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1

Continent Urinary Diversion  

PubMed Central

Recently, various forms of continent urinary diversion have developed to allow patients to be dry without an external collection device. There is no ideal form that is appropriate for all patients. Selection depends upon patient age, body image, and manual dexterity, as well as renal function, concomitant bowel disease, and the underlying urologic disease.

MacNeily, A.E.

1991-01-01

2

Achieving urinary continence in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2–3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a

Hsi-Yang Wu

2010-01-01

3

Mechanism of Postoperative Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Stress incontinence used to be attributed mostly to urethral hypermobility, and consequently most surgical techniques focused\\u000a on the region of the bladder neck and proximal urethra. This article reviews our knowledge about the mechanism of postoperative\\u000a urinary continence based on anatomic, imaging and urodynamic studies. Reduction of urethral mobility, as measured by cotton\\u000a swab testing or imaging studies, is

F. Zivkovic; K. Tamussino

2001-01-01

4

Prediction of Urinary Continence following Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of incontinence after radical prostatectomy and to identify the various factors that can predict urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. Urinary continence following a radical prostatectomy was evaluated in 175 consecutive patients who underwent surgery. Immediately after catheter withdrawal, on the 15th postoperative day, 66% of the patients were incontinent. Varying

M. Van Kampen; W. De Weerdt; H. Van Poppel; H. Feys; A. Castell Campesino; J. Stragier; L. Baert

1998-01-01

5

METABOLIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONTINENT URINARY DIVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeContinent diversion, in particular orthotopic bladder substitution, is a well accepted form of urinary diversion. However, potential metabolic consequences in the early postoperative period as well as long term remain a serious problem.

R. D. MILLS; U. E. STUDER

1999-01-01

6

A multidisciplinary approach to improving urinary continence.  

PubMed

A pilot project was initiated and carried out by a multidisciplinary team working with older people with the aim of promoting effective practice in continence care. A documentation audit and staff questionnaire covering four independent hospital sites had identified the prevalence of urinary incontinence among inpatients to be 47%. This affected patients' participation in rehabilitation programmes. A framework was adopted that supported the implementation of evidence in practice. Strategies used by the project team included: workshops, role play and tools to aid decision making. Success of the project was confirmed by multidisciplinary focus group evaluations of all members of the ward team and by a post-intervention comparison of practice in the pilot ward with a similar ward using an established continence audit tool. PMID:18986080

King, L; Pilcher, M

7

[Continent urinary diversion with the Florida pouch].  

PubMed

From October 1990 through June 1993, the Florida pouch, a continent urinary reservoir using the ascending colon and the dexter half of the transverse colon was constructed in 7 patients after cystectomy for invasive tumor. Concerning the length of the efferent limb, although 10 cm was adopted in the first three cases, we shortened it and finally considered 8 cm to be the adequate length. Although the capacity of the reservoir ranged from 90 ml to 180 ml immediately after operation, an increase of capacity by three times or more within three months after operation was seen. The patients performed self-catheterization 4-5 times during the day and 0-2 times at night for volumes ranging from 300 to 600 ml. Continent colonic urinary diversion did not appear to create either any significant acid-base changes or azotemia in patients with normal renal function. Every patient received both a serum value evaluation and an absorption test for vitamin B12 (Schilling test). Although there were no patients with a reduced serum vitamin B12 level, one patient showed a slightly low absorption value. Because there is a large quantity of vitamin B12 reserve in the liver, it must be emphasized that even when the entero-hepatic circulation has been injured by surgical interruption of the intestinal tract, it may be years before reduced serum vitamin B12 value become apparent. Accordingly, the vitamin B12 absorption test should be performed regardless of the ileal length incorporated into the resection. PMID:7702002

Miyagi, T; Nakashima, T; Shimamura, M; Yamada, T

1995-02-01

8

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by the application...pump and valve under the skin surface that is...

2009-04-01

9

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by the application...pump and valve under the skin surface that is...

2013-04-01

10

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device...mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by the application...pump and valve under the skin surface that is...

2010-04-01

11

Puboprostatic Ligament Sparing Improves Urinary Continence After Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether a puboprostatic ligament-sparing technique of prostatic apical dissection provided improved urinary continence after radical retropubic prostatectomy.Methods. A total of 43 men with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (standard apical dissection in 25, puboprostatic ligament-sparing technique in 18). Patients were evaluated by independent observer questionnaire to determine their continence status. The questionnaire was tested

Raymond E Poore; David L McCullough; Jonathan P Jarow

1998-01-01

12

Continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy: 3 years' experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors performed 27 continent urinary diversions among 36 urinary diversion operations between 1992 and 1995. Fifteen\\u000a orthotopic diversions (14 ileal neobladders, 1 sigma neobladder) and 12 Mainz pouch II were created. During these 3 years,\\u000a 4 patients died after operation. Tumour progression was observed in four patients. Three ureteral and 1 urethral stricture\\u000a developed, 1 patient had complete incontinence

L. Samodai; A. Zámori; I. Kelemen; L. Kovács

1996-01-01

13

Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes

Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

2002-01-01

14

Managing urinary incontinence with BioDerm external continence device.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem, experienced by both men and women, and has a significant impact on quality of life. For male patients, UI can be caused by a number of conditions, including post-prostatectomy, neurogenic problems (such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury), dementia, and an overactive bladder. One way of managing male UI is through the use of urinary sheaths - containment devices which capture the urine that is voided involuntarily. This article discusses male UI and its management, looking at common problems encountered when using urinary sheaths. It goes on to describe BioDerm, a new type of continence device that could meet the needs of some groups of men, and is an alternative to the previously used external condom catheter-based system of urinary drainage. PMID:18567167

Wells, Mandy

15

The Malone antegrade continence enema combined with urinary diversion in adult neurogenic patients: early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction often have coexisting neurogenic bowel problems. Impaired bowel evacuation is a cause of major morbidity and impaired lifestyle for these patients. The Malone antegrade continence enema (ACE) performed synchronously with a urinary continence procedure has been successful in pediatric patients. We report early experience combining the ACE with a urinary continence procedure in adult

Joel M. H. Teichman; Vince J. Rogenes; Douglas B. Barber

1997-01-01

16

Continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy: 3 years' experience.  

PubMed

The authors performed 27 continent urinary diversions among 36 urinary diversion operations between 1992 and 1995. Fifteen orthotopic diversions (14 ileal neobladders, 1 sigma neobladder) and 12 Mainz pouch II were created. During these 3 years, 4 patients died after operation. Tumour progression was observed in four patients. Three ureteral and 1 urethral stricture developed, 1 patient had complete incontinence (after Mainz pouch II operation) and another three had stress and night incontinence. In 12 patients a modified Hautmann operation was performed (modified by the authors) and the ureters were implanted in a 15 cm long tubular afferent ileum. Also they changed the conventional Goodwin technique for ureter implantation in Mainz pouch II operation and instead they used the Paquin technique for ureter reimplantation in the sigma. The authors concluded according to the literature and their own results that continent urinary diversion (ileal or sigma neobladder or Mainz pouch II) could be the first choice after radical cystectomy to achieve for these patients a better quality of life. PMID:9119636

Samodai, L; Zámori, A; Kelemen, I; Kovács, L

1996-01-01

17

Preservation of Putative Continence Nerves during Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy Leads to More Rapid Return of Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Urinary incontinence is a significant complication of radical pelvic surgery. A better understanding of the neuroanatomy of the rhabdosphincter has led to the modification of the radical retropubic prostatectomy to optimize the recovery of postoperative urinary control.Methods. Mock radical retropubic prostatectomy was performed on fresh cadavers to determine which surgical maneuvers could injure what may be the continence nerves.

Robert S Hollabaugh; Roger R Dmochowski; Timothy G Kneib; Mitchell S Steiner

1998-01-01

18

Development of urethral occlusive techniques for restoration of urinary continence.  

PubMed

Three models of an artificial sphincter for treatment of urinary incontinence are described. Each of the models shares the two basic features of a cuff that encircles the urethra and a totally implantable hydraulic system for volitionally inflating the cuff to control the flow of urine. The models differ in the means by which pressure in the cuff is maintained below safe operating limits. In one model, pressure is regulated by a pressure-relief valve. This model has a clinical success rate of 66 percent over 5 years. The success rate has been increased by improvements in mechanical design, surgical technique, and patient selection. In another model, cuff pressure is regulated by means of a balloon which inflates at constant pressure as fluid is pumped into the balloon and cuff simultaneously to occlude the urethra. In the third model, pressure is also controlled by a balloon. To void, fluid is pumped from the cuff into the balloon. It then automatically flows back to the cuff through a fluid resistance to reestablish continence. Clinical trials of the balloon-regulated models are currently in progress. PMID:895596

Burton, J H; Mikulich, M A; Timm, G W; Scott, F B; Attia, S L; Bradley, W E

19

Patient-reported urinary continence and sexual function after anatomic radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. After radical prostatectomy, the rates for recovery of urinary continence and sexual function reported by experienced surgeons are much higher than the patient-reported outcomes from other centers. It is uncertain whether this represents differences in surgical technique or in the collection of data. This study was performed to determine patient-reported rates of continence and potency after radical prostatectomy performed

Patrick C Walsh; Penny Marschke; Deborah Ricker; Arthur L Burnett

2000-01-01

20

The integrated continence system: A manual therapy approach to the treatment of stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) constitutes a large-scale public health concern. The integrated continence system (ICS) developed by the authors is an evidence-based model that demonstrates how urinary incontinence is maintained through the interaction of three structural systems (intrinsic urethral closure, urethral support and lumbopelvic stability) and three modifiable factors (motor control, musculoskeletal and behavioural). The purpose of the ICS is

Heather Grewar; Linda McLean

2008-01-01

21

Reliability and validity of the continence self-efficacy scale in Turkish women with urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale. Data was collected from 128 women who had urinary incontinence using the following instruments: the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale, the Broome Pelvic Muscle Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The validity of the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis and convergent and divergent validity analyses. The reliability of the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale was examined in terms of internal consistency and test-retest correlations. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a three -factor model that had acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. The convergent validity of the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale was supported by a positive correlation between the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale and the Broome Pelvic Muscle Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. The divergent validity of the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale was supported by negative relationships between the Continence Self-Efficacy Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. The Cronbach's alpha values regarding internal consistency were 0.94 for the overall scale and 0.92-0.93 for the subscales. Test-retest correlations were 0.75 for the overall scale and 0.52-0.74 for the subscales. The Continence Self-Efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable instrument for use in Turkish women with urinary incontinence. PMID:22632069

Zengin, Neriman; Pinar, Rukiye

2012-05-27

22

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted in the abdomen with...electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered...

2013-04-01

23

Morbidity and Quality of Life in Patients with Orthotopic and Heterotopic Continent Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate morbidity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with continent urinary diversion.Methods. Morbidity and neobladder function were analyzed in 56 consecutive patients with bladder substitutions. QOL assessment was performed using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), supplemented with a detailed voiding and continence questionnaire.Results. Mean age was 44.7 years. Mean follow-up was 41 months. Thirty-one men and 25

Philip C Weijerman; Johan R Schurmans; Wim C. J Hop; Fritz H Schröder; J. L. H. Ruud Bosch

1998-01-01

24

Urinary continence following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Association with postoperative membranous urethral length measured using real-time intraoperative transrectal ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Urinary incontinence is a major complication following radical prostatectomy. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between urinary continence following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and various factors measured using real-time intraoperative transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Patients (n=53) with localized prostate cancer underwent LRP in combination with real-time intraoperative TRUS navigation and were evaluated for urinary continence for more than 6 months following LRP. Prostate size, membranous urethral length (MUL) and bladder-urethra angle were measured using real-time intraoperative TRUS immediately before and after surgery. Urinary continence was regained by 4, 15 and 27 patients 1, 3 and 6 months after LRP, respectively. Longer postoperative MUL was significantly correlated with recovery of urinary continence 1, 3 and 6 months after LRP. In addition, an increase in difference between preoperative and postoperative MUL was also associated with superior continence. No correlation was observed between postoperative MUL and the rate of tumor-positive surgical margins. Larger prostate volume was correlated to postoperative continence 6 months after surgery. Shorter operation time and less blood loss resulted in postoperative urinary continence 1 month after LRP. Preoperative MUL, bladder-urethra angle, age and body mass index had no correlation with urinary continence. Postoperative MUL was the most significant factor for early recovery of urinary continence following LRP. These results indicate that preservation of longer urethra during surgery may be recommended without tumor-positive surgical margins.

MIZUTANI, YOICHI; UEHARA, HIROSHI; FUJISUE, YUTAKA; TAKAGI, SHIZUKO; NISHIDA, TAKESHI; INAMOTO, TERUO; UBAI, TAKANOBU; NOMI, HAYAHITO; KATSUOKA, YOJI; AZUMA, HARUHITO

2012-01-01

25

Mechanisms of female urinary continence under stress: frequency spectrum analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravesical and urethral pressure signals during cough and Valsalva maneuvers for 15 continent women were analyzed with frequency spectrum analysis. Clear modulation of the urethral pressure changes by the intravesical pressure rise during stress maneuvers was demonstrated in the frequency bands of 14 and 7Hz for cough and Valsalva, respectively. The linearity between the urethral and intravesical pressure signals was

Kyu-Jung Kim; Catalin D. Jurnalov; Seung-Yong Ham; Maurice J. Webb; Kai-Nan An

2001-01-01

26

Contribution of the Posterior Compartment to the Urinary Continence Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the contribution of the posterior pelvic compartment to the urethral closure mechanism.Methods: Urethral profilometry at rest and during stress was performed in 32 continent women before and after inserting a weighted (1 kg) posterior speculum to displace the posterior vaginal wall and levator ani muscles away from the bladder neck and the urethra.Results: Insertion of the speculum

Franjo Zivkovic; Karl Tamussino; Josef Haas

1998-01-01

27

Mechanisms of female urinary continence under stress: frequency spectrum analysis.  

PubMed

Intravesical and urethral pressure signals during cough and Valsalva maneuvers for 15 continent women were analyzed with frequency spectrum analysis. Clear modulation of the urethral pressure changes by the intravesical pressure rise during stress maneuvers was demonstrated in the frequency bands of 14 and 7 Hz for cough and Valsalva, respectively. The linearity between the urethral and intravesical pressure signals was strong for cough, but relatively weaker for Valsalva. The observed linearity lead to the formulation of a modified continence equation to mathematically quantify stress leak point pressure (sLPP): sLPP=MUCP/(1-alpha1)+RBP. This algebraic equation demonstrated that sLPP depends on pressure transmission, resting bladder pressure, and maximum urethral closure pressure. The equation was validated with excellent theoretical predictions for the 15 continent subjects (R(2)=0.98 and 0.97 for cough and Valsalva leak point pressure, respectively) and good but somewhat weaker predictions for 46 stress incontinent women (R(2)=0.79 and 0.48, respectively). It has been shown that pressure transmission plays the most important role in female continence function, while it may be attributable to passive structural origin as evidenced by the minimal time delay between the two pressure signals, in the order of a few milliseconds. It can be concluded that coughing seems to have a more mechanical, rather than neuromuscular basis for its signal dynamics. This study suggests that a complete assessment of female stress continence function requires comprehensive urodynamic information in terms of pressure transmission, maximum urethral closure pressure, and resting bladder pressure. PMID:11311710

Kim, K; Jurnalov, C D; Ham, S; Webb, M J; An, K

2001-05-01

28

[Insufficiency of the efferent segment in continent cutaneous diversion].  

PubMed

Besides common requirements like universal applicability, reproducibility, and low complication rate, functionality and cosmetic aspects are essential in continent cutaneous diversions. Creation of the continence mechanism certainly represents the major surgical challenge in continent cutaneous diversions. Complete continence and ease of catheterization are mandatory for the patient's quality of life.High surgical competence, creativity, and variability are required in cases of revisional surgery for stomal insufficiency. In addition to accurate preoperative clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation, extensive expertise in the fields of continent urinary diversion and reconstructive urology allows performance of a surgical solution ideally adapted to the patient's individual situation. Between January 1990 and September 2011 we performed urinary diversion in 1,224 patients (mean follow-up 90.3 months). Continent urinary diversion was performed in 717 patients (59%); in 486 patients an ileocecal reservoir with continent cutaneous diversion, in 186 patients an ileocecal neobladder, and in 45 patients a sigma rectum pouch was created. Incontinence rate and stenosis rate in patients with appendico-umbilical stoma (n=219) were 2.3% and 10% and in patients with intussuscepted ileum nipple (n=267) nipple 5.2% and 2.7%. Stenosis usually can be corrected easily by simple excision of the obstructive scarred tissue or by stomal reconfiguration. Outlet failure may result from simple causes like fistula formation between reservoir and efferent segment or skin and nipple gliding or prolapse which can easily be repaired. More complex situations might require creation of a secondary continence mechanism. In our series of 486 patients having undergone continent cutaneous diversion in our department, 14 patients (appendico-umbilical stoma n=5, ileal nipple n=9) suffered from irreversible damage of the continent outlet. In 11 patients creation of a secondary intussuscepted ileal nipple and in 3 patients a modified Managadze procedure was performed.In case of absence of the ileocecal valve (e.g. in primary ileal reservoirs, ileocolonic reservoirs without integrated ileocecal valve) and in case of a preexisting pouch of small capacity we prefer augmentation of the primary reservoirs with an ileocecal cup patch plasty in combination with the submucosally embedded appendix or intussuscepted ileal nipple serving as continent outlet. In our institution this was done in four patients who had undergone primary surgery elsewhere. PMID:22476799

Vergho, D; Kocot, A; Bauer, C; Riedmiller, H

2012-04-01

29

Combined Mitrofanoff and Antegrade Continence Enema Procedures for Urinary and Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFecal soiling or intractable constipation frequently occurs in association with urinary incontinence in children undergoing major reconstructive urological operations. To treat double incontinence or the combination of wetting and severe constipation, we constructed a Mitrofanoff conduit and a channel for antegrade continence enemas in 18 patients between 1989 and 1995. We review the underlying pathological conditions, various surgical techniques and

Y. Mor; F. M. J. Quinn; B. Carr; P. D. Mouriquand; P. G. Duffy; P. G. Ransley

1997-01-01

30

Percutaneous Imaging-Guided Access for the Treatment of Calculi in Continent Urinary Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe our long-term experience with percutaneous access to continent urinary reservoirs for calculus removal. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 13 procedures in 10 patients was performed. In 2 of the 13 procedures, access and calculus removal was performed in a single session. In the other 11 procedures, initial access was obtained using ultrasonography,fluoroscopy, and/or computed tomography. The patients then returned ata later date for a second step where the access was dilated and the calculi were removed. Results: Access was achieved successfully in all cases with no complications. At mean follow-up time of 13.6 months (range 1-94 months) one patient had died of complications unrelated to her continent urinary reservoir. Another patient had been placed on suppressive antibiotics for recurrent calculi. The remaining patients were stone free and without late complication. Conclusions: Percutaneous removal of reservoir calculi can be performed safely, avoiding potential injury to the continence valve mechanism by a direct cystoscopic approach. We propose a two-stage procedure using CT guidance for initial access as the preferred technique.

Davis, Winston Brooks; Trerotola, Scott O.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Patel, Nilesh H.; Namyslowski, Jan; Stecker, Michael S.; McLennan, Gordon; Shah, Himanshu [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bihrle, Richard; Foster, Richard [Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

2002-03-15

31

The effects of undergarment type on the urinary continence of toddlers.  

PubMed

There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing underwear may facilitate the development of toileting skills. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of wearing disposable diapers, disposable pull-on training pants, and underwear on urinary continence of 5 typically developing toddlers in a child-care setting. Underwear decreased incontinence and increased continent urinations for 2 of the 5 participants, produced no improvement in 2 participants, and when combined with increased fluid intake and longer sitting periods, produced some favorable trends for the 5th participant. PMID:17020216

Simon, Jennifer L; Thompson, Rachel H

2006-01-01

32

The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers  

PubMed Central

There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing underwear may facilitate the development of toileting skills. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of wearing disposable diapers, disposable pull-on training pants, and underwear on urinary continence of 5 typically developing toddlers in a child-care setting. Underwear decreased incontinence and increased continent urinations for 2 of the 5 participants, produced no improvement in 2 participants, and when combined with increased fluid intake and longer sitting periods, produced some favorable trends for the 5th participant.

Simon, Jennifer L; Thompson, Rachel H

2006-01-01

33

The function of the urethral blood flow in maintaining urinary continence. A preliminary report.  

PubMed

Urethral pressure is made up of three components, equal in size: the striated muscle component, the smooth muscle component, and the vascular component. Anti-embolism stockings have been helpful in bringing about significant improvement in blood flow through the lower extremities. A pilot study was undertaken with 15 women to find out whether or not the same approach led to increase in urethral pressure. Simultaneous urethrocystometry was applied to women with and without stockings. Significant rise in urethral pressure was recorded from women with urinary stress incontinence who used stockings. Four of eight incontinent women were improved to continence by means of stockings. PMID:7200307

Rud, T

1981-01-01

34

Intrapouch injections of botulinum toxin type A for the management of unit contractions of a continent urinary diversion  

PubMed Central

A 43-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain associated with incontinence from her Indiana pouch continent urinary diversion due to significant unit contractions. The patient’s symptoms were refractory to conservative management, including oral and intrapouch antimuscarinic agents. Prior to surgical reconstruction, a trial of intrapouch injections of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) significantly improved both the abdominal pain and the incontinence. The benefit lasted about 6 months and was subsequently repeated for recurrent symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the management of complications of a continent urinary diversion with BT-A injections.

Gharajeh, Arash; Steele, Stephen S.; Siemens, D. Robert

2008-01-01

35

Patient Related Factors Associated with Long-Term Urinary Continence After Burch Colposuspension and Pubovaginal Fascial Sling Surgeries  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine pre-and post-operative patient-related factors associated with continence status up to 7 years post-surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods Women randomized to Burch colposuspension or fascial sling surgery and assessed for the primary outcome of urinary continence two years post-procedure were eligible to enroll in a prospective observational study. Survival analysis was used to investigate baseline and post-surgery factors on subsequent risk of SUI defined as self-report of SUI symptoms, incontinence episodes on a 3-day diary or surgical retreatment. Results Seventy four percent (482/655) of women who participated in the randomized trial were enrolled in the follow-up study. Urinary continence rates decreased over a period of two to seven years post-operatively from 42% to 13% in the Burch group and from 52% to 27%, in the sling group, respectively. Among the baseline factors included in the first multivariable model age (p=0.03) prior SUI surgery (p=0.02), menopausal status (0.005), urge index (0.006), assigned surgery (p=0.01) and recruiting site (p=0.02) were independently associated with increased risk of incontinence. In the final multivariable model including baseline and post-operative factors, Burch surgery (p=0.01), baseline variables of prior UI surgery (p=0.04), menopausal status (p=0.03) and post-surgery urge index (p<0.001), were each significantly associated with greater risk of recurrent urinary incontinence. Conclusion Pre- and postoperative urgency incontinence symptoms, Burch urethropexy, prior SUI surgery and menopausal status were negatively associated with long-term continence rates. More effective treatment of urgency UI in patients who undergo SUI surgery may improve long-term overall continence status.

Richter, Holly E.; Brubaker, Linda; Stoddard, Anne M.; Xu, Yan; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Norton, Peggy; Sirls, Larry T.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Chai, Toby C.; Zimmern, Philippe; Gormley, E. Ann; Kusek, John W.; Albo, Michael E.

