scale of the convection pattern and upwellings are unable to avoid the blocks altogether. The dependency on stability and efficiency of heat transport within the Earth on continental coverage and configuration suggests continents can play a significant role in the Earth's heat budget and thermal history. Cooper, C.M., A. Lenardic, and L.-N. Moresi "Effects of continental insulation and the partioning of heat producing elements on the Earth's heat loss." Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 ,10.1029, 2006; Lenardic, A., C.M. Cooper, and L.-N. Moresi "A note on continents and the Earth's Urey ratio", Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 2011; Lenardic, A., L.-N. Moresi, A.M. Jellinek, and M. Manga "Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents." Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 234 ,317-333, 2005.

  12. Urinary prostasin in normotensive individuals: correlation with the aldosterone to renin ratio and urinary sodium.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Oliviero; Chiecchi, Laura; Pizzolo, Francesca; Castagna, Annalisa; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Gunasekaran, Muthukumar; Guarini, Patrizia; Consoli, Letizia; Salvagno, Gianluca; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2013-06-01

    Prostasin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease, activates the epithelial sodium (Na) channel (ENaC), and prostasin is released in extracellular fluids, including urine. Previous data have suggested a direct association between urinary prostasin and the activation of an aldosterone-driven pathway, but a quantitative association has never been demonstrated in normotensive subjects. Similarly, physiological relationships with natriuresis or possible gender- or female hormone-related changes in urinary prostasin concentrations have never been investigated. We measured urinary prostasin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 43 healthy normotensive subjects of similar age presenting different urinary Na levels and in 15 women during the menstrual cycle and after oral estro-progestinic contraceptive (OC) therapy. Exosomal urinary prostasin was also estimated by western blotting of samples from six healthy subjects twice during the morning. Urinary prostasin presented a wide range of values (from 0.5 to 18.9?nM) without gender differences. It was positively correlated with the aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) but not with circulating aldosterone or renin individually. Urinary prostasin was directly correlated with U-Na levels (up to 200?nmol Na), whereas it decreased for higher Na concentrations. In women, no significant changes of prostasin concentration were observed during menstrual phases. After OC therapy, prostasin increased (from 2.371.27 to 4.855.28?nM), although the increase was not statistically different (P=0.07). Prostasin was detectable in urinary exosomes and displayed a pattern similar to urinary prostasin in relation to urinary Na. In conclusion, urinary prostasin correlates with the ARR, and it is physiologically modulated by natriuresis in normotensive individuals. PMID:23344129

  13. Urinary mineral excretion in healthy Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine normal reference values for urinary calcium/creatinine (Ca/Cr), phosphate/creatinine (P/Cr), magnesium/creatinine (Mg/Cr), sodium/creatinine (Na/Cr), potassium/creatinine (K/Cr), sodium/potassium (Na/K), calcium/sodium (Ca/Na), and uric acid/creatinine ratios in healthy Iranian children. Nine hundred and ninety children (515 boys, 475 girls) aged 1 month to 14 years were studied. Two non-fasting random urine specimens (1 week apart) from each subject and 24-h urine collections from 114 children were analyzed for Ca, P, Mg, uric acid, Na, K, and Cr. Urinary Ca/Cr, P/Cr, Mg/Cr, Na/Cr, K/Cr, Na/K, Ca/Na, and uric acid/creatinine ratios were determined from each sample. Non-fasting Ca/Cr, P/Cr, Na/Cr, K/Cr, Na/K, Ca/Na, and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not significantly different between the sexes (P>0.05). Urinary Mg/Cr ratios were higher in girls than boys (P<0.001). No significant relationships were found between urinary Ca/Cr and urinary Na/Cr, urinary Ca/Cr and urinary Na/K, and urinary Ca/Cr and urinary Ca/Na (P>0.05). The P/Cr values showed a gradual decrease with age (from mean+/-SD 0.962+/-0.172 mg/mg at 1 month of life to 0.318+/-0.124 mg/mg at 14 years) (P<0.05). The Ca/Cr ratio was highest between 6 months and 3 years (mean+/-SD=0.047+/-0.041 mg/mg). Following a moderate decrease it stabilized by the age of 7 years (mean+/-SD=0.038+/-0.044 mg/mg). Urinary ratios of Mg/Cr were significantly higher in children under 10 years (mean+/-SD=0.042+/-0.015 mg/mg) compared with the 11- to 14-year age group (mean+/-SD=0.031+/-0.001 mg/mg) (P<0.05). The uric acid/creatinine ratios decreased from 0.060+/-0.077 mg/mg in those less than 7 years to 0.041+/-0.033 in the 11- to 14-year group. Urinary Na/Cr ratios were significantly lower in younger age groups compared with the older age group (P<0.05). Urinary K/Cr ratio was highest in younger children, and then steadily decreased with age. There was no correlation between 24-h urinary Ca and Na excretion. The mean Ca/Na ratios significantly decreased with advancing age (P<0.05). The solute/creatinine ratios in the non-fasting urine samples correlated well with the 24-h solute excretion. We provide reference values for urinary Ca/Cr, P/Cr, Mg/Cr, Na/K, K/Cr, and uric acid/creatinine ratios in normal Iranian children. A child's age and ethnicity should be taken into consideration when assessing the urinary solute/creatinine ratios. PMID:12579403

  14. Guideline of guidelines: urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Syan, Raveen; Brucker, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the article is to review key guidelines on the management of urinary incontinence (UI) to guide clinical management in a practical way. Guidelines produced by theEuropean Association of Urology (updated in 2014), the Canadian Urological Association (updated in 2012), the International Consultation on Incontinence (updated in 2012), and the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (updated in 2013) were examined and their recommendations compared. In addition, specialised guidelines produced by the collaboration between the American Urological Association and the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction on overactive bladder and the use of urodynamics were reviewed. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE) instrument was used to evaluate the quality of these guidelines. There is general agreement between the groups on the recommended initial evaluation and the use of conservative therapies for first-line treatment, with a limited role for imaging or invasive testing in the uncomplicated patient. These groups have greater variability in their recommendations for invasive procedures; however, generally the mid-urethral sling is recommended for uncomplicated stress UI, with different recommendations on the approach, as well as the comparability to other treatments, such as the autologous fascial sling. This 'Guideline of Guidelines' provides a summary of the salient similarities and differences between prominent groups on the management of UI. PMID:26033093

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26309895

  16. Metabolic Consequences after Urinary Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Raimund; Rubenwolf, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances are well-known, but sometimes neglected immediate consequences or late sequelae following urinary diversion (UD) using bowel segments. Whereas subclinical disturbances appear to be quite common, clinically relevant metabolic complications, however, are rare. Exclusion of bowel segments for UD results in loss of absorptive surface for its physiological function. Previous studies demonstrated that at least some of the absorptive and secreting properties of the bowel are preserved when exposed to urine. For each bowel segment typical consequences and complications have been reported. The use of ileal and/or colonic segments may result in hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, which can be prevented if prophylactic treatment with alkali supplementation is started early. The resection of ileal segments may be responsible for malabsorption of vitamin B12 and bile acids with subsequent neurological and hematological late sequelae as well as potential worsening of the patients bowel habits. Hence, careful patient and procedure selection, meticulous long-term follow-up, and prophylactic treatment of subclinical acidosis is of paramount importance in the prevention of true metabolic complications. PMID:24653981

  17. Urinary adverse effects of pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Daniel; Mehus, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Radiation is an integral part of the treatment of many pelvic tumors. The cellular death induced by radiotherapy (RT) benefits cancer control but can also result in adverse effects (AEs) on the organ being treated or those adjacent to it. RT for cancers of the pelvis (bladder, prostate, rectum, uterus or cervix) can result in AEs in the urinary tract. While the acute urinary AEs of pelvic RT are well described, late AEs are less well characterized. The burden of treatment for late AEs may be large given the prevalence of tumors in the pelvis and the high utilization of RT to treat them. Review For prostate cancer, grade 1 and 2 urinary AEs following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are reported to occur in 20-43% and 7-19%, respectively, with a follow up of 10 years. Three-year cumulative risk for grade ?2 urinary AEs is 28-30%. Following brachytherapy (BT), rates of urinary AEs at 5 years are reported to be 36%, 24%, 6.2% and 0.1% for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. For bladder cancer, with a median follow-up of 5 years, 7-12% of patients who receive RT experience urinary AEs of grade 3 or more. For cervical cancer, there remains a 0.25% per year risk of severe AEs for at least 25 years following RT, and ureteral stricture is a well-described AE. For endometrial cancer, severe urinary AEs are rare, but at 13 years of follow up, patients report a significantly worse quality of life with respect to urinary function. In rectal cancer, preoperative RT has a lower risk of AEs than postoperative RT, and few urinary AEs are reported in the literature. Conclusions Urinary AEs can manifest long after RT, and there is a paucity of studies describing rates of these long-term AEs. It is important that the possible complications of RT are recognized by providers and properly communicated to patients so that they are able to make informed decisions about their cancer treatment.

  18. Use of a percutaneously controlled hydraulic occluder for treatment of refractory urinary incontinence in three female cats.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kendall E; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 3 cats were referred for evaluation of chronic urinary incontinence. CLINICAL FINDINGS A presumptive diagnosis of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) was made in all 3 cats. Preoperatively, incontinence was mild in 1 cat (incontinence during sleep) and moderate to severe (incontinence while awake and at rest) in 2. Structural abnormalities noted during cystoscopy included urethrovestibular junction stenosis (n = 1), vaginal stenosis (1), short urethra (1), and intrapelvic bladder (1). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All 3 cats were treated by means of implantation of an inflatable silicone hydraulic occluder (HO) via a ventral midline celiotomy. Immediately prior to HO implantation, patients underwent cystoscopy to detect any anatomic abnormalities and confirm the absence of ureteral ectopia. Following surgery, all 3 patients attained complete continence, needing 0 or 1 inflation of the device. Complications included cystoscopy-associated urethral tear (n = 1), constipation (1), stranguria (1), hematuria (2), and urinary tract infection (2). Device explantation was performed 14 weeks after surgery in 1 cat because of postoperative constipation. Constipation persisted and urinary incontinence recurred but was markedly improved following device removal in this cat (leakage of urine only when sleeping at follow-up 29 months after surgery [26 months after device explantation]). At the time of last follow-up, 2 of the 3 cats remained fully continent approximately 3 and 6 years after device implantation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that implantation of an HO may be a safe and effective long-term treatment for some cats with USMI. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential for treatment-related complications and the long-term outcome. PMID:26885598

  19. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  20. Correlates of Urinary Incontinence in Community Dwelling Older Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ariana L.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Anger, Jennifer T.; Mangione, Carol M.; Trejo, Laura; Rodríguez, Larissa V.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) has shown significant variability in the literature and is reflective of the definition and sampling methodologies used as well as the age group, ethnicity, and gender being studied. Our aim was to measure the prevalence and correlates of UI in a cross sectional sample of 572 older Latinos participating in Caminemos, a trial of a behavioral intervention to raise walking levels. Participants completed a baseline survey as well as a series of physical performance measures. UI was measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence item: “How often do you leak urine?” Potential correlates of UI were measured including: sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, smoking history, physical activity medical comorbidity, physical performance, activities of daily living impairment, use of assistive ambulatory devices, cognitive function, physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of UI in this community sample was 26.9%. Older Latinos reporting UI were more likely to be female, less physically active, have greater medical comorbidity, lower physical performance scores, greater ADL impairment, use assistive ambulatory devices, have worse cognitive function, have lower HRQoL, and have depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that medical comorbidity was independently associated with higher rates of UI (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.30-2.12), while better cognitive function (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.93) and higher weighted physical activity scores (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.98) were independently associated with lower rates of UI. UI is highly prevalent but not ubiquitous among community-residing older Latinos, suggesting that UI is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Future studies should examine whether interventions that decrease comorbidity and cognitive decline and increase physical activity among older Latinos also improve continence status. PMID:20406311

  1. The urethral plug II: an alternative treatment in women with genuine urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1993-10-01

    An improved design of the recently developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the 2-sphere or the 1-sphere plug during period 1 (2 weeks). In period 2 (2 weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period 3 (2 months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period 3 with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the 2-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. To accommodate variations in urethral length and to avoid the loss of plugs, the devices are available in different lengths. Six women developed urinary tract infections and 2 of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:8261298

  2. [The urethral plug--an alternative treatment of women with urinary stress incontinence].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1995-05-29

    A developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and one or two spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the two-sphere or the one-sphere plug during period one (two weeks). In period two (two weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period three (two months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period three with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the two-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. Six women developed urinary tract infections and two of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:7770983

  3. The urethral plug: a new treatment modality for genuine urinary stress incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Kromann-Andersen, B; Jacobsen, H; Nielsen, E M; Nordling, J; Holm, H H; Larsen, J F

    1990-11-01

    A new modality, the urethral plug, was used to treat 22 women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug is made of thermoplastic elastomer (Kraton G), and consists of a meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk. The spheres were located according to the result of the urethral pressure profile. The midpoint of the proximal sphere was placed at the bladder neck and the distal sphere was placed just above the maximum urethral pressure point. At voiding the plug was removed and afterwards a new plug was inserted. The plug with 2 spheres was tested in week 1 (period 1) and the plug with only the distal sphere was tested in week 2 (period 2). A total of 22 patients completed period 1. Eight patients did not complete period 2, mostly due to either unchanged incontinence during period 1 or a repeated loss of the plug with 1 sphere. In periods 1 and 2, 73 and 79% of the patients were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. A total of 14 patients completed both periods. Eight patients preferred the plug with 2 spheres, 1 preferred the other plug and 5 had no preference. The side effects were few. This preliminary study shows that the urethral plug seems to be a promising alternative treatment for female genuine urinary stress incontinence. PMID:2231895

  4. Urolastic for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: 24-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the efficacy and durability of Urolastic, a new urethral bulking agent in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), after a follow-up of 24-months. Material and methods A follow-up study of women with SUI who received a Urolastic injection and successfully passed the 12-month follow-up. Assessment included the Stamey Grade, 1-h Pad weight test, and the International quality of life (I-QoL) score. Results Nineteen women who completed the 12-month follow-up were invited for the 24-month follow-up study. One patient did not respond to the correspondence. Four of the 18 patients who responded to the correspondence reported removal of the Urolastic implant at another facility, based on their desire. The explanation for this removal was painful intercourse (n = 1) or less than optimal dryness (n = 3). The overall objective improvement in continence status at 24-months was 66% compared to the 89% at the 12-month follow-up, while in addition the 1-h pad weight test showed >50% reduction in pad weight in 66% of patients compared to 84% at the 12-month follow-up. Adverse events reported were urinary tract infection (n = 1), local genital infection with erosion into the vagina (n = 1), painful intercourse (n = 2), and urgency (n = 4). Conclusions Urolastic is comparable to other bulking agents in terms of durability, efficacy, and complications. PMID:26568877

  5. Urinary bladder retroversion and neourethrocystostomy for treatment of inadvertent prostatectomy and urethrectomy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Flesher, Kathryn; Weisse, Chick; Berent, Allyson; Lin, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 15-month-old male Newfoundland was examined because of an inability to urinate, lethargy, inappetence, and intermittent vomiting that first became evident after bilateral cryptorchidectomy 2 days previously. The patient was referred for further evaluation and treatment. CLINICAL FINDINGS Results of physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominocentesis led to a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. Retrograde cystography indicated urinary tract obstruction. In view of the history of recent elective cryptorchidectomy, a diagnosis of uroperitoneum with urethral obstruction secondary to iatrogenic prostatectomy and urethrectomy was made. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME During a ventral midline celiotomy, the inadvertent prostatectomy and urethrectomy were found to have resulted in insufficient urethral length for primary repair. Surgical repair of the urethral defect was achieved by means of a novel technique of bladder retroversion and neourethrocystostomy at the apex of the bladder. A urethral stricture evident 1.5 months after surgery was initially treated with balloon dilatation, followed by temporary and then permanent placement of a self-expanding metallic stent. At the last follow-up 6.6 years after stent placement, the dog remained continent while receiving phenylpropanolamine and the owner was highly satisfied with the outcome. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caudal intraabdominal bladder retroversion with apex neourethrocystostomy may be a viable alternative to more complex urethral lengthening procedures in dogs and can potentially preserve lower urinary tract function. This treatment might be considered for patients with urethral trauma or malignant neoplasia necessitating extensive urethral resection. Urethral strictures may be effectively managed with stenting. PMID:26885597

  6. Lost Continents? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify continent shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)

  7. Profiles on Rural Education in the Seven State Mid-Continent Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis.

    Based on interviews with State Education Department personnel, this report presents information regarding the status of rural education in the seven-state region (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) served by the Mid-Continent Regional Laboratory. Of the 2,400 school districts in this region, 93 percent

  8. Developing Your Own Continent--A Teaching Unit for World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg, Robert W.; Dornan, David Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Describes a six-week seventh-grade project in which students create their own continent. The project helps students learn about weather and climatic patterns, use map scales and legends, describe relationships between natural resources and human activities, solve problems, and work effectively in groups. (Author/KC)

  9. Papers presented to the Conference on Heat and Detachment in Crustal Extension on Continents and Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Several topics relative to heat and detachment in crustal extension on continents and planets are discussed. Rifting on Venus, heat flow and continental breakup, magnetism, the mountains and tectonic processes of Io, and the ductile extension of planetary lithospheres are among the topics covered.