2013-01-01

36

[Analysis of early and late complications and their origins in Kock continent urinary reservoir following technical modification].  

PubMed

Kock and associates have made a major contribution to the ideal continent urinary diversion by developing a method for creating a continent internal reservoir for urine using the ileum. However, substantial problems have unfortunately resulted due to early and late postoperative complications. In an effort to further elucidate this problem, we herein summarize the incidence of early and late postoperative complications following a series of technical modifications made in patients who underwent Kock continent ileal reservoir construction from our ongoing experience to develop more suitable modifications of this procedure. From January 1985 through December 1991, 47 patients have undergone Kock pouch construction for continent urinary diversion. Our basic technique utilized in this study was slightly modified from that described by Skinner et al. Based on our earlier experience, several changes in the technique were made. One major change is that one row of surgical staples fixes the created nipple to the back wall of the reservoir for the efferent limb, and a further 3-cm longitudinal mucosal incision is made through the outer layer of the intussuscepted ileal nipple and the opposite wall of the reservoir which are sewn to the reservoir edge. A total of eleven patients (11/47) suffered one or more early surgical complications. A 31.8% (7/22) morbidity with an operative mortality rate of 4.3% (2/47) and a 16.0 (4/25) morbidity were observed in the early phase and late phase, respectively. Prolonged urinary leakage from the ileal reservoir and/or through a pin hole in the afferent limb made by surgical staples was observed in six patients (27.3%) in the early phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1479761

Tachibana, M; Deguchi, N; Jitsukawa, S; Tazaki, H

1992-11-01

37

Biochemical Composition of Collagen in Continent and Stress Urinary Incontinent Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess the relationship between the amount of collagen type III in the pelvic supportive tissues and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with or without pelvic relaxation. Fourteen women agreed to participate in the study: 6 had stress urinary incontinence and pelvic relaxation (group 1); 4 had no pelvic relaxation and no sign or symptoms of SUI

Arieh Bergman; Giovanni Elia; David Cheung; Natasha Perelman; Marcel E. Nimni

1994-01-01

38

The role of interventional radiology in the management of intra-and extra-Peritoneal leakage in patients who have undergone continent urinary diversion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To assess how radiologic intervention altered the hospital course of patients undergoing continent urinary diversion. Methods. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with bladder cancer invading the muscular layer were treated with total cystectomy and construction of a continent urinary reservoir. Eleven of 37 patients suffered early and late anastomotic leakage; six had prolonged extraperitoneal leakage at the urethroenteric anastomosis, three had prolonged intraperitoneal pouch leaks, and two had delayed ureteroenteric leaks. Seven of these patients required radiologic intervention.Results. Intervention in the form of drainage catheter manipulation (n=4), percutaneous nephrostomy (n=4), or ureteral stent placement (n=2) resulted in cessation of leakage without surgical intervention in all seven patients. Intraperitoneal pouch leaks were more difficult to control than extraperitoneal leakage and required longer drainage intervals.Conclusion. Interventional radiologic procedures played a key role in the management of continent urinary diversion complications obviating the need for repeat surgical intervention in all instances.

Bodner, Leonard; Nosher, John L.; Siegel, Randall; Russer, Tadeus [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Radiology (United States); Cummings, Kenneth; Kraus, Stephen [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Surgery (United States)

1997-07-15

39

The Standardization of Terminology of Lower Urinary Tract Function in Children and Adolescents: Report From the Standardization Committee of the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We updated the terminology in the ¢eld of pediatric lower urinary tract function. Materials and Methods: Discussions were held in the board of the International Children's Con- tinence Society and an extensive reviewing process was done involving all members of the Interna- tional Children's Continence Society, the urology section of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the European Society of

Tryggve Neveus; Alexander von Gontard; Piet Hoebeke; Kelm Hjlms; Stuart Bauer; Wendy Bower; Troels Munch Jrgensen; Sren Rittig; Johan Van de Walle; Chung-Kwong Yeung; Jens Christian Djurhuus

2006-01-01

40

[Ileocecal intussusception secondary to a cecal endometriosis].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 43-year-old woman, who presented a complete and non-reductible ileo-cecal intussusception with pre-occlusion. An ileocecal resection with ileocolic anastomosis was performed. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of colic endometriosis with transmural lesions, causing the intussusception. Altough the digestive endometriosis is quite classical and well-known, particulary with vermiform appendix and rectosigmoïd involvement, ileo-cecal intussusception secondary to endometriosis is rare. PMID:18653289

Denève, E; Maillet, O; Blanc, P; Fabre, J-M; Nocca, D

2008-07-23

41

Systematic review of the management of incontinence and promotion of continence in older people in care homes: descriptive studies with urinary incontinence as primary focus  

PubMed Central

Aim This is a review of descriptive studies with incontinence as the primary focus in older people in care homes. Background Incontinence is prevalent among residents of care home populations. Data sources MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched from 1996 to 2007 using the highly sensitive search strings of the Cochrane Incontinence Review Group for urinary and faecal incontinence including all research designs. Search strings were modified to enhance selectiveness for care homes and older people and exclude studies involving surgical or pharmacological interventions. Searching of reference sections from identified studies was also used to supplement electronic searches. The Cochrane Library was searched for relevant systematic reviews to locate relevant studies from those included or excluded from reviews. The search was limited to English-language publications. Methods A systematic review of studies on the management of incontinence, promotion of continence or maintenance of continence in care homes was conducted in 2007–2009. This is a report of descriptive studies. Results Ten studies were identified that reported on prevalence and incidence of incontinence (urinary with or without faecal), policies, assessment, documentation, management or economic evaluation of its management. Use of incontinence pads and toileting programmes comprised the most common management approaches used. No studies were identified that attempted to maintain continence of residents in care homes. Conclusions Studies on maintaining continence and identifying components of toileting programmes that are successful in managing or preventing incontinence and promoting continence in residents of care home populations along with their economic evaluation are warranted.

Roe, Brenda; Flanagan, Lisa; Jack, Barbara; Barrett, James; Chung, Alan; Shaw, Christine; Williams, Kate

2011-01-01

42

[A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].  

PubMed

The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the sphincteric area and slackening of the levator ani muscles, alone or in association, explain why urethral closure pressure drops. Sometimes this drop is followed by an increase in bladder pressure. PMID:3330102

Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

1987-01-01

43

Predicting continence following radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress urinary incontinence is a recognized complication following radical prostatectomy. Fortunately, in the hands of experienced\\u000a surgeons, the overwhelming majority of men ultimately regain urinary continence following the procedure. Most men regain urinary\\u000a continence 3 to 12 months after the prostatectomy. We have developed and validated a continence index that is administered\\u000a at the time of catheter removal after radical

David W. Marsh; Herbert Lepor

2001-01-01

44

Continence-preserving anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Urinary continence, especially in regard to the time required to regain urinary control after radical prostatectomy, remains a significant complication of the procedure.Technical Considerations. The “no touch” or “avoidance” surgical principles that are the basis for continence-preserving radical prostatectomy primarily focus on the preservation of the following components of the external striated urethral sphincteric complex: the entire circumferential musculature

Mitchell S Steiner

2000-01-01

45

Continents - Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second graders will learn about the seven continents and animals that live in those environments. I have a dream speech Eggleston, Va Welcome to the largest continent, Asia! First, let's see the map of Asia! You will click on this site. Next, while on this site you can answer questions on the worksheet. Then you finish the questions. Finally,close the website by closing the red x in the right hand ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-03-26

46

Rectus sheath tunnels for continent stomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continent stoma rectus sheath tunnel (CSRST) has been used in antegrade colonic enema (ACE) and urinary continent cutaneous\\u000a diversion (UCCD) stomas to reduce leakage and to support a straight track for the continent conduit. All patients that underwent\\u000a CSRST between 1995 and 2005 were identified and their case notes retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two\\u000a groups: the ACE group

Alan P. Dickson; Basem A. Khalil; Raimondo M. Cervellione

2008-01-01

47

Continents and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn and explore the seven continents and five oceans. 1. Explore the 7 continents and 5 oceans Continents and Oceans! 2. Play the quiz on the continents and oceans. Start at Beginner and work your way up to Expert! Continents and Oceans! 3. Look at this map and write down all your seven continents! Continents 4. Go to this website and play the game about continents. Continue playing until ...

Kneugent

2012-11-26

48

Laparoscopic ileocecal resection in Crohn’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite some encouraging preliminary results, the role of laparosropic surgery in the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD) is a subject of controversy and still under evaluation. The aim of this case-matched study was to compare the postoperative course of laparoscopic and open ileocecal resection in patients with CD in order to define the potential role of laparoscopic surgery in

S. Benoist; Y. Panis; A. Beaufour; Y. Bouhnik; C. Matuchansky; P. Valleur

2003-01-01

49

Prevention of Clostridium difficile -induced ileocecitis with Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacteriophage specific for Clostridium difficile was examined for its ability to prevent ileocecitis in a hamster model. This species- and strain-specific bacteriophage was isolated from a lysogenic strain of C. difficile . Hamsters were maintained in sterile isolation cages to prevent the acquisition of C. difficile from the environment. Bicarbonate neutralization of gastric acidity was necessary for bacteriophage survival

Vijayashree Ramesh; Joe A Fralick; Rial D Rolfe

1999-01-01

50

A phase II exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial of a group mobility training and staff education intervention to promote urinary continence in UK care homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of group exercise and staff education intervention to promote continence in older people residing in care homes. To establish measures and information to inform a larger trial.Design: Phase II pilot exploratory cluster randomized controlled trial.Setting: Six purposively selected care homes in the West Midlands, UK.Subjects: Thirty-four care home residents (mean age 86,

Catherine M Sackley; Natalie A Rodriguez; Maayken van den Berg; Frances Badger; Christine Wright; Jelske Besemer; Katarina TV van Reeuwijk; Leontine van Wely

2008-01-01

51

Laparoscopic versus open bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy after TUR-P for incidental prostate cancer: surgical outcomes and effect on postoperative urinary continence and sexual potency.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical and functional outcomes in nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (nsLRPT) and nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy (nsRRPT) after TUR-P for incidental prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2003 and August 2011, 125 nsLRPT and 128 nsRRPT for incidental prostate cancer diagnosed after TUR-P were performed at our clinic. Demographic data, peri- and postoperative measurements and functional outcomes were compared. RESULTS: The mean operative time was 153.1 ± 35.4 min for nsLRPT and 122.5 ± 67.5 min for nsRRPT (p = 0.03). The mean catheterization time was 8 ± 1 days in the laparoscopic group and 11 ± 2 days in the open group (p = 0.02). Also, the length of hospitalization presents statistical significant difference in the two groups. Positive margins were detected in 2.4 and 4.7 % of patients with pT2c tumours in the laparoscopic and open groups, respectively (p = 0.09). At a mean follow-up of 26.9 ± 9.3 months for the nsLRPT group and of 27.8 ± 9.7 months for the nsRRPT group, all patients were alive with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Twelve months postoperatively, complete continence was reported in 96.8 % of patients who underwent an nsLRPT and in 89.4 % of patients in the nsRRPT group (p = 0.02). At that time, 74.4 % of patients in the nsLRPT group and 53.1 % in the nsRRPT group reported the ability to engage in sexual intercourse (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: nsLRPT after TUR-P, performed by expert surgeons, results to be a safe procedure with excellent functional outcomes with regard to the urinary continence and sexual potency. PMID:23400788

Springer, Christopher; Inferrera, Antonino; Pini, Giovannalberto; Mohammed, Nasreldin; Fornara, Paolo; Greco, Francesco

2013-02-12

52

POTENCY, CONTINENCE AND COMPLICATION RATES IN 1,870 CONSECUTIVE RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe update results in a series of consecutive patients treated with anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy regarding recovery of erections, urinary continence and postoperative complications.

WILLIAM J. CATALONA; GUSTAVO F. CARVALHAL; DOUGLAS E. MAGER; DEBORAH S. SMITH

1999-01-01

53

Factors Predicting Early Return of Continence After Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence\\u000a is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated\\u000a with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior\\u000a to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and

Jaspreet S. Sandhu; James A. Eastham

2010-01-01

54

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...into the vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary...continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

2013-04-01

55

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at a peripheral location and used to stimulate the nerves associated with pelvic floor function to maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

2009-04-01

56

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at a peripheral location and used to stimulate the nerves associated with pelvic floor function to maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

2010-04-01

57

[Heterotopic urine derivation in females with urinary bladder extrophy].  

PubMed

Fifteen females aged from 17 to 31 years with bladder extrophy (the condition after ureterosygmostomy) have undergone heterotopic urine derivation with creation of a cutaneous urine-retention catheter mechanism. Surgery was indicated in progressive decline of renal function in the presence of renal reflux, total urine incontinence in the failure of pelvic floor muscles and rectal sphyncter apparatus. Creation of cutaneous urine-retention catheter mechanism was made by the following techniques: heterotopic plastic repair from the ileocecal angle by Mainz pouch I (11 patients, 73.4%); heterotopic W ileocystoplasty by Abol-Enein (4 patients, 26.8%). Implantation of both ureters was conducted by Wallace technique in 4 (26.7%) cases. In 7 (46.6%) patients ureteral implantation was performed with antireflux defense by the method of cross dublicate creation. Four (26.7%) patients with small intestinal derivation have undergone extramural implantation of the ureters according to Abol-Enein. The results show that conversion of ureterosygmostomy in heterotopic urine derivation with one-stage genital reconstructive interventions decreases the number of potential complications, improves surgical outcomes and provides much better medico-social rehabilitation. Heterotopic intestinal continent derivation of urine is an operation of choice in women with urinary malformations. In such patients orthotopic urine derivation is impossible. PMID:17471989

Darenkov, S P; Adamian, L V; Adamian, A A; Kovalev, V A; Ochchardzhiev, S B; Chernyshev, I V; Dzitiev, V K; Samsonov, Iu V

58

Ileocecal Intussusception with Histomorphological Features of Inflammatory Neuropathy in Adenovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiological mechanisms for ileocecal intussusception in children with adenovirus infection are not well characterized. Here we demonstrate coincidence of adenovirus infection and inflammatory neuropathy of myenteric plexus in two children with ileocecal intussusception. Inflammatory neuropathy, an unspecific morphological feature which is found in peristalsis disorders, was morphologically characterized by the influx of CD3 positive lymphocytes in nervous plexus. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting peristalsis disorders from inflammatory neuropathy as additional mechanism in the pathophysiological concept of adenovirus-associated ileocecal intussusception.

Kaemmerer, Elke; Tischendorf, Jens J. W.; Steinau, Gerd; Wagner, Norbert; Gassler, Nikolaus

2009-01-01

59

Urodynamic testing, continence, and the patient with myelomeningocele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal in neurourologic management of patients with myelomeningocele is the preservation of renal function. In addition,\\u000a achieving continence or at least improving urinary incontinence becomes imperative given the impact of continence on quality\\u000a of life. Initial neurourologic and urodynamic examination of children with myelomeningocele is strongly recommended as early\\u000a as possible, ideally on the day of birth or

Thomas M. Kessler; Gustav Kiss; Peter Rehder; Helmut Madersbacher

2007-01-01

60

Female Urinary Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary incontinence is defined by the International Continence Society [1] as the objective demonstration of involuntary loss of urine consequent to bladder and\\/or sphincter dysfunction, and is the cause of social and hygienic problems for both patients and carers. The symptom can correspond to different social and pathophysiological realities. The object of this overview is to offer specialists an update

Philippe Ballanger; Pascal Rischmann

1999-01-01

61

Technical Note: Improved technique for fitting pigs with steered ileocecal valve cannulas1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collection of ileal digesta to evaluate AA digestibilities has become increasingly important in swine nutrition research. Steered ileocecal valve can- nulation of pigs permits total collection of ileal digesta, while still allowing normal digesta flow during noncol- lection periods. This technique was modified and used with 64 crossbred barrows in five trials. Our procedural changes included preoperative i.v. administration of

J. S. Radcliffe; J. P. Rice; R. S. Pleasant; G. A. Apgar

2010-01-01

62

POTENCY, CONTINENCE AND COMPLICATIONS IN 3,477 CONSECUTIVE RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe report results in a series of 3,477 consecutive patients treated with anatomical nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in terms of recovery of erectile function, urinary continence and postoperative complications.

SHILAJIT D. KUNDU; KIMBERLY A. ROEHL; SCOTT E. EGGENER; J. O. ANN V. ANTENOR; MISOP HAN; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

2004-01-01

63

Earthquakes Within Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

Stein, Seth

64

The Origin of Continents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories advanced to explain the origin of continental nuclei have generally failed to explain the first step in continent formation. The authors propose that the localized additions of energy to the earth's crust, which would result from the impact of la...

J. W. Salisbury L. B. Ronca

1966-01-01

65

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pulse source. The plug or pessary is inserted into the rectum or into the vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence. When necessary, the plug or pessary may be removed by the user. This...

2010-04-01

66

21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pulse source. The plug or pessary is inserted into the rectum or into the vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence. When necessary, the plug or pessary may be removed by the user. This...

2009-04-01

67

Our changing continent  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Where were the land areas and oceans of the North American Continent one million years ago, compared to our present geography? Was North America always about the same size and shape as it is today? To answer these questions, we must construct maps of the lands and sea that existed during the past ages. This process of reconstructing ancient geography is called paleogeography (from the Greek word "palaios," meaning ancient).

U.S. Geological Survey

1969-01-01

68

Our Changing Continent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication covers the subject of North American paleogeography: how the continent has changed over geologic time in terms of location, climate, and other geographical factors. Clues for detecting this information include looking at fossils, rocks, and different kinds of maps. The geographic history of North America is traced from the supercontinent Pangea 200 million years ago (Mesozoic Era)through today, with emphasis on the coal, dinosaur, and ice ages.

Schlee, John

69

[Treatment of neurogenic urinary incontinence in children].  

PubMed

The current management of neurogenic urinary incontinence is exclusively urological and therefore palliative. However, urological techniques have considerably advanced over the last 20 years and now allow continence with protection of the upper urinary tract in the very great majority of cases. The authors review the various techniques proposed in achieve acceptable continence and define the indications based on published results and their personal experience. PMID:11064916

Mure, P Y; Feyaerts, A; Morel-Journel, N; Mollard, P; Mouriquand, P

2000-09-01

70

Migrating biliary stent with final destination at the ileocecal junction causing intestinal obstruction and obstructive biliopathy  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic plastic biliary stent insertion is a minimally invasive, well-established procedure for the management of benign biliary pathology. We report a case of a migrating stent for over two days, which finally got impacted at the ileocecal junction, leading to intestinal obstruction and obstructive biliopathy. Radiological findings depicted the exact site of the dislodged biliary stent and its related complications, both of which were successfully treated in a nonoperative stepwise manner.

Rasalkar, Darshana D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Sonavane, Bhawna

2010-01-01

71

Comparing reconstruction with ileocecal graft to jejunal interposition pouch after total gastrectomy in rats.  

PubMed

After total gastrectomy, the ileocecal graft may act as a reservoir and protect against reflux but give rise to transposition of the ileum and cause possible changes in bile acid metabolism and nutrition. This study compared the ileocecal graft and jejunal pouch. Male Wistar rats weighing 265 +/- 22 g were submitted to sham operation (S), ileocecal interposition graft (IIG), and jejunal pouch interposition graft (JP) after total gastrectomy. Eight weeks later, the esophagus was examined for evidence of esophagitis. Nutritional biochemistry and weight profile were documented preoperatively and 8 weeks after surgery. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Thirty-three rats were operated on and 30 survived for 8 weeks. Esophagitis occurred in seven JP rats. Body weight was significantly higher in IIG than in JP rats (p < .05). Normal glucose tolerance to intragastric glucose load was observed in sham and operated rats. JP rats had a significant decrease in serum albumin, glucose, transferrin, hemoglobin, iron, folate, and calcium, compared to sham (p < .05). Cobalamine was significantly lower in IIG rats than in JP rats (p < .05). In the IIG and JP groups, serum/hepatic total bile acid did not differ significantly from preoperative and sham values. In conclusion, the IIG interposition graft in rats prevented esophagitis, preserved nutrition, and did not interfere with enterohepatic total bile acid circulation. PMID:17365406

Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Filho, Irami Araújo; Medeiros, Vítor Brasil; Pinheiro, Laíza Araújo Mohana; Freire, Flávio Henrique Miranda Araújo; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Brandão-Neto, José

72

Magnetotelluric Studies of Active Continent–Continent Collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continent–continent collisions are an important tectonic process and have played a fundamental role in the evolution of the\\u000a modern continents. A combination of geological and geophysical data has provided new constraints on the structure and temporal\\u000a evolution of these orogens. Magnetotelluric (MT) studies have been an important part of these studies since they can constrain\\u000a the fluid content and thermal

Martyn Unsworth

2010-01-01

73

Reversing deterioration in continence services.  

PubMed

Despite the growing prevalence of incontinence and the recognition that it is a significant factor in admissions to hospitals and residential care, continence care is receiving less funding. This article compares the findings of a continence care survey undertaken in 2007 with one published in 2013. The survey shows there has been a reduction in numbers of specialist continence staff, particularly senior posts, an increased number of patients seeking help, a decrease in funding, fewer continence products being supplied and growing waiting lists. PMID:23957126

Eustice, Sharon

74

Observing across Continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time use of remote telescopes can bring the excitement of professional observing into the classroom. By linking with remote telescopes across time zones and continents it is possible to carry out observations during normal school hours. In this paper we report on collaborations between Sydney Observatory which has a 20-cm remote telescope on top of the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney New Mexico Tech which has a 35-cm telescope at its Etscorn Observatory and the Metropolitan Madison School District in Wisconsin which has an observatory with a 35-cm telescope. Four classes of year 7 students at Spring Harbor Environmental Middle School in Madison successfully controlled the Sydney telescope via the Internet over two series of observing session in 2001 and 2002. The presence of a trained observer in the telescope dome in text communication with the students via the NetMeeting program greatly added to the educational value of the sessions. Teachers

Lomb, Nick; Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Kotoski, James

75

Sexual function in women with urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date limited data exists that addresses the impact of urinary incontinence on sexual function. In the present study, we assessed sexual functions in patients with urinary incontinence and compared with healthy continent subjects by means of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. A total of 21 premenopausal incontinent women (three stress incontinence, nine overactive bladder and nine mixed incontinence)

G Aslan; Ö Sadik; S Gimen; A Cihan; A Esen

2005-01-01

76

Urinary Diversion in Bladder Exstrophy and Incontinent Epispadias: 25 Years of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the optimal surgical approach in achieving complete urinary continence with preservation of the upper urinary tract in the exstrophy-epispadias complex we reviewed the records of patients treated at our institution.

Raimund Stein; Margit Fisch; Michael Stockle; Rudolf Hohenfellner

1995-01-01

77

Formation of an Archaean continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 30 percent of the earth is covered by continents, but only about 10 small kernels of these continents - known as Archaean cratons - are continental fragments formed before 2.5 Gyr ago. The Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, which formed and stabilized between 3.7 and 2.7 Gyr ago, is one of the oldest reasonably sized examples of these continental

Maarten J. de Wit; Chris Roering; Rodger J. Hart; Richard A. Armstrong; Cornel E. J. de Ronde; Rod W. E. Green; Marian Tredoux; Ellie Peberdy; Roger A. Hart

1992-01-01

78

Continence for women: Evaluation of AWHONN's third research utilization project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop an evidence-based protocol for initial evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence and to design procedures that would facilitate the protocol's implementation into clinical practice.Design: Descriptive report of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) Continence for Women ProjectSetting: Twenty-one public, private, and other women's health sites.Participants: Women in ambulatory care settings (N = 1474)

Carolyn M. Sampselle; Jean F. Wyman; Karen Kelly Thomas; Diane K. Newman; Mikel Gray; Molly Dougherty; Patricia A. Burns

2000-01-01

79

Importance of the appropriate selection and use of continence pads.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is becoming an increasingly common problem for older men and women living in the community. It can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and, although advances have been made in treatments and therapies for this condition, there is still confusion over selection of continence products. This article will explore the problems associated with product selection and discuss alternative advice. PMID:15902040

Hampton, Sylvie

80

Continence recovery time after radical prostatectomy: implication of prostatic apical tumor.  

PubMed

Aim: Despite the role of prostatic apex on post-radical prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has been encountered, the impact of prostatic apex tumor on urinary recovery has been poorly adressed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prostatic apex tumor on PPI. Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, a total 36 consecutive patients who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for prostate adenocancer (PCa) were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of prostatic apical tumor. Urinary incontinence was assessed at regular intervals following RP using validated Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form and 24-hour pad use based on patients' reports. Urinary continence was defined as wearing no pads. All patients' functional and oncological data were recorded. Results: Overall urinary continence rate at one year was 90%. There was a statistical difference between two groups in terms of urinary recovery (P=0.024). The 1 week, 1 month, 3 month, 6 months and 1 year postoperative continence rates were 28%, 50%, 85%, 92.9% and 92.9%, respectively, in patients with apex infiltration (-) group, compared with 0%, 22.7%, 45.5%, 72.7% and 86.4%, respectively, in patients with infiltration (+) group. Conclusion: The results provided that infiltration of the prostatic apex could significantly affect urinary continence recovery time after RP and advanced pathologic stage could be a risk for PPI. PMID:23872630

Sipal, T; Tuglu, D; Yilmaz, E; Atasoy, P; Batislam, E

2013-09-01

81

[Indications for different types of urinary diversion].  

PubMed

When urinary diversion is indicated, patient information concerning the advantages and disadvantages of different types of urinary diversion and their choices is of utmost importance for the functional outcome and patient satisfaction. There is a variety of choices for incontinent urinary diversion (ureterocutaneostomy, ileal conduit, colonic conduit) and continent urinary diversion (continent anal urinary diversion, continent cutaneous urinary diversion and urethral bladder substitution). In the individual case, the choices may be limited by patient criteria and/or medical criteria. Important patient criteria are preference, age and comorbidity, BMI, motivation, underlying disease and indication for cystectomy. Medical criteria which possibly limit choices of type of urinary diversion are kidney function/upper urinary tract status and limitations concerning the gastrointestinal tract, concerning urethra/sphincter as well as the ability and motivation to perform intermittent self-catheterization. Preoperative information may use simulation of certain postoperative scenarios (urethral self-catheterization, fixation of water-filled conduit bags, holding test for anal liquids) to allow the individual patient to choose the optimal type of urinary diversion for his/her given situation from the mosaic of choices and possible individual limitations. PMID:22419009

Thüroff, J W; Hampel, C; Leicht, W; Gheith, M K; Stein, R

2012-04-01

82

Clinical studies of cerebral and urinary tract function in elderly people with urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain and urinary tract function have been studied in a group of 128 geriatric patients with established urinary incontinence. Median age was 79 years. About half suffered from dementia. A group of 27 continent patients of similar age and cognitive status was used in some comparisons. It was expected that impaired voluntary control of voiding (urge incontinence) would be associated

Derek Griffiths

1998-01-01

83

Pathophysiology of urinary incontinence in murine models.  

PubMed

Urethral closure mechanisms under stress conditions consist of passive urethral closure involving connective tissues, fascia and/or ligaments in the pelvis and active urethral closure mediated by hypogastric, pelvic and pudendal nerves. Furthermore, we have previously reported that the active urethral closure mechanism might be divided into two categories: (i) the central nervous control passing onto Onuf's nucleus under sneezing or coughing; and (ii) the bladder-to-urethral spinal reflex under Valsalva-like stress conditions, such as laughing, exercise or lifting heavy objects. There are over 200 million people worldwide with urinary incontinence, a condition that is associated with a significant social impact and reduced quality of life. Therefore, basic research for urinary continence mechanisms in response to different stress conditions can play an essential role in developing treatments for stress urinary incontinence. It has been clinically shown that the etiology of stress urinary incontinence is divided into urethral hypermobility and intrinsic sphincter deficiency, which could respectively correspond to passive and active urethral closure dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the representative stress urinary incontinence animal models and the methods to measure leak point pressures under stress conditions, and then highlight stress-induced urinary continence mechanisms mediated by active urethral closure mechanisms, as well as future pharmacological treatments of stress urinary incontinence. In addition, we introduce our previous reports including sex differences in urethral closure mechanisms under stress conditions and urethral compensatory mechanisms to maintain urinary continence after pudendal nerve injury in female rats. PMID:23126617

Koike, Yusuke; Furuta, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Honda, Mariko; Naruoka, Takehito; Asano, Koji; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

2012-11-06

84

The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. PMID:23958018

Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M

2013-08-16

85

Use of the mitrofanoff principle in urinary reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mitrofanoff principle for continent reconstruction of the lower urinary tract may be summarized as: 1) the use of a narrow catheterizable conduit (appendix or ureter) brought to the skin; 2) anti-refluxing connection of the conduit for catheterization to the reservoir to provide continence; 3) a large low pressure leak-proof urine storage reservoir (bladder, augmented bladder, or colon segment); 4)

John W. Duckett; Howard Mc C. Snyder

1985-01-01

86

How Thick Are the Continents,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves propagating across northern Eurasia and the western Pacific Ocean have been used to construct a lower bound on z max the maximum depth extent of seismic velocity differences between old continents and old oceans....

A. L. Lerner-Lam T. H. Jordan

1987-01-01

87

The malone antegrade continence enema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously reported Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) was used in 21 children for intractable fecal incontinence or constipation. Twelve are completely clean, and three are much improved (71% success rate). However, only four of the 21 have not had some type of complication, either minor or major. Five of the 21 now have a colostomy, and one has abandoned

D. M Griffiths; P. S Malone

1995-01-01

88

The mainz-pouch (mixed augmentation ileum 'n zecum) for bladder augmentation and continent diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal urinary reservoir constructed from bowel material should be a low-pressure system with a high capacity, capable of preventing upper tract deterioration resulting from ureteral obstruction or reflux. It should achieve reliable control of continence and assure easy emptying of the reservoir. In the Mainz-pouch, the combination of cecum and ileum, the latter of which is able to absorb

J. W. Thtiroff; P. Alken; H. Riedmiller; U. Engelmann; G. H. Jacobi; R. Hohenfellner

1985-01-01

89

Independent Predictors of Recovery of Continence 3 Months After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To investigate the factors that predict recovery of continence within 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients and Methods The charts of 452 patients who underwent RARP with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Urinary continence was determined using the self-administered validated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire during the routine follow-up visits. Results The overall continence rate 3 months after RARP was 79.9%. In an univariate logistic regression test, age<70 years, higher preoperative Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower biopsy and pathologic Gleason score, shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) were associated with recovery of urinary continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher SHIM score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower body mass index (BMI), and smaller prostate volume were independent factors that predicted return of continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). Conclusions Younger age (<70 years), higher preoperative SHIM score, clinical T1 stage, lower BMI, and smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) independently predicted recovery of continence within 3 months after RARP.

Kim, Jung Jun; Ha, Yun-Sok; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae

2012-01-01

90

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

2010-04-01

91

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

2009-04-01

92

Correcting Misalignment of Automatic 3D Detection by Classification: IleoCecal Valve False Positive Reduction in CT Colonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ileo-Cecal Valve (ICV) is an important small soft organ which appears in human abdomen CT scans and connects colon and small\\u000a intestine. Automated detection of ICV is of great clinical value for removing false positive (FP) findings in computer aided\\u000a diagnosis (CAD) of colon cancers using CT colongraphy (CTC) [1,2,3]. However full 3D object detection, especially for small\\u000a objects with

Le Lu; Matthias Wolf; Jinbo Bi; Marcos Salganicoff

2010-01-01

93

21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. 876.5310...5310 Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device. (a) Identification... A nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device is a...

2013-04-01

94

[Choice criteria and complications of urinary diversions].  

PubMed

The choice of urinary diversion is conditioned to patient's disease, performance status, age and life style. Ureterointestinal anastomosis is a critical stage in urinary diversion, allowing urinary transit and preventing reflux. We have examined urinary diversion frequently used in our clinical practice. In ureterosigmoidostomy and MAINZ pouch II , ureterointestinal anastomosis isn't refluent. Ileal conduit, reserved to patient with advanced disease and/or low life expectation, normally the implantation is direct. In continent reservoir and orthotopic neobladder, detubularization produces low pressure. In these urinary diversion anti-reflux anastomosis isn't mandatory, because the risk of stenosis is higher. Urinary infection is an important criterion in choice of anastomosis. After all is emphasized that success of ureterointestinal implantation doesn't depend on surgeon's level of experience. PMID:12741336

Ranieri, Antonio; Micheli, Emanuele; Zanardi, Graziano; Lembo, Antonio

2003-03-01

95

MidContinent LORANC Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coast Guard is extending the Continental United States (CONUS) LORAN-C coverage as part of the Federal Aviation Administration project to incorporate LORAN-C into the National Airspace System. The increased coverage will expand the number of airports approved for LORAN-C non-precision instrument approaches and enable direct Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR) routing by suitably equipped aircraft in and through the mid-continent

Andrew J. Sedlock

1987-01-01

96

MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty  

PubMed Central

It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique) is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

Sammour, Mohammed T.; Ajjaj, Abdulbari Bin

2011-01-01

97

Ileocecal reservoir reconstruction with physiologic function after total mesorectal cancer excision.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS: After proctectomy for low rectal cancer and straight coloanal reconstruction, the main causes for increased daily stool frequency, urgency, and incontinence are the limited capacity and distensibility of the anastomosed colic segment in the pelvis. The authors postulated that a pedunculated (preserving the nerve) ileocecal interpositional graft (cecum-reservoir) placed between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal would greatly reduce these inconveniences. METHODS: The authors evaluated the safety, defecation quality, and anorectal physiology of such a neorectum in 20 consecutive patients with rectal carcinoma between 5 and 10 cm above the anal verge who underwent total mesorectal excision. RESULTS: No perioperative morbidity related to the technique and no mortality was observed in these 20 patients. Six months after the operation, 16 patients showed excellent and 4 patients good defecation quality, with maximal tolerable volumes, compliance, and mean colonic transit times comparable to age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. In addition, anal resting pressure was decreased, squeeze pressure was maintained, and the rectoanal inhibitory reflex remained positive in 80%. CONCLUSIONS: The cecum-reservoir as a neorectum, using an intact neurovascular colonic segment, is a safe technique, providing excellent defecation quality. It enables a nearly normal physiologic anorectal function, which is already seen 6 months postoperatively. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

von Flue, M O; Degen, L P; Beglinger, C; Hellwig, A C; Rothenbuhler, J M; Harder, F H

1996-01-01

98

Multiple sclerosis and continence issues: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

The study described in this article aimed to identify issues relating to incontinence and assess the impact of referral to a continence adviser on the lives of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study design used an in-depth, two-phase anonymous mail survey within a general community as nominated by the participants. Fifty-six people participated in phase 1 and eleven people completed phase 2. The results indicated that incontinence is a problem for the vast majority of participants--people with MS. One-third of the eligible participants took up the option of a consultation, assessment and treatment from a continence nurse. Reasons for not taking up the visit from the continence nurse included 'managing OK', 'didn't think it would help', 'embarrassed' and 'too busy'. Increasing awareness of urinary incontinence in the community is important and education needs to focus on at-risk groups in presenting the range of options available to assist people experiencing incontinence. PMID:15924024

Wollin, Judy; Bennie, Mary; Leech, Christine; Windsor, Carol; Spencer, Nancy

99

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... relaxants and other medications may contribute to bladder control problems. Easily treatable medical conditions also may be responsible for urinary incontinence. Urinary tract infection. Infections can irritate your bladder, causing you to ...

100

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... Help Related Topics Choosing Wisely Dementia Depression Diabetes Fecal Incontinence Heart Failure Prostate Diseases Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Urinary Incontinence Basic Facts & Information What is urinary ...

101

Urinary Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

102

Simple Method to Predict Return of Continence After Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose After removal of the Foley catheter after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), recovery of continence can take days to months. We sought to identify a simple means to predict time to recovery of postoperative continence. Patients and Methods Preoperative characteristics on 172 men who were undergoing RARP were entered into an electronic database. All men were queried via telephone and/or returned a 7-day log of pad use. Men without need for pads were excluded (n=41). At 4 to 7 days, responses were grouped as: one pad (n=55), two pads (n=35), or three or more pads (n=41). Patients returned self-addressed postcards noting the date of 0-pad urinary status. Univariate and multivariate analysis of variables were assessed for ability to predict time to continence. Results No preoperative factors, such as age, International Index of Erectile Function-5, prostate-specific antigen level, American Urological Association symptom score, body mass index, uroflowmetry, nerve-sparing status, estimated blood loss, or prostate weight, were found to predict time to continence. Pad use at 4 to 7 days, however, was highly correlated with median time to continence. The median time to continence for men using one pad was 35 days, two pads was 42 days, and for three or more pads was 73 days (P=0.0001). Conclusions As has been previously reported, we found no reliable baseline factors that predicted postoperative time to 0-pad continence. We did find that determining pad usage at 4 to 7 days after catheter removal strongly predicted time to pad-free continence. This method is simpler then pad weights, predicts high- and low-risk men for delayed continence, and can be used for counseling/intervention.

Skarecky, Douglas; Morales, Blanca; Chang, Alexandra

2011-01-01

103

Problems of anal continence operations.  

PubMed

After operation for high rectal atresia, incontinence is common. The various operations that are used to cure incontinence can undoubtedly produce considerable improvement. Our own experience and the results published in the literature show that improvement in continence is mainly due to the creation of an elastic barrier that will induce the development of ampullary function in the neorectum. In this connection the mental development of the child is of great importance, as he or she has to become aware of the afferent impulses and act accordingly. PMID:6425974

Sauer, H; Höllwarth, M

1984-01-01

104

[Urinary incontinence and genital prolapse].  

PubMed

Prolapse commonly coexists with lower urinary tract dysfunction. If symptomatic stress urinary incontinence is often described by patients with low stage pelvic organ prolapse, obstructive symptoms are common in patients with stage 3 or 4 prolapse. Positive preoperative reduction testing in stress continent women planning prolapse repair is associated with a higher risk for postoperative leakage and clearly identify a high risk population. To date it has not been proven that urodynamic testing may provide more precise data than physical examination to advocate an additional stress urinary surgery at the time of prolapse repair. A systematic prophylactic Burch colposuspension significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients with occult SUI, a concomitant TVT at the time of vaginal prolapse surgery significantly reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. In patients without leakage during reduction testing, there is no evidence for performing a concurrent TVT. PMID:20141922

Fatton, B; Nadeau, C

2009-12-01

105

Description of a continent jejunal gastrostomy.  

PubMed

A new technique of permanent gastrostomy interposes a vascularized jejunal conduit with an intussuscepted valve between the stomach and abdominal wall, creating a "continent jejunal gastrostomy". In a series of dogs undergoing gastrostomy, the continent jejunal gastrostomy functioned well, with no leakage, and was superior to gastric tube gastrostomy in this regard. Furthermore, there was no evidence of marginal ulceration. A patient who underwent continent jejunal gastrostomy has an excellent one-month result. PMID:3094479

Waxman, K; Edrich, L; O'Neal, K; Formosa, P; Stellin, G; Sarfeh, I J; Mason, G R

1986-10-01

106

Promoting patient safety in continence care.  

PubMed

Continence care is a fundamental component of nursing. Good quality continence care supports patient dignity and improves quality of life significantly. However, as with all aspects of health care, patients face a number of risks during the delivery of continence care and, perhaps more importantly, are at risk of harm when care is not given to the required standard. This article focuses on essential elements of continence care and explores pertinent risks to patient safety, which may occur if care is not individualised or delivered appropriately. PMID:22413685

Mangnall, Joanne

107

Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated. PMID:24051941

Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

2013-08-01

108

Extended diaper wearing: effects on continence in and out of the diaper.  

PubMed Central

Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this study, we used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effect of wearing diapers on daily urinary accidents and successful voids for an adult who had been diagnosed with mental retardation. Results indicated that wearing diapers increased the rate of accidents and decreased the rate of successful voids. Clinical implications of these results are discussed.

Tarbox, Rachel S; Williams, W Larry; Friman, Patrick C

2004-01-01

109

Assessment tool promotes continence after childbirth.  

PubMed

This article looks at how midwives, health visitors and continence advisers are working together in Sandwell in the West Midlands to promote women's health. By acknowledging the evidence that certain factors associated with childbirth can predispose women to incontinence, a risk-assessment tool has been developed providing a process for women to achieve continence health postnatally. PMID:10524154

Dandy, D

110

On the breakup and coalescence of continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructions of the past positions of the continents indicate that at least twice a supercontinent has formed and subsequently split and dispersed as smaller continents. This has led to speculation about the existence of a periodic cycle of supercontinent coalescence and breakup, for which various mechanisms involving mantle dynamics have been proposed. In this paper we investigate the plate-tectonic system

Christopher C. Duncan; Donald L. Turcotte

1994-01-01

111

Intussusception of the reconstructed bladder neck leads to earlier continence after radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Although there is no evidence that the reconstructed bladder neck actively contributes to post-radical prostatectomy continence, we set out to determine whether buttressing sutures, which prevent the bladder neck from pulling open as the bladder fills, would result in the earlier return of urinary control.Technical Considerations. Forty-five men (mean age 57 years, range 37 to 67) with clinical localized

Patrick C Walsh; Penny L Marschke

2002-01-01

112

The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence.

Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong

2013-01-01

113

Urinary incontinence, catheters, and urinary tract infections: an overview of CMS tag F 315.  

PubMed

The majority of nursing home residents experience some type of urinary incontinence. Other bladder-related disorders (eg, urinary retention and urinary tract infection) also are common in long-term care facilities. Efforts to manage urological conditions such as the use of indwelling catheters and absorbent products, perineal hygiene and care, toileting, and bladder rehabilitation are areas of concern and have become the subject of revised regulations. The intent of recent changes to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services surveyor guidance for incontinence and urinary catheters is to ensure that: 1) incontinent residents are identified, assessed, and provided appropriate treatment, 2) indwelling catheters are not used without medical justification and removed as soon as clinically warranted, and 3) residents receive appropriate care to prevent urinary tract infections. Nursing homes must implement policies, procedures, and programs to help restore bladder function and continence in order to improve quality-of-life for nursing home residents. PMID:17204825

Newman, Diane K

2006-12-01

114

Continence Following Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy Using Self-Reporting Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe performed a global self-assessment of continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and determined how this global self-assessment of continence correlates with commonly used definitions of continence.

HERBERT LEPOR; LEDIA KACI; XIAONAN XUE

2004-01-01

115

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2009-04-01

116

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2010-04-01

117

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2013-04-01

118

Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during air insufflation 21.23 ± 3.52 mmHg vs 16.10 ± 3.39 mmHg. The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflation was not significantly different 101.08% ± 7.96% vs 100% ± 0%. The total symptom score for subjects with normal lactulose breath tests and subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not statistically different (13.30 ± 4.09 vs 24.14 ± 6.58). The ICV peak pressures during air insufflations were significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.005). The average percent difference of the area under the pressure curve in the ICV from cecum was significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.0012). Individuals with positive lactulose breath tests demonstrated symptom scores which were significantly higher for the following symptoms: not able to finish normal sized meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite and bloating. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal, subjects with a positive lactulose breath test have a defective ICV cecal distension reflex. These subjects also more commonly have higher symptom scores.

Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

2012-01-01

119

OxyContin - Questions and Answers  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... provide some additional background information on OxyContin ... and the significance of this new technology. ... the-clock medical management with an ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

120

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

121

Prevention of Urinary Incontinence by Behavioral Modification Program: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Among Older Women in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe determined whether a behavioral modification program (BMP) taught to groups of continent older women would decrease the incidence of urinary incontinence, increase pelvic muscle strength and improve voiding control.

ANANIAS C. DIOKNO; CAROLYN M. SAMPSELLE; A. REGULA HERZOG; T. E. RAGHUNATHAN; SANDRA HINES; KASSANDRA L. MESSER; CINDY KARL; MARIA CLAUDIA A. LEITE

2004-01-01

122

Continent small-intestine reservoir construction: a tapered intussusceptum promotes sustained continence.  

PubMed

Developed for the study of dialysis in the continent jejunal reservoir (CJR), a novel, uncomplicated approach to achieve continence in construction of a small-bowel reservoir is presented. We utilize a technique of constructing a continent nipple valve, which entails the reduction or tapering of the intussusceptum prior to invagination into the reservoir. We have thus far performed the procedure successfully in 21 dogs. All animals have achieved absolute continence. Complications have occurred in two animals, neither complication involving the nipple valve. Pressure-volume cytometry in nine animals demonstrates continence in the awake animal at pressures of up to 40 cm H2O (volumes being limited by animal discomfort due to reservoir distention). In postmortem studies, reservoir capacities of > 1000 ml and pressures of > 70 cm H2O have been attained without loss of continence or prolapse of the nipple valve. Continence is sustained even when the reservoir and nipple valve are subjected to high intraluminal pressures. Incorporating a tapered intussusceptum, the continent reservoir provides absolute continence without the use of cumbersome mesh fixation or lithotropic intraluminal staples. PMID:8986038

Donovan, J F; Hade, D K; Lavelle, J P; Kwon, E D

1996-01-01

123

Urinary incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Pathophysiology and intraoperative techniques to improve surgical outcome.  