  10. Evaluation Plan of the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, FY1996-FY2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe

    This evaluation plan, which is updated annually, provides a synthesis of the various evaluation activities of Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). During 1999, the fourth year of the Laboratory's contract period with the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, special studies and integrated studies were designed to

  11. Long Aftershock Sequences within Continents and Implications for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China has prompted concern about a repetition of the 1976 M7.8 earthquake that destroyed the city, killing more than 242,000 people. However, the decay of seismicity there implies that the recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of the 1976 event. This 37-year sequence is an example of the phenomenon that aftershock sequences within continents are often significantly longer than the typical 10 years at plate boundaries. The long sequence of aftershocks in continents is consistent with a simple friction-based model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Hence the slowly-deforming continents tend to have aftershock sequences significantly longer than at rapidly-loaded plate boundaries. This effect has two consequences for hazard assessment. First, within the heavily populated continents that are typically within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely significantly on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. This assumption would lead to overestimation of the hazard in presently active areas and underestimation elsewhere, if some of these small events are aftershocks. Second, successful attempts to remove aftershocks from catalogs used for hazard assessment would underestimate the hazard, because much of the hazard is due to the aftershocks, and the declustering algorithms implicitly assume short aftershock sequences and thus do not remove long-duration ones.

  12. Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

  13. Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-continent great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...

  14. Mid-continent fall temperatures at the 10-cm soil depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for applying N-fertilizer in autumn involve delaying applications until daily soil temperature at 10 cm depth is = or < 10 C. Daily soil temperature data during autumn were examined from 26 sites along a transect from 36 to 49 N latitude in the mid-continent USA. After soils first...

  15. Mechanisms and geologic significance of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity in the continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Olugboji, Tolulope; Park, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The stable continents have a puzzling structure. Recent seismological studies have revealed a marked drop in seismic velocity at middle-lithosphere depths, but a generally small velocity drop at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The mid-lithosphere discontinuity has previously been attributed to changes in composition and/or crystal alignment (anisotropy) caused by metasomatic alteration, as well as to partial melting and/or accretion of intruded materials that occurred after the formation of the continents. We show that these models cannot easily explain the global presence of a large seismic velocity drop in the middle lithosphere and a small velocity change at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These models are also difficult to reconcile with long-term continental stability and, in particular, observations of nearly depth-invariant ages of rocks in the continental lithosphere that do not support the notion of late alteration events. Instead, we propose an elastically accommodated grain-boundary sliding model that predicts a substantial velocity drop at the mid-lithosphere discontinuity and a weak seismic signal at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as observed, without invoking late-stage modifications to the lithosphere. In this model, the mid-lithosphere discontinuity is a general feature of the stable continents, the precise depth of which depends primarily on temperature and water content. Consequently, the depth of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity may provide clues to the evolution of continents.

  16. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  17. Manipulation of the Family Photo Album: Esther Parada's Transplant--A Tale of Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggemeyer, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on Esther Parada's non-traditional use of the Web to communicate her art, and offers a critique of Parada's work, "Transplant: A Tale of Three Continents," and suggestions for critiquing Web art in the school classroom. Parada creates an intersection between this new medium and the more traditional medium of

  18. A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

  19. Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, M.F.

    1972-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.

  20. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Soman N; Miao, Yuxuan

    2015-10-01

    The urinary tract is constantly exposed to microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, but generally the urinary tract resists infection by gut microorganisms. This resistance to infection is mainly ascribed to the versatility of the innate immune defences in the urinary tract, as the adaptive immune responses are limited particularly when only the lower urinary tract is infected. In recent years, as the strengths and weaknesses of the immune system of the urinary tract have emerged and as the virulence attributes of uropathogens are recognized, several potentially effective and unconventional strategies to contain or prevent urinary tract infections have emerged. PMID:26388331

  1. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodents and other species have subsequently been identified, including N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) administered in the drinking water, N-[(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide (FANFT) in the diet and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) instilled intravesically. When low doses of several bladder carcinogens (BBN, FANFT, 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine) are administered to rats, either simultaneously or sequentially, a synergistic effect is observed with respect to bladder carcinogenesis. In addition, a multistage carcinogenesis process has been demonstrated for the rat bladder using MNU or FANFT as initiators, and dietary sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, or tryptophan as promoters. Calculi (or pellets) appear to enhance the promotion process but are not necessary for it to occur. Recent studies also indicate that urine has a role in the promoting process. The urothelium normally has a very low mitotic rate. If mucosal proliferation is increased, such as during fetal development or during regeneration and repair of an ulcer, the bladder appears to be considerably more sensitive to the effects of promoting substances. For example, if sodium saccharin is administered to rats after ulceration of the bladder, even without prior administration of an initiator, bladder carcinoma develops. Under these conditions, the substance appears as a carcinogen. Human populations with increased bladder epithelial proliferation, such as fetus, infants, patients with bacterial cystitis or men with partially obstructive prostatism, may have increased susceptibility to the action of carcinogenic or promoting stimuli. PMID:6873031

  2. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  3. Applications of urinary proteomics in biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Gao, YouHe

    2011-05-01

    Urine is an important source of biomarkers. This article reviews current advances, major challenges, and future prospects in the field of urinary proteomics. Because the practical clinical problem is to distinguish diseases with similar symptoms, merely comparing samples from patients of a particular disease to those of healthy individuals is inadequate for finding biomarkers with sufficient diagnostic power. In addition, the variation of expression levels of urinary proteins among healthy individuals and individuals under different physiological conditions adds to the difficulty in identifying biomarkers. We propose that establishing the natural variation in urinary protein expression among a healthy population can serve as a reference to help identify protein abundance changes that are caused by disease, not by individual variations or physiological changes. We also discuss that comparing protein expression levels between urine and plasma may reveal the physiological function of the kidney and that may facilitate biomarker discovery. Finally, we propose that establishing a data-sharing platform for data collection and integrating results from all urinary biomarker studies will help promote the development of urinary proteomics. PMID:21455690

  4. [Diagnostic algorithms in female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Vlk, R; Chmel, R

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is frequent problem with significantly negative impact on the quality of life. The correct plan of examination leads to the proposal of the appropriate treatment. The history, correct judgment of symptoms of incontinence and detailed gynaecological examination are important at the beginning of the diagnostic process. Negative urine cultivation is necessary condition for the invasive investigation of the urinary tract. Special questionnaires, micturition diary and clinical tests belong to the physical examination. The pad-weight test is based on the measurement of weight gain of absorbent pads during a test period under standardised conditions. Q-tip test (cotton swab test) measures the degree of mobility of urethra and bladder neck. Most of the clinical tests can be replaced by the ultrasound examination (introital or perineal approach), which helps to appreciate the vigour of urethra, bladder neck and vagina during the resting period and at stress. Urodynamic examination records pressure changes during the bladder filling, pressure gradients in urethra and the velocity of the urinary flow. It should be carried out when antiincontinence surgery is planned or when conservative therapy failed. Urodynamic examination helps to distinguish between stress and urge type of incontinence. Urethrocystoscopy is indicated for the diagnosis of the recurrent urinary infections, urge incontinence when structural pathologies of the urinary bladder are suspected, iatrogenic incontinence or postoperative complications. PMID:15807295

  5. Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (TammHorsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

  6. Oceans and continents: Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Sclater, J.G.; Parsons, B.; Jaupart, C.

    1981-12-10

    The principal objective of this paper is to present a simple and self-consistent review of the basic physical processes controlling heat loss from the earth. To accomplish this objective, we give a short summary of the oceanic and continental data and compare and contrast the respective mechanisms of heat loss . In the oceans we concentrate on the effect of hydrothermal circulation, and on the continents we consider in some detail a model relating surface heat flow to varying depth scales for the distribution of potassium, thorium, and uranium. From this comparison we conclude that the range in possible geotherms at depths below 100 to 150 km under continents and oceans overlaps and the thermal structure beneath an old stable continent is indistinguishable from that beneath an ocean were it at equilibrium. Oceans and continents are part of the same thermal system. Both have an upper rigid mechanical layer where heat loss is by conduction and a lower thermal boundary layer where convection is dominant. The simple conductive definition of the plate thickness is an oversimplification. The observed distribution of area versus age in the ocean allows us to investigate the dominant mechanism of heat loss which is plate creation. This distribution and an understanding of the heat flow through oceans and continents can be used to calculate the heat loss of the earth. This heat loss is 10/sup 13/ cal/s (4.2 x 10/sup 13/W) of which more than 60% results from the creation of oceanic plate. The relation between area and age of the oceans is coupled to the ridge and subducting slab forces that contribute to the driving mechanism for plate motions. These forces are self-regulating and maintain the rate of plate generation required to achieve a balance between heat loss and heat generation.

  7. Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for urinary incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Francie

    2002-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how continence nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228

  8. [Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

    2004-12-01

    Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain two compounds with anti-adherence properties, which prevent fimbriated E. coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately a dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials have a number of apparent limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and have employed different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15666710

  9. Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M

    2004-05-15

    Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain 2 compounds with antiadherence properties that prevent fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract. Approximately 1 dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the urinary tract. However, these trials suffer from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, cranberry juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and they have used different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15156480

  10. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense. PMID:26318186

  11. Resistance of bacteria in urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chomarat, M

    2000-12-01

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common health problem in young women but also the most common nosocomial infection (>33%) contributing to the mortality of patients, and increasing the duration and cost of hospitalization. Escherichia coli is the most predominant organism and its prevalence varies in different studies. The high consumption of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics, combined with multiple pathology and frequent use of invasive devices, is a major factor contributing to high levels of resistance. There is a serious decrease in susceptibility of E. coli strains to amoxycillin, due to the presence of R-TEM enzymes, to cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin-trometamol remain highly active against urinary Enterobacteriaceae, with over 90% of E. coli being susceptible. Knowledge of the most likely causative organisms and the prevalence of resistance pathogens to antimicrobial agents is essential to select antibiotics and to establish guidelines for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:11118863

  12. [Urinary infection by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Emerging yeast?].

    PubMed

    Elkhihal, B; Elhalimi, M; Ghfir, B; Mostachi, A; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a commensal yeast of the digestive, respiratory and genito-urinary tract. It is widely used as a probiotic for the treatment of post-antibiotic diarrhea. It most often occurs in immunocompromised patients frequently causing fungemia. We report the case of an adult diabetic patient who had a urinary tract infection due to S.cerevisiae. The disease started with urination associated with urinary frequency burns without fever. The diagnosis was established by the presence of yeasts on direct examination and positivity of culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol three times. The auxanogramme gallery (Auxacolor BioRad()) allowed the identification of S.cerevisiae. The patient was put on fluconazole with good outcome. This observation points out that this is an opportunistic yeast in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26522963

  13. The relationship between kidney and urinary kininogenase

    PubMed Central

    Nustad, K.

    1970-01-01

    1. Rat kidneys which were perfused with saline contained both kininogenase (KGA) and kininase activity. These activities were separated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The kininase activity was excluded from the column whereas the KGA activity was retained. Kidney KGA activity was primarily found in the sedimentable fraction of the homogenate. 2. The kidney KGA activity was compared with the urinary KGA activity, and the following properties were found to be the same: molecular dimension, pH optimum, effect of inhibitors, and ability to liberate kinins from kininogens. 3. A urinary sample collected over 24 h contained about 8 times the KGA activity found in the corresponding kidneys at the end of the collection period. The urine: kidney ratio for alkaline phosphatase was about 001. 4. The ability of kidney and urinary samples to hydrolyse N-?-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) at pH 85 paralleled the KGA activity. PMID:5420147

  14. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-02-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

  15. Urinary Tract Infection By Chromobacterium Violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Otta, Sarita; Sahu, Kundan Kumar; Panda, Kirtika; Rout, Subhrajita

    2014-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a facultative anaerobic proteobacterium, is particularly isolated from water and soil in tropical areas and has been implicated in few infections like septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis and diarrhea. But urinary tract infection caused by it is very rare. Limited awareness about this pathogen and inappropriate antibiotic therapy contribute to a high mortality rate. Here, we describe an unusual case of urinary tract infection by Chromobacterium violaceum in a young immuno-competent male which was managed aggressively with proper antibiotics as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:25302195

  16. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  17. Urinary tract infections: treatment/comparative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Olin, Shelly J; Bartges, Joseph W

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when there is compromise of host defense mechanisms and a virulent microbe adheres, multiplies, and persists in a portion of the urinary tract. Most commonly, UTI is caused by bacteria, but fungi and viruses are possible. Urine culture and sensitivity are the gold standards for diagnosis of bacterial UTI. Identifying the location of infection (eg, bladder, kidney, prostate) as well as comorbidities (eg, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression) is essential to guide the diagnostic and therapeutic plan. Antimicrobial agents are the mainstay of therapy for bacterial UTI and selected ideally based on culture and sensitivity. PMID:25824394

  18. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  19. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  20. Is there any correlation between continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Charitra; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Rolf et al. (EPSL, 2012) and Coltice et al. (Science, 2012) have previously shown that continents exert a first order influence on Earth's mantle flow by affecting convective wavelength and surface heat flow. However, how continents influence the development and location of mantle plumes (upwellings) remains a topic of considerable debate. While Heron and Lowman (GRL, 2010; Tectonophysics, 2011) propose regions where downwelling has ceased (irrespective of overlying plate) as the preferred location for plumes, O'Neill et al. (Gondwana Research, 2009) show an anti-correlation between the average positions of subducting slabs at continental margins, and mantle plumes at continental/oceanic interiors. Continental motion is attributed to the viscous stresses imparted by the convecting mantle and the extent of this motion depends on the heat budget of the mantle. Core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux, internal heating from decay of radioactive elements, and mantle cooling contribute to this heat budget. Out of these sources, CMB heat flux is not well defined. However, the recent determination of core's high thermal conductivity requires a CMB heat flow of at least 12 TW (de Koker et al., PNAS 2012; Pozzo et al., Nature 2012; Gomi et al., PEPI 2013). Thus it is necessary to characterize the impact of basal heating on mantle dynamics with continents and self-consistent plate tectonics. By systematically varying parameters like CMB temperature, continental size, mantle heating modes (basal and internal), and Rayleigh number; we model Boussinesq, incompressible, thermo-chemical mantle convection in 2D spherical annulus geometry using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). We observe correlation between continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle irrespective of the variations in basal heating and continental size (except for very small continents). Moreover, we see episodicity between correlation and anti-correlation with increasing Rayleigh number. Furthermore, the effect of radioactivity in the continental crust on this correlation is investigated. At present, mobile continents in StagYY are simplified into a compositionally distinct field drifting at the top of the mantle; thereby lacking the complexities of real Earth. We aim to further develop the code to allow for realistic continental growth and destruction.

  1. Basement Structures in the Mid-Continent Region: Some Perspectives Based on Regional Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    A variety of geophysical data show us that the basement structure of the Mid-Continent region is very complex. Most of this complexity involves structures that are 1.1 billion years old or less and many are Phanerozoic in age. The dimensions of many of these structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually make the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The continental crust of the Mid-Continent region as we recognize it today is due to a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. However, the resulting supercontinent did not last long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-Continent region, the subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and, at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. These events, the Laramide orogeny, and the late Cenozoic uplift to the west are topics of great current scientific interest. There has been increasing emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-Continent region, and these data have been particularly effective when used in an integrated fashion with seismic and drilling data. These studies have shown that rifting during the late Precambrian and Cambrian affected large areas of the Mid-Continent region and created sedimentary basins that have in many cases survived to the present. In addition, younger structures such as those associated with the Ancestral Rocky Mountains have often been affected by older rift structures preserving Cambrian and older strata. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains is often a massive inversion of these rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic. These studies show that we are still learning about the structure and history of the basement in the Mid-Continent region and thus there is much to be learned from EarthScope data as they become available.