PubMed

Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy has been shown to have comparable and possibly improved postoperative continent rates compared with retropubic and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. However, postoperative urinary incontinence has remained one of the most bothersome postoperative complications. The basic concept of the intraoperative technique to improve postoperative urinary continence is to maintain as normal anatomical and functional structure in the pelvis as possible. Therefore, improved knowledge of the normal structure in the pelvis should lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, and further development of intraoperative techniques to improve the outcomes of urinary continence. It might be necessary to carry out three steps to realize improvement of the early return of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: (i) preservation (bladder neck, neurovascular bundle, puboprostatic ligament, pubovesical complex, and/or urethral length, etc.); (ii) reconstruction (posterior and/or anterior reconstruction, and/or reattachment of the arcus tendineus to the bladder neck, etc.); and (iii) reinforcement (bladder neck plication and/or sling suspension, etc.). On the basis of these steps, further modifications during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy should be developed to improve urinary continence and quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. PMID:23841851

Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Norio; Haga, Nobuhiro; Nomiya, Masanori; Yanagida, Tomohiko; Ishibashi, Kei; Aikawa, Ken; Lee, David I

2013-07-10

124

Teaching strategies for assessing and managing urinary incontinence in older adults.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is common and affects many aspects of older adults' lives; therefore, it is essential that nursing faculty include this content in classroom and clinical teaching situations. This article describes innovative strategies for teaching upper-level nursing students (e.g., junior and senior undergraduates) about urinary incontinence in older adults, specifically, the relevant anatomy and physiology of continence and associated pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, risk factors and consequences, definitions and types, and effective nursing assessment and management strategies. PMID:20608588

Bradway, Christine; Cacchione, Pamela

2010-07-08

125

[Urinary incontinence].  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is a common health problem of older adults and affects more than 50% of nursing home residents. Different types of urinary incontinence can be distinguished: urgency, stress, overflow (urinary retention) and extra-urethral incontinence. The pathogenesis of urinary incontinence in older patients is multifactorial. Age-related physiologic changes, urological or gynaecological ailments, neurological diseases, behavioural patterns and functional decline frequently contribute to incontinence to some extent. These pathogenetic factors may appear in close relation to frailty. As incontinence on the one hand may substantially contribute to decompensation of health reserves, and on the other hand is an indicator for frailty, early assessment and treatment are important. Clinical diagnostics focus on history, physical examination, bladder diary and measurement of postvoid residual volume. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to urinary incontinence should focus on finding and treating reversible causes. Behavioural interventions such as toileting procedures may reduce the level of incontinence even in severe cases. Frail older adults with functional decline and urgency incontinence often do not respond well to drug treatment. Paramount for the adequate care for incontinent seniors is the instruction of the affected person and--if necessary--of their caregiver in handling incontinence aids. PMID:18677696

Braun, Anke K; Pfisterer, Mathias H-D

2008-08-01

126

Men's bladder health: urinary incontinence in the elderly (Part I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first part of a paper on urinary incontinence in the elderly man, dealing with epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic work-up. Urge incontinence is the most frequent type of incontinence in elderly men. In about 50% terminal detrusor over activity is found: the urge to void comes up suddenly, without warning, accompanied by an uncontrolled detrusor contraction causing continence.A

Helmut Madersbacher; Stephan Madersbacher

2005-01-01

127

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)  

MedlinePLUS

... cystitis fact sheet Pregnancy Urinary incontinence fact sheet Urinary tract infection fact sheet What is a urinary tract infection ( ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

128

Urinary ascites  

PubMed Central

A middle-aged male presented with abdominal pain and ascites following a fall in alcoholic intoxicated state. Evaluation revealed microscopic hematuria and severe renal failure. Ascitic fluid analysis showed high urea and creatinine values suggesting it to be a urinary ascites. Retrograde cystography confirmed intraperitoneal bladder rupture. Following continuous bladder drainage ascites subsided and serum creatinine has reduced to 3 mg/dL. This case report highlights the importance of ascitic fluid analysis as a pointer to diagnose urinary ascites secondary to intraperitoneal bladder rupture.

Abirami, K.; Sivaramakrishna, G.; Lakshmi, A. Y.; Sivakumar, V.

2012-01-01

129

Comparions of Snow Cover on Different Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each continent. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each continent for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each continent, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.

2010-03-14

130

Global mantle convection models with mobile continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental motions are fundamental in shaping the Earth's surface. Features attributable to continental drift, such as orogenies and rifts, dominate subaerial geography. On an even grander scale, paleomagnetism suggests global continental reorganizations over time scales of hundreds of millions of years (Myr). In fact, supercontinental aggregations such as Pangea, Rodinia, and Columbia appear in the geologic record with a period of a few hundred Myr, suggestive of a cycle. These surface motions are likely coupled to mantle convection. Continents cluster over cold downwellings, as in the closing of the Tethys Ocean. Supercontinents apparently warm the mantle, as suggested by the African superplume, which lingers beneath the former site of Pangea. A number of geodynamic modelers have investigated the nature of this coupling, often generating results reminiscent of observations. Still, many such studies were limited by the use of Cartesian geometries that do not accurately represent the Earth. In this thesis I address the feedback between continents and the mantle using a high resolution, spherical, finite element (FEM) mantle convection code. I integrate a lithospheric model into the code, prescribing rigid, buoyant, mobile continents that serve as boundary conditions for the mantle. In a series of simulations with individual continents, I investigate the system's sensitivity to variations in fundamental mantle parameters and continent size. Continents covering 30%, 10%, and 3% of Earth's surface (representative of Pangea, Asia, and Antarctica, respectively) are introduced into mantle models characterized by pure core or radiogenic heating, and uniform or layered viscosity. Supercontinents are found effective in promoting the development of global thermal heterogeneities in an internally heated, layered viscosity mantle. Smaller continents behave passively and exhibit more time dependent behavior. Next, I introduce models incorporating three to six continents in layered viscosity models heated predominantly from within. These models reinforce the plausibility of a supercontinent cycle with a period of a few hundred Myr. Underlying mantle temperatures vary by up to 100 K over ˜100 Myr. Continental velocities fluctuate in concert, ranging from ˜0-7 cm/yr. These results agree well with geological and geophysical findings, and help constrain geodynamic models.

Phillips, Benjamin R.

131

Maintaining continence in people with dementia.  

PubMed

Incontinence is not an inevitable consequence of having dementia, but continence can be an issue. Nurses need to have strategies in place to provide supportive continence care for people with dementia not only in hospitals, care homes and day care services, but also for those living at home alone or with a carer. For this to happen, the patient and home environment need to be assessed. This article explores steps that can be taken to preserve the dignity of people with dementia if they become incontinent. The role of health professionals in hospitals is discussed, as well as changes that can be made in patients' own homes. PMID:23957127

Andrews, June

132

Comparison of Continence Recovery Between Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy and Open Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: A Single Surgeon Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the recovery of continence after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Materials and Methods We identified 258 patients who underwent surgery by a single surgeon to treat localized prostate cancer. The patients were divided into two groups according to operative method. In group 1, 146 consecutive patients underwent RALP, and in group 2, 112 patients underwent RRP. To compare the interval until the return of urinary continence between the two groups, we used the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Differences between the two groups were found in mean estimated blood loss (EBL; p<0.001) and the rate of nerve sparing (p=0.004). When continence was defined as the use of 0 to 1 pad per day, 100% of group 1 and 98.2% of group 2 reported continence at 12 months (p=0.189). When continence was defined as no pad use, however, there was a significant difference between the two groups at 12 months: group 1, 95.7%, and group 2, 70.7% (p<0.001). The factors affecting time until no pad use in the univariate analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model were operation method, age, neurovascular bundle saving, membranous urethral length (MUL), EBL, and apical shape. In the multivariate analysis, only operation method, age, and MUL retained significance. Conclusions Our study suggests that RALP is an independent factor for the recovery of continence and that RALP has advantages for postoperative continence recovery and the quality of continence compared with RRP.

Son, Seung Jun; Lee, Sang Chul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Byun, Seok Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

2013-01-01

133

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

134

Geophysical diagnosis of MidContinent rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all recognized rift systems, the Mid-Continent rift may be the most geophysically analyzed of its genre. The data base associated with this 1900-km (1180-mi) long plate tectonic feature is evenly distributed between gravity, magnetics, and seismology. Since 1983, the western arm of the rift, traced from northeastern Kansas into the Lake Superior basin, has become an oil and gas

Dickas

1986-01-01

135

Conversations Across Continents: Teaching Business Ethics Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on an online business ethics course that three professors (Painter-Morland, Fontrodona and Hoffman) taught together, and in which the fourth author (Rowe) participated as a student, from their respective locations on three continents. The course was conducted using Centra software, which allowed for synchronous online interaction. The class included students from Europe, South Africa and the United

Mollie Painter-Morland; Juan Fontrodona; W. Michael Hoffman; Mark Rowe

2003-01-01

136

Cumulus mergers in the maritime continent region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We examine a family of tall (up to 20 km) cumulonimbus complexes that develop almost daily over an adjacent pair of flat islands in the Maritime Continent region north of Darwin, Australia, and that are known locally as “Hectors”. Nine cases observed by a rawinsonde network, surface observations (including radiation and soil measurements), the TRMM\\/TOGA radar, and one day

J. Simpson; Th. D. Keenan; B. Ferrier; R. H. Simpson; G. J. Holland

1993-01-01

137

Soil moisture prediction over the Australian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes an attempt to model soil moisture over the Australian continent with an integrated system of dynamic models and a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base. A land surface scheme with improved treatment of soil hydrological processes is described. The non-linear relationships between soil hydraulic conductivity, matric potential and soil moisture are derived from the Broadbridge and

Y. Shao; L. M. Leslie; R. K. Munro; P. Irannejad; W. F. Lyons; R. Morison; D. Short; M. S. Wood

1997-01-01

138

Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

2005-01-01

139

African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

Lindow, Megan

2009-01-01

140

Teaching computer science: experience from four continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare and contrast computer science curricula in four universities in four different countries (and continents): Australia; Israel; South Africa and Sweden. Uppsala University in Sweden is a European university founded in 1477 with a long history of tradition. The University of Witwatersrand in South Africa and Deakin University in Australia evolved from 'Schools of Mines' (technical

Mats Daniels; Judith Gal-Ezer; Ian Sanders; G. Joy Teague

1996-01-01

141

Post-Prostatectomy incontinence and the Artificial Urinary Sphincter: A Long-Term Study of Patient Satisfaction and Criteria for Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe investigated patient satisfaction with the artificial urinary sphincter and established criteria for a successful outcome by inquiring about patient perceived satisfaction, continence achieved and comparison with the surgeon office records.

Scott E. Litwiller; Kap B. Kim; Patricia D. Fone; Ralph W. deVere White; Anthony R. Stone

1996-01-01

142

Diagnosis and management of urinary incontinence and functional fecal incontinence (encopresis) in children.  

PubMed

The ability to maintain normal continence for urine and stools is not achievable in all children by a certain age. Gaining control of urinary and fecal continence is a complex process, and not all steps and factors involved are fully understood. While normal development of anatomy and physiology are prerequisites to becoming fully continent, anatomic abnormalities, such as bladder exstrophy, epispadias, ectopic ureters, and neurogenic disturbances that can usually be recognized at birth and cause incontinence, will require specialist treatment, not only to restore continence but also to preserve renal function. Most forms of urinary incontinence are not caused by an anatomic or physiologic abnormality and, hence, are more difficult to diagnose and their management requires a sound knowledge of bladder and bowel function. PMID:18794006

Nijman, Rien J M

2008-09-01

143

Plate tectonics: Calling card of a ghost continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where continents break apart, new ocean basins are formed. The discovery of ancient continental minerals on a young, volcanic island suggests that parts of the Indian Ocean floor may be underlain by fragments of a long-lost continent.

Mac Niocaill, Conall

2013-03-01

144

Urinary Diversion and Morbidity After Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The rate of continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer varies by patient and provider characteristics. Demonstration of equivalent complication rates, independent of diversion type, may decrease provider reluctance to perform continent reconstructions. The authors sought to determine whether continent reconstructions confer increased complication rates after radical cystectomy. METHODS From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the authors used International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) codes to identify subjects who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer during 2001–2005. They determined acute postoperative medical and surgical complications from ICD-9 codes and compared complication rates by reconstruction type using the nearest neighbor propensity score matching method and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS Adjusting for case-mix differences between reconstructive groups, continent diversions conferred a lower risk of medical, surgical, and disposition-related complications that was statistically significant for bowel (3.1% lower risk; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], ?6.8% to ?0.1%), urinary (1.2% lower risk; 95% CI, ?2.3%, to ?0.4%), and other surgical complications (3.0% lower risk; 95% CI, ?6.2% to ?0.4%), and discharge other than home (8.2% lower risk; 95% CI, ?12.1% to ?4.6%) compared with ileal conduit subjects. Older age and certain comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure and preoperative weight loss, were associated with significantly increased odds of postoperative medical and surgical complications in all subjects. CONCLUSIONS Mode of urinary diversion after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is not associated with increased risk of immediate postoperative complications. These results may encourage broader consideration of continent urinary diversion without concern for increased complication rates.

Gore, John L.; Yu, Hua-Yin; Setodji, Claude; Hanley, Jan M.; Litwin, Mark S.; Saigal, Christopher S.

2011-01-01

145

Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents.  

PubMed

For decades there has been a vigorous debate about the depth extent of continental roots. The analysis of heat-flow, mantle-xenolith and electrical-conductivity data all indicate that the coherent, conductive part of continental roots (the 'tectosphere') is at most 200-250 km thick. Some global seismic tomographic models agree with this estimate, but others suggest that a much thicker zone of high velocities lies beneath continental shields, reaching a depth of at least 400 km. Here we show that this disagreement can be reconciled by taking into account seismic anisotropy. We show that significant radial anisotropy, with horizontally polarized shear waves travelling faster than those that are vertically polarized, is present under most cratons in the depth range 250-400 km--similar to that found under ocean basins at shallower depths of 80-250 km. We propose that, in both cases, the anisotropy is related to shear in a low-viscosity asthenospheric channel, located at different depths under continents and oceans. The seismically defined 'tectosphere' is then at most 200-250 km thick under old continents. The 'Lehmann discontinuity', observed mostly under continents at about 200-250 km, and the 'Gutenberg discontinuity', observed under oceans at depths of about 60-80 km, may both be associated with the bottom of the lithosphere, marking a transition to flow-induced asthenospheric anisotropy. PMID:12700758

Gung, Yuancheng; Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

2003-04-17

146

Geophysical diagnosis of Mid-Continent rift  

SciTech Connect

Of all recognized rift systems, the Mid-Continent rift may be the most geophysically analyzed of its genre. The data base associated with this 1900-km (1180-mi) long plate tectonic feature is evenly distributed between gravity, magnetics, and seismology. Since 1983, the western arm of the rift, traced from northeastern Kansas into the Lake Superior basin, has become an oil and gas exploration frontier. The target source and reservoir rocks are of Proterozoic Y (middle Keweenawan) age (1047 +/- 35 Ma minimum). Associated sedimentary and igneous rocks crop out only in northwestern Wisconsin and the adjacent upper peninsula of Michigan. Workers have developed various geophysical models for the Mid-Continent rift, and with the advent of economic interest, the classical compressive, central horst model has been questioned. Geophysical diagnosis of the Mid-Continent rift has gone through three stages. In stage I (late 1930s to 1978), the rift was discovered and identified, and its basic outline, geographic extent, and preliminary structural model were developed. In stage II (1978-1981), the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling conducted surveys in Kansas and Michigan, which suggested the rift was an extensional, subsiding trough. Now, in stage III (1984 to present), reflection seismology studies along the entire western area of the rift permit a new review. Examples of industrially acquired lines will be presented.

Dickas, A.B.

1986-05-01

147

[Epidemiology and etiology of male urinary incontinence].  

PubMed

Compared to female urinary incontinence, the prevalence and socioeconomic impact of male urinary incontinence has not gained much attention from epidemiologists. Moreover, the few available epidemiological surveys vary in their use of definitions and methodology, which are known to have great impact on the resulting prevalences. Therefore, the interpretation of the findings is difficult. Depending on definitions and methods, the prevalence of male urinary incontinence ranges between 5.4 and 15%. Urgency incontinence is the predominant subtype in all age groups, although the relative proportion shifts towards stress incontinence with rising age. Neurological and posttraumatic causes for male stress incontinence become less important as the frequency of iatrogenic interventions (radiation, prostate surgery) increase. Additional risk factors for male urinary incontinence are age, immobility, and neurological diseases. Surgery of the prostate (TURP, radical prostatectomy) is especially associated with postoperative urinary incontinence if bladder and/or sphincter dysfunctions are preexisting, if the patient is particularly old, and the surgeon's experience is limited. The etiology of male urgency incontinence comprises detrusor instability caused by obstruction, age-related detrusor degeneration, insufficient inhibitory CNS control over afferent detrusor overstimulation, and neurological diseases. The pathophysiological key factors of male continence are functional urethral length and maximum closure pressure, the preservation of which should receive the unrestricted attention of every prostate surgeon. PMID:20376650

Hampel, C; Thüroff, J W; Gillitzer, R

2010-04-01

148

Lithospheric properties on a continent-continent collisional scenario: the Pyrenean range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continent-continent collision is a fundamental tectonic process that plays a primary role in the development and evolution of continents. The Pyrenees resulted from the continental collision between the Iberian and European plates during the Alpine orogeny. This mountain range offers an unique opportunity to study orogenic processes due to the well constrained geological evolution and the significant amount of geophysical data available. In this paper present a joint quantitative interpretation of the available geophysical and geochemical data along two transects across the Pyrenean orogeny. These new results confirm the previous hypothesis of partial melting of the subducted Iberian lower crust and constrain the depth of the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). The bulk mantle electrical conductivity and seismic velocities have been modelled using the software package LitMod, which allows for coupled petrological and geophysical modeling of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework.

Ledo, Juanjo; Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montse; Muñoz, Josep Anton

2013-04-01

149

Antegrade continence enema (ACE): current practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess current status of antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedure taking into account the recent improvement in the technique and outcome. Reviewing our record of 48 patients with ACE procedure performed between January 2002 and May 2007, we found that the underlying diagnoses were idiopathic constipation in 56%, anorectal malformation in 31%, spina bifida in 8% and Hirschsprung's disease in 4%. Mean age of operation was 10.7 years. Appendix was used as stoma in 73% of cases. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 6% of cases and continence was achieved in 92% of cases. A systematic search of database was performed for the same period. Twenty-four studies describing 676 patients were found. The mean age was 10 years and various sites used for ACE were, right side of abdomen in 71%, umbilicus in 15% and left side of abdomen in 14%. The incidence of open and laparoscopic procedures were 87 and 13%, respectively. Appendix was used for stoma in 76% procedures. Other operative modalities were retubularised colon, retubularised ileum, caecal button and caecostomy tube, etc. The mean volume of enema fluid used was 516 ml. The mean evacuation time was 42 min. Stomal stenosis requiring revision was seen in 13% of cases. Continence was achieved in 93% of cases. There has been significant improvement in the outcome during last 5 years in comparison to the outcome published in late 1990s. Advancements in techniques, better-trained stoma care nurses and better stoma appliances could have played major role in this success. PMID:18408942

Sinha, Chandrasen Kumar; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry C

2008-04-12

150

When continents were flat and flooded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the Archaean was a period of global changes for our planet . It has been suggested that the causes of these profound changes could have arised from the initiation of plate tectonics or other changes in the style of mantle convection. Transitions in the mode of mantle dynamics in the late Archaean are difficult to explain on the basis of continuum mechanics, and linking them to the environmental changes remains challenging. In contrast, the continental crust experienced drastic changes in its thermal and rheological state mostly because of the decay of radiogenic heat sources. Based on thermo-mechanical calculations and field observations, we show that the Archaean hypsometry was mostly flat with plateau elevation not exceeding 2000m. Moreover, the warm and weak Archaean crust could not sustain the heavy load of magmatic provinces and elevation anomalies were removed in a very short time (<1Myr) by lower crustal flow. These simulations, together with freeboard models (Flament et al., 2008), show that continents must have been mostly flooded and flat during the Archaean, drastically limiting chemical exchanges between continental crust and atmosphere/ocean system as well as with the mantle. Towards the late Archaean, the cooling and strengthening of the continents favoured the formation of higher orogenic plateaux. Combined with the secular deepening of the oceanic floor, this resulted in the emergence of the continents. The late-Archaean acquisition of modern erodability triggered major changes in the composition of Earth’s surface envelopes because of increases in weathering and erosion of the continental crust. Flament, N., Coltice, N., and Rey, P. F., 2008. A case for late-Archaean continental emergence from thermal evolution models and hypsometry. Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 275, 326-336.

Coltice, N.; Rey, P. F.; Flament, N.

2010-12-01

151

Collagen Metabolism and Turnover in Women with Stress Urinary Incontience and Pelvic Prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and\\u000a their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, in vaginal wall tissue from women\\u000a with stress urinary incontinence compared to continent controls. Vaginal wall tissues were obtained from 7 women with stress\\u000a urinary incontinence\\/severe pelvic prolapse and 15

B. H. Chen; Y. Wen; H. Li; M. L. Polan

2002-01-01

152

QUALITY OF CARE IN BLADDER CANCER: TRENDS IN URINARY DIVERSION FOLLOWING RADICAL CYSTECTOMY  

PubMed Central

Objective Quality-of-care indicators have not yet been defined for patients with bladder cancer. Nonetheless, certain aspects of bladder cancer care can be evaluated to quantify the quality of care delivered. We sought to determine trends in continent urinary diversion to evaluate the adoption of this more optimal reconstruction. Methods Subjects who underwent radical cystectomy for a primary diagnosis of bladder cancer were identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified covariates independently associated with utilization of continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy using multivariate logistic regression modeling. We then examined trends in diversion type based on patient and hospital characteristics and examined the impact of hospital volume on use of continent reconstruction. Results Our weighted sample included 5,075 subjects (14.3%) who underwent continent urinary diversion and 30,295 subjects (85.7%) who underwent an ileal conduit. Independent correlates of continent diversion included younger age, male gender, having private insurance, and undergoing surgery at an urban teaching hospital. Hospitals performing continent diversions on more than 40% of their cystectomies had a yearly cystectomy volume of 0.8 surgeries. Subjects treated at high-volume hospitals trended toward lower rates of comorbid conditions. Conclusions We identified substantial disparities in continent diversion which, based on yearly trends, are unlikely to improve in the near future. Continent reconstructions are not the exclusive domain of high-volume cystectomy centers. Yet efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on technique dissemination and better definition of the quality-of-life detriments incurred by cystectomy patients.

Gore, John L.; Litwin, Mark S.

2009-01-01

153

Comparative Study of Various Forms of Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy in Muscle Invasive Carcinoma Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the three types of urinary diversion namely Ileal Conduit, MAINZ Pouch II and Ileal Neobladder in terms of patient preference, post-operative hospital stay, early and late complications, continence rates, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Method: From January 2003 to October 2007, 30 patients (28 males and 2 females) of muscle invasive carcinoma urinary bladder (mean age 57.7 years) were operated upon by radical cysto- prostatectomy or anterior pelvic exenteration and urinary diversion was performed by Ileal conduit, Mainz pouch II or Ileal neobladder. The patient preference for the type of diversion was determined pre-operatively after discussing all the three types of urinary diversions. Post-operative hospital stay, early and late complications, continence rates, quality of life and patient satisfaction with the type of diversion were evaluated on follow up. Results: 60% of the patient’s preferred Ileal neobladder, 10% preferred Ileal conduit and 10% preferred Mainz pouch II as their 1st choice diversion; 20% left the decision to the operating surgeon. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 15.0 days in Ileal conduit group, 17.8 days in Mainz pouch II group and 19.7 days in Ileal neobladder group. The mean follow up was 27.7 months. Early complications (within 1 month of surgery) were observed in 46.2% of patients in Ileal conduit group, 38.5% in Mainz pouch II group and 50.0% in Ileal neobladder group. Late complications (after 1 month of surgery) were seen in 61.5% of patients in Ileal conduit group, 46.2% in Mainz pouch II group and 50.0% in Ileal neobladder group. In Mainz pouch II group 92.3% of the patients achieved daytime continence and 84.6% achieved night time continence 3 to 6 months after surgery. In Ileal neobladder group, 75.0% patients achieved day time continence and 50.0% achieved night time continence 3 to 6 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction and overall quality of life was described ‘Good’ by majority of patients in Ileal conduit group and ‘Very Good’ by majority of patients in Mainz pouch II group and Ileal neobladder group. Conclusion: There are inherited advantages and disadvantages to each form of urinary diversion and patient selection is important to identify the most appropriate method of diversion for an individual.

Sherwani Afak, Y; Wazir, B S; Hamid, Arif; Wani, M S; Aziz, Rafia

2009-01-01

154

Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the

Cin-Ty Aeolus Lee; Douglas M. Morton; Mark G. Little; Ronald Kistler; Ulyana N. Horodyskyj; William P. Leeman; Arnaud Agranier

2008-01-01

155

Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

2008-11-01

156

K-rich brine and chemical modification of the crust during continent–continent collision, Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nordre Strømfjord Shear Zone (NSSZ) in West Greenland is the northernmost zone of intense deformation within the 1.7–2.0Gya Nagssugtoqidian Orogen (NO). The NO preserves a record of continent–continent collision and crustal-scale shearing associated with the assembly of the Columbia super-continent. Also preserved in the NO is a complex of calc-alkaline rocks that formed in the root zone of an

William. E. Glassley; John A. Korstgård; Kai Sørensen

2010-01-01

157

Pediatric overactive bladder and lower urinary tract dysfunctions: diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in children is overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). This has been known by numerous other names such as urge syndrome, urgency frequency syndrome, hyperactive bladder syndrome, persistent infantile bladder and detrusor hypertonia. Recently, the International Children's Continence Society has been attempting to standardize the nomenclature; OAB is the accepted terminology today. OAB is

Israel Franco

2008-01-01

158

Estrogen therapy and urinary incontinence: what is the evidence and what do we tell our patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of estrogen associated with menopause has been considered as a factor responsible for the increasing urinary incontinence prevalence in women as they age. Indeed, incontinence is commonly categorized as a symptom of urogenital atrophy. The presence of alpha and beta estrogen receptors throughout the urogenital tract suggests that estrogen has a role in the continence mechanism, and many observational

L. Elaine Waetjen; Peter L. Dwyer

2006-01-01

159

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)  

MedlinePLUS

... about? A: Pee! But if you have a urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing ... a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong ...

160

Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continence disturbances, especially fecal soiling, are difficult to treat. Irrigation of the distal part of the large bowel might be considered as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with impaired continence. PURPOSE: This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical value of colonic irrigation. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (16 females; median age, 47 (range, 23–72) years) were offered colonic irrigation on an

J. W. Briel; W. R. Schouten; E. A. Vlot; S. Smits; I. van Kessel

1997-01-01

161

Contribution of posture to the maintenance of anal continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anorectal angle (ARA) is believed to provide one of the most important contributions to anal continence. The normal resting angle is approx. 90°, but the erect position may modify the ARA and other parameters usually considered in a proctometrogram. We compared the proctometrogram in different postures to elucidate the role of changes in the ARA in maintaining fecal continence.

Donato F. Altomare; Marcella Rinaldi; Antonella Veglia; Altomarino Guglielmi; Pier Luca Sallustio; Gaetano Tripoli

2001-01-01

162

OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

163

The Velocity Model of Chinese Continent Established by GNSS Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the high precision repeated GNSS observations, the Multi-quadric equations interpolation method is used to establish the velocity model of Chinese continent's crustal movement. The valuable present-day horizontal and vertical crustal movement velocity images are obtained. The eastwardly movement trend of Chinese continent is quite evident, and there is a trend of clockwise rolling, from northeast to east, then to

Y. Yao

2009-01-01

164

What affects continence after anterior resection of the rectum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional results after anterior rectal resections are commonly considered satisfactory but variable percentages of postoperative incontinence are often reported. Continence was evaluated after 20 low anterior resections (LAR) and 13 high anterior resections (HAR) by means of clinical assessment, anorectal manometry, and evacuation proctography. Whereas all HAR patients had perfect continence, 10 patients (50 percent of the LAR group had

Giacomo Batignani; Iacopo Monaci; Ferdinando Ficari; Francesco Tonelli

1991-01-01

165

The state of stress within the Australian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault plane solutions, seismicity and < in situ > stress measurements point to a predominantly compres- sive state ofthe Australian continent. This stress is being relieved by brittle failure in the upper and middle regions of the crust only. The orientation of the axes of maximum compression varies conside¡ably across the continent. Most Australian earthquakes occur in tectonic provinces that

KURT LAMBECK; R. A. STEPHENSON; D. DENHAM

166

Urinary tract infection.  

PubMed

The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. PMID:23830659

Nicolle, Lindsay E

2013-07-01

167

Urinary incontinence: correlates among cognitively impaired elderly veterans.  

PubMed

1. Although a range of factors can contribute to urinary incontinence in long-term care residents, it is more closely associated with a decline in both cognitive and functional status. 2. Although all subjects had to be cognitively impaired to participate in the study, the incontinent group had a significantly lower mean score on the mental status examination than did the continent group. 3. Incontinent subjects were more dependent in activities of daily living and took significantly longer to carry out functional tasks specifically related to toileting. 4. Urinary incontinence was strongly associated with a history of urinary tract infections, positive urine cultures, epididymitis, hematuria, and fecal incontinence. Medical diagnosis, medications, and affective status were not associated with the problem. PMID:1479156

Morris, A; Browne, G; Saltmarche, A

1992-10-01

168

Icy Continent Mapped from Space with RADARSAT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientists released images from the first high-resolution radar map of Antarctica. Taken over a period of eighteen days in 1997 by a NASA-launched Canadian satellite called RADARSAT, the images have revealed a number of amazing features never seen before. The most important of these is a complex network of ice streams, huge rivers of ice that move ice and snow from the continent's interior to the sea, some moving up to 3,000 feet and one system that sends up to 19 cubic miles of ice to the sea each year. Another hidden feature imaged by RADARSAT was Lake Vostok, a massive fresh water lake laying two miles beneath the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. This site, hosted by NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio, offers a fascinating and often beautiful virtual tour of Antarctica, divided into fifteen stops, featuring images of varying resolution and QuickTime movies. Users can also read the official press release and learn more about the RADARSAT mission with provided links. For further resources on RADARSAT and Antarctica, see the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering.

169

[Sacral neuromodulation in fecal continence disorders].  

PubMed

The therapeutic approaches to the impairments of the faecal continence not depending from organic lesions of the anal sphincters or the pelvic floor are often unsuccessful, particularly as far as long distance outcome is concerned. The direct setting to the sacral roots of a magnetic stimulation modulating the reflex activity of the Autonomic Nervous System, firstly applied successfully by the urologist in the bladder incontinence, could correct indefinitely the effects of such a defect implying also a social cost in terms of quality of life and linen clothes expenses. Here details of the Interstim, Medtronic devices are reported, discussing the instrumental and clinical indications and the steps of the protocol of its application, in agreement with the Italian Group of Sacral Neuromodulation (GINS), as well as the most recent data of the literature and the early results of our own experience in the treatment of faecal incontinence. It is stressed the aspect of "work in progress" peculiar to this technique, as clearly shows the difficulty to explain the pathway with which neuromodulation effects on anal sphincters and pelvic floor, and moreover on the colorectal motility, as some ongoing applications to patients with refractory constipation seems to evidence. Data of a long standing follow-up are not yet available but the early and intermediate results are in the main successfully in terms of complete recovery or improvement as clearly show both clinical evidence and subjective evaluation assessing the Quality of Life. PMID:12138684

Ferulano, Giuseppe Paolo; La Manna, Salvatore; Dilillo, Saverio

170

A report from the 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Continence Society (October 15-19 - Beijing, China).  

PubMed

As Beijing was selected as the site for this year's International Continence Society (ICS) meeting, crowds of locals navigating through the subway train lines and tourists lining up for access to the Forbidden City and other landmarks were joined by a less numerous but a still significant number of researchers, scientists and practitioners working on urinary tract diseases and disorders going to the China National Convention Center to attend the podium and poster sessions. Located next to the Bird's Nest Olympic stadium and offering grand views over the Olympic park from the upper floor where non-discussion posters were displayed, the modern facilities allowed for a smooth, seamless meeting during which a number of highly relevant new findings were discussed. The following report summarizes selected presentations on pharmacotherapy and drug candidates for overactive bladder and other common diseases of the urinary tract. PMID:23170310

Rabasseda, X

2012-11-01

171

A New Theory of Micturition and Urinary Continence Based on Histomorphological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of seminal emission and ejaculation based on morphology especially of the dorsal longitudinal urethral muscle system are found very infrequently in the literature. Our own examinations carried out on serial sections of the whole distal urethral complex taken from 50 male and 15 female autopsy preparations prove that the dorsal longitudinal urethral muscle system represents an independent smooth muscle.

W. Dorschner; J.-U. Stolzenburg

1994-01-01

172

A New Theory of Micturition and Urinary Continence Based on Histomorphological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an anatomical study of serial sections of the bladder neck taken from 65 cadavers of all age groups the ventral longitudinal muscle system is shown as a single unit. It is characterized by two origins and two insertions. A detailed description is given. It should be emphasized that there is no connection between this muscle system and any muscle

W. Dorschner; J.-U. Stolzenburg; J. Rassler

1994-01-01

173

The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing…

Simon, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.

2006-01-01

174

Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

Avouac, J.

2007-12-01

175

Lower crustal flow and subaqueous Archean continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potentially higher sea levels do not fully explain why subaqueous flood volcanism on top of continental crust was common throughout the Archean. One possible way of maintaining basaltic piles several kilometers thick below sea level is via gravity-driven lower crustal flow of hot continental crust. In this study, we run numerical experiments to determine the relaxation time of a topographic load emplaced on continental crust as a function of Moho temperature. We use a visco-plastic model in which the viscosity depends on temperature. We apply the results of these models to the Fortescue Group, in the Pilbara craton. Data regarding the erupting time and stratigraphic thickness of the Maddina basalts, together with sedimentary structures pointing to shallow initial and final depth of emplacement, constrain the relaxation time for this section of the Fortescue Continental Flood Basalt to between 0.75 and 2 Myr. According to our modeling results this translates to a Moho temperature range of 610 to 690 °C for continental crust 40 km thick (580 to 665 °C for continental crust 30 km thick). This is significantly higher than the present-day Moho temperature range of 400 to 500 °C for Archean cratons, suggesting that the cooling of the studied continental lithosphere has been of approximately 200 °C over 2.72 Ga. The observation that many Archean Continental Flood Basalts failed to emerge despite their thickness suggests that gravity-driven lower crustal flow of hot continental crust was an efficient process that maintained continents below sea level throughout the Archean.

Flament, N.; Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Dromart, G.; Olivier, N.

2009-12-01

176

The antegrade continence enema procedure: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the antegrade continence enema (ACE) was first described in 1990 for fecal incontinence, more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. This report reviews the indications, operative modifications, outcome, and complications of the procedure.

Joy L Graf; Christopher Strear; Barbara Bratton; H. Tamiko Housley; Russell W Jennings; Michael R Harrison; Craig T Albanese

1998-01-01

177

Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

178

Overcoming the Stigma of Complications of Continent Cutaneous Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The introduction of continent cutaneous diversions have increased the acceptability and decreased the stigmata associated\\u000a with bladder cancer therapy. The understanding of the complications associated with continent cutaneous diversions is of vital\\u000a importance for individuals caring for bladder cancer patients. The utilization of such techniques requires significant understanding\\u000a of the immediate and long-term complications to allow for appropriate patient selection

Niels-Erik B. Jacobsen

179

Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the vector electric field instrument observation onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The evolution of equatorial ionospheric irregularities will also be presented using data from the growing number of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers in the African region.

Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

2008-12-01

180

Study protocol: ICONS: Identifying continence options after stroke: A randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence following acute stroke is common, affecting between 40%-60% of people in hospital after a stroke. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for urinary incontinence and urinary incontinence after stroke, national audit data suggest incontinence is often poorly managed. Conservative interventions (e.g. bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training and prompted voiding) have been shown to have some effect with participants in Cochrane systematic reviews, but have not had their effectiveness demonstrated with stroke patients. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled pilot trial designed to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomised trial and to provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematic voiding programme for the management of continence after stroke. Stroke services will be randomised to receive the systematic voiding programme, the systematic voiding programme plus supported implementation, or usual care. The trial aims to recruit at least 780 participants in 12 stroke services (4 per arm). The primary outcome is presence/absence of incontinence at six weeks post-stroke. Secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of incontinence, quality of life and cost-utility. Outcomes will be measured at six weeks, three months and (for participants recruited in the first three months) twelve months after stroke. Process data will include rates of recruitment and retention and fidelity of intervention delivery. An integrated qualitative evaluation will be conducted in order to describe implementation and assist in explaining the potential mediators and modifiers of the process. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN08609907

2011-01-01

181

Thermomechanical consequences of Cretaceous continent-continent collision in the eastern Alps (Austria): Insights from two-dimensional modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two-dimensional numerical modeling techniques to investigate the thermomechanical consequences of closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean and consequent Cretaceous continent-continent collision in the eastern Alps (Austria). In the modeling a lower plate position of the Austro-Alpine (AA) continental block is adopted during collision with the Upper Juvavic-Silice block. The thermal structure of the lithosphere was calculated for major AA

Ernst Willingshofer; J. D. van Wees; S. A. P. L. Cloetingh; F. Neubauer

1999-01-01

182

Symptoms of urinary incontinence among older community-dwelling men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the problem of urinary incontinence among elderly men living in the community. Descriptive data from a mailed, 53-item survey were collected and analyzed. The subjects were a convenience sample of 2800 older community-dwelling men enrolled in a hospital-based senior citizens' group in the southwest United States. The 53-item, self-administered survey was designed with a large typeface and a reading level of 3 years of schooling. In pretesting, the instrument required approximately 10 minutes to complete. Within the 2-month response period, 1490 completed surveys were returned for a total response rate of 53%. A subsample of 434 respondents (29%) reported uncontrolled urine leakage of any amount during the month before the survey. Most of these elders reported mild symptoms (84%) or symptoms that had persisted longer than 1 month but less than 2 years (48%). Consistent with the mildness of symptoms reported, the most frequently reported wetness management products were household commodities, such as toilet tissue and paper towels. Only one third of subjects with urinary incontinence symptoms had discussed these symptoms with a physician. Of those who did, almost half received some type of treatment. Incontinence was found to be statistically associated with age, prostate surgery, diuretic use, difficulty in starting urination, and voiding small amounts. In most cases, however, incontinence demonstrated a limited statistical relationship to these variables commonly associated with incontinence. In contrast, caffeine use, a history of prostate problems, and the sensation of incomplete bladder emptying were statistically associated with continence. The prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly community-dwelling men is significant, although most asserted that their problems with urine loss are mild. In addition to urinary incontinence, many continent and incontinent elderly men have a wide range of urinary dysfunction symptoms. PMID:9043282

Umlauf, M G; Sherman, S M

1996-11-01

183

Postpartum stress urinary incontinence: lessons from animal models  

PubMed Central

Postpartum stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is associated with chronic SUI in later life, which is 240% more likely to occur in women who deliver vaginally than those who did not. The etiology of SUI is multifactoral and has been associated with defects in both neuromuscular and structural components of continence. Specifically, clinical studies have demonstrated that pudendal nerve damage occurs during vaginal delivery, supporting the concept that neuromuscular damage to the continence mechanism can result in postpartum SUI. Urethral hypermobility and the loss of pelvic floor support, such as that involved in pelvic organ prolapse, have also been associated with SUI. Animal models provide an opportunity to investigate these injuries, individually and in combination, enabling researchers to gain further insight into their relative contributions to the development of SUI and the effectiveness of potential therapies for it. This article discusses the use of animal models of postpartum SUI in addition to the broad insights into treatment efficacy they provide.

Gill, Bradley C; Moore, Courtenay; Damaser, Margot S

2010-01-01

184

Inhibitory role of the spinal cholinergic system in the control of urethral continence reflex during sneezing in rats.  

PubMed

AIMS: The urethral continence reflex during stress conditions such as sneezing or coughing is an important mechanism preventing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Although the spinal noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways are known to modulate this reflex activity, the role of spinal cholinergic pathways in the control of urethral continence reflex has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the effect of intrathecal administration of an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor, which increases ACh in synaptic terminals, and anti-cholinergic agents on the sneeze-induced urethral reflex in rats. METHODS: Female SD rats were anesthetized with urethane. Urethral function was evaluated during sneezing induced by insertion of the rat whisker into the nostril. Effects of an AChE inhibitor, neostigmine, and muscarinic or nicotinic receptor antagonists administered at the level of L6-S1 spinal cord were examined. RESULTS: Neostigmine dose-dependently and significantly decreased the amplitude of urethral responses during sneezing (A-URS) with an approximately 70% reduction at 3?nmol, without changing urethral baseline pressure. The neostigmine-induced decrease in A-URS was significantly reversed by pretreatment with atropine (nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist), methoctramine (M2 receptor antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M3 receptor antagonist), but not with pirenzepine (M1 receptor antagonist), tropicamide (M4 receptor antagonist), or mecamylamine (nicotinic receptor antagonist). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that an increase in endogenous ACh in the lumbosacral spinal cord inhibits the sneeze-induced urethral continence reflex via activation of M2 and/or M3-muscarinic receptors, implying the inhibitory role of spinal cholinergic pathways in the control of urethral continence reflex under stress conditions such as sneezing. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23754327

Yoshikawa, Satoru; Kitta, Takeya; Miyazato, Minoru; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Yoshimura, Naoki

2013-06-11

185

Neurogenic urinary retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

A. G. Herbaut

1993-01-01

186

Bacterial-Dependent Up-Regulation of Intestinal Bile Acid Binding Protein and Transport is FXR-Mediated Following Ileo-Cecal Resection  

PubMed Central

Background Bile acid reclamation following ileo-cecal resection (ICR) may prevent colonic mucosa from chronic injury. In this study, we hypothesized that in a murine model of ICR the remnant colon would upregulate the cellular machinery necessary for BA reclamation and would do so in an FXR- and bacteria-dependent manner. Methods Conventional (WT), conventional FXR knockout (FXR null) and germ free (GF) mice were randomized to undergo either ICR or sham operation. The ascending colon was harvested for histology & immunohistochemistry and changes in bile acid homeostatic gene expression determined by RT-PCR 7d following surgery. Results Following ICR WT mice showed significant increases in the expression of genes regulating bile acid transport including IBABP, Asbt, Ost? and FGF 15. Increased expression of IBABP and Asbt was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Induction of bile acid transport genes was absent or attenuated in FXR null and GF mice. Conclusion Bacterial dependent up regulation of IBABP is FXR mediated in the colon following ICR. Mice lacking microbiota (GF) or FXR are unable to increase the expression of IBABP or FGF 15.

Dekaney, Christopher M.; von Allmen, Douglas C.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Rigby, Rachael J.; Lund, P. Kay; Henning, Susan J.; Helmrath, Michael A.

2008-01-01

187

Dietary fish oil increases fat absorption and fecal bile acid content without altering bile acid synthesis in 20-d-old weanling rats following massive ileocecal resection  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dietary fish oil (FO) was reported to lower fecal fat excretion in a weanling rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS) after ileocecal resection (ICR), and to induce changes in secretion and synthesis of bile acid (BA) in adults. We hypothesized that dietary FO, as compared with corn oil (CO), increases intestinal fat absorption in weanling SBS rats in part due to increased hepatic BA synthesis and luminal BA concentrations. Methods After undergoing ICR, 20-d-old rats were fed ad lib for 7 d with a CO or FO diet containing 5% sucrose polybehenate (SPB), a marker for dietary fat absorption. Fecal fatty acid, fecal and intestine luminal BA, liver mRNA expressions of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7?1) and sterol-12?-hydroxylase (Cyp8?1), and serum 7?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-1 (7?C4) levels were determined. Results As compared with CO-ICR rats, FO-ICR rats had higher intestinal absorption of total fat and most individual fatty acids. Although the BA content per gram of dry stool was increased in FO-ICR rats, there were no differences between groups for the BA content in remnant jejunum, liver mRNA expression of BA biosynthetic enzymes, Cyp7?1 and Cyp8?1, or serum 7?C4, a marker for BA synthesis. Conclusion Dietary FO increases dietary fat absorption without increasing hepatic BA synthesis in weanling SBS rats.

Yang, Qing; Lan, Tian; Chen, Yuegang; Dawson, Paul A.

2013-01-01

188

Muscle derived stem cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) for rhabdosphincter regeneration\\u000a and to review the early clinical experiences with its application in patients with stress urinary incontinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In anatomical and functional studies of the human and animal urethra, the middle urethral contained rhabdosphincter is critical\\u000a for maintaining continence. Transplanted stem cells have the

Marc C. Smaldone; Michael B. Chancellor

2008-01-01

189

Anterior bladder flap neo urethra as treatment for stress urinary incontinence due to developmental urogenital anomaly  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies that involve the distal segment of urogenital sinus (giving rise to female urethra and vagina) may lead to abnormal urethral development ranging from absent to markedly deficient urethra. The abnormal division may also cause a short and patulous urethra. Sphincteric defects are likely to be associated and when combined with the short urethral length is a cause for severe urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence due to a congenital cause requiring repeated urethral reconstruction to relieve symptoms is presented. A 15 year old girl was referred for bothersome urinary incontinence due to a short, wide, patulous urethra with defective sphincteric mechanism as part of urogenital sinus developmental anomaly. She was initially managed by reconstruction of bladder neck and proximal urethra with sphincter augmentation using autologous pubovaginal sling. Persistent urinary incontinence demanded a second urethral reconstruction using tubularised anterior bladder flap (modified Tanagho). Surgical reconstruction of the urethra achieved socially acceptable continence.

Rajamaheswari, N.; Agarwal, Sugandha; Chhikara, Archana Bharti; Seethalakshmi, K.

2013-01-01

190

Prescription OxyContin Abuse Among Patients Entering Addiction Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective OxyContin and other pharmaceutical opioids have been given special attention in the media, who frequently describe problematic users of the drug as previously drug-naive individuals who become addicted following legitimate prescriptions for medical reasons. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and origins of pharmaceutical opioid addiction among patients presenting at substance abuse treatment programs. Method The authors evaluated the prevalence and correlates of OxyContin use and abuse among a population of 27,816 subjects admitted to 157 addiction treatment programs in the United States from 2001–2004. The data collected included the lifetime and past 30-day use of OxyContin and other drugs prior to admission to addiction treatment, source of drug supply, and prior treatment history. Results Approximately 5% of all subjects who were admitted to the 157 addiction treatment programs reported prior use of OxyContin. Of those subjects, 4.5% reported using the drug on a regular basis for at least 1 year, and 2% reported use of the drug during the 30 days prior to admission. Seventy-eight percent of subjects who reported OxyContin use also reported that the drug had not been prescribed to them for any medical reason, 86% reported use of the drug to “get high or get a buzz,” and 78% reported receiving prior treatment for a substance use disorder. Conclusions The patients in this sample did not include individuals from private therapists or pain clinics. However, among treatment-seeking individuals who use OxyContin, the drug is most frequently obtained from nonmedical sources as part of a broader and longer-term pattern of multiple substance abuse.

Carise, Deni; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; McLellan, A. Thomas; Camilleri, Amy; Woody, George E.; Lynch, Kevin G.

2009-01-01

191

Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

Zhang, Y.

2009-12-01

192

Origin of Urinary Oxalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

2007-04-01

193

Auditing urinary catheter care.  