  2. Neonatal Urinary Ascites: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gajjar, Priya; Nourse, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Urinary ascites in neonates is not a common condition. Three cases of urinary ascites are presented and each of them has a different aetiology. Neonates with urinary ascites usually present as clinical emergency, requiring resuscitation, ventilator support, and subsequent drainage of urine. The ultimate management depends on the site of extravasation and the underlying cause. PMID:25954559

  3. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  5. A staff management system for maintaining improvements in continence with elderly nursing home residents.

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, L D; Engel, B T; Hawkins, A; McCormick, K; Scheve, A; Jones, L T

    1990-01-01

    We developed a staff management system for maintaining treatment gains achieved on a specialized continence unit located in a geriatric nursing home. Geriatric assistants learned to use a prompted voiding procedure to maintain improved dryness for 4 elderly residents. The staff management system included self-monitoring and recording of prompted voiding activities and supervisory monitoring and feedback based on group performance of these activities. Results show that the system was effective in maintaining prompted voiding activities with corresponding maintenance of improved patient continence. However, a gradual decline in staff performance was noted 4 to 5 months after the initiation of the system. During a subsequent phase of the study, provision of individual feedback restored staff performance to previous levels. Results are discussed in relation to the practicality of prompted voiding interventions in nursing home environments and the applicability of staff management systems in this setting. PMID:2335482

  6. Ophiolites in ocean-continent transitions: From the Steinmann Trinity to sea-floor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernoulli, Daniel; Jenkyns, Hugh C.

    2009-05-01

    Before the theory of plate tectonics took hold, there was no coherent model for ocean-continent transitions that included both extant continental margins and fragmentary ancient examples preserved in orogenic belts. Indeed, during the early 1900, two strands of thought developed, one relying on the antiquity and permanence of continents and oceans, advocated by the mainstream of the scientific community and one following mobilist concepts derived from Wegener's hypothesis (1915) of continental drift. As an illustration of the prevailing North-American view, the different composition and thickness of continental and oceanic crust and the resulting isostatic response showed "how improbable it would be to suppose that a continent could founder or go to oceanic depth or that ocean floor at 3000 fathoms could ever have been a stable land area since the birth of the oceans" [H.H. Hess, Trans. R. Soc. London, A 222 (1954) 341-348]. Because of the perceived permanence of oceans and continents, mountain chains were thought to originate from narrow, elongated, unstable belts, the geosynclines, circling the continents or following "zones of crustal weakness" within them, from which geanticlines and finally mountain belts would develop. This teleological concept, whereby a geosyncline would inevitably evolve into a mountain chain, dominated geological interpretations of orogenic belts for several decades in the mid-twentieth century. However, the concept of permanence of oceans and continents and the concept of the geosyncline had already met with the critiques of Suess and others. As early as 1905, Steinmann considered the association of peridotite, "diabase" (basalt/dolerite) and radiolarite (a typical ocean-continent transition assemblage), present in the Alps and Apennines, as characteristic of the deep-ocean floor and Bailey (1936) placed Steinmann's interpretation into the context of continental drift and orogeny. Indeed, in both authors' writings, the concept of ophiolites as ocean crust is apparent. Between 1920 and 1930, the stage was thus potentially set for modern mobilist concepts that were, however, to prove attractive to only a small circle of Alpine and peri-Gondwanian geologists. After the Second World War, the 1950s saw the rapid progress of the geophysical and geological exploration of oceans and continental margins that provided the data for a reevaluation of the geosynclinal concept. Actualistic models now equated the former preorogenic miogeosyncline of Stille (1940) and Kay (1951) with passive continental margins [C.L. Drake, M. Ewing, G.H. Sutton, Continental margin and geosynclines: the east coast of North America, north of Cape Hatteras, in: L. Ahrens, et al. (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 3, Pergamon Press, London, 1959, pp. 110-189], the (American version of the) eugeosyncline and its igneous rocks with "collapsing continental rises" [R.S. Dietz, J. Geol. 71 (1963) 314-333] and the ophiolites, the Steinmann Trinity, of the (European) eugeosyncline with fragments of oceanic lithosphere [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620]. The concept of sea-floor spreading [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620; H.H. Hess, Mid-oceanic ridges and tectonics of the sea-floor, in: W.F. Whittard, R. Bradshaw (Eds), Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Colston Papers 17, Butterworths, London, 1965, pp. 317-333] finally eliminated the weaknesses in Wegener's hypothesis and, with the coming of the "annus mirabilis" of 1968, the concept of the geosyncline could be laid to rest. Ocean-continent transitions of modern oceans, as revealed by seismology and deep-sea drilling, could now be compared with the remnants of their ancient counterparts preserved in the Alps and elsewhere.

  7. Image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition, US east coast

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, W.S.; Purdy, G.M. ); Reiter, E.C.; Toksoez, M.N. )

    1992-03-01

    Strong wide-angle reflections from the Moho were recorded by ocean-bottom seismic instruments during the 1988 Carolina Trough multichannel seismic experiment, in an area where the Moho is difficult to detect with vertical-incidence seismic data. Prestack depth migration of these reflections has enabled the construction of a seismic image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition of a sedimented passive margin. The Moho rises across the margin at a slope of 10{degree}-12{degree}, from a depth of about 33 km beneath the continental shelf to 20 km beneath the outer rise. This zone of crustal thinning defines a distinct, 60-70-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. The authors interpret the Moho in the Carolina Trough as a Jurassic feature, formed by magmatic intrusion and underplating during the rifting of Pangea.

  8. Image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition, U.S. east coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. Steven; Reiter, Edmund C.; Purdy, G. M.; Toksöz, M. N.

    1992-03-01

    Strong wide-angle reflections from the Moho were recorded by ocean-bottom seismic instruments during the 1988 Carolina Trough multichannel seismic experiment, in an area where the Moho is difficult to detect with vertical-incidence seismic data. Prestack depth migration of these reflections has enabled the construction of a seismic image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition of a sedimented passive margin. The Moho rises across the margin at a slope of 10°-12°, from a depth of about 33 km beneath the continental shelf to 20 km beneath the outer rise. This zone of crustal thinning defines a distinct, 60-70-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. We interpret the Moho in the Carolina Trough as a Jurassic feature, formed by magmatic intrusion and underplating during the rifting of Pangea.

  9. Relationship of multispectral satellite data to land surface evaporation from the Australian continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Based on NOAA-9 AVHRR and Nimbus-7 SMMR satellite data, satellite indices of vegetation from the Australian continent are calculated for the period of May 1986 to April 1987. Visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectances and the normalized difference (ND) vegetation index are calculated from the AVHRR sensor. The microwave polarization difference (PD) is also calculated as the difference between the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at 37 GHz. ND, PD, VIS, and NIR indices were plotted against rainfall and water balance estimates of evaporation. It is concluded that direct satellite monitoring of annual evaporation across the Australian continent using PD or VIS satellite indices of vegetation biomass appears possible for areas with evaporation less than 600 mm/y and that use of the ND relationship at continental scale may underpredict monthly evaporation of forests relative to agriculture.

  10. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  11. Urinary metabolic signatures of human adiposity.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Posma, Joram M; Chan, Queenie; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Bictash, Magda; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; van Horn, Linda; Daviglus, Martha; Stamler, Jeremiah; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2015-04-29

    Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. We used 24-hour urinary metabolic profiling by proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ion exchange chromatography to characterize the metabolic signatures of adiposity in the U.S. (n = 1880) and UK (n = 444) cohorts of the INTERMAP (International Study of Macro- and Micronutrients and Blood Pressure) epidemiologic study. Metabolic profiling of urine samples collected over two 24-hour time periods 3 weeks apart showed reproducible patterns of metabolite excretion associated with adiposity. Exploratory analysis of the urinary metabolome using (1)H NMR spectroscopy of the U.S. samples identified 29 molecular species, clustered in interconnecting metabolic pathways, that were significantly associated (P = 1.5 × 10(-5) to 2.0 × 10(-36)) with body mass index (BMI); 25 of these species were also found in the UK validation cohort. We found multiple associations between urinary metabolites and BMI including urinary glycoproteins and N-acetyl neuraminate (related to renal function), trimethylamine, dimethylamine, 4-cresyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (gut microbial co-metabolites), succinate and citrate (tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), ketoleucine and the ketoleucine/leucine ratio (linked to skeletal muscle mitochondria and branched-chain amino acid metabolism), ethanolamine (skeletal muscle turnover), and 3-methylhistidine (skeletal muscle turnover and meat intake). We mapped the multiple BMI-metabolite relationships as part of an integrated systems network that describes the connectivities between the complex pathway and compartmental signatures of human adiposity. PMID:25925681

  12. Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?

    PubMed

    Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iiguez, I; Rabual, R; Garca-Garrote, F; Coira, A; Garca-Pas, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; Lpez-lvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

    2015-04-01

    The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80%). Most of our patients (65%) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37%), followed by diabetes mellitus (27%) and neurologic disease (25%). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45% had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35% had lower urinary tract infection, and 20% had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9%), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72%) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98% to nitrofurantoin, and 77% to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

  13. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  14. Urinary tract infection in children - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has been lethargic, irritable, or not drinking or eating well, these symptoms should begin to improve in 1 - 2 days after treatment begins. (Note: if your child has a brain or nervous system disorder or abnormal changes or defects in their urinary ...

  15. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also

  16. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  17. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  18. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  19. Psychosomatic Aspects of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Debus, G.; Kästner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. With increasing age its prevalence and severity of its manifestations increase. Among nursing home residents the frequency is between 43 and 77 %, 6 to 10 % of all admissions to nursing homes are due to urinary incontinence. The risk for urinary incontinence among women with cognitive deficits is 1.5- to 3.4-fold higher than for women without mental disorders. The most common form is stress incontinence (50 %), followed by mixed stress-urge incontinence (40 %) and purely urge incontinence (OAB = overactive bladder, 20 %). With regard to its cause, the latter remains unclarified in about 80 % of the cases. It is often difficult to treat. There are also cases in which urge incontinence is related to traumatic events. In such cases behavioural and psychotherapeutic options may be helpful. Almost inevitably every form of incontinence has psychological consequences: shame and insecurity are often results of uncontrolled loss of urine. Among others, in the long term, they lead to the avoidance of social contacts and possibly to depression and isolation. Consideration of the psychosomatics is important in the therapy for female urinary incontinence from three points of view: 1) the efficacy of treatment is better suited to the patient, 2) the treatment costs are lower, 3) the professional satisfaction of the responsible physician increases. PMID:25797959

  20. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity from exposure to therapeutic agents and chemicals in the environment and workplace results in a broad spectrum of clinical renal disease that may mimic disorders from other causes. Nephrotoxic agents may, in fact, be responsible for some fraction of renal disease of undetermined etiology. Specific diagnosis and treatment by removal from exposure to the toxic agent is more likely in the early phase of the disorder. Measurement and characterization of proteinuria provides the most sensitive and reliable method of early detection. Increased urinary excretion of serum proteins with molecular weight in excess of 50,000, such as albumin and transferrin, is an early indicator of glomerular injury. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria (beta 2-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein) and enzymuria, particularly excretion of NAG, are sensitive indicators of renal tubular cell injury. Tests that reflect hypersensitivity reactions are often indicative of immunologically mediated nephrotoxicity but are not specific for the kidney. Cancers of the kidney and urinary bladder appear to be increasing and are most common among the socially active and affluent. Susceptibility of the urinary tract to toxicity and carcinogenicity reflect contact of excreted toxins with the epithelial cells of nephrons and urinary bladder. 45 references.

  1. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, H. W.; Lirenman, D. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Nielsen, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are common in children and present in various ways. Diagnosis is based on findings of pyuria and bacteriuria. Management includes adequate and timely investigation, appropriate antibiotics, treatment of underlying contributing factors, and follow-up advice. Images p1625-a p1628-a p1629-a PMID:8348023

  2. [Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, K F

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and the incidence of Urinary Incontinence is growing. Women suffer predominantly from stress and mixed urinary incontinence and men from urge incontinence. In elderly people, the pathophysiological and the physiological change in the lower urinary tract system must be considered as well as an underlying multimorbidity. Stress urinary incontinence is among others caused by an insufficient urethral closure mechanism and urge incontinence is followed by unhibited detrusor contractions. Medical treatment is beside other important conservative options only one part of the treatment strategy in incontinence. Duloxetine, a serotonine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitore can increase activity of the external urethral sphincter and is able to reduce incontinence episodes in up to 64 %. Antagonists of muscarinic receptors can reduce urgency, frequency and urge incontinence as well as increase bladder capacity significantly. In Germany, darifenacin, fesoterodin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium chloride are available to treat urge incontinence. The efficacy of these agents are almost comparable in the elderly with the exception of oxybutynin IR. However, tolerability is different and not well studied in the elderly population with the exception of fesoterodin. Side effects, especially dry mouth, dizziness and constipation often limit their use. None of the agents show ideal efficacy or tolerability in all patients. Last summer therefore a β3-agonist mirabegron was also introduced in Germany but was withdrawn. PMID:26886709

  3. [Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].

    PubMed

    Novckov, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

  4. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  5. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for urinary creatinine and the statistical significance of other variables in the model to be independent of effects of creatinine concentration. PMID:15687057

  6. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  7. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  8. Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Patricia Wood

    2003-04-01

    The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing Tien Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late Miocene time when full coupling of the colliding plates had occurred. As in the Laurentia-Gondwana case, structures of similar magnitude and spacing to those in Eurasia have developed in the Indian plate. Within the present orogen two ancient suture zones have been reactivated—the early Paleozoic Terskey zone and the late Paleozoic Turkestan suture between the Siberian and East Gondwanan cratons. Inverted Proterozoic to early Paleozoic rift structures and passive-margin deposits are exposed north of the Terskey zone. In the Alay and Tarim complexes, Vendian to mid-Carboniferous passive-margin strata and the subjacent Proterozoic crystalline basement have been uplifted. Data on Tien Shan uplifts, basins, structural arrays, and deformation rates guide paleotectonic interpretations of ancient intraplate mountain belts. Similarly, exhumed deep crustal shear zones in the Ancestral Rockies offer insight into partitioning and reorientation of strain during contemporary intraplate deformation.

  9. Seasonal Variability of Rainfall Over Indonesia Maritime Continent Based on Trmm pr Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulihastin, Erma; Kodama, Yasu-Masa

    Temporal and spatial distribution of near surface rain and three types of rainfall namely shallow rain, convective rain, and stratiform rain over Indonesia Maritime Continent (90E-150E, 15S-15N) was investigated using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar in a 10-years dataset (1998-2007). This research also using least square method to confirm distribution of annual and semiannual oscillation of rainfall over Indonesia Maritime Continent (IMC). Climatology rainfall of shallow, stratiform, and convective have agreement to seasonal variability of rainfall over IMC that influenced by monsoon which was rainfall became increased from November to April and reached peak value in January. Conversely, rainfall decreased from May to October and reached lowest value in July. The distribution of shallow rain showed the unique seasonal rainfall for local region namely Sulawesi, Maluku, and closely region. Seasonal of shallow rain in those regions approve to local type of rainfall which was reach peak value in July and August. This rainfall type was opposite to equator rainfall and monsoon rainfall in the most of IMC regions which are dry season occured in the same period. Shallow rain may contributed to local rainfall type over IMC. It might be drived by increasing low level moisture and strongly of subsidence flow in boundary layer which is also influenced by enhancement of Sea Surface Temperature in Malacca Strait at the same period. Keyword: Indonesia Maritime Continent, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Seasonal Vari-ability

  10. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England's football, America's national pastime, baseball, Japan's Judo, and Korea's Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world's most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation's cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  11. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation’s cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  12. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  13. Transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning frequently occurs in summertime over the maritime continent, especially in Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Under certain weather conditions, particulate matters emitted from such fires cause degrade of air quality and thus occurrence of often weekly long haze in downwind locations such as Singapore. It is possible that these biomass burning aerosols may have influenced convective clouds in the maritime continent though such cases have not been well simulated and understood. In order to improve understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the transport of biomass burning aerosols from Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, using biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.0. We choose to use emissions from the month of August because the annual emissions peak often occurs within this month. Based on a multi-year ensemble simulation, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal.

  14. Contrasting introduction scenarios among continents in the worldwide invasion of the banana fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Robert, S; Ravigne, V; Zapater, M-F; Abadie, C; Carlier, J

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing and characterizing introduction routes is a key step towards understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying successful invasions and disease emergence. Here, we aimed to decipher scenarios of introduction and stochastic demographic events associated with the global spread of an emerging disease of bananas caused by the destructive fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis. We analysed the worldwide population structure of this fungus using 21 microsatellites and 8 sequence-based markers on 735 individuals from 37 countries. Our analyses designated South-East Asia as the source of the global invasion and supported the location of the centre of origin of M. fijiensis within this area. We confirmed the occurrence of bottlenecks upon introduction into other continents followed by widespread founder events within continents. Furthermore, this study suggested contrasting introduction scenarios of the pathogen between the African and American continents. While potential signatures of admixture resulting from multiple introductions were detected in America, all the African samples examined seem to descend from a single successful founder event. In combination with historical information, our study reveals an original and unprecedented global scenario of invasion for this recently emerging disease caused by a wind-dispersed pathogen. PMID:22256778

  15. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  16. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model. PMID:21912487

  17. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sixin S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C.; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106–276 μg/m3. PMID:24754404

  18. Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system, the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).

  19. Reducing inappropriate urinary catheter use: quality care initiatives.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine; Clements, Charlotte; Hopper, Adrian

    Healthcare-acquired urinary infection presents a substantial burden for patients and the healthcare system. Urinary tract infections have not gained the same level of media attention as other healthcare-associated infections, yet interventions to reduce urinary catheter use are one of the top ten recommended patient safety strategies. To improve practice around urinary catheter placement and removal requires interventions to change the expectations and habits of nurses, medical teams and patients regarding the need for a urinary catheter. In the authors' trust, a redesign of the existing urinary catheter device record was undertaken to help avoid unnecessary placement of catheters, and resulted in a reduction of urinary catheters in situ longer than 48 hours. Other strategies included implementation of catheter rounds in a high-usage area, and credit-card-sized education cards. A catheter 'passport' was introduced for patients discharged with a catheter to ensure information for insertion and ongoing use were effectively communicated. PMID:25978469

  20. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  1. Urinary metal concentrations among female welders.

    PubMed

    Arrandale, Victoria H; Beach, Jeremy; Cembrowski, George S; Cherry, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    As part of a Canada-wide study of women entering non-traditional trades [Women's Health in Apprenticeship Trades-Metalworkers and Electricians (WHAT-ME)], we examined spot urine samples from women welders in Alberta to determine whether urinary metal concentrations exceeded those of the general population, to compare levels to previously published urinary concentrations in male welders and to examine the relationship with welding tasks. Women mailed-in urine samples collected close to the time of completing a detailed exposure questionnaire, including welding tasks on their most recent day welding at work. Of 53 welders working in their trade, 45 had urinary creatinine >0.3-?3.0g l(-1) and were included in analyses. Seven metals were examined for which both population and male welder urinary concentrations were available: cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc. Principal component analysis was used to extract three components from natural log transformed creatinine-corrected metal concentrations. Of the 45 women, 17 reported more than one main task. Overall two thirds worked in fabrication, a third on pipe welding, and smaller numbers on repair, in construction or other tasks: manual metal arc welding was reported by 62%, semi-automatic arc welding by 47%, and arc welding with a tungsten electrode by 15%. In multiple regression analyses, little relation was found between urinary metals and task or type of welding, except for cadmium where lower levels were seen in those reporting semi-automatic manual welding (after adjustment for age and smoking). The proportion of women welders exceeding the selected general population 95th percentile was high for manganese (96%) and chromium (29%). Urinary metal concentrations were similar to those reported for male welders with only manganese, with a geometric mean in women of 1.91 g g(-1) creatinine, and perhaps copper (11.8 g g(-1) creatinine), consistently lower in male welders. Although not evident from the task analysis reported here, differences in exposure by sex may be explained by type of welding or by other work practices. A closely comparable cohort of male welders would be necessary to examine this hypothesis more fully. PMID:25359273

  2. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS {<=}5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG {>=}2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base.

  3. Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

  4. The Relationship Between Dietary Phytoestrogens and Development of Urinary Incontinence in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Waetjen, L. Elaine; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Gold, Ellen B.; Greendale, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Because exogenous estrogen treatment has been associated with a higher risk of urinary incontinence, our objective was to evaluate the longitudinal relationships of dietary phytoestrogen intakes (isoflavones, coumestans and lignans) and the development of incontinence in midlife women transitioning through menopause. Methods The Study of Womens health Across the Nation (SWAN) Phytoestrogen Study was developed within SWAN, a community-based, multisite, multi-racial/ethnic, prospective cohort study. SWAN interviewers administered a food consumption assessment at baseline and at follow-up visits 5 and 9. The SWAN Phytoestrogen study created a phytonutrient data base that allowed estimation of usual daily intakes of four isoflavones, four lignans and coumestrol. On an annual self-administered questionnaire, participants reported on frequency and type of incontinence. We used discrete proportional hazards models to evaluate whether estimated daily intake of each phytoestrogen class at the visit previous to the first report of incontinence was associated with the development of monthly or more incontinence compared to remaining continent. Results We found no association or patterns of association between developing any, stress or urge incontinence and the reported daily dietary intake of isoflavones, coumestrol, and lignans in the visit previous to the onset of incontinence. Conclusions The results of this longitudinal study provide important information to better understand estrogen-like substances on the continence mechanism in midlife women. Our study shows that neither high nor low dietary intakes of isoflavones, coumestrol and lignans prevent stress or urge incontinence. Future studies should evaluate whether serum levels of phytoestrogens or their metabolites impact incontinence symptoms. PMID:23096248

  5. Transperineal ultrasonography in stress urinary incontinence: The significance of urethral rotation angles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadi, Wasan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess, using transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS), the numerical value of the rotation of the bladder neck [represented by the difference in the anterior (α angle) and posterior urethral angles (β angle)] at rest and straining, in continent women and women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), to ascertain if there are significant differences in the angles of rotation (Rα and Rβ) between the groups. Patients, subjects and methods In all, 30 women with SUI (SUI group) and 30 continent women (control group) were included. TPUS was performed at rest and straining (Valsalva manoeuver), and the threshold value for the urethral angles (α and β angles) for each group were estimated. The degree of rotation for each angle was calculated and was considered as the angle of rotation. Results Both the α and β angles were significantly different between the groups at rest and straining, and there was a significant difference in the mean increment in the value of each angle. Higher values of increment (higher rotation angles) were reported in the SUI group for both the α and β angles compared with those of the control group [mean (SD) Rα SUI group 19.43 (12.76) vs controls 10.53 (2.98) °; Rβ SUI group 28.30 (12.96) vs controls 16.33 (10.8) °; P < 0.001]. Conclusion Urethral rotation angles may assist in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with SUI, which may in turn reduce the need for more sophisticated urodynamic studies. PMID:26966596

  6. Neoplasms of the urinary tract in fish.

    PubMed

    Lombardini, E D; Hard, G C; Harshbarger, J C

    2014-09-01

    The veterinary literature contains scattered reports of primary tumors of the urinary tract of fish, dating back to 1906. Many of the more recent reports have been described in association with the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, and most of the spontaneous neoplasms of the kidney and urinary bladder are single case reports. In rare instances, such as described in nephroblastomas of Japanese eels and tubular adenomas/adenocarcinomas of Oscars, there is suggestion of a genetic predisposition of certain populations to specific renal neoplasms, environmental carcinogenesis, or potentially an unknown infectious etiology acting as a promoter. Hematopoeitic neoplasms have been infrequently described as primary to the kidney of a variety of fish species, and therefore those case reports of renal lymphoma and plasmacytic leukemia are addressed within the context of this review. PMID:24318975

  7. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:26392784

  8. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:26392784

  9. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Tobias; Horn, Thomas; Heck, Matthias; Gschwend, Jrgen E.; Eiber, Matthias; Beer, Ambros J.

    2013-01-01

    Currently computed tomography (CT) represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET) with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patientsmostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.

  10. [Analytical evaluation of urinary calculi mineral composition].

    PubMed

    Machoy, P

    1995-01-01

    Urolithiasis is the most frequent disease of urinary system. It affects about 3% of people of the productive age. One half of the hospitalized in Departments of Urology is made up of patients with urinary calculi. In some regions of the globe, urolithiasis is a very common pathological disorder. Upper Silesia being such a region in Poland. The objective of the paper is: 1) systematization of calculi according to their mineral composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) comparison of mineral components of calculi in the aspect of pollutions for Upper Silesia and West Pomerania territories, and the effect of external factors on the constitution of the formed calculi, 3) making use of X-ray microanalysis in complex determinations of mineral compositions of stones, particularly the trace elements. For that purpose a total of 185 urinary calculi stemming from individuals of both sexes, aged 24 to 82 years were used. The content of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron was determined by atom absorption method, that of aluminium, chloride, sulphur and copper by X-ray microanalysis method, fluoride by gas chromatographic method, phosphates and urates by colorimetric method. The content of cystine was defined by thermic decomposition and characteristic smell. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. With reference to the first task, the following chemical classification of stones has been suggested, namely; class I: ammonium stones being magnesium-ammonium phosphate, class II: stones with elevated calcium content, calcium oxalate, class III: stones with elevated magnesium content, class IV: calculi rich in calcium and magnesium, class V: calculi deficient in calcium and magnesium, class VI: organic uric stones, class VII: organic cystine stones. The second task consisted in comparing the mineral composition of stones from subjects inhabiting two remote from each other regions-industrialized Silesia and Pomerania (Tab. 10). The statistical analysis has revealed differences being statistically significant only with regard to calcium and magnesium in Silesia and Pomerania groups. Undoubtedly that is of importance when one takes into consideration that calcium and magnesium display high affinity to fluoride, the presence of which was detected in all the stones and which may influence the physicochemical properties of the urinary calculi, first of all their hardness and solubility. The third task consisted in evaluating the possibility of applying the X-ray microanalysis for searching the stone for further elements principally microelements. The performed study comprised 10 stones: Silesia region and Pomerania region, whose composition was compared pairwise. The pairs were selected in such a manner that they should have some features in common found out by previously described atom absorption methods. The established results concerning calcium, magnesium and phosphorus showed in general compatibility of results obtained by the two methods. However, by X-ray microanalysis method it was possible to detect further elements: sulphur, aluminium, chloride and copper. The following conclusions have been drawn, namely: 1) analytic examinations of mineral composition of urinary calculi are the base of their chemical composition with regard to eventual prophylaxis of urolithiasis, 2) a varied composition of urinary calculi from two different regions of Poland may be the reflection of actual state of natural environment pollution in those regions, 3) presence of fluoride in all the urinary calculi allows us to suppose that it is permanent element of urinary calculi. PMID:8615550

  11. Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Mitra; Karimi, Abdollah; Zand, Ranna Esmaili; Moghadar, Roozbeh; Ahmadi, Roya; Chimeh, Masoud Dadkhah

    2013-07-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 27.2 and 26.2 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 26 pg/dL in the control group, P <0.001. The mean urinary ET-1 was 121 55.4 pg/dL in patients who had grade 4 hydronephrosis. We conclude that urinary ET-1 was significantly higher in the obstructed than in non-obstructed cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases. PMID:23816722

  12. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Results According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P < 0.05), even after controlling for confounding variables including age, body mass index, history of hysterectomy and number of deliveries. Conclusions Our study did not confirm a significant relationship between UTI and severity of SUI as measured by VLPP. A decisive opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  13. [Economic importance of postoperative urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Lent, V; Schultheis, M

    2015-11-01

    In the 22,160 patients treated in Germany for prostate cancer by prostatectomy, the costs for direct and indirect sequelae as the result of postoperative urinary incontinence are estimated to be 71.8million. This greatly exceeds the costs of 69.8million for the operation itself. This additional economic burden can, however, be decisively influenced by using a surgical technique that preserves the integrity of the urethral sphincter. PMID:26399245

  14. Fibromyalgia anxiety/depression urinary retention Dx?

    PubMed

    Roth-Damas, Patricia; Sempere-Manuel, Mara; Palop-Larrea, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    A 72-year-old woman came to our internal medicine department clinic for a follow-up appointment for her fibromyalgia. Thirteen months earlier, she had sought care at our facility not only for fibromyalgia, but for insomnia, anxiety, depression, and urinary incontinence. At the time, we prescribed amitriptyline 10 mg/d--for her pain and depression--as well as clonazepam 10 mg/d and paracetamol 650 mg, as needed. PMID:26546961

  15. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  16. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  17. Nervous network for lower urinary tract function

    PubMed Central

    Birder, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, sensory signaling in the urinary bladder has been largely attributed to direct activation of bladder afferents. There is substantive evidence that sensory systems can be influenced by non-neuronal cells, such as the urothelium, which are able to respond to various types of stimuli that can include physiological, psychological and disease-related factors. The corresponding release of chemical mediators (through activation of a number of receptors/ion channels) can initiate signaling mechanisms between and within urothelial cells, as well as other cell types within the bladder wall including bladder nerves. However, the mechanisms underlying how various cell types in the bladder wall respond to normal filling and emptying, and are challenged by a variety of stressors (physical and chemical) are still not well understood. Alterations or defects in signaling mechanisms are likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of bladder disease with symptoms including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency and pain. This review will discuss some of the components involved in control of lower urinary tract function, with an emphasis on the sensor and transducer roles of the urothelium. PMID:23088378

  18. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    PubMed

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5?g/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. PMID:25863192

  19. [Treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Horcajada, Juan Pablo; García-Palomo, Daniel; Fariñas, M Carmen

    2005-12-01

    Empirical antibiotic treatment of lower urinary tract infections should be based on the patient's clinical data and on local sensitivity data. Because of the increase in resistance among uropathogens, recommendations on the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections have been modified. Currently, the empirical use of co-trimoxazole, ampicillin, and first-generation cephalosporins and quinolones is not recommended. Fluoroquinolones have been demonstrated to be highly effective in comparative studies but, because of the increase in resistance, the type of patient who can benefit from these antimicrobial agents must be selected. Second- and third-generation cephalosporins still have high sensitivity rates, although the higher recurrence rates associated with their use and the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacterial in the community should be taken into account. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is less effective in eradicating infections than quinolones. Fosfomycin-trometamol has resistance rates of below 2% and single-dose therapy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Nitrofurantoin is also currently active, although it must be administered for 7 days and can produce toxicity. Both agents are currently recommended as alternative therapeutic options to fluoroquinolones in uncomplicated infections of the lower urinary tract. PMID:16854355

  20. Depressive symptom patterns and urinary MHPG excretion.

    PubMed

    Agren, H

    1982-04-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-glycol (MHPG) was analyzed in 48 unipolar and 19 bipolar depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. All patients were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Various symptoms and descriptive variables were correlated univariately with urinary MHPG in two random groups, and those items showing a trend in both splits were further reduced by a multiple regression technique, first on each split separately and finally on the pooled sample. Urinary MHPG correlated significantly both in uni- and multivariate tests with age (positively, but only in females), altered motor activity (summed scores of agitation and retardation during the worst week of present or recent depression), and with existence of at least one suicide attempt before the present depressive episode (last items negatively). There were no differences between unipolar and bipolar patients, or between any patient group and the healthy controls. Males excreted about 25% more MHPG than females. Levels of MHPG in urine and cerebrospinal fluid were highly significantly intercorrelated. PMID:6953458

  1. Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Hennenberg, Martin; Stief, Christian G.; Gratzke, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract provides the basis for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therapy of LUTS addresses obstructive symptoms (frequently explained by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and storage symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Targets for medical treatment include G protein-coupled receptors (?1-adrenoceptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, ?3-adrenoceptors) or intracellular enzymes (5?-reductase; phosphodiesterase-5, PDE5). Established therapies of obstructive symptoms aim to induce prostate smooth muscle relaxation by ?1-blockers or PDE5 inhibitors, or to reduce prostate growth and volume with 5?-reductase inhibitors. Available options for treatment of OAB comprise anitmuscarinics, ?3-adrenoceptor agonists, and botulinum toxin A, which improve storage symptoms by inhibition of bladder smooth muscle contraction. With the recent approval of ?3-antagonists, PDE inhibitors, and silodosin for therapy of LUTS, progress from basic research of lower urinary tract pharmacology was translated into new clinical applications. Further targets are in preclinical stages of examination, including modulators of the endocannabinoid system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. PMID:24744518

  2. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  3. [Tumor markers of urinary tract carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhito

    2004-04-01

    The tumor markers for malignant tumors arisen from urinary system including prostate cancer were reviewed. As for renal cell carcinoma there was no good marker used in routine test level at present. In the diagnosis of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma, mainly bladder cancer, 3 methods (urinary BTA, NMP22 and BFP) are used now in Japan. They all seem to be not fully sufficient in respect of the specificity. In foreign countries, new tests such as urinary telomerase and BLCA-4 are used and have been evaluated. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, serum total PSA is well established and used. Various PSA relation markers have been advocated for the differentiation between benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma in so called "gray zone" level of total PSA. In methods based on the molecular forms of PSA, the ratio of free PSA to total PSA (f/T) is widely use, and proPSA is a test that is expected. Other approaches such as volume of index PSA, age specific PSA reference range and PSA velocity are also in practical application. Human glandular kallikrein 2, which belong to the human kallikrein family as well as PSA, is expected as a tumor specific marker. PMID:15164607