PubMed

Urinary catheters are the main cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections among inpatients. Healthcare staff can reduce the risk of patients developing an infection by ensuring they give evidence-based care and by removing the catheter as soon as it is no longer necessary. An audit conducted in a Hampshire hospital demonstrated there was poor documented evidence that best practice was being carried out. Therefore a urinary catheter assessment and monitoring tool was designed to promote best practice and produce clear evidence that care had been provided. PMID:22375340

Dailly, Sue

194

[Early potty training advantageous in bladder dysfunction. Decreases the risk of urinary infection].  

PubMed

The time when we start potty training has become increasingly postponed. This paper discusses the possible negative consequences of this social situation. Depending on the child's maturity, bladder control could be defined as anything from "continence with support of an adult before the age of one year" to "independent social control, unobtainable in our culture before the child is 4 years of age". In toddlers suffering from bladder dysfunction, the impact of potty training improves bladder emptying, decreasing residual urine and resultant urinary tract infection. In toddlers with anatomical and functional anomalies of the urinary tract, early potty training is recommended. PMID:11496810

Hellström, A L; Sillén, U

2001-07-11

195

The role of anti-incontinence surgery in management of occult urinary stress incontinence.  

PubMed

Combining anti-incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery for patients with occult urinary stress incontinence is controversial. The concern is that some of these patients may remain continent after vaginal prolapse repair making the addition of anti-incontinence surgery unnecessary. However, this can be explained by the fact that the anterior vaginal repair has a curative effect on stress incontinence. Therefore, these patients are denied the more successful anti-incontinence surgery by treating their incontinence with vaginal repair. Once we are able to detect the true cases of occult urinary stress incontinence, all patients should be offered anti-incontinence surgery in combination of vaginal prolapse surgery. PMID:21927940

Malak, Mark

2011-09-17

196

Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

197

Urinary incontinence - injectable implant  

MedlinePLUS

Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... inject material into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the ...

198

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

199

Urinary Tract Infection: Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common childhood condition. It is estimated that 2% of boys and 7% of girls will be\\u000a diagnosed with a urinary UTI by age 6.1, 2 Under 1 year of age, boys are more likely to present with a UTI than girls; after this age, girls get UTIs more commonly\\u000a than boys.1

Naeem Samnakay; Andrew Barker

200

Is anterior genital tract trauma associated with complaints of postpartum urinary incontinence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated whether anterior genital trauma is associated with urinary incontinence after vaginal birth. A prospective cohort\\u000a of midwifery patients consented to mapping of trauma at birth and assessment of continence postpartum. Trauma was categorized\\u000a into intact, anterior (periuretheral, clitoral, labial), perineal or both. Incontinence was defined as a positive response\\u000a to the question, “Since the birth of your baby,

Rebecca G. Rogers; Lawrence M. Leeman; Sallie Kleyboecker; Mary Pukite; Regina Manocchio; Leah L. Albers

2007-01-01

201

Pelvic floor muscle training improves sexual function of women with stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a program of supervised pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on sexual function,\\u000a in a group of women with urodynamically diagnosed stress urinary incontinence (SUI), using a validated questionnaire. Incontinence\\u000a episodes frequency and continence pads used per week were measured before and after treatment using a 7-day bladder diary.\\u000a Improvements

Athanasios G. Zahariou; Maria V. Karamouti; Polyanthi D. Papaioannou

2008-01-01

202

Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net

Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; Luis Aires; John D. Albertson; Christof Ammann; M. Altaf Arain; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Marc Aubinet; Mika Aurela; Zoltán Barcza; Alan Barr; Paul Berbigier; Jason Beringer; Christian Bernhofer; Andrew T. Black; Paul V. Bolstad; Fred C. Bosveld; Mark S. J. Broadmeadow; Nina Buchmann; Sean P. Burns; Pierre Cellier; Jingming Chen; Jiquan Chen; Philippe Ciais; Robert Clement; Bruce D. Cook; Peter S. Curtis; D. Bryan Dail; Ebba Dellwik; Nicolas Delpierre; Ankur R. Desai; Sabina Dore; Danilo Dragoni; Bert G. Drake; Eric Dufrêne; Allison Dunn; Jan Elbers; Werner Eugster; Matthias Falk; Christian Feigenwinter; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Thomas Foken; John Frank; Juerg Fuhrer; Damiano Gianelle; Allen Goldstein; Mike Goulden; Andre Granier; Thomas Grünwald; Lianhong Gu; Haiqiang Guo; Albin Hammerle; Shijie Han; Niall P. Hanan; László Haszpra; Bernard Heinesch; Carole Helfter; Dimmie Hendriks; Lindsay B. Hutley; Andreas Ibrom; Cor Jacobs; Torbjörn Johansson; Marjan Jongen; Gabriel Katul; Gerard Kiely; Katja Klumpp; Alexander Knohl; Thomas Kolb; Werner L. Kutsch; Peter Lafleur; Tuomas Laurila; Ray Leuning; Anders Lindroth; Heping Liu; Benjamin Loubet; Giovanni Manca; Michal Marek; Hank A. Margolis; Timothy A. Martin; William J. Massman; Roser Matamala; Giorgio Matteucci; Harry McCaughey; Lutz Merbold; Tilden Meyers; Mirco Migliavacca; Franco Miglietta; Laurent Misson; Meelis Mölder; John Moncrieff; Russell K Monson; Leonardo Montagnani; Mario Montes-Helu; Eddy Moors; Christine Moureaux; Mukufute M Mukelabai; J William Munger; May Myklebust; Zoltán Nagy; Asko Noormets; Walter Oechel; Ram Oren; Stephen G Pallardy; Kyaw Tha Paw U; João S Pereira; Kim Pilegaard; Krisztina Pintér; Casimiro Pio; Gabriel Pita; Thomas L Powell; Serge Rambal; James T Randerson; Corinna Rebmann; Janne Rinne; Federica Rossi; Nigel Roulet; Ronald J Ryel; Jorgen Sagerfors; Nobuko Saigusa; María José Sanz; Giuseppe-Scarascia Mugnozza; Hans Peter Schmid; Guenther Seufert; Mario Siqueira; Jean-François Soussana; Gregory Starr; Mark A Sutton; John Tenhunen; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Riccardo Valentini; Christoph S Vogel; Jingxin Wang; Shaoqiang Wang; Weiguo Wang; Lisa R Welp; Xuefa Wen; Sonia Wharton; Matthew Wilkinson; Christopher A Williams; Georg Wohlfahrt; Susumu Yamamoto; Guirui Yu; Roberto Zampedri; Bin Zhao; Xinquan Zhao

2010-01-01

203

Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering.  

PubMed

Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M; Little, Mark G; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N; Leeman, William P; Agranier, Arnaud

2008-03-24

204

PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE CONTINENCE ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.

WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE

2005-01-01

205

Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3-D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50°C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the <span class="hlt">continent</span> is within +10°C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50°C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2-D and 3-D simulation models with rigid nondeformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and without self-consistent plate tectonics is not confirmed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, Masaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v087/iB05/JB087iB05p03644/JB087iB05p03644.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, and mountain building</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous <span class="hlt">continents</span>, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amos Nur; Zvi Ben-Avraham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/pdfs/Koch%20papers/2004/Barnosky%20et%2004%20Sci%20306-70/Barnosky%20et%2004%20Sci%20306-70.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the great debates about extinction is whether humans or climatic change caused the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Evidence from paleontology, climatology, archaeology, and ecology now supports the idea that humans contributed to extinction on some <span class="hlt">continents</span>, but human hunting was not solely responsible for the pattern of extinction everywhere. Instead, evidence suggests that the intersection of human</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anthony D. Barnosky; Paul L. Koch; Robert S. Feranec; Scott L. Wing; Alan B. Shabel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0711143105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulating <span class="hlt">continent</span> growth and composition by chemical weathering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Continents</span> ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of <span class="hlt">continents</span> were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from <span class="hlt">continents</span> by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, C. -T. A.; Morton, D. M.; Little, M. G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Leeman, W. P.; Agranier, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6700956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, and mountain building</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous <span class="hlt">continents</span>, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3266197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systems analysis of the transcriptional response of human <span class="hlt">ileocecal</span> epithelial cells to Clostridium difficile toxins and effects on cell cycle control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB) are Clostridium difficile's principal virulence factors, yet the pathways by which they lead to inflammation and severe diarrhea remain unclear. Also, the relative role of either toxin during infection and the differences in their effects across cell lines is still poorly understood. To better understand their effects in a susceptible cell line, we analyzed the transciptome-wide gene expression response of human <span class="hlt">ileocecal</span> epithelial cells (HCT-8) after 2, 6, and 24 hr of toxin exposure. Results We show that toxins elicit very similar changes in the gene expression of HCT-8 cells, with the TcdB response occurring sooner. The high similarity suggests differences between toxins are due to events beyond transcription of a single cell-type and that their relative potencies during infection may depend on differential effects across cell types within the intestine. We next performed an enrichment analysis to determine biological functions associated with changes in transcription. Differentially expressed genes were associated with response to external stimuli and apoptotic mechanisms and, at 24 hr, were predominately associated with cell-cycle control and DNA replication. To validate our systems approach, we subsequently verified a novel G1/S and known G2/M cell-cycle block and increased apoptosis as predicted from our enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study shows a successful example of a workflow deriving novel biological insight from transcriptome-wide gene expression. Importantly, we do not find any significant difference between TcdA and TcdB besides potency or kinetics. The role of each toxin in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, an important function of cells in the intestinal epithelium, is characterized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Antarctica%22&pg=6&id=EJ529985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continents</span> on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the <span class="hlt">continents</span>' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CSTA Journal, 1995</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2670Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mantle temperature under drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> during the supercontinent cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the <span class="hlt">continent</span> is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a combination of introversion and extroversion processes. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2D and 3D simulation models with rigid nondeformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> is not confirmed. The small-scale thermal heterogeneity is dominated in deep mantle convection during the supercontinent cycle, although the large-scale, active upwelling plumes intermittently originate under drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> and/or the supercontinent. Results suggest that active subducting cold plates along continental margins generate thermal heterogeneity with short-wavelength structures, which is consistent with the thermal heterogeneity in the present-day mantle convection inferred from seismic tomography models. References: [1] Yoshida, M. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> during the supercontinent cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013, in press. [2] Yoshida, M. and M. Santosh, Mantle convection modeling of supercontinent cycle: Introversion, extroversion, or combination?, 2013, submitted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, Masaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ureteral Stents Placed at the Time of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Diversion Decreases Postoperative Morbidity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To determine the impact of stenting ureteroenteric anastomoses on postoperative stricture rate and gastrointestinal recovery in <span class="hlt">continent</span> and noncontinent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversions (UDs). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathologic data on 192 consecutive patients who underwent a radical cystectomy and UD. Patients received either a <span class="hlt">continent</span> or noncontinent UD with or without stent placement through the ureteroenteric anastomoses. Stricture rate, gastrointestinal recovery, length of hospital stay, and stricture characteristics were analyzed. Study endpoints were compared between four groups – stented and nonstented <span class="hlt">continent</span> and stented and nonstented noncontinent UDs. Results 36% of patients were stented and 64% were nonstented at the time of UD. Total ureteral stricture rate was 9.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in stricture rate (p = 0.11) or length of hospital stay (p = 0.081) in stented compared to nonstented patients. There was a significantly (p = 0.014) greater rate of ileus in patients who were nonstented in both <span class="hlt">continent</span> and noncontinent UDs. Conclusion Stenting of ureteroenteric anastomoses in both <span class="hlt">continent</span> and noncontinent UD has no effect on postoperative stricture rate, but is associated with lower rates of postoperative ileus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Ball, Mark W.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Eifler, John; Jarrett, Thomas W.; Schoenberg, Mark P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7924599"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair <span class="hlt">continence</span>?].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). <span class="hlt">Continence</span> have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of <span class="hlt">continence</span> in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of <span class="hlt">continence</span> in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully <span class="hlt">continent</span>. PMID:7924599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48950867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focussing of stress by <span class="hlt">continents</span> in 3D spherical mantle convection with self-consistent plate tectonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">3D simulations with self-consistent plate tectonics and deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span>Increase of critical yield strength due to presence of <span class="hlt">continents</span>Regime of mantle convection depends on size and thickness of the <span class="hlt">continent</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Rolf; P. J. Tackley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AREPS..31..213D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Madagascar: Heads It's a <span class="hlt">Continent</span>, Tails It's an Island</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a <span class="hlt">continent</span>; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger <span class="hlt">continents</span>, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Wit, Maarten J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.4307S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on mantle convective stirring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the influence of continental lids on mantle convective stirring efficiency using numerical experiments and analytical theory at infinite Prandtl number with strong temperature dependence of viscosity. Differences between oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> are accounted for by imposing heterogeneous surface boundary conditions for temperature and velocity. We measure the convective stirring efficiency using mixing times and Lyapunov exponent distribution. We quantify systematically the influence of the Rayleigh number, the horizontal extent of continental lids and the rheology on mantle convective stirring efficiency. The presence of <span class="hlt">continents</span> increases the mantle temperature and therefore reduces mantle viscosity. This in turn leads to an increase of convective vigor and results in a drastic enhancement (3-6 fold, and possibly up two orders of magnitude increase) of mantle convective stirring efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samuel, H.; Aleksandrov, V.; Deo, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53939630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotelluric Imaging of an Arc-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Collision Beneath Central Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collisions are a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle and play an important role in mountain building and the growth of <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Studying this process in ancient orogens is often hindered by tectonic overprinting and poorly resolved synorogenic plate kinematics and tectonic settings. The Taiwan arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision between the Luzon arc and the Eurasian continental margin is one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Bertrand; M. J. Unsworth; C. Chiang; C. Chen; E. Turkoglu; H. Hsu; G. J. Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29047495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stagnant loop syndrome in patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy (intra-abdominal ileal reservoir)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intestinal absorption and bacteriology of the ileal contents were compared in seven patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy and seven patients with conventional ileostomy. The absorption of vitamin B12 was reduced in five patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy and subnormal in two patients with conventional ileostomy. Steatorrhoea was present in four patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> and one patient with conventional ileostomy. Increased concentrations of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H Schjonsby; J F Halvorsen; T Hofstad; N Hovdenak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30416353"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Malone Antegrade <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a <span class="hlt">continent</span> catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total <span class="hlt">continence</span> 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organizational+AND+identity&pg=3&id=EJ882965"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Do People Make <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality <span class="hlt">continence</span> care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on <span class="hlt">continence</span> care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored <span class="hlt">continence</span> care…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyons, Stacie Salsbury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55805175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations into the development of <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transform boundaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two-stage evolutionary model is proposed to explain the tectonic, stratigraphic, and igneous features observed along <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transform boundaries. New data sets are analyzed consisting of: (1) 14,000 km of multi-channel and single-channel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles for the Falkland\\/Malvinas Plateau (South Atlantic); and (2) a 200 km of deep penetration MSC profile, five expanded spread profiles (ESP's), physical property</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juan Manuel Lorenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7132865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> natural gas reservoirs and plays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bebout, D.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59732617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Rectus Abdominis Muscle Sphincter for Stomal <span class="hlt">Continence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some life-saving surgeries result in the necessity to establish permanent intestinal stomas; this outcome has an undeniable physical and emotional effect on the patient's life. Although patients with permanent stomas reasonably adjust, complications that include peristomal skin irritation, pouching system dysfunction, social inhibition, depression, and sexual dysfunction also have been reported. \\u000aThe quest for intestinal stomal <span class="hlt">continence</span> has resulted in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. J. M. Bardoel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T12C..02G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span> Ocean Boundaries in the North Atlantic: An Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of a distinct <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean boundary has been intensely challenged as a wealth of geological and geophysical data has been collected along passive margins in the last decade. Increasing new evidence points out that a sharp transition between continental and oceanic crust is rather an exception than a rule, and a continental-oceanic transition zone is proposed instead. However, the analysis of multidisciplinary data sets does not always lead to the same answer. Different interpretations of the same datasets led to competing hypotheses for the opening and tectonic evolution of the North Atlantic and Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay oceanic basins. The location of the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition zone is of particular relevance to UNCLOS article 76 on the legal continental shelf because it may be used as evidence to the contrary in positioning the foot of the continental slope, and as such enlarge a legal shelf claim. We re-examine the interpretation of <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean boundaries or <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition zones using up-to-date geophysical data and integrate it with a quantitative model of seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic. The opening of oceanic basins in the Arctic regions is also merged with the new kinematic model and various scenarios are examined with respect to their implications on the North Atlantic and Arctic continental margins. This overview of the tectonic evolution of the North Atlantic and Arctic is used to highlight regional problems and suggest data collection in key areas for better understanding of continental margin formation. It may well be that UNCLOS article 76 provides an opportunity to collect such data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaina, C.; Ball, P. J.; Roest, W. R.; Torsvik, T. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48918755"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paleostress field evolution of the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span> since the Eocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the low-order present stress field of most <span class="hlt">continents</span> is fairly well established, information on paleostress fields is generally sparse. Knowledge of paleostresses is crucial for understanding brittle tectonic reactivation through time. The Indian-Australian plate lends itself well to a reconstruction of paleostresses, as it has undergone enormous changes in plate-driving forces through the Tertiary, and there is a rich</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Dyksterhuis; R. D. Müller; R. A. Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://georoc.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de/georoc/Start.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle">GEOROC: Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maintained by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, the Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and <span class="hlt">Continents</span> database (GEOROC) contains about 70,000 sample analyses. These include whole rock, mineral, and inclusion data from seven tectonic settings such as convergent margins, oceanic plateaus, and ocean islands. The database can be queried by several criteria including a handy precompiled file compilation, which can be downloaded for further examination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61289586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span> rift: new frontier in an old area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> rift (MCR) is a 2000-km-long intracontinental feature of middle Proterozoic age (1.1 Ga) that extends from Kansas northeastward through the Lake Superior basin and then southeastward through the lower peninsula of Michigan. The authors believe that rift-related marginal basins overlying axial basins and other structures associated with this feature may locally be prospective within four geographically identifiable rift</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. M. Jr. Davidson; M. G. Jr. Mudrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18954254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smart wireless <span class="hlt">continence</span> management system for persons with dementia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Incontinence is highly prevalent in the elderly population, especially in nursing home residents with dementia. It is a distressing and costly health problem that affects not only the patients but also the caregivers. Effective <span class="hlt">continence</span> management is required to provide quality care, and to eliminate high labor costs and annoyances to the caregivers resulting from episodes of incontinence. This paper presents the design, development, and preliminary deployment of a smart wireless <span class="hlt">continence</span> management system for dementia-impaired elderly or patients in institutional care settings such as nursing homes and hospitals. Specifically, the mote wireless platform was used to support the deployment of potentially large quantities of wetness sensors with wider coverage and with dramatically less complexity and cost. It consists of an intelligent signal relay mechanism so that the residents are free to move about in the nursing home or hospital and allows personalized <span class="hlt">continence</span> management service. Preliminary results from a trial in a local nursing home are promising and can significantly improve the quality of care for patients. PMID:18954254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wai, Aung Aung Phyo; Fook, Victor Foo Siang; Jayachandran, Maniyeri; Biswas, Jit; Nugent, Chris; Mulvenna, Maurice; Lee, Jer-En; Kiat, Philp Yap Lian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593629"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative estimate of volcanism intensity on <span class="hlt">continents</span> and in oceans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantitative estimate of the volume of volcanogenic rocks and the volcanism intensity during different stages in the Earth's development indicates that the total volume of the tholeiitic basalts of Layer II of the oceans exceeds by 20 times that of the synchronous late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanics of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and is almost 5 times greater than the volume of the volcanogenic rocks of the entire Phanerozoic sequence of the <span class="hlt">continents</span>. The absolute maxima of volcanism, determined on the basis of the area and volume of the corresponding volcanics, belong to the Late Cretaceous and Miocene intervals. Changes in the volcanic eruption areas took place synchronously in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. The volcanism intensity, expressed in the volume of its products in km/sup 3/ per m.y., increases in the oceans from Late Jurassic to Pliocene time. During the Riphean and Vendian intervals, the volcanism intensity on the <span class="hlt">continents</span> remained at an extremely low level, then increased during early Paleozoic time, and underwent a marked jump, beginning in the Devonian Period. Since Late Jurassic time, the intensity of global volcanism increased unusually sharply and reached its culmination during Neogene time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronov, A.B.; Khain, V.E.; Balukhovskii, A.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16612014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating equivalency values of microbial phytase for amino acids in growing and finishing pigs fitted with steered <span class="hlt">ileo-cecal</span> valve cannulas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ten crossbred barrows (48.3 +/- 2.3 kg of initial BW) fitted with steered <span class="hlt">ileo-cecal</span> valve cannulas were used to investigate the effects of supplemental microbial phytase on the apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of AA, Ca, P, N, and DM, and the apparent total tract digestibilities of Ca, P, N, and DM. All diets were corn-soybean meal-based, and contained 0.44% Ca and 0.40% total P. Diets 1, 2, and 3 contained 12.0, 11.1, and 10.2% CP, respectively. Diets 4 and 5 had the same ingredient composition as diet 3, plus 250 and 500 U/kg phytase (Natuphos), respectively. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a paired 5 x 5 Latin square with an extra period to test for carryover effects. Each 14-d period consisted of a 7-d adjustment followed by a 3-d total collection, a 12-h ileal digesta collection, a 3-d readjustment, and a second 12-h ileal digesta collection. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism pens (1.2 x 1.2 m). Water was supplied ad libitum, and feed was supplied at a level of 9% of the metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) per day in 2 equal daily feedings. As the dietary CP concentration increased, the AID of CP and all AA measured increased linearly (P < 0.05) with the exception of proline. In addition, the apparent total tract digestibilities (grams per day) and retention of N (grams per day) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing CP levels. Supplementing diets with phytase increased the AID of Ca (P < 0.01), P (P < 0.001), CP (P = 0.07), and the AA (P < 0.10) Gly, Ala, Val, Ile, Thr, TSAA, Asp, Glu, Phe, Lys, and Arg. Protein and phytase response equations were generated for those AA affected (P < 0.10) by both CP level and phytase supplementation. Based on these equations, 500 U/kg of phytase can replace 0.52 percentage units of the dietary CP, which includes a 0.03 percentage unit improvement in Lys AID. The results of this study show that supplementing pig diets with microbial phytase improves CP and AA digestibilities in addition to Ca and P digestibilities. PMID:16612014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radcliffe, J S; Pleasant, R S; Kornegay, E T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urinary+AND+tract+AND+infection&id=ED251709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This module on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Urinary+Tract+Infection%22&id=ED251709"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This module on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7914756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prosthetic <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Sphincter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pump/valve unit which requires a minimum of implant area and surgery is described for controlling bladder function by regulating the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter device. The pump has a press bulb of sili...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. R. Helms H. M. Smyly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mcponline.org/cgi/reprint/5/10/1760.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A myriad of proteins and peptides can be identified in normal human urine. These are derived from a variety of sources including glomerular filtration of blood plasma, cell sloughing, apoptosis, proteolytic cleavage of cell sur- face glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, and se- cretion of exosomes by epithelial cells. Mass spectrome- try-based approaches to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein and peptide profiling can, in principle, reveal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trairak Pisitkun; Rose Johnstone; Mark A. Knepper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1498739"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience with the AS-800 artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter in myelodysplastic children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors describe their experience with an artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter (model AS-800; American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minn.) in treating <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in children. Twenty-eight sphincters were implanted in 27 boys between May 1986 and June 1989. All the boys had neurogenic bladders secondary to myelomeningocele or sacral agenesis. The mean age at the time of initial implantation was 14 years (range from 9 to 19 years), and the median follow-up was 12 months (range from 6 to 31 months). The sphincters were implanted initially around the bladder neck in 25 cases. Three required reimplantation around the bulbous urethra. The complication rate was 39% (11 of 28 cases). There were two cases of erosion, two cases of infection without erosion and seven cases of device-related problems. The artificial sphincter had to be removed in four cases. There were no deaths. The revision rate was 25% (7 of 28 cases). <span class="hlt">Continence</span> was evaluated in 22 (88%) of 25 boys who had functional sphincters in place. Five boys required oxybutinin chloride to maintain <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Ten boys required augmentation cystoplasty before (3), after (6) and combined with (1) sphincter implantation. Eight of these 10 children were able to void spontaneously and were <span class="hlt">continent</span>. One required intermittent catheterization twice a day and another six times a day. The authors conclude from their experience that the artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter (model AS-800) can establish <span class="hlt">continence</span> in boys with neurogenic bladders. Proper selection of the ideal patient for the artificial sphincter is essential to avoid complications. PMID:1498739</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aprikian, A; Berardinucci, G; Pike, J; Kiruluta, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8146925"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Reconstruction of the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract after cystectomy. Experiences and results in 126 patients with the Kock ileum reservoir in conjunction with bilateral ureteroileourethrostomy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Between May 1986 and February 1990, 126 consecutive men underwent lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract reconstruction by means of bilateral ureteroileal urethrostomy using a Kock ileal reservoir. The early complication rate was 11.1%. Late complications requiring rehospitalization or reoperation have been surprisingly few: 1 for prolapse of the afferent antirefluxing nipple valve, 1 for calculi and 4 for artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter placement due to unsatisfactory <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Good <span class="hlt">continence</span> has been achieved in 94% of the patients during the day and in 84% at night. Tumor recurred in the pelvis in 5 patients, with 4 requiring cutaneous <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion. All patients had progression or died of metastatic disease. Our experience has yielded extraordinary results in terms of patients acceptance with few late complications or need for reoperation. PMID:8146925</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skinner, D G; Boyd, S D; Lieskovsky, G; Benett, C; Hopwood, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22460386"> <span id="translatedtitle">The management of adolescents with neurogenic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract and bowel dysfunction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction arrive into adolescence with reasonably managed lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract function only to experience bladder and kidney function deterioration after puberty. The aim of this article is to identify issues that contribute to adverse changes in bladder and renal function during adolescence and to highlight strategies to preserve <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract integrity, social <span class="hlt">continence</span>, patient autonomy, and independence. Surveillance of bladder function requires patient attendance at review appointments and compliance with treatment plans. While encouraging independence and treatment compliance the clinician also needs to consider altered mental concentrating ability and fine motor skills of these patients. A keen eye for imminent loss of patient compliance to treatment protocol should be the mainstay of each encounter during puberty and adolescence. Annual surveillance of adolescent neurogenic bladder patients facilitates early identification of risk factors for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract deterioration. Investigations include renal and bladder ultrasonography, urodynamic study when indicated, substantiated by videocystometry when anatomical status dictates. Serum creatinine should be measured and renal scintigraphy performed when upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dilation, renal scarring, or atrophy are suspected. Optimal management of adolescents with neurologic disease of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract included strategies to reduce elevated detrusor pressure, maintain bladder compliance, and maximize dryness. Antimuscarinic medications, botulinum toxin A, and surgical procedures are enhanced by bowel management regimens and regular nurse or urotherapist patient contact. Caring for the patient as a whole requires discussion of sexuality, fertility status, and behaviors that increase the risk of progressive <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract damage. PMID:22460386</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Kort, L M O; Bower, W F; Swithinbank, L V; Marschall-Kehrel, D; de Jong, T P V M; Bauer, S B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1626507"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current trends in the evaluation and management of female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite its common occurrence and often seemingly obvious causes, female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence requires a thorough and thoughtful evaluation for its proper diagnosis and treatment. With rare exceptions, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is the result of failure of the sphincter mechanism to resist bladder pressures encountered during daily activities. This may be the result of sphincter failure, overactivity of the bladder detrusor muscle or both. In uncomplicated cases, the diagnosis is usually based on an evaluation in the office. Urodynamic and cystoscopic study may be helpful in complex, resistant and recurring cases of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence of any cause. Most cases of incontinence may be classified as stress, urge or mixed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence focuses on supplementing the urethral <span class="hlt">continence</span> mechanisms, particularly the urethral supports and periurethral striated muscle function. The current paradigm for the treatment of urge incontinence centres on pharmacologic therapy, primarily by correcting detrusor overactivity with antimuscarinic drugs. Other therapies aimed at altering sensorimotor function may be used in resistant cases. The treatment of mixed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence requires consideration of the contribution of each of its components. With proper diagnosis, effective treatment is possible for most patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Phillip P.; McCrery, Rebecca J.; Appell, Rodney A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30262671"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continence</span> in patients with spina bifida: long term results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P S Malone; R A Wheeler; J E Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57378757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determinants of Fecal <span class="hlt">Continence</span> in Healthy, <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Subjects: A Comprehensive Analysis by Anal Manometry, Rectal Barostat and a Stool Substitute Retention Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background\\/Aims: This study aimed to identify anal sphincter and rectal factors that determine anorectal filling sensations and <span class="hlt">continence</span> during rectal filling in health. Methods: Measurements of anorectal physiology were collected from 42 <span class="hlt">continent</span> healthy subjects participating in a prospective trial. Rectal function and capacity were assessed by barostat. Anal sphincter functions were assessed by manometry. A validated stool substitute retention</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Fox; Miriam Thumshirn; Heiko Frühauf; Michael Fried; Werner Schwizer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23917361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paraganglioma of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paraganglioma of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is extremely rare. In this report of a young man, hypertensive crisis and ventricular arrhythmia was provoked during cystoscopic evaluation of a bladder mass. A diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was considered following detection of high serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catecholamine levels. A preoperative meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan was, however, negative. The bladder mass was surgically removed following initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Pathological confirmation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was established. During a serial follow-up, serum and urine catecholamine levels were persistently elevated. This was explained by abnormalities on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan, which were considered to represent a metastatic malignant neuroendocrine tumour. The patient is on palliative chemotherapy for malignant paraganglioma. This case highlights variable presentation of pheochromocytoma, importance of having a high index of clinical suspicion for early recognition and prompt management and serious adverse consequence of a delayed diagnosis. PMID:23917361</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malik, Azhar Ali; Afandi, Bachar; Jamil, Gohar; Akhter, Syed M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200903_Gynaecology_1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two Models for Delivery of Women's <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Care: The Step-Wise <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Team Versus the Traditional Medical Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: The current pyramidal system of health care delivery, in which subspecialized physicians with the most complete knowledge and expertise are difficult to access, is inefficient and ineffective at delivering the best care to the majority of patients. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence care exemplifies this problem. Patients can wait up to one year to see a urogynaecologist, regardless of the complexity of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott A. Farrell; Tracy A. Scott; Karen D. Farrell; Linda Irving; Joan Foren; Jane Twohig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29945931"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: To estimate the annual incidence, cumulative probability of presumed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) by age, and the social costs.METHODS: Analysis of a random digit dialing survey of 2000 women in the United States.RESULTS: 10.8 percent (95% CI: 9.4, 12.1%) of women aged 18 and older reported at least one presumed UTI during the past 12 months, with the majority</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betsy Foxman; Robin Barlow; Hannah D'Arcy; Brenda Gillespie; Jack D Sobel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48762437"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a When children present with a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI), the goal is early recognition and treatment in an attempt to prevent\\u000a renal parenchymal damage and subsequent renal scarring. The risks of these events are greatest during infancy. However, a\\u000a delay in diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis (APN) can result in scarring at any age. In cases of recurrent pyelonephritis,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hans G. Pohl; Sherry Sedberry-Ross; H. Gil Rushton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47956977"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) is among the most commonly diagnosed and treated infectious disease in ambulatory practice.\\u000a Key principles in the management of UTI include empiric short-course therapy for appropriate patients, initiation of (or rapid\\u000a conversion to) effective oral therapy, implementing measures to prevent recurrent UTI, and avoiding antimicrobial therapy\\u000a for asymptomatic bacteriuria, aside from a few clearly indicated circumstances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dimitri M. Drekonja; James R. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23668444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is common, increases in prevalence with age, and affects quality of life for men and women. The initial evaluation occurs in the family physician's office and generally does not require urologic or gynecologic evaluation. The basic workup is aimed at identifying possible reversible causes. If no reversible cause is identified, then the incontinence is considered chronic. The next step is to determine the type of incontinence (urge, stress, overflow, mixed, or functional) and the urgency with which it should be treated. These determinations are made using a patient questionnaire, such as the 3 Incontinence Questions, an assessment of other medical problems that may contribute to incontinence, a discussion of the effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life, a review of the patient's completed voiding diary, a physical examination, and, if stress incontinence is suspected, a cough stress test. Other components of the evaluation include laboratory tests and measurement of postvoid residual urine volume. If the type of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered. PMID:23668444</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khandelwal, Christine; Kistler, Christine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6858655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration in the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geological structure of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of China, which is formed by the amalgamation of three small-sized paleocratons and their peripheral orogenic belts, is very complex. Six big sedimentary basins developed on it: four of them are composite basins on the paleocratons; the other two basins are superimposed on the orogenic belts. In addition, there are a large number of small to middle-sized non-marine sedimentary basins. Up to now, the proved geological reserves in the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of China are: oil, above 16 billion tons; natural gas, 1000 billion cubic meters. Last year, the annual oil output was more than 140 million tons; natural gas output reached 16 billion cubic meters. The six big basins are still the major exploration potential area. On the other hand, a lot of small to middle-sized reservoirs will be discovered in the small to middle-sized non-marine basins and coal-bearing basins in North China. Qiang Tang Basin and coalbed gas are two favorable frontiers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaoguang Tong (China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corp., Beijing (China))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6988074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span>, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span>, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GBioC..20.1S91B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Riverine nitrogen export from the <span class="hlt">continents</span> to the coasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an overview of riverine nitrogen flux calculations that were prepared for the International Nitrogen Initiative's current global assessment of nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future (Galloway et al., 2004). We quantified anthropogenic and natural inputs of reactive nitrogen (N) to terrestrial landscapes and the associated riverine N fluxes. Anthropogenic inputs include fossil-fuel derived atmospheric deposition, fixation in cultivated croplands, fertilizer use, and the net import in human food and animal feedstuffs. Natural inputs include natural biological N fixation in forests and other noncultivated vegetated lands, and fixation by lightning. We use an empirical model relating total N inputs per landscape area to the total flux of N discharged in rivers based on watershed data from contrasting ecosystems spanning multiple spatial scales. With this approach, we simulate riverine N loads to the coastal zone and to inland waters from the <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Globally, rivers exported about 59 Tg N yr-1, with 11 Tg N yr-1 transported to dry lands and inland receiving waters, and 48 Tg N yr-1 transported to the coastal zone. Rates of riverine N loss vary greatly among the <span class="hlt">continents</span>, reflecting the regional differences in population and the associated anthropogenic N inputs. We compare our estimates to other approaches that have been reported in the literature. Our work provides an understanding of the sources of N to landscapes and the associated N fluxes in rivers, and highlights how anthropogenic activities impact N cycling around the world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Howarth, Robert W.; Galloway, James N.; Dentener, Frank J.; Green, Pamela A.; VöRöSmarty, Charles J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20862898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure injury prevention: <span class="hlt">continence</span>, skin hygiene and nutrition management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To prevent pressure injuries research indicates the importance of focusing on three key areas of practice: <span class="hlt">continence</span>, skin hygiene and nutrition. These are a synergistic trio and many patients require considered management in all three areas. In addition to targeting specific aspects of nursing care in these areas, it is also crucial that there is organisational buy-in for strategic initiatives. Some of the ways that we achieved this are outlined below: Support from managerial level by presenting evidence and education to senior nurses and directors. Nurse unit managers completed individual ward action plans outlining their individual commitments to reducing pressure injuries. Providing support and education to staff to choose and use <span class="hlt">continence</span> products effectively. Support from allied health colleagues in prevention of pressure injuries. After implementing the actions described above, pressure injury prevalence at the Prince Charles Hospital in Brisbane decreased from 13.78% in 2008 to 5.15% in 2010, representing a 62% reduction overall. Of these pressure injuries, 53% were stage one. PMID:20862898</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roosen, Kerri; Fulbrook, Paul; Nowicki, Tracy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and <span class="hlt">continents</span> are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six <span class="hlt">continents</span> with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17650041"> <span id="translatedtitle">The place of science in a <span class="hlt">continent</span> at the crossroads.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I have mentioned it before and I want to repeat it now, that we in Africa share a common history, heritage and basic problems of development. We, therefore, have an inescapable responsibility of pooling our talents and resources in shaping our common destiny. In fulfillment of its mission, AFHES, through its organized con notgresses and this Journal, is an invaluable vessel for enabling us to promote better health for the peoples of this <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Africa is a <span class="hlt">continent</span> endowed with great potential that, for one reason or an notother, has been ignored or misused, resulting in the current crisis now enveloping the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. There is the escalating debt burden, falling agricultural productivity and the ever-increasing population. Efforts to improve the situation are hampered by adverse factors such as malnutrition, HTV/AIDS, malaria and other causes of ill health; wars, poor environmental management and the ever-worrisome problem of refugees. At the sunrise of the 21st Century, we must wake up and reverse the current trend by focusing our resources on priority areas of development. The fight for freedom from the yoke of colonialism and the traumatic experience of apartheid has been won. In some African countries, however, the winning of the fight for freedom has opened up a new fight, a fight that is more fierce and bloody than that which set us free. These include civil strife and internecine wars giving rise to a new black Diaspora, which is far greater than the one experienced during the period of slavery and slave trade. People supposed to build these nations have either been killed or forced into exile. Those intellectually endowed have sought refuge in safer and economically developed countries and, by the same process, also weaken the al notready weak economies of their mother countries. They have, therefore, helped to strengthen the already strong economies of the developed nations. This is indeed, a sad situation that poses a formidable challenge to the future well being of the conti notnent. Civil strife has resulted in the increased numbers of displaced persons and has caused a big setback in the fight against diseases and causes of ill health. In addition, there are new challenges created by emergence of new infections, re-emergence of diseases that had been put under control; and the changing epidemiological patterns and manifestations of existing diseases. Since disease and ill health know no bound notary, we must all be prepared to find solutions to diseases and causes of ill health that continuously haunt this <span class="hlt">continent</span>. As health experts, we are concerned. We should not be responding to health emergencies occasioned by civil strife. We need peace as it will guarantee not only freedom and personal security, but it will also guarantee our future and the future of those to come after us. We are well aware that as is the case with developed nations, the development of our <span class="hlt">continent</span> rests on the utilization of research findings, which must be useful, contextual and must stand the test of time. This is our mission and our hope. Africa is at the crossroads. We must not despair or quit, lest we become irrel notevant both to ourselves and to the rest of mankind. Let African governments give science a chance. As I have said several times before and I am still saying it now, quitters never win and winners never quit. We have no alternative but to be winners! PMID:17650041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koech, D K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2897N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent formation of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on early Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on Earth. Plate tectonics and <span class="hlt">continents</span> seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-<span class="hlt">continents</span> after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that <span class="hlt">continents</span> can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32498741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quality of Life and <span class="hlt">Continence</span> in Patients with Spina Bifida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose:  Spina bifida (SB) is the most common congenital cause of incontinence in childhood. This study attempts to determine the relationships between <span class="hlt">urinary</span>\\/faecal incontinence, methods of management, and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in people with SB.Patients and method:  A total of 460 patients (300 adults and 160 adolescents) from six centres in France have taken part in this cross-sectional study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. Lemelle; F. Guillemin; D. Aubert; J. M. Guys; H. Lottmann; S. Lortat-Jacob; P. Mouriquand; A. Ruffion; J. Moscovici; M. Schmitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23421593"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (?(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, ?(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (?(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF ?(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of ?(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed <span class="hlt">continents</span> increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, the volume of carbonates on <span class="hlt">continents</span>, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35284097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catheter associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection and encrustation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the relationship between <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH, infection and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter encrustation and discusses the current management and problems of catheter associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> infection and encrustation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Choong; S. Wood; C. Fry; H. Whitfield</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1427592"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> excretion of aspirin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six human volunteers were each given single oral doses of aspirin (ASA) ranging from 300-1,500 mg. The unchanged ASA excreted in the urine was proportional to dose and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH. The mean percent (+/- s.d.) of dose excreted was 1.9 +/- 0.67. The clearance for ASA was 1.42 +/- 0.28 1/h. The rate of in vitro hydrolysis of ASA to salicylic acid in urine at 37 degrees C was 4 micrograms/min for an initial ASA concentration of 7.5 mg in 100 ml human urine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elliot Cham, B; Dykman, J H; Bochner, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15459379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the great debates about extinction is whether humans or climatic change caused the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Evidence from paleontology, climatology, archaeology, and ecology now supports the idea that humans contributed to extinction on some <span class="hlt">continents</span>, but human hunting was not solely responsible for the pattern of extinction everywhere. Instead, evidence suggests that the intersection of human impacts with pronounced climatic change drove the precise timing and geography of extinction in the Northern Hemisphere. The story from the Southern Hemisphere is still unfolding. New evidence from Australia supports the view that humans helped cause extinctions there, but the correlation with climate is weak or contested. Firmer chronologies, more realistic ecological models, and regional paleoecological insights still are needed to understand details of the worldwide extinction pattern and the population dynamics of the species involved. PMID:15459379</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barnosky, Anthony D; Koch, Paul L; Feranec, Robert S; Wing, Scott L; Shabel, Alan B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://africafocus.library.wisc.edu/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Africa Focus: Sights and Sounds of a <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This "digitize-and-rescue mission" is a joint project of the African Studies Program and the General Library System at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Instead of focusing solely on visual resources like most online African collections, Africa Focus attempts to cover the "full spectrum" of African life. At the site, visitors have several options to access the collection of over 3,000 slides, 500 photographs, and 50 hours of sound from 45 African nations: browse by collection, subject, or country; through an interactive atlas; or search by keyword or multiple fields. Images are offered as thumbnails that link to high quality (and briefly annotated) full-size images, and audio clips are presented in RealPlayer format with two connection speed options. An excellent resource for a variety of researchers and classrooms or anyone interested in the <span class="hlt">continent</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........17L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations into the development of <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transform boundaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A two-stage evolutionary model is proposed to explain the tectonic, stratigraphic, and igneous features observed along <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transform boundaries. New data sets are analyzed consisting of: (1) 14,000 km of multi-channel and single-channel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles for the Falkland/Malvinas Plateau (South Atlantic); and (2) a 200 km of deep penetration MSC profile, five expanded spread profiles (ESP's), physical property values from ODP Site 763, and shipboard gravity data for the Exmouth Plateau (N.W. Australia). Four major depositional sequences are defined and mapped for the Falkland Plateau. In the Exmouth, seismic reflectors are tied to lithological and age unit boundaries using ESP-derived physical properties. ESP models are shown comparable to in situ downhole derived measurements. During the first stage, at the time of rifting, extensional detachment surfaces develop at a high angle to the future transform and are later sheared by strike-slip faulting. Final transform rupture occurs within a 10-15 km region, attended by large fault block rotation and mafic intrusions in conditions of pure shear. During the second stage, the continental rim is underplated when the oceanic ridge abuts the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. This has produced a 10 km thick, 7.3 km/s layer under the Exmouth margin, resulting in a permanent isostatic uplift of the crust and tilting of syn-rift sediments. Gravity modeling suggests this layer comprises a 3 g/cu cm mixture of mafic and felsic rocks. The thermal evolution for the transform is examined using a two-dimensional heat conduction model, and the results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzo, Juan Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMDI41B1807G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Western Boundary of the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite progress in understanding the tectonic history of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), the characteristics of mantle fabric/flow and the definition of the tectonic boundary between cratons (east/northeast) and terranes (west) remain poorly understood due to limited data coverage. In this study we present greatly improved constraints on the mantle lithosphere using data from the Canadian Rockies and Alberta NEtwork (CRANE), a newly installed broadband array in southern-central Alberta and parts of Saskatchewan. The SKS splitting parameters determined from multiple Mw>6.5 earthquakes are well correlated for stations in the vicinity of the Canadian Rockies. A northeast-southwest trending fast direction is consistent with the present-day absolute plate motion, and is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress. In contrast, substantially lower splitting times and northwest-southeast fast-splitting orientations are observed beneath eastern-central Alberta, a region characterized by enhanced heat-flow and below-average seismic velocities. The anomalous shear-wave splitting patterns could be the mantle expression of a hidden tectonic boundary between stable <span class="hlt">continent</span> and accreted terranes. Base on this hypothesis, streamlined mantle flow around the edges of moving continental `keels' could induce strong north-south oriented horizontal strain. Geometrical imperfections such as a divot or an abandoned plume conduit on the continental root could cause further disruptions to the mantle flow beneath this region, giving rise to both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. While the mantle flow pattern beneath the entire WCSB remain debatable, the sharp change in splitting parameters across central Alberta could mark the western edge of the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gu, Y. J.; Kocon, K.; Okeler, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112400K"> <span id="translatedtitle">NW Indian Ocean crustal thickness, micro-<span class="hlt">continent</span> distribution and ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition location from satellite gravity inversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite gravity anomaly inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning factor for the NW Indian Ocean and to map ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition location (OCT) and micro-<span class="hlt">continent</span> distribution. Input data is satellite gravity (Sandwell & Smith 1997) and digital bathymetry (Gebco 2003). Crustal thicknesses predicted by gravity inversion under the Seychelles and Mascarenes are in excess of 30 km and form a single micro-<span class="hlt">continent</span> extending southwards towards Mauritius. Thick crust (> 25 km) offshore SW India is predicted to extend oceanwards under the Lacadive and Maldive Islands and southwards under the Chagos Archipelago. Superposition of illuminated satellite gravity data onto crustal thickness maps from gravity inversion clearly shows pre-separation conjugacy of the thick crust underlying the Chagos and Mascarene Islands. Maps of crustal thickness from gravity inversion show a pronounced discontinuity in crustal thickness between Mauritius-Reunion and the Mascarene Basin which is of Late Cretaceous age and pre-dates recent plume volcanism. Gravity inversion to determine Moho depth and crustal thickness variation is carried out in the 3D spectral domain and incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction for both oceanic and continental margin lithosphere (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Failure to incorporate a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction gives a substantial over-estimate of crustal thickness predicted by gravity inversion. The lithosphere thermal model used to predict the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction may be conditioned using magnetic isochron data to provide the age of oceanic lithosphere (Mueller et al. 1997). The resulting crustal thickness determination and the location of the OCT are sensitive to errors in the magnetic isochron data. An alternative method of inverting satellite gravity to give crustal thickness, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity correction, which does not use magnetic isochron data provides an isochron independent prediction of crustal thickness and OCT location. For continental margin lithosphere, the lithosphere thermal perturbation is calculated from the lithosphere thinning factor (1-1/beta) obtained from crustal thinning determined by gravity inversion and breakup age for thermal re-equilibration time. A correction is made for crustal volcanic addition due to decompression melting during breakup and sea-floor spreading.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusznir, N. J.; Tymms, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33773230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sacral neuromodulation for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> retention without an identifiable urological cause presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with nonobstructive chronic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention usually have to rely on intermittent self-catheterization or indwelling suprapubic or transurethral catheters, which significantly affect quality of life. For some patients, however, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) offers an effective therapeutic alternative, and women with primary disorder of urethral sphincter relaxation (Fowler's</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clare J Fowler; Thomas M Kessler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3532367"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in childhood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The importance of establishing significant bacteriuria in the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection and the need for a keen awareness of its presence, particularly in young children, is stressed. The approach to the diagnosis, investigation, management and follow-up of children with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection is described. PMID:3532367</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ransome, O J; Thomson, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881478"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> infections in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in infants and children. During infancy, boys are more commonly affected than girls and thereafter, female preponderance is found. Presentation varies among different age groups. Clinical features in neonates and young infants are non-specific, manifest as septicemia where a high index of suspicion is needed. Older children typically present as simple or complicated UTI. Rapid diagnosis, institution of early treatment and further evaluation by imaging modalities are of utmost importance. The prevention of recurrent UTI and detection of congenital anomalies of kidney and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract are major objectives in the management. Use of ultrasound is required to detect underlying congenital abnormalities, whereas voiding cystourethrogram and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are useful in the diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and vesicoureteric reflux and renal scar, respectively. The children requiring surgical interventions are to be recognised early to prevent recurrent UTI. The treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by chemoprophylaxis in lower grades and surgical treatment in higher grades are important consideration in prevention of recurrent UTI. This is required to prevent renal parenchymal damage and scarring that can cause hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency in later life. PMID:23881478</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mishra, Om Prakash; Abhinay, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajniti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24093416"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post-operative <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care. PMID:24093416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA277943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Urea Nitrogen for Predicting Total <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Nitrogen in Thermally Injured Patients. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimations of total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen from measured <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen are commonly used in calculating nitrogen balance. Recently published studies suggest the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen/total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen relationship is in constant and total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Milner W. G. Cioffi A. D. Mason W. F. McManus B. A. Pruitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31516819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the Baylor <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Scale in children with anorectal malformations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundAnorectal malformations (ARMs) often result in lifelong problems with defecation. There have been no studies performed to develop scoring systems in children with fecal incontinence following repair of ARM. This study was designed to develop and validate a tool (Baylor <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Scale [BCS]) to measure social <span class="hlt">continence</span> in children after surgical correction of ARMs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary L. Brandt; Carolyn Daigneau; Edward A. Graviss; Bindi Naik-Mathuria; Megan E. Fitch; Kimberly K. Washburn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55927994"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Ocean Chemical Heterogeneity in the Mantle Based on Seismic Tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismic models of global-scale lateral heterogeneity in the mantle show systematic differences below <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans that are too large to be purely thermal in origin. An inversion of the geoid, based on a seismic model that includes viscous flow in the mantle, indicates that the differences beneath <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans can be accounted for by differences in composition in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alessandro M. Forte; Adam M. Dziewonski; Richard J. O'Connell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PEPI..171..313T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical and thermal effects of floating <span class="hlt">continents</span> on the global mantle convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical models are presented that simulate mantle convection coupled with superimposed <span class="hlt">continents</span>. The <span class="hlt">continents</span> and main islands are modelled as thin rigid spherical caps with non-slip boundary conditions and continuity conditions for temperature and heat flux at their bottom. Additional repulsive forces prevent overlap of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> in the case of their collision. The initial temperature distribution in the mantle is calculated based on seismic tomography data. The evolving mantle model implies 10% basal and 90% internal heating and uniform viscosity. Mechanical coupling leads to near horizontal convection currents under <span class="hlt">continents</span> and consequently to a noticeable decrease of the mantle temperature under them in spite of the thermal blanket effect. The modelling results show that a long-term evolution of the free convection model and of the model with implemented <span class="hlt">continents</span> leads to principally different structures. Several common stages of the continental evolution are revealed. Back-arc basins at the active continental margins are closed at the first stage. In the next stage of the modelled evolution the convection pattern is reorganized and the main downwellings start to move to the south pulling the <span class="hlt">continents</span>, which tend to assemble a new super-<span class="hlt">continent</span> around Antarctica. Due to the repulsive forces the <span class="hlt">continents</span> rotate and adjust to each other.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trubitsyn, Valeriy; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Rothacher, Marcus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of neurological and other contributors to <span class="hlt">continence</span> in female rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smooth muscle, striated muscle, their central and peripheral innervations and control, and mucosal coaptation contribute to maintenance of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. We used manual leak point pressure (mLPP) testing and electrical stimulation LPP (eLPP) testing in female rats to quantify the contribution of these factors to urethral resistance, a measure of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Abdominal muscles were electrically stimulated to induce leakage for eLPP. A Crede maneuver was applied for mLPP. These were repeated after complete T8 spinal cord injury (SCI) and/or bilateral pudendal nerve transection (PNT). After euthanasia, mLPP was repeated. MLPP was not significantly affected by opening the abdomen, suggesting that intra-abdominal pressure transmission contributes little to <span class="hlt">continence</span> during slow pressure changes. ELPP was significantly higher than mLPP in intact rats, after PNT, and after SCI+PNT, suggesting that abdominal pressure transmission contributes to <span class="hlt">continence</span> during rapid increases in intra-abdominal pressure. MLPP decreased significantly after PNT, indicating that urethral striated muscles contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. ELPP decreased significantly after PNT with and without SCI, suggesting that supraspinal control significantly affects <span class="hlt">continence</span> during rapid pressure changes, but not during slow pressure changes. MLPP after euthanasia was significantly decreased compared to mLPP after SCI+PNT, suggesting that urethral mucosal seal coaptation and tissue elasticity also contribute to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. The urethra is a complex organ that maintains <span class="hlt">continence</span> via a highly organized and hierarchical system involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:21295013</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Hai-Hong; Salcedo, Levilester B; Damaser, Margot S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3082282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of neurological and other contributors to <span class="hlt">continence</span> in female rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smooth muscle, striated muscle, their central and peripheral innervations and control, and mucosal coaptation contribute to maintenance of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. We used manual leak point pressure (mLPP) testing and electrical stimulation LPP (eLPP) testing in female rats to quantify the contribution of these factors to urethral resistance, a measure of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Abdominal muscles were electrically stimulated to induce leakage for eLPP. A Crede maneuver was applied for mLPP. These were repeated after complete T8 spinal cord injury (SCI) and/or bilateral pudendal nerve transection (PNT). After euthanasia, mLPP was repeated. MLPP was not significantly affected by opening the abdomen, suggesting that intra-abdominal pressure transmission contributes little to <span class="hlt">continence</span> during slow pressure changes. ELPP was significantly higher than mLPP in intact rats, after PNT, and after SCI+PNT, suggesting that abdominal pressure transmission contributes to <span class="hlt">continence</span> during rapid increases in intra-abdominal pressure. MLPP decreased significantly after PNT, indicating that urethral striated muscles contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. ELPP decreased significantly after PNT with and without SCI, suggesting that supraspinal control significantly affects <span class="hlt">continence</span> during rapid pressure changes, but not during slow pressure changes. MLPP after euthanasia was significantly decreased compared to mLPP after SCI+PNT, suggesting that urethral mucosal seal coaptation and tissue elasticity also contribute to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. The urethra is a complex organ that maintains <span class="hlt">continence</span> via a highly organized and hierarchical system involving both the central and peripheral nervous systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiang, Hai-Hong; Salcedo, Levilester B.; Damaser, Margot S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40445939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geotectonic evolution of late Cenozoic arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision in Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian <span class="hlt">continent</span>. The kinematic progression of the arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Teng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v086/iB12/JB086iB12p11535/JB086iB12p11535.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> - Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The considered analysis is concerned with an evaluation of the constraints placed on thermal models of the oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span>, taking into account observations and modern plate tectonic concepts. Particular attention is given to three sets of measurements, related to heat flow, subsidence rates on <span class="hlt">continents</span> and for oceans, and the distribution of area versus age of the ocean floor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. Sclater; Barry Parsons; Claude Jaupart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969272"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Surgical treatment of prolapse by abdominal route and effort-related <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is often associated with prolapse. The suburethral tapes have modified the indication for a preventive treatment of incontinence. The tapes are necessary in case of patent or masked incontinence, discussed in case of potential incontinence. The diagnosis of incontinence is done on questions to the patient, clinical exam, more than in urodynamic study. There is no absolute sign allowing to predict postoperative incontinence after surgery for prolapse. A <span class="hlt">continent</span> woman can be incontinent postoperatively. If a potential incontinence is treated in the same as the prolapse, the patient must be informed of risk of obstruction and/or urgency. PMID:19969272</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wagner, L; Fatton, B; Delmas, V; Haab, F; Costa, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33907154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incidence and imaging appearance of urethrovesical anastomotic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> leaks following da Vinci robotic prostatectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  The advent of the da Vinci robotic prostatectomy has several advantages over open and laparoscopic prostatectomy, including\\u000a fewer complications, better <span class="hlt">continence</span> and potency. We evaluate the incidence and imaging features of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> leaks after\\u000a robotic prostatectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective study examining the anastomotic leak rates from 490 consecutive robotic prostatectomy patients. Routine postoperative\\u000a cystography on day 7 was reviewed for presence and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Todd R. Williams; Oscar J. Longoria; Scott Asselmeier; Mani Menon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410806F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Aeromagnetic Anomaly views of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antarctica is a keystone within the Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents. However, despite intense geological research along the coastal fringes of Antarctica, the interior of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> remains one of the most poorly understood regions on Earth. Aeromagnetic investigations are a useful tool to help disclose the structure and the evolution of <span class="hlt">continents</span> from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic and Antarctica is no exception. Here I review a variety of aeromagnetic studies in East and West Antarctica performed since the completion of the first generation ADMAP -Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project- in 2001. In western Dronning Maud, in East Antarctica, aeromagnetic data help delineate the extent of the Jurassic Jutulstraumen subglacial rift that is flanked by remnants of a Grenvillian-age (ca 1.1. Ga) igneous province and magmatic arc. Different magnetic signatures appear to characterize the Coats Land block but reconnaissance surveys are insufficient to fully delineate the extent and significance of the Coats Land block, a possible tectonic tracer of Laurentia within Rodinia (Loewy et al., 2011). Further in the interior of East Antarctica, a mosaic of distinct and hitherto largely unknown Precambrian provinces has recently been revealed by combining aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data with models of crustal thickness constrained by gravity modeling and seismology (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major collisional suture may lie between the Archean Ruker Province and an inferred Proterozoic Gamburtsev Province but the age of final assembly of central East Antarctica remains uncertain and controversial. I favour a Grenville-age collisional event (linked to Rodinia assembly) or possibly older Paleoproteroic collision, followed by intraplate reactivation, as opposed to Neoproterozoic or Early Cambrian collision linked to East-West Gondwana assembly (Boger, 2011). New aerogeophysical surveys over Prince Elizabeth and Queen Mary Land could test this hypothesis further and contribute towards understanding the role that the inherited Precambrian architecture exerted on the location and development of the East Antarctic Rift System, which was active both before and during Gondwana break-up. Over Wilkes Land, aeromagnetic data offer tantalizing new glimpses into the extent of Precambrian basement provinces that have been extensively studied in formerly adjacent Australia. An over 1,900 km long magnetic low is traced from a new magnetic anomaly compilation along the margin of the Archean-Proterozoic Mawson <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and is interpreted as delineating part of a Neoproterozoic rift system that heralded Rodinia break-up. Aeromagnetic data are also helping in deciphering Phanerozoic crustal growth along the paleo-Pacific active margin of Gondwana. In northern Victoria Land aeromagnetic anomaly interpretation, coupled with geochemical and structural observations is clarifying the architecture and evolution of Cambro-Ordovician terranes that were affected by the Ross Orogen. In the Antarctic Peninsula aeromagnetic and aerogravity data suggest the existence of several distinct arc provinces that may have docked against the Gondwana margin during the Cretaceous age Palmer Land event. Aeromagnetic interpretation over the West Antarctic ice sheet provides new insights into the extent of Cenozoic magmatism and rift basins within the West Antarctic Rift System and into the inland extent of the Jurassic Weddell Sea Rift</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferraccioli, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28103080"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> proteins in children with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin\\u000a (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI)\\u000a and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years\\u000a of age with UTI were enrolled</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lena Andersson; Iulian Preda; Mirjana Hahn-Zoric; Lars Å. Hanson; Ulf Jodal; Rune Sixt; Lars Barregard; Sverker Hansson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5814807"> <span id="translatedtitle">The ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition of western Iberia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. (Inst. of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Lab., Surrey (United Kingdom)); Boillot, G. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranchesur-Mer (France)); Recq, M. (Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81..122E"> <span id="translatedtitle">EarthScope: A look into our <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The close of the last millennium brought about rapid advances in seismology, satellite technology, micro-electronics, computing, oil-field techniques, and communication and information technology that open new opportunities for Earth scientists to probe our planet with greater precision and efficiency than ever before. In an effort to exploit these technologies, Earth scientists are working with the NSr-USGS, and NASA to encourage the President and Congress to provide funding for a bold new initiative called EarthScope.EarthScope is conceived as a distributed, multipurpose, state-of-the-art set of linked instruments and observatories that will expand the bservational capabilities of the Earth sciences and bring real-time data to our desktops. Data streams from these facilities integrated with new and existing geologic data will provide unprecedented opportunities to unravel the structure, evolution, and dynamics of the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and to better understand earthquakes and fault systems, volcanoes and magmatic processes, and links between tectonics and surficial processes. Following is a synopsis of the proposed EarthScope components.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">EarthScope Working Group</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/272211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of northern mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> petroleum atlas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Project will develop a prototype for a digital and hard-copy atlas of petroleum fields and reservoirs in the northern Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> region. A limited number of reservoirs in Kansas are to be included in the prototype project, but the goal is to expand beyond the prototype atlas to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, the Williston basin portion of Montana, the Denver-Julesburg basin of eastern Colorado and southeastern Colorado. Primary products of the prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases covering two selected petroleum plays in Kansas. `Pages` and data schema for the first field studies of the atlas have been developed and are accessible through the World-Wide-Web. The atlas structure includes access to geologic, geophysical and production information at levels from the regional, to the field to the individual well. Several approaches have been developed that provide efficient and flexible screening and search procedures. The prototype of the digital atlas is accessible through the Kansas Geological Survey Petroleum Research Section (PRS) HomePage (The Universal Resource Locator [URL] is http://www.kgs. ukans.edu/PRS/PRS.html). The DPA HomePage is available directly at http://www.kg.ukans.edu/DPA/dpaHome.html. Technology transfer is underway through the use of monthly electronic updates and the on- line availability of DPA products. Quarterly Progress Reports are posted on the digital Petroleum Atlas HomePage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Tecto..18..809W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermomechanical consequences of Cretaceous <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collision in the eastern Alps (Austria): Insights from two-dimensional modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use two-dimensional numerical modeling techniques to investigate the thermomechanical consequences of closure of the Meliata-Hallstatt ocean and consequent Cretaceous <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collision in the eastern Alps (Austria). In the modeling a lower plate position of the Austro-Alpine (AA) continental block is adopted during collision with the Upper Juvavic-Silice block. The thermal structure of the lithosphere was calculated for major AA tectonic units (Upper, Middle, and Lower Austro-Alpine) by integration of the transient heat flow equation along an approximately NW-SE cross section east of the Tauern Window. Indications of the rheological evolution of the AA were determined by calculating strength profiles at key stages of the Cretaceous orogeny, making use of the thermal modeling predictions combined with rock mechanics data. Cooling in the upper plate and lower greenschist facies metamorphism within footwall parts of the lower Upper Austro-Alpine (UA) plate, related to SE directed underthrusting of the UA beneath the Upper Juvavic-Silice block at circa 100 Ma, were predicted by the numerical model. The observed pressure-temperature path for deeply buried Middle Austro-Alpine (MA) upper crustal units and their subsequent isothermal exhumation are best reproduced assuming a pressure peak at 95 Ma and exhumation rates ranging between 4 and 7.5 mm yr-1. From the modeling results, we deduce that the temperature evolution during eclogite exhumation is primarily dependent on rates of tectonic movements and largely independent of the mode of exhumation (thrusting versus erosion). Furthermore, very rapid postmetamorphic exhumation of southern Lower Austro-Alpine (LA) units is predicted in order to account for subsequent cooling. This is constrained by 40Ar/39Ar data. The cooling paths of MA and LA rocks appear to be primarily controlled by their near-surface positions at the end of the Cretaceous rather than by other processes such as concurrent underthrusting. Upward advection of heat by rapid exhumation induced thermal weakening of the thickened crust. The inferred weakness of the central parts of the orogenic system may play an important role during detachment-related tectonic unroofing, orogenic collapse, and concomitant basin formation (central Alpine Gosau basins).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willingshofer, Ernst; van Wees, J. D.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Neubauer, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD742026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal Function in <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Schistosomiasis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine whether Schistosoma haematobium infection is associated with functional renal disease, renal function tests and intravenous urography were carried out on 75 hospitalized Egyptian farmers with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> schistosomiasis. All patients had urograph...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. S. Lehman Z. Farid S. Bassily D. C. Kent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB85240208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technologies for Managing <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The case study describes the problem of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and its costs to the medical care system and society as a whole. Effectiveness of alternative approaches to the management of this major health problem are outlined, with particular emphasis on ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ouslander R. Kane S. Vollmer M. Menezes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=33"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Management of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... occurs as a result of a damaged urethral sphincter resulting in poor sphincter tone and function. Damage in these areas may ... Kegel exercises can fortify the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles and improve <span class="hlt">urinary</span> control. These exercises include ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6384965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Highlights of 1983 industry activity in Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> - good signs in difficult times</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drilling activity in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> has suffered from the industry slump. Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> industry activity, however, remains surprisingly strong when compared to the total United States. In 1982, four Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> basins ranked inthe top ten based on total completions. Two provinces - Anadarko basin and Chautauqua platform - ranked in the top ten based on drilling and completion expenditures. Despite mature development of most Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> producing provinces, 1982 exploratory drilling continued strong and yielded good success. Seven Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> provinces ranked in the top ten based on density of wildcat drilling activity. Four provinces ranked in the top ten based on number of wildcats and best success ratios. Coupled with active exploratory drilling both Oklahoma (+ 2.8%) and Kansas (+ 3.8%) increased their annual crude-oil production. Average 1982 oil well initial potentials increased by 30% to 30 bbl/day in Kansas and by 9% to 58 bbl/day in Oklahoma. The increased productive potential coupled with lower drilling costs indicates the potential for improved investment return for Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> wells. The 1983 drilling and exploratory activity are reviewed to highlight positive factors and trends that support continued healthy industry activity in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stark, P.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29537491"> <span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval methods for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stone disease\\u000a in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stone disease and had stones retrieved\\u000a by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of\\u000a stones,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Nandu Nair; Gayathri Varma; Abiya Salim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5809117"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> conduits in gynecologic oncology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 <span class="hlt">urinary</span> conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hancock, K.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Saul, P.B.; Wharton, J.T.; Rutledge, F.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3527325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Telocytes in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been identified in many organs in mammals. The present studies aimed at investigating the ultrastructure, distribution and interactions of telocytes with surrounding cells in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system of rats, to confirm the existence of telocytes in kidneys, ureter and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. Methods Samples of kidney, ureter, or <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder were harvested for the ultrastructure by the electron microscope. The primary culture of telocytes was performed to investigate the dynamic alterations. Results Telocytes mainly located in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or between smooth muscle bundles and in the lamina propria of ureter and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. Telocytes established numerous contacts with macrophages in the sub-capsular space of kidney, or with smooth muscle cells, nerve endings as well as blood capillaries in the ureter and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. The complete morphology of telocytes with telopodes was observed clearly through the primary cell culture from the kidney tissues of rats. Conclusions Our data evidenced the existence of telocytes in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system, which may contribute to the tissue reparation and regeneration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2004100863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in Missouri. A Policy Brief Exploring Patterns of Abuse. Prevention, Treatment and Interdiction Strategies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this policy brief is to describe what is currently known about Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, report available national and local data on Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> abuse, and present ideas for effective prevention and treatment of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> abuse in Missouri. Some of the comm...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Harris J. Q. Hodges C. A. Snively</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-15/pdf/2012-14619.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...CP12-468-000] Atlas Pipeline Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources...May 30, 2012, Atlas Pipeline Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> WestTex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural...General Counsel, Atlas Pipeline Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span>, LLC, 110 W. 7th Street, Suite...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746544"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span>-ocean chemical heterogeneity in the mantle based on seismic tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismic models of global-scale lateral heterogeneity in the mantle show systematic differences below <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans that are too large to be purely thermal in origin. An inversion of the geoid, based on a seismic model that includes viscous flow in the mantle, indicates that the differences beneath <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans can be accounted for by differences in composition in the upper mantle superposed on mantle-wide thermal heterogeneities. The net <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean density differences, integrated over depth, are small and cause only a low flux of mass and heat across the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone. PMID:17746544</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forte, A M; Dziewonski, A M; O'connell, R J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U11C..05R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Rise of <span class="hlt">Continents</span> and the Transition Archean to Proterozoic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrestrial planets evolve in part via partial melting and gravitational differentiation, and in part via fluid/rock interactions at the surface. Mass and energy transfers across their various envelopes depend on the mode of convective motion, which may involve stagnant or mobile lid systems, for which plate tectonics is a possible mode; one promoting the coupling between exogenic and endogenic envelopes. In the other hand, fluid/rock interaction at the surface depends on the planet hypsometry and availability of weathering agents such as liquid water. It also depends on fluid/rock interaction at mid-oceanic ridge and therefore on the mode of convection. Hence, from 4.54 to 2.5 Ga the interplay between deep and surface processes under the forcing of secular cooling was such that the Earth differentiation was non-linear with sudden crises that punctuated periods of relative quietness. The Earth secular cooling impacted on deep and surface processes through the modulation of the Earth's hypsometry. This modulation occurred via cooling and strengthening of the lithosphere (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008), and via the deepening of oceanic basin, which lowered the mean sea level forcing the <span class="hlt">continents</span> to emerge (Flament et al., EPSL, 2008). Stronger lithospheres are able to sustain higher orogenic belts and orogenic plateaux, the erosion of which lead to stronger fluxes towards the ocean. Secular strengthening and emergence conspired to enhance weathering and erosion of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and therefore to enhance the geochemical coupling between the endogenic and exogenic Earth's envelopes (Rey and Coltice, Geology, 2008). The shift to the aerobic world, at the Archean to Proterozic transition, took place at a time when exogenic envelopes recorded major shifts in composition (eg. Taylor and McLennan, Rev. of Geophys., 1995; Veizer and Compston, Geochem. Cosmochem Acta, 1976; Valley et al., Contrib. to Mineral. Petrol., 2005) that are consistent with the progressive exposure to erosion of large areas of felsic crust hitherto hidden under greenstone covers and/or under sea level. Silicate weathering and erosion is a very efficient sink for atmospheric CO2. It is therefore also very likely that the strengthening and emergence of the continental lithosphere was a very important factor contributing to both the cooling of the Earth's surface and oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere. The transition from primitive to modern Earth has often been presented in the context of a major pulse of crustal growth and differentiation (Taylor and McLennan, Rev. of Geophys., 1995), superplume activity (Condie, PEPI, 2004), and/or mantle overturn