  4. [Urinary tumor marker for urothelial cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, M; Iwasaki, A; Shiraiwa, H

    2001-11-01

    The urinary tumor markers BTA, BFP and NMP22 used for urothelial cancer in Japan are reviewed briefly. We also evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of BTA, BFP and NMP22 with urine cytology in detecting bladder cancer in 24 of our patients. The results showed that the sensitivity with urine cytology, BTA, BFP and NMP22 was 37, 54, 66 and 62% respectively. The specificity of BTA, BFP and NMP22 with urine cytology was 100, 65, 60 and 70% respectively. The sensitivity with BTA, BFP and NMP22 for urothelial cancer was higher than that with urine cytology. However, all except for urine cytology showed high false positive rates (83-90%) for urinary tract infection. These markers may thus complement urine cytology, which has a low sensitivity for urothelial cancer. Quite possibly they could act as low-cost and useful tumor markers, which could in turn reduce the number of invasive cystoscopic examinations. However, considering their high false positive rates for benign disease such as urinary tract infection, we must acknowledge that an ideal urothelial tumor marker, which is simple, non-invasive, inexpensive and accurate with high sensitivity and specificity has yet to be developed. PMID:11729491

  5. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  6. The Human Urinary Proteome Fingerprint Database UPdb

    PubMed Central

    Husi, Holger; Barr, Janice B.; Skipworth, Richard J. E.; Stephens, Nathan A.; Greig, Carolyn A.; Wackerhage, Henning; Fearon, Kenneth C. H.; Ross, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of human urine as a diagnostic tool has many advantages, such as ease of sample acquisition and noninvasiveness. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers, as well as biomarker patterns, in urine is hindered mainly by a lack of comparable datasets. To fill this gap, we assembled a new urinary fingerprint database. Here, we report the establishment of a human urinary proteomic fingerprint database using urine from 200 individuals analysed by SELDI-TOF (surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight) mass spectrometry (MS) on several chip surfaces (SEND, HP50, NP20, Q10, CM10, and IMAC30). The database currently lists 2490 unique peaks/ion species from 1172 nonredundant SELDI analyses in the mass range of 1500 to 150000. All unprocessed mass spectrometric scans are available as .xml data files. Additionally, 1384 peaks were included from external studies using CE (capillary electrophoresis)-MS, MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation), and CE-MALDI hybrids. We propose to use this platform as a global resource to share and exchange primary data derived from MS analyses in urinary research. PMID:24222850

  7. BRAIN ACTIVITY DURING BLADDER FILLING IS RELATED TO WHITE MATTER STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN OLDER WOMEN WITH URINARY INCONTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Stasa D.; Griffiths, Derek; Murrin, Andrew; Schaefer, Werner; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Resnick, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from longitudinal studies in community-dwelling elderly links complaints of urgency and urinary incontinence with structural white matter changes known as white matter hyperintensities (WMH). How WMH might lead to incontinence remains unknown, since information about how they relate to neural circuits involved in continence control is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WMH in altered brain activity in older women with urgency incontinence. In a cross-sectional study, we measured WMH, globally and in specific white matter tracts, and correlated them with regional brain activity measured by fMRI (combined with simultaneous urodynamic monitoring) during bladder filling and reported 'urgency'. We postulated that increase in global WMH burden would be associated with changes (either attenuation or reinforcement) in responses to bladder filling in brain regions involved in bladder control. Secondly, we proposed that such apparent effects of global WMH burden might be specifically related to the burden in a few critical white matter pathways. The results showed that regional activations (e.g. medial/superior frontal gyrus adjacent to dorsal ACG) and deactivations (e.g. perigenual ACG adjacent to ventromedial prefrontal cortex) became more prominent with increased global WMH burden, suggesting that activity aimed at suppressing urgency was augmented. Secondary analyses confirmed that the apparent effect of global WMH burden might reflect the presence of WMH in specific pathways (anterior thalamic radiation and superior longitudinal fasciculus), thus affecting connections between key regions and suggesting possible mechanisms involved in continence control. PMID:20302947

  8. Regional climate projection of the Maritime Continent using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Given that warming of the climate system is unequivocal (IPCC AR5), accurate assessment of future climate is essential to understand the impact of climate change due to global warming. Modelling the climate change of the Maritime Continent is particularly challenge, showing a high degree of uncertainty. Compared to other regions, model agreement of future projections in response to anthropogenic emission forcings is much less. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal behaviors of climate projections seem to vary significantly due to a complex geographical condition and a wide range of scale interactions. For the fine-scale climate information (27 km) suitable for representing the complexity of climate change over the Maritime Continent, dynamical downscaling is performed using the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) during two thirty-year period for reference (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate. Initial and boundary conditions are provided by Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations under the emission scenarios projected by MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Changes in mean climate as well as the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are investigated at various temporal and spatial scales. Our analysis is primarily centered on the different behavior of changes in convective and large-scale precipitation over land vs. ocean during dry vs. wet season. In addition, we attempt to find the added value to downscaled results over the Maritime Continent through the comparison between MRCM and CESM projection. Acknowledgements.This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  9. Micro-continents offshore Western Australia: implications for East Gondwana reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Joanne; Williams, Simon; Halpin, Jacqueline; Daczko, Nathan; Gardner, Robyn

    2014-05-01

    The southern part of the Western Australian margin formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between the East Gondwanan continents India, Australia and Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous. However, understanding the basin evolution along this margin has been hampered by a lack of data from the offshore Perth Abyssal Plain, and from the conjugate Greater Indian margin, which was highly deformed during collision with Eurasia. The Batavia Knoll and Gulden Draak Knoll are two prominent, previously unsampled, bathymetric features located >1600 km offshore Australia that have typically been assumed to be igneous features. In late 2011, successful dredges on the western flanks of both knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are micro-continents. Felsic orthogneiss and granite from Gulden Draak and Batavia knolls yield 2.8 Ga, 1.3-1.2 Ga and 540-510 Ma U-Pb zircon ages. The affinity of these geological samples, coupled with existing geological sampling and geophysical data, allow us to test alternative reconstructions for East Gondwana breakup. A number of alternative models have been proposed for the pre-rift configuration of Australia and Antarctica. Competing models make very different predictions for the kinematics of Mesozoic rifting that produced the basins along the Southern Australian margin; the magnitude of extension during rifting; and how mapped Paleozoic and Proterozoic geological terranes and fault zones can be correlated between Australia and Antarctica. We will present reconstructions that reconcile our new samples from Indian Ocean micro-continents with observations from India, Antarctica, Australia, and the evolution of the Indian Ocean.

  10. A satellite-based perspective of convective systems over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A.; Houze, R.; Virts, K.; Zuluaga, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data from TRMM, the A-Train satellites, and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) have been used to study extreme weather throughout low latitudes, from deep convection over the Himalayas to oceanic mesoscale systems associated with the MJO. This study presents a more in-depth examination of convection over the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and Malaysia). During November to February, this area is the rainiest regional climate on Earth, thus constituting one of the atmosphere's primary heat sources. On multiple temporal and spatial scales, it is a complex region with clouds and precipitation having both oceanic and orographic influence. The November-February season encompasses both the eastward propagation of the MJO through this region and rainfall associated with the Asian-Australian monsoon. More specifically, the precipitation in this region is strongly modulated by MJO phases, pulsations of the monsoon, and the powerful diurnal effects of the islands and ocean. Through a feature-based analysis of convective and stratiform components of storms, the evolution of precipitating clouds in this region will be described using data from the November-February time period over multiple years. This analysis leads to an increased understanding of the characteristics of convection associated with the intraseasonal and diurnal variability during these months over the Maritime Continent. Previous work using A-Train data noted the prevalence of smaller separated MCSs over the region during the locally active phase of the MJO, and WWLLN data have shown a peak in lightning density as convection becomes deeper and more numerous leading up to this active period. By applying the analysis of the TRMM data in addition to the A-Train and WWLLN datasets, the relative roles of convective and stratiform components of MCSs to the behavior of convection can be determined during the MJO and monsoonal maxima of rainfall over the Maritime Continent.

  11. The Emerging Legacy of USArray: New Views of the Architecture of the North American Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the decade that preceded the new millennium, seismologists on several continents dared to think big: envisioning, designing, and then building seismic arrays of unprecedented quality, resolution, and scale. In the US, their vision became USArray: thousands of broadband seismometers spanning the continent, professionally deployed, superbly maintained, with data ready in realtime quite literally at one's fingertips. For many young (and not so young) seismologists the building of USArray, particularly the Transportable Array, marks the crucial event of their scientific careers. An important part of the legacy of USArray will be an improved understanding of the architecture of the North American continent - one of its seminal motivations. A more dimly perceived motivation, but perhaps more important aspect of its legacy, will be its impact on the discipline of seismology. The impacts are profound and broad, but I will speak only about one small area: the transformation of array-based surface wave seismology. Innovations stimulated by USArray include the creation of ambient noise tomography, the reformulation of the tomographic inverse problem in terms of local differential filters applied to observed travel time and amplitude fields, the extrication of subtle signals that reveal robust and independent information about anisotropy in the crust and mantle, and the joint interpretation with other kinds of geophysical data. Interpreting the results of these innovations in a Bayesian framework helps to define another legacy of USArray, the replacement of single models with statistical distributions of model variables that can be assimilated by researchers in other fields or by seismologists in the future. As we transition to considering the scientific legacy of USArray, it is important to remember Beno Gutenberg's faith in the power of data to resolve scientific dispute. As he stated in the next to last sentence of his remarkable book Physics of the Earth's Interior: "THE DATA MUST BE GREATLY AMPLIFIED AND STRENGTHENED" (Gutenberg's emphasis). Upcoming generations of seismologists will be well served to heed Gutenberg's advice and follow the example of the designers of USArray.

  12. The Feedback Between Continents and Compositional Anomalies in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Findings from global seismic tomography studies suggest that the deep mantle may harbor a pair of broad, steep-sided, relatively dense compositionally anomalous provinces. The longevity and stability of these Large Low Shear-Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) has received considerable interest but their possible influence on surface motion has drawn lesser attention. Recent work using numerical mantle convection models investigated the feedback between oceanic plate motion and high density compositional anomalies. It was found that surface mobility is affected by the presence of compositional anomalies such that critical density contrasts and volumes of the enriched material produce a transition to stagnant-lid convection. For lesser volumes and density contrast (for example, volumes that are representative of the concentrations in the Earth's mantle) the presence of the compositional anomalies affects mean plate velocity and size when compared to the characteristics of systems in which the enriched material is absent. In addition, numerous studies and lines of evidence in the geologic record suggest that the presence of the density anomalies plays a role in determining the location of mantle upwellings, which in turn influence surface dynamics. In this study, we present the results from a study implementing a two-dimensional mantle convection model featuring an anomalously dense component and distinct continental and oceanic lithosphere. The mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved using a hybrid spectral-finite difference code. Compositional variations are tracked using Lagrangian tracer particles. Mobile tectonic plates are modeled using a force-balance method and plate boundary locations evolve in response to interior stresses, plate velocity, age and lithospheric chemistry (i.e., oceanic versus continental). We examine the influence of continents on compositional anomaly morphology and longevity and the influence of compositional anomalies on continental size, mobility and aggregation. The influence of continents is isolated by comparing our calculations with cases in which continents are absent.

  13. Imaging the North American continent using waveform inversion of global and USArray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2014-09-01

    The deployment of USArray during the last decade has produced dense sampling of the central part of the North American continent with broadband seismic data. Regional tomography is now mapping the deep structure of the continent in great detail, in particular beneath the western US where USArray initiated. At the scale of the entire continent, however, the resolution of seismic imaging is uneven, much poorer away from the footprint of the array than beneath it. Important questions regarding the deep structure, lateral extent and evolution of the North American Craton, most of it not covered by USArray, thus remain difficult to answer. Here we present a new model of the upper mantle beneath North America constrained by waveform fits of 717 thousand vertical-component, broadband seismograms, of which over 228 thousand are from the Transportable Array component of USArray, a few tens of thousands from other USArray-affiliated stations, and the rest from global networks and arrays. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S waveforms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with highly complementary USArray and global-network subsets within it, produces improved resolution for a variety of features in North American upper mantle, compared to other available models. The internal structure of the North American Craton is resolved in detail. The lithosphere beneath the 1 Ga failed Mid-Continental Rift shows wavespeeds not as high as beneath surrounding cratons; it was probably altered. The sharp northern boundaries of the cratonic lithosphere closely follow the coastlines, with North America's and Greenland's lithospheric roots clearly separate. Sharp velocity gradients in western Canada indicate that the craton boundary at depth closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front at the surface. High velocities between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing evidence for the recently proposed MacKenzie Craton, unexposed at the surface.

  14. Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

    2005-12-01

    During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Holtzer-Goor, K. M.; Gaultney, J. G.; van Houten, P.; Wagg, A. S.; Huygens, S. A.; Nielen, M. M. J.; Albers-Heitner, C. P.; Redekop, W. K.; Rutten-van Mölken, M. P.; Al, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS) was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands. Method A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS) located with the general practitioner (GP). This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer), home care, informal care, and implementation costs. Results With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%), or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved. Conclusion Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting. PMID:26426124

  16. Gravity domains and assembly of the North American continent by collisional tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    A gravity trend map of North America, based on a horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient map produced from gravity data for Canada and the conterminous United States, is presented and used to define a continental mosaic of gravity trend domains akin to structural domains. Contrasting trend characteristics at gravity domain boundaries support the concept of outward growth of the continent primarily by accretionary tectonics. Gravity patterns, however, indicate a different style of tectonics dominated in the development of now-buried Proterozoic orogenic belts in the south-central United States, supporting a view that these belts formed along the leading edge of a southward-migrating Proterozoic continental margin.

  17. Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-Continent Collision Beneath Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chiang, C.; Chen, C.; Turkoglu, E.; Hsu, H.; Hill, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    Arc-continent collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of continents. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The Taiwan arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one of the most active arc-continent collisions in the world. The current plate motions and surface geology are well understood, making Taiwan an ideal location for geophysical investigations of this important tectonic process. The Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER) project was initiated in 2004 to image the lithospheric structure beneath Taiwan. The project includes the acquisition of both active and passive seismic data plus detailed magnetotellurics (MT) surveys. MT is a passive geophysical technique which records time variations of natural electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth and can determine the subsurface resistivity. This parameter can be used to constrain lithospheric composition and strength. Over the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, 82 long-period MT soundings were acquired in Taiwan. The fieldwork was accomplished by collaboration between the University of Alberta and National Central University of Taiwan. In fall 2007, collection of additional broadband MT will complement these data. The long-period data were processed using robust techniques and remotely referenced with a station on the PengHu islands (~100km from the nearest site) to reduce the influence of cultural noise. The conductive Taiwan strait separating PengHu from the mainland acts as an effective attenuator of cultural EM fields. Two closely spaced parallel transects across central Taiwan are formed by 46 of these stations with a nominal spacing of 5km. Dimensionality analysis of these transects using the McNeice-Jones tensor decomposition algorithm reveal local 3-D effects in some data. However, an overall regional 2-D strike direction is defined that is parallel to the coastline of Taiwan. Regularized 2-D inversions of these transects image conductive sedimentary rocks in the western foreland basin and an east dipping mid-crustal conductor beneath the fold-and-thrust belt. A sharp boundary is observed between the western sedimentary rocks and the more resistive slates and metamorphic rocks to the east in the Central Range. This boundary coincides with a conductor rising from the mid-crust that may be related to interconnected fluids.

  18. Evaluating mid-Holocene precipitation over Australasia and the Maritime Continent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial records) initiative (INQUA project #0809) was undertaken to develop a consistent chronological assessment of the climate of the past 30000 years over Australia, New Zealand and the Maritime Continent. Work has continued as part of SHAPE initiative (INQUA project #1302), but there has currently been little use of this comprehensive resource for evaluating the available climate model data. Therefore, this work presents the initial assessment of model simulations of the mid-Holocene over the Australasian and Maritime Continents (taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP) in relation to those available data. The mid-Holocene (6 ka) encompasses a period after sea level stabilisation (around 8-7.5 ka) and before the onset of strong ENSO-related variability (post 4 ka). There is some evidence of possibly drier conditions over northern Australia with increased coastal dune activity, along with slightly wetter conditions over Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Weakening of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerlies (relative to the early Holocene) is also likely to have occurred, as evidenced by drier conditions in Western Tasmania and Victoria. The modelled results from the mid-Holocene simulations indicate that conditions were approximately 1-6% drier over much of continental Australia than at present. There is also evidence of slightly wetter conditions (1-3%) over the northern tip of Australia and parts of Papua New Guinea and Borneo. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the mid-latitudes (around 50S) are also weaker by 1-2 m s-1 in the model simulations. There are also differences in the seasonal cycle of precipitation and circulation in these models in response to the changes in the orbital parameters in the mid-Holocene relative to present day. The precipitation in the early half of the monsoon season (October, November and December-OND) is typically 10% higher in the mid-Holocene simulations with anomalous onshore flow onto the continent. Conversely, the precipitation is typically more than 10% lower in the late half of the monsoon period (January, February and March-JFM) with anomalous anticyclonic flow over the Australian continent. These anticyclonic anomalies are likely to be caused by reduced convection from the weaker insolation during JFM at 6 ka relative to 0 ka. The increase in OND precipitation and decrease in JFM implies that the monsoon onset and retreat may have been earlier than at present (in response to the insolation forcing), and therefore it is important to assess the changes over the whole monsoon period (October to March) instead of just the summer months (December, January and February).

  19. Lithospheric strength across the ocean-continent transition in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Velázquez, Silvia; Martín-González, Fidel

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the relation between the strength of the lithosphere and the observed pattern of seismicity across the ocean-continent transition in the NW margin of the Iberian Peninsula. The seismicity is diffuse in this intraplate area, far from the seismically active margin of the plate: the Eurasia-African plate boundary, where convergence occurs at a rate of 4-5mm/year. The earthquake epicentres are mainly limited to an E-W trending zone (onshore seismicity is more abundant than offshore), and most earthquakes occur at depths less than 30 km, however, offshore depths are up to 150 km). Moreover, one of the problems to unravel in this area is that the seismotectonic interpretations of the anomalous seismicity in the NW peninsular are contradictory. The temperature and strength profiles have been modelled in three domains along the non-volcanic rifted West Iberian Margin: 1) the oceanic lithosphere of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, 2) the oceanic lithosphere near the ocean-continent transition of the Galicia Bank, and 3) the continental lithosphere of the NW Iberian Massif. The average bathymetry and topography have been used to fit the thermal structures of the three types of lithospheres, given that the heat flow and heat production values show a varied range. The geotherms, together with the brittle and ductile rheological laws, have been used to calculate the strength envelopes in different stress regimes (compression, shear and tensile). The continental lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is located at 123 km and several brittle-ductile transitions appear in the crust and the mantle. However, the oceanic lithospheres are thinner (110 km near the Galicia Bank and 87 km in the Iberian Abbysal Plain) and more simple (brittle behaviour in the crust and upper mantle). The earthquake distribution is best explained by lithospheres with dry compositions and shear or tensile stress regimes. These results are similar can be compared to those of the Gulf of Cadiz oceanic-continental transition near the Eurasia-African plate boundary (Neves and Neves, 2009), and they contribute to complete the knowledge about seismicity and lithospheric strength in the ocean-continent transition of the Iberian Peninsula. References Neves M.C., Neves, R.G.M., 2009. Flexure and seismicity across the ocean-continent transition in the Gulf of Cadiz. Journal of Geodynamics, 47, 119-129.

  20. The CONTIN algorithm and its application to determine the size distribution of microgel suspensions.

    PubMed

    Scotti, A; Liu, W; Hyatt, J S; Herman, E S; Choi, H S; Kim, J W; Lyon, L A; Gasser, U; Fernandez-Nieves, A

    2015-06-21

    We review a powerful regularization method, known as CONTIN, for obtaining the size distribution of colloidal suspensions from dynamic light scattering data. We show that together with the so-called L-curve criterion for selecting the optimal regularization parameter, the method correctly describes the average size and size distribution of microgel suspensions independently characterized using small-angle neutron scattering. In contrast, we find that when using the default regularization process, where the regularizer is selected via the "probability to reject" method, the results are not as satisfactory. PMID:26093577

  1. The Promotion and Marketing of OxyContin: Commercial Triumph, Public Health Tragedy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    I focus on issues surrounding the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs and their regulatory oversight. Compared with noncontrolled drugs, controlled drugs, with their potential for abuse and diversion, pose different public health risks when they are overpromoted and highly prescribed. An in-depth analysis of the promotion and marketing of OxyContin illustrates some of the associated issues. Modifications of the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and an enhanced capacity of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate and monitor such promotion can have a positive impact on the public health. PMID:18799767

  2. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and vaginal estrogen therapy effectively reduce symptomatic UTI episodes and should be considered in patients with recurrent UTIs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Establishing a diagnosis of symptomatic UTI in older women requires careful clinical evaluation with possible laboratory assessment using urinalysis and urine culture. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should be differentiated from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in older women should not be treated. PMID:24570248

  3. Dynamics of Urinary Calprotectin after Renal Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ebbing, Jan; Seibert, Felix S.; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Günzel, Karsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Seifert, Hans H.; Rentsch, Cyrill A.; Ardelt, Peter; Wetterauer, Christian; Amico, Patrizia; Babel, Nina; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary calprotectin has been identified as a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury. To date, however, the time-dependent changes of this parameter during acute kidney injury remain elusive. The aim of the present work was to define the time-course of urinary calprotectin secretion after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury in comparison to neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin, thereby monitoring the extent of tubular damage in nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Methods: The study population consisted of 42 patients. Thirty-two patients underwent either open or endoscopic nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. During the surgery, the renal arterial pedicle was clamped with a median ischaemic time of 13 minutes (interquartile range, 4.5–20.3 minutes) in 26 patients. Ten retro-peritoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy patients and 6 nephron sparing surgery patients in whom the renal artery was not clamped served as controls. Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin concentrations were repeatedly measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed according to renal function parameters. Results: Urinary concentrations of calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin increased significantly after ischaemia/reperfusion injury, whereas concentrations remained unchanged after nephron sparing surgery without ischaemia/reperfusion injury and after kidney donation. Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased 2 and 8 hours, respectively, post-ischaemia. Both proteins reached maximal concentrations after 48 hours, followed by a subsequent persistent decrease. Maximal neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin and calprotectin concentrations were 9-fold and 69-fold higher than their respective baseline values. The glomerular filtration rate was only transiently impaired at the first post-operative day after ischaemia/reperfusion injury (p = 0.049). Conclusion: Calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase—associated lipocalin can be used to monitor clinical and sub-clinical tubular damage after nephron sparing surgery for kidney tumours. Urinary calprotectin concentrations start rising within 2 hours after ischaemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury. PMID:26745147

  4. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Santacreu, Marta; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session. PMID:21753868

  5. Changes of urinary angiotensinogen concentration and its association with urinary proteins in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen; Bai, Qiong; A, Lata; Liang, Yaoxian; Zheng, Danxia; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It had been reported that angiotensinogen might be a marker for activation of renin-angiotensin system, which was associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional roles of AGT in DN in vitro. Methods: Diabetic rat models were built by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups, two of the three groups were treated with different doses of losartan, the other diabetic group was as control and normal rats acted as healthy control. In a 12-week investigation, we detected the changes of AGT in all rats’ blood and urine and the association between AGT concentration and RAS activation and urinary proteins were analyzed in this study. Results: The serum AGT of rats had no significant differences (P>0.05 for all). The urinary AGT of the diabetic rats was significantly different from the control group, moreover, the urinary AGT of the diabetic rats under different treatments was also obviously different (P<0.05 for all). Besides, the results of immunohistochemical assay indicated that AGT expression level was correlated with renal tissues damage. The level of AGT was positively associated with urinary protein (r=0.493, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with CCr (r=-0.474, P=0.007) and the dose of ARB (r=-0.575, P=0.001). Moreover, the dose of ARB was independently associated with urinary AGT (B=-2.963, P=0.024) in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Urinary AGT may be a marker for the activation of local RAS in kidney and independently associated with ARB. PMID:26722381

  6. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

  7. [Radiological features of urinary tract infection in childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lucaya, J

    1975-07-01

    The diagnosis of one documented urinary tract infection in children establishes indication for carrying out a radiologic investigation of patient's urinary tract. Such an approach is mostly aimed at recognizing the presence of predisposing factors such as congenital malformations. Upon mentioning available techniques and its indications, the author describes radiologic findings of the most common inflamatory diseases of the urinary tract in childhood. PMID:808154

  8. The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

  9. American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S. M.; Weston, Mike A.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior. PMID:25226165

  10. Paleokarst and fracture overprints in Mid-Continent carbonates in evaluation of horizontal drilling potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R.D.; Shelton, J.W. ); Esteban, M. ); Wilson, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Mid-Continent region, especially in Oklahoma and Arkansas, contains thick Paleozoic carbonate sections that are dolomitic and karstic in character. These sections commonly exhibit strong structural overprints, including intense fracturing, due primarily to Pennsylvanian orogenies. Because of their rather wide association with source rocks, these carbonates are thought to represent good potential targets for horizontal drilling. The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, the Ordovician Viola Group, the Siluro-Devonian Hunton Group, and the Mississippian Limestone all contain zones that are locally productive. These stratigraphic units are either uniformly tight or they are heterogeneous with complex porosity profiles. In karst terranes both types commonly occur together; both require fracturing to increase porosity and permeability. Both youthful and mature stages of paleokarst are observed in the Arbuckle Group; the best porosity is developed in the youthful stage. These stages can develop microporous, planar porous, or macroporous types of reservoir geometry. All of these may be heterogeneous in nature, requiring fractures to interconnect porous intervals. Horizontal drilling is yet to be proved as a reliable method for increasing production efficiency in Mid-Continent carbonates. An evaluation of diagenetic history, especially karst processes, along with local and regional structural settings, may provide a key for improved understanding of the horizontal drilling potential in these carbonates.

  11. Implications of the Projected Future Climate on Water Resources in the Indian Sub-continent Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, H. L.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability of water resources is vital for agricultural and socio-economic development in India. In the recent few decades, India has been witnessing erratic nature of the Indian summer monsoon, which accounts for about 80% of the total annual rainfall. While there is a large uncertainty in the precipitation projections during the summer monsoon from the regional and global climate models, we need to understand sensitivity of water resources in the Indian sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate. This is particularly important as the Indian sub-continent is one of the most populated regions of the world. We evaluated changes in water budget in the 18 Indian sub-continental basins under the projected future climate using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The VIC model was calibrated and evaluated using the observed streamflow as well as satellite derived evapotranspiration and soil moisture. After the successful calibration and evaluation, we performed a sensitivity analysis for the water balance variables. Finally, we used downscaled and bias corrected climate forcings to develop scenarios of changes in water balance under the future climate. Despite the intermodal variation, Indian basins are projected to experience wetter and warmer climate in future. Results indicate positive changes in evapotranspiration and runoff under the projected future climate; however, increases in total runoff are projected to be significant in most of the basins in the sub-continent.

  12. Linking the enigmatic surface of the African continent with mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Glisovic, P.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The unique 'basin and swell' topography of the African continent is characterized by large-scale extensional features such as the East African Rift, widespread volcanic activity, and anomalous uplift/subsidence. These enigmatic surface features have long suggested that the African continent is shaped by significant dynamic forcing originating in the underlying mantle. Herein we explore this dynamic forcing over the last 30 Ma by carrying out detailed backward-in-time convection simulations driven by mantle density anomalies inferred from high-resolution joint seismic-geodynamic inversions (Simmons et al., 2009). We show that the current high topography of the East African Rift system is due to the southward propagation of a topographic swell that encompassed the western margin of Arabia and the Afar region prior to 30 Ma. This rapid rise of topography dominates all other topographic changes and we find that the adjacent Congo Basin has gradually subsided over the same time period, partially in response to convective draw-down, suggesting that the basin may have been at a higher elevation than today. Lastly, we quantify the uncertainties in our simulations due to different models of mantle rheology, seismically inferred heterogeneity and surface boundary conditions.

  13. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

  14. Repeated arc-continent collision as a key mechanism for continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitchison, J.; Buckman, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prevailing 'consensus' models for the Phanerozoic development of eastern Australia invoke a retreating accretionary orogen model in which slab retreat results in development of offshore island arcs in front of marginal basins. Periodically these basins close and the arcs are retro-thrust back onto the continental margin. Implicit in this model is the notion that all elements develop in an upper plate location upon the accretionary margin and that west-dipping subduction beneath eastern Gondwana was a long-lived phenomenon. We suggest this concept is flawed and instead propose a new testable hypothesis that eastern Australia grew through a series of arc-continent collisions in which east-directed subduction beneath intra-oceanic island arcs led to their collision with eastern Australia. At least four such arc-continent collisions are posited in mid-Cambrian (Mt Stavely arc), Late Ordovician (Macquarie arc), mid-Devonian (Gamilaroi arc) and Late Permian (Gympie arc) times. This process effectively transferred new material to the continental crust resulting in net growth. When collisions were followed by subduction flip episodes of west-directed subduction beneath the continental margin ensued giving rise to the S- and I-type granites for which eastern Australia is famous.

  15. Circumpolar oil-and-gas-bearing basins of the arctic part of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2015-09-01

    Major geotectonic elements of the reviewed territory of the Arctic part of the North American continent are the Hyperborean Precambrian Platform, the Franklin folding belt, the northern part of the Precambrian Canadian platform, and the Mesozoic folding belt of Canada and Alaska. The rise of the Arctic slope of Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, and the Sverdrup basin are located in the southern margins of the Hyperborean Platform. The structure and peculiarities of development of these structural elements are genetically related to the evolution of this platform, as well as the current state of petroleum potential of the most promising exploration region of Arctic in the 21st century. The forced exploration of the Arctic regions of the United States and Canada has become an important milestone in the current development of the world energetics. Up to 100 oil, gas, and gas condensate fields have been discovered as a result of violent studies, and the potential oil and gas reserves in the Arctic part of the North American continent have been estimated to 30 billiion t and 50 trillion cubic meters, respectively. Many prospects are related to the continental slopes of all three above-mentioned basins; the total potential reserves of slopes are estimated as 10-12 billion t of oil and 20-25 trillion cubic meters of gas.

  16. Tectonic evolution of Late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. The kinematic progression of the arc-continent collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain ranges of Taiwan. By incorporating geological information into plate kinematics, the collision can be attributed to the northwesterly impingement of the Luzon arc upon the continental margin in the last 12 million years. During the initial stage of the collision, some of the continental materials might have been metamorphosed in the deep subduction zone, but no distinct effects can be perceived in the sedimentary record. In the Mio-Pliocene time (about 5 Ma), the accretionary wedge grew large enough to become a sediment source for the Luzon forearc basin and to induce foreland subsidence on the continental margin. In the early late Pliocene (about 3 Ma), drastic collision caused rapid uplift of the collision orogen that shed voluminous orogenic sediments into the forearc and foreland basins. Continued collision progressively accreted the forearc and foreland basins to the collision orogen from north to south to the present configuration.

  17. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions. PMID:25165531

  18. Organic geochemistry of Mid-Continent middle and Late Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.; Palmer, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Ordovician oils in Mohawkian and Cincinnatian reservoirs of the US Mid-Continent retain the biochemical imprint of Middle and Upper Ordovician oceanic life before the evolution of land plants and most vertebrates. Thus, these oils have some geochemical features that distinguish them from younger oils. These features include (1) a predominance of n-C/sub 15/, n-C/sub 17/, and n-C/sub 19/ alkanes in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, (2) relatively low amounts of longer chain n-alkanes, (3) low amounts of chlorophyll-derived isoprenoids, such as pristane and phytane, and (4) abundant C/sub 29/ sterane relative to C/sub 27/ with rearranged forms (diasteranes) predominant over normal steranes. Ordovician oils also generally contain little sulfur and have a somewhat variable light stable carbon isotopic composition with delta/sup 13/C/sub sat/ and delta/sup 13/C/sub aro/ values of -28 to -31 per thousand (PDB), but these features are typical of many marine oils. The unusual chemistry of these Ordovician oils supports the interpretation of Reed, Illich, and Horsfield (1986) that prokaryotic organisms provided the organic matter for most Ordovician oils. Although their claim for Gloeocapsamorpha (a problematic unicellular prokaryote, possibly a blue-green alga or an unusually large bacterium) cannot be proven from oil chemistry alone, knowing that indigenous Mid-Continent Ordovician oils were derived from prokaryotic organisms may aid in future exploration for these reservoirs. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Two years long field campaign YMC - A challenge to the complicated Maritime Continent weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Hayati, Noer; Katsumata, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC), which spans from the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific via the complicated land topography, hosts various weather and climate phenomena and plays a role of the heat engine for the global atmospheric circulation. However, most of our knowledge on them are qualitative and result in unrealistic simulation by numerical models. For example, most climate models are suffering from the systematic errors of precipitation with overestimate/underestimate over the land/ocean. Interaction between the local circulation due to the heating diurnal cycle and large-scale phenomena might be a key to understand them quantitatively. To cover the entire monsoon cycle, two-year long field campaign, Years of the Maritime Continent or YMC, is proposed. While long-term atmospheric and oceanic monitoring is done by or through the collaboration with the MC countries, several coordinated intensive observations using ship, aircraft, mooring, float, land-based are planned. Their main targets include convective diurnal cycle, aerosol-cloud interaction, the Madden-Julian oscillation, equatorially trapped waves, troposphere-stratosphere interaction, Indonesian through flow, coastal upwelling, and so on. In this presentation, current status will be reviewed.

  20. Onset of oxidative weathering of continents recorded in the geochemistry of ancient glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaschnig, Richard M.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; McDonough, William F.; Kaufman, Alan J.; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan

    2014-12-01

    Glacial diamictites deposited in the Mesoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, and Paleozoic eras record temporal variations in their average compositions that reflect the changing composition of the upper continental crust (UCC). Twenty six of the 27 units studied show elevated chemical index of alternation (CIA) and low Sr abundances, regardless of their age, documenting pervasive weathering of the average UCC. Lower abundances of transition metals reflect a shift towards more felsic crustal compositions after the Archean. Superimposed on this chemical difference is the signal of the rise of oxidative weathering of the continents, recorded by changes in the absolute and relative abundances of the redox sensitive elements Mo and V. Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic diamictites show pervasive depletion in Mo and V, reflecting their loss from the continents due to increasing intensity of oxidative weathering, as also recorded in some of the Paleoproterozoic diamictites. A few of the Paleoproterozoic diamictites deposited after the Great Oxidation Event show no depletion in Mo and V (e.g., Gowganda), but such signatures could be inherited from their provenance. In contrast, the pre-GOE Duitschland diamictite (ca. 2.3-2.5 Ga) from South Africa reveals evidence of intense oxidative weathering (i.e., large depletions in Mo), supporting a growing body of observations showing the presence of measurable atmospheric oxygen prior to permanent loss of the mass independent fractionation signal in sulfur isotopes.

  1. Urinary 3'5' cyclic AMP. Diagnostic test in pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Tze, W J; Saunders, J; Drummond, G I

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of urinary cyclic AMP (adenosine 3'5'-cyclic phosphate) and examination of calcium and phosphorus metabolism was carried out in two children with pseudohypoparathyroidism. In both patients infusion of parathyroid hormone failed to elicit any change in urinary cyclic AMP, while a dose-dependent increase in urinary cyclic AMP occurred in a normal control. The findings agree with concept of unresponsiveness of renal cortical tissue to parathyroid hormone in pseudohypoparathyroidism and provide further evidence that measurement of urinary cyclic AMP during parathyroid hormone infusion may be the method of choice in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:173244

  2. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification....

  4. The role of urinary peptidomics in kidney diseaseresearch.

    PubMed

    Klein, Julie; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Mischak, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P

    2016-03-01

    Urinary peptidomics focuses on endogenous urinary peptide content. Many studies now show the usefulness ofthis approach for the discovery and validation of biomarkers in kidney diseases that are as varied as chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract, and polycystic kidney disease. Most studies focus on chronic kidney disease anddemonstrate that urinary peptidome analysis can substantially contribute to early detection and stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of multicenter studies are ongoing that aim further validation in a clinical setting and broaden the applicability of urinarypeptides. The association of urinary peptides with kidney disease also starts to deliver information on the pathophysiology of kidney disease with emphasis on extracellular matrix remodeling. Bioinformatic peptide centric tools have been developed that allow to model thechanges in protease activity involved in kidney disease,based on the urinary peptidome content. A novel application of urinary peptidome analysis is the back-translation of results obtained in humans to animals for animal model validation and improvement of readout in these preclinical models. In conclusion, urinary peptidomics not only contribute to detection and stratification of kidneydisease in the clinic, but might also create a new impulse in drug discovery through better insight in the pathophysiology of disease and optimized translatability of animal models. PMID:26880450

  5. Possible uses of urinary neopterin and biopterin measurement.

    PubMed

    Rabinoff, M

    1989-08-01

    The measurement of urinary neopterin and biopterin may be an important non-specific diagnostic tool. Urinary biopterin has been found to be decreased in parkinsonian patients, and in hyperphenylalanemia as a variant of phenylketonuria. Urinary neopterin has been found to be elevated in numerous conditions. It has been shown to be significantly higher in AIDS patients than in ARC patients, and significantly higher in ARC patients than in controls. Urinary neopterin has been shown to be prognostically elevated in a wide range of neoplasias, including multiple myeloma, hematologic and gynecologic neoplasias. Neopterin is thought to be an in-vitro indicator of activation of the immune system. PMID:2586350

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    White, Brett

    2011-02-15

    Acute urinary tract infections are relatively common in children, with 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys having at least one episode by seven years of age. The most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, accounting for approximately 85 percent of urinary tract infections in children. Renal parenchymal defects are present in 3 to 15 percent of children within one to two years of their first diagnosed urinary tract infection. Clinical signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection depend on the age of the child, but all febrile children two to 24 months of age with no obvious cause of infection should be evaluated for urinary tract infection (with the exception of circumcised boys older than 12 months). Evaluation of older children may depend on the clinical presentation and symptoms that point toward a urinary source (e.g., leukocyte esterase or nitrite present on dipstick testing; pyuria of at least 10 white blood cells per high-power field and bacteriuria on microscopy). Increased rates of E. coli resistance have made amoxicillin a less acceptable choice for treatment, and studies have found higher cure rates with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Other treatment options include amoxicillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins. Prophylactic antibiotics do not reduce the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections, even in children with mild to moderate vesicoureteral reflux. Constipation should be avoided to help prevent urinary tract infections. Ultrasonography, cystography, and a renal cortical scan should be considered in children with urinary tract infections. PMID:21322515

  7. The Mesozoic Tectono-Magmatic Sequence and Tectonic Dynamic in Southeast China Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Hu, Q.; Guo, K.

    2005-12-01

    There are large-scale magmatism and metallogenic processes in Southeast China, where has been generally considered to posses the characteristics of large igneous province. As a major part of East Asia, Southeast China is very complex region involving multiple stages of the Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity. Various tectonic models have been proposed in last two decades: (1) an active continental margin related to the subduction of a paleo-Pacific plate (e.g., Jahn et al.,1976; Holloway,1982; Huang et al.,1986; Zhou and Li,2000); (2) an Alpine-type continental collision (Hsu et al., 1988,1990); (3) a wrench fault system (Xu et al.,1987,1993); (4) continental extension and rifting (Gilder et al.,1991,1996; Li,2000) and (5) mantle plume tectonics (Xie et al., 1996; Xie and Mao., 1997; Mao et al.,1999a,1999b; Xie et al., 2001). The Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity in Southeast China might have been divided into three major stages: Collision and compression of inter-continents between North China and Yangtze block, Indochina and South China block 258-230Ma: Collision and compression of inter-continents between North China plate and Yangtze block-- Ultra-high pressure eclogites in Qingling-Dabi metamorphic zone; Indochina block was converged with the South China block in the north Vietnam and the north Thailand. 250-220Ma: Collision and compression of intra-continents in Cathaysian block-- Peraluminous-weak peraluminous granites of the crust-derived type. 220-180 Ma: Relative `till' of magmatic activity 180-165Ma: Intraplate, extension-,and/or rift-related magmatism. Their mantle sources might have been metasomatizeed by OIB-type melts in an intraplate regime--high-Ti symmetric bi-modal basalt-dacite, alkaline basalts, A-type granite, and potash granodiorites; Transformation from Tethys ( EW-trend, liner distribution ) to Paleo-Pacific active margin (NE-trend, Extensive distribution) regime: beginning of transformation: about 160Ma 165-150Ma: The lithosphere extension and underplating of the basalt magma- widespread peraluminous-metaluminous monzogranite-granites, and potash-syenites displied geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic affinities of intraplate, extension-,and /or rift-related magmatism. The lithosphere thinning: end of transformation: about 140 Ma Igneous rocks are all demonstrated the cal-alkaline series features and evolutional tendency of an active continental margin or island arc with enrichment in Rb-Th, Zr-Hf and depletion in Ti, Nb-Ta, Ba, Sr, P, Y during this stage. 145-125Ma: Extension-strike slip, the transformation age from Tethys to Paleo-Pacific regime about high-K calc-alkaline dacite-rhyolite volcano-plutonic belt; 125-105Ma: Extension and thinning of the continental lithosphere-Low-Ti asymmetric bimodal basalt-dacite, rhyolite, shoshonite volcano-plutonic rocks; <100Ma: Breakup of the continent- A-type peralkaline granite and basic veins. As mentioned above, authors proposed a tectonic dynamic model: Collision and compression of intra-continents-plate subduction-asthenosphere mantle plume upwelling related to South Pacific super-mantle plume and two crust growth manners, which has been fully considered the mantle plume influence on the Mesozoic uplift and extension as well as the large-scale magmatism in Southeast China.

  8. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Ma?gorzata; S?upska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosi?czuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a womans ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence. PMID:26445533

  9. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available catheter materials have only little influence on reducing catheter-associated rUTI. PMID:23538307

  10. Microtomographic Analysis of Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Joseph R.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Cox, Liza L.; Glass, Ian A.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal obstruction of the lower urinary tract may result in megacystis, with subsequent development of hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, and renal damage. Oligo- or anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, and prune belly syndrome are lethal consequences. Causes and mechanisms responsible for obstruction remain unclear but might be clarified by anatomic study at autopsy. To this end, we employed 2 methods of tomographic imaging—optical projection tomography and contrast-enhanced microCT scanning—to elucidate the anatomy of the intact urinary bladder and urethra in 10 male fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Images were compared with those from 9 age-matched controls. Three-dimensional images, rotated and sectioned digitally in multiple planes, permitted thorough examination while preserving specimens for later study. Both external and internal features of the bladder and urethra were demonstrated; small structures (ie, urethral crest, verumontanum, prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts) were seen in detail. Types of obstruction consisted of urethral atresia (n = 5), severe urethral stenosis (n = 2), urethral diaphragm (n = 2), or physical kinking (n = 1); classic (Young type I) posterior urethral valves were not encountered. Traditional light microscopy was then used to verify tomographic findings. The prostate gland was hypoplastic or absent in all cases; in 1, prostatic tissue was displaced inferior to the verumontanum. Findings support previous views that dissection may produce valve-like artifacts (eg, bisection of an obstructing diaphragm) and that deformation of an otherwise normal urethra may result in megacystis. The designation “posterior urethral valves” should not be used as a generic expression of urethral obstruction unless actual valves are demonstrated. PMID:23977847

  11. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Brett H; Halilovic, Jenana; Christensen, Cinda L

    2010-11-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among hospitalized patients. The rising prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is of particular concern within many institutions because of its association with increased mortality and health care costs, as well as limited treatment options. Clinicians need to differentiate between VRE-associated urinary colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and UTIs in order to determine the need for treatment, optimal therapeutic options, and length of therapy. Unnecessary use of antibiotics in patients simply colonized and not infected with VRE in the urine has become a large problem in both hospitals and long-term care facilities. A PubMed-MEDLINE search was conducted to identify all English-language literature published between January 1975 and March 2010 in order to summarize diagnostic criteria and treatment options for VRE UTIs. Several antimicrobials are discussed, with the specific focus on those with the potential to treat VRE UTIs and susceptibility patterns of VRE from urinary sources: ampicillin, amoxicillin, daptomycin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, imipenem-cilastatin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, tetracycline, and tigecycline. Recommendations for empiric treatment of enterococcal UTIs and definitive treatment of VRE UTIs, including an evidence-based treatment algorithm, are proposed. Ampicillin generally is considered the drug of choice for ampicillin-susceptible enterococcal UTIs, including VRE. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and doxycycline have intrinsic activity against enterococci, including VRE, and are possible oral options for VRE cystitis. Linezolid and daptomycin should be reserved for confirmed or suspected upper and/or bacteremic VRE UTIs among ampicillin-resistant strains. Use of other antimicrobials, such as quinupristin-dalfopristin and tigecycline, should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis due to concerns of toxicity, resistance, and insufficient supportive data. Additional clinical data are needed to determine the optimal management and duration of therapy for VRE UTIs. PMID:20973687

  12. Urinary Incontinence in the CKiD Cohort and Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Jennifer L.; Cohn, Silvia E.; Cox, Christopher; Hmiel, Paul S.; Wood, Ellen; Mattoo, Tej K.; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Many children with chronic kidney disease have urinary incontinence due to urological disorders and/or a urine concentrating defect. We determined the prevalence and impact of incontinence on health related quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study is a prospective, observational cohort of children recruited from 47 sites in the United States and Canada. Eligibility requirements are age 1 to 16 years and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2. Demographics, continence status, glomerular filtration rate and physical examination were assessed at study entry. Health related quality of life was measured using the parent and child versions of PedsQL™. PedsQL scores in participants 5 years old or older were compared among children who were toilet trained and not bed-wetting, bed-wetting or not toilet trained using multivariate linear regression. Results Overall median age of the 329 participants was 12.5 years, 61.4% were male, 70% were white and 55.5% had a urological disorder. Of participants 71.4% were toilet trained at study enrollment, 23.1% had bed-wetting and 5.5% were not toilet trained. Children who were not yet toilet trained had an average total score that was 13.5 points lower (95% CI −25.2, −1.8) on the PedsQL child report than in those who were toilet trained (p = 0.02). Physical functioning (−15.0, 95% CI −28.2, −1.9) and school functioning (−15.3, 95% CI −29.8, −0.8) were also lower in this group (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). On the PedsQL parent proxy report physical functioning (−14.2, 95% CI −26.7, −1.6) was similarly affected by child incontinence (p = 0.03). Conclusions Urinary incontinence is common in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and associated with lower health related quality of life on the PedsQL child and parent proxy reports. Early recognition of and treatment for urinary incontinence may improve health related quality of life in this population. PMID:19695588

  13. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  14. Evolutionary conservatism and convergence both lead to striking similarity in ecology, morphology and performance across continents in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Daniel S.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Many clades contain ecologically and phenotypically similar species across continents, yet the processes generating this similarity are largely unstudied, leaving fundamental questions unanswered. Is similarity in morphology and performance across assemblages caused by evolutionary convergence or by biogeographic dispersal of evolutionarily conserved ecotypes? Does convergence to new ecological conditions erase evidence of past adaptation? Here, we analyse ecology, morphology and performance in frog assemblages from three continents (Asia, Australia and South America), assessing the importance of dispersal and convergent evolution in explaining similarity across regions. We find three striking results. First, species using the same microhabitat type are highly similar in morphology and performance across both clades and continents. Second, some species on different continents owe their similarity to dispersal and evolutionary conservatism (rather than evolutionary convergence), even over vast temporal and spatial scales. Third, in one case, an ecologically specialized ancestor radiated into diverse ecotypes that have converged with those on other continents, largely erasing traces of past adaptation to their ancestral ecology. Overall, our study highlights the roles of both evolutionary conservatism and convergence in explaining similarity in species traits over large spatial and temporal scales and demonstrates a statistical framework for addressing these questions in other systems. PMID:24174109

  15. Upper urinary tract lipoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lmezguidi, Khalid; Hajji, Fouad; Sinaa, Mohamed; Janane, Abdellatif; Ghadouane, Mohamed; Ameur, Ahmed; Albouzidi, Abderrahmane; Abbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Upper urinary tract (UUT) benign tumours are rare. We present a case of UUT lipoma in a 41-year-old man with left flank pain. A computed tomographic urography scan revealed an irregular thickening of the left renal collecting system wall extending from the upper calices to the renal pelvis. The diagnosis of UUT was made and the patient underwent a nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision, as standard treatment. However, macroscopic and histological examination revealed a lipomatous tumour with no sign of malignancy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of its kind of a UUT managed first with a minimally invasive approach. PMID:26425240

  16. Rare entities in urinary bladder pathology.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Marques, Rita C; Montironi, Rodolfo; Reymundo, Carlos; Fonseca, Jorge; Cheng, Liang

    2015-02-01

    Bladder carcinoma with variant histology is a subject of recent interest, with data suggesting more aggressive behavior when compared with conventional urothelial carcinoma. The timely identification and recognition of these histological variants should avoid their misinterpretation as benign lesions. We emphasize the need to recognize these peculiar morphologic features since some of them may require a different/specific therapeutic approach. Other rare entities such as bladder polyps and myofibroblastic proliferations tend to occur at a younger age and represent specific problems in the differential diagnosis. We describe the salient clinicopathologic features of representative rare entities arising in the urinary bladder. PMID:26072630

  17. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Simcox, Nancy J; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and 'green' or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0-126), 2.69 (2.18-3.30), 6.93 (6.00-7.99), 8.79 (7.84-9.86) g g(-1), respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few associations persisted in multivariate models. In summary, among this population of custodians, we identified both occupational and nonoccupational predictors of phthalate exposures. Identification of phthalates as ingredients in cleaning chemicals and consumer products would allow workers and consumers to avoid phthalate exposure. PMID:26240196

  18. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

  19. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  20. Treatment of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lewis; Tracy, Chad R

    2015-11-01

    Funguria, and particularly candiduria, is an increasingly common problem encountered by the practicing urologist and is associated with high-acuity care, indwelling catheters, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and steroid use, and urinary tract disease. In most cases, candiduria is asymptomatic and follows a benign clinical course with antifungal therapy only required in symptomatic or high-risk cases, because spontaneous resolution is common in patients with asymptomatic colonization. Rarely, invasive infections can occur (such as fungus balls or renal abscesses) and may require percutaneous and endoscopic interventions. This article highlights the workup and treatment of funguria and its related urologic manifestations. PMID:26475944

  1. Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in hospital and community settings. The major risk factor for developing a UTI is having a urethral catheter in situ. The longer the catheter remains in place, the higher the risk of infection. The consensus in guidelines is that indwelling urethral catheters should not be used unless necessary and should be removed within 24 hours if possible. The care of patients and nursing home residents who are catheterised for long periods could be improved if guidelines were implemented fully. PMID:26530593

  2. [Catheter-associated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Liedl, B

    2015-09-01

    In patients with indwelling urethral catheters significant bacteriuria develops within 4 weeks of indwelling time in practically 100% of the cases. Catheter encrustation and obstruction can occur in approximately 40% of patients. Symptomatic ascending urinary tract infections, urethral complications and urolithiasis can occur in significant numbers in the long term. Regular educational and surveillance programs in nursing homes, hospitals and in home care are important to instruct personnel in hygiene procedures, to learn the indications for catheterization, to keep the indwelling time of catheters as short as possible, to detect any complications early and to initiate appropriate diagnostics and therapy by the urologist. PMID:26275988

  3. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, D. A.; Buist, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    In a two year period from March 1983, 157 patients with upper urinary tract stones were managed primarily by endoscopy. Of 90 patients with renal stones, extraction was achieved in 91% of patients with complete extraction in 76%. Of the remaining patients with ureteric stones, successful extraction was achieved in 75%. Ten patients required open surgery which was for failed extraction in 9. Morbidity is low with a mean hospital stay of 4.7 days for patients with kidney stones, and of 3.7 days for patients undergoing extraction of ureteric stones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3954313

  4. MULTIPLEX URINARY TESTS FOR BLADDER CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Urquidi, Virginia; Rosser, Charles J.; Goodison, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The development of accurate and reliable molecular assays that could diagnose bladder cancer would be of significant benefit to both patients and the healthcare system. Non-invasive assays that have utility not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring disease recurrence and response to treatment, are needed. Current urinary tests lack sufficient sensitivity or specificity, often because of a reliance on single biomarkers, but high-throughput technologies are enabling the derivation of more accurate panels of biomarkers. In this article, we review some of the promising investigational studies that are revealing multiplex biomarker signatures that may augment current bladder cancer detection strategies. PMID:24533178

  5. [Labial adhesions: unusual cause of urinary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Lpez Aramburu, M A; Rosa Arias, J; Pea Prez, P

    2008-01-01

    A case of labial adhesions in an elderly woman is reported. The patient was admitted in the urology department since she related urinary symptoms. The diagnosis was been made by simple inspection of the genital region. Under anaesthesia, surgical procedure was done by sharp dissection, and dressing ointment was recommended at discharge. An excellent result was obtain. The estrogens deficiency seems to be the origin of this rare disease and it is not unusual the presence of another circumstances like lichen sclerous et atrophicus, diabetes mellitus or decreasing sexual activity. PMID:19143298

  6. [Contemporary potential of the mini-invasive surgical treatment of the female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Chmel, R; Horcicka, L; Vlk, R; Novckov, M

    2005-01-01

    In 1994 DeLancey published the hammock hypothesis. According to this theory the increase of the urethral closure pressure depends on the urethral compression by the suburethral supportive tissue and the intraabdominal position of the proximal urethra and the bladder neck are not the main factors ensuring the continence. In connection with this new theory Ulmsten published (in 1996) results of the stress incontinence treatment with the tension-free polypropylene vaginal tape (TVT). This operation represents a revolution in the antiincontinent surgery. The success rate of this procedure is about 90% and it is the same in obese and in non obese women. Concomitant TVT and transvaginal procedures for prolapse do not decrease the effectiveness and do not increase the perioperative and postoperative morbidity. The procedure is connected with some peroperative (bladder perforation, retropubic haematoma), early postoperative (urinary retention) and late postoperative complications (urge incontinence, vaginal protrusion of the tape). In 2003 newly developed tape procedure--TOT (transobturator tape) was an evolutionary step in the improvement of tape procedures. The evaluation of the efficacy and complications rate of this modification is premature up to this time but hitherto positive results predetermine this surgical modality to successful expand. PMID:15887396

  7. Football practice and urinary incontinence: Relation between morphology, function and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Roza, Thuane Da; Brando, Sofia; Oliveira, Dulce; Mascarenhas, Teresa; Parente, Marco; Duarte, Jos Alberto; Jorge, Renato Natal

    2015-06-25

    Current evidence points to a high prevalence of urinary incontinence among female athletes. In this context, this study aims to assess if structural and biomechanical characteristics of the pubovisceral muscles may lead to urine leakage. Clinical and demographic data were collected, as well as pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Furthermore, computational models were built to verify if they were able to reproduce similar biomechanical muscle response as the one measured by dynamic imaging during active contraction by means of the percent error. Compared to the continent ones (n=7), incontinent athletes (n=5) evidenced thicker pubovisceral muscles at the level of the midvagina (p=0.019 and p=0.028 for the right and left sides, respectively). However, there were no differences neither in the strength of contraction in the Oxford Scale or in the displacement of the pelvic floor muscles during simulation of voluntary contraction, which suggests that urine leakage may be related with alterations in the intrafusal fibers than just the result of thicker muscles. Additionally, we found similar values of displacement retrieved from dynamic images and numerical models (6.42 0.36 mm vs. 6.10 0.47 mm; p=0.130), with a percent error ranging from 1.47% to 17.20%. However, further refinements in the mechanical properties of the striated skeletal fibers of the pelvic floor muscles and the inclusion of pelvic organs, fascia and ligaments would reproduce more realistically the pelvic cavity. PMID:25835786

  8. Force Required to Breakup a Continent: Implications on Rifting Localization and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svartman Dias, A. E.; Lavier, L. L.; Hayman, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    The maximum force from ridge push available is about 5 TN/m, lower than that required by 2D and 3D numerical experiments to rift the lithosphere in the absence of magmatic input. We carry out 2D numerical experiments without any magmatic input to study the extensional force necessary to start a rift basin and to breakup a continent. We assume a range of initial temperature structure, crust and mantle initial thicknesses and composition. In a first step, we use velocity boundary conditions (1cm/yr) and we monitor the force necessary to breakup the continent. Results can be classified in two groups according to the amount of force needed to rift through time: (1) The initial force builds up rapidly to 12-20 TN/m within 0.4-1.0 Myr. This is followed by an exponential decrease due to early strain localization and lithospheric weakening. The force is < 5TN/m after 4.4-7.0 Myr of extension. Continental breakup occurs approximately 10 Myr after the onset of extension forming narrow conjugate margins. This group encompasses experiments with initial Tmoho < 650oC and crustal thicknesses ≤ 35 km, where crust and mantle deformation are coupled from the early stages of rifting. (2) The initial build-up is more discrete, from < 3 TN/m to 4-6.5 TN/m in the first 0.1 Myr, followed by a decrease to a nearly constant value of 3-5 TN/m from 0.4 Myr to 10 Myr, when strain starts localizing. The constant force through time reflects lithosphere strengthening and migration of the deformation. This rift migration forms a wide basin (> 250 km wide) that may evolve to form very asymmetric conjugate margins. Breakup occurs 18 Myr after the onset of rifting or later. This second group corresponds to experiments with initial Tmoho > 650 km and crustal thicknesses ≥ 35 km. High bending stresses result in upper crust brittle failure and on enhancement of lower crust lateral flow. Interaction between ductile failure in the lower crust and brittle failure in the upper crust controls the migration of the deformation. In a second step, we repeat the same experiments applying a constant extensional force ≤ 5 TN/m to test whether and how the limited ridge push force naturally available can rift and breakup a continent. We then compare our results to the evolution of aborted rifts and to along strike variations in rifted magins such as the South Atlantic.

  9. Earthquake Stress Transfer within Continents: Migrating Earthquakes and Long Aftershock Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.; Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    Stress transfer after large earthquakes has different effects within continental plate interiors than at plate boundaries. These differences explain why the spatio-temporal patterns of earthquakes in the two environments are so different given that the physics of fault rupture is essentially the same. At plate boundaries, steady plate motion reloads faults quickly after large earthquakes. This tectonic reloading soon dominates all other stress effects including those due to earthquakes on other faults. As a result, fault segments produce quasi-periodic earthquakes. In contrast, after a large mid-continental earthquake, stress reaccumulates very slowly - if at all - on the fault that broke. Instead, the resulting stress changes can give rise to earthquakes on other faults that have been quiescent for a long time. As a result, continental seismicity is often episodic, temporally clustered, and migrate between faults over thousands of years. A striking example of this variability is in North China, where large (M>7) earthquakes have been frequent, but not a single one repeated in the same place since 1300 A.D. For similar reasons, aftershock sequences within continents can last hundreds of years. Aftershocks result from changes of stress and fault properties induced by the main shock. At a plate boundary, steady plate motion quickly reloads the fault after a large earthquake and overwhelms the effects of the main shock. Within continents, however, the faults are reloaded much more slowly, allowing aftershocks to continue much longer. The observed aftershock sequence lengths are consistent with a simple model based on rate-and-state fault friction that predicts that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the fault loading rate. Recognizing the migration of large earthquakes and long aftershock sequences is crucial for seismic hazard assessment within continents. Because many small earthquakes are probably aftershocks, their locations are unlikely to indicate the timing or the locations of future large earthquakes. Moreover, because in the short term much of the seismic hazard results from aftershocks, which can be damaging, these aftershocks should not be removed in attempts to infer earthquake recurrence. In the longer term, relying unduly on recent seismicity to predict the locations of future large earthquakes will overestimate the hazard in some places and lead to surprises elsewhere.

  10. The Heat Flow Anomaly across the Ocean Continent Transition: Application to the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclater, J. G.; Hasterok, D. P.; Goutorbe, B.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Ferrarri, L.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the relation between heat flow and age for the ocean crust and the increase in radioactivity on the continents tend to counteract each other creating a decrease in heat flow across the Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) at a young and an increase in heat flow across an older margin. Recent advances in the observational oceanic heat flow field have given us a much better understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the ocean crust. This and two recent papers, that show the expected drop or increase in heat flow at the OCT, encouraged us to take a collective approach and look at all published heat flow profiles across the OCT to investigate if there are any processes common to all or a group of the margins. We examined 16 actual and 2 constructed profiles across the ocean continent transition (OCT) finding 9 where the data justified the examination of the difference between the ocean heat flow and that over the stretched margin (?HF-OCT). For the two margins < 40 Ma, ?HF-OCT decreased and, for the 7 older than 115 Ma, it either increased or did not change. All the margins where it did not change were in the Northeastern Atlantic where the ocean floor has spread at < 15 mm/yr, and were close to regions of exhumed ultramafic crust. On one profile we found convincing evidence for hydrothermal circulation through both the exhumed ultramafic oceanic crust and nearby continental crust. At the two younger margins we found that the abrupt drop in heat flow (?HF-OTC) lies 30 to 50 km landward of the seismic OCT. A possible explanation is significant intrusion of magma or exhumation of hot ultra mafic rock into the thinned continental crust. Currently, a major program of joint research between CICESE, UNAM (Mexico) and SIO (UCSD), UCSC, OSU (USA) is underway to measure the heat flow from shelf to shelf across the axis of three of three-major-deepwater basins (Guaymas, Farallon, Alarcon) of the > 10 Ma Gulf of California Rift System. As a pilot project, we propose to carry out a seismically controlled detailed heat flow measurements across the southeastern side of the Guaymas Basin and a finer resolution survey over a recently imaged "saucer shaped sill" above stretched continental crust. Both surveys will specifically investigate the effect of the intrusion of dykes and sills into the sediments within a recently forming ocean basin on both the continental and oceanic sides of the transition.

  11. Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 on the American continent

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de Jesus Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important seafood-borne bacterial in recent years and is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis, primarily following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. Until 1996, infections caused by V. parahaemolyticus were generally associated with diverse serovars. However, in February 1996, a unique serovar (O3:K6) of V. parahaemolyticus with specific genetic markers (tdh, toxRS/New and/or orf8) appeared abruptly in Kolkata, India. In subsequent years, O3:K6 isolates similar to those isolated in Kolkata have been reported from food borne outbreaks in Southeast Asia, as well as in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States (U.S). More recently, there have been reports in Europe, Africa and Central and South America. Specifically, in the American continent, some countries have reported cases of gastroenteritis due to the pandemic O3:K6 strain and its serovariants; the pandemic strain was first detected in Peru (1996, >100 cases), subsequently spreading to Chile in 1998 (>16,804 human cases), to the U.S. in 1998 (>700 cases), to Brazil in 2001 (>18 cases) and to Mexico in 2004 (>1200 cases). The arrival of the pandemic clone on the American continent may have resulted in a significant shift on the epidemic dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus. However, although O3:K6 is the predominant serovar of the recognized clinical strains in some countries in the Americas, a decrease in clinical cases caused by O3:K6 and an increase in cases associated with a new serotype (O3:K59, Chile) have been recently reported. The emergence and worldwide dissemination of O3:K6 and other pandemic strains since 1996 have come to represent a threat to public health and should concern health authorities. This review focuses on the presence, distribution and virulence factors of the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants in clinical and environmental strains on the American continent. PMID:24427744

  12. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of

  13. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780 Section 862.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones)...

  15. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections are no longer routinely recommended. A large number of children must be given prophylaxis to prevent one infection and antibiotic resistance is a major concern when treating community-acquired urinary tract infections. The results of three recent significant studies are examined, with focus on the efficacy of prophylaxis, and recommendations are made. PMID:25722643

  16. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Persistent Urinary Incontinence: A Case Series of Missed Ectopic Ureters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic ureter is a rare cause of urinary incontinence in children. Symptomatic cases are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and incontinence are often associated with significant psychological impact on these children. This case series of 2 older children with missed ectopic ureters by the urologic community outline workup for persistent urinary incontinence, with emphasis on history, physical, embryology review, and radiographic evaluations. PMID:26793560

  18. A complex empirical orthogonal function for combining two different variables over Indonesian maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryanto, Danang Eko

    2016-02-01

    The spatiotemporal patterns of Indonesian Maritime Continent (IMC) convective activity was documented by using two different variables i.e. cloud and wind datasets. In this study, a Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function (CEOF) was used to combining that variables. This method was applied to representing the land-sea-atmosphere interaction of diurnal convective activity in IMC. This study used pseudo-vector to define complex signals from convective index (cloud) as complex part and convergence (wind) as real part. The results showed that the phase patterns of CEOF were more consistent than those of pseudo-vector. Both CEOF1 and CEOF2 have shown semi-annual and annual cycles, respectively. Spatially, CEOF1 represents common patterns, whereas CEOF2 was more toward local patterns and tends to be in random.

  19. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  20. The peopling of the African continent and the diaspora into the new world

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    Africa is the birthplace of anatomically modern humans, and is the geographic origin of human migration across the globe within the last 100,000 years. The history of African populations has consisted of a number of demographic events that have influenced patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation across the continent. With the increasing amount of genomic data and corresponding developments in computational methods, researchers are able to explore long-standing evolutionary questions, expanding our understanding of human history within and outside of Africa. This review will summarize some of the recent findings regarding African demographic history, including the African Diaspora, and will briefly explore their implications for disease susceptibility in populations of African descent. PMID:25461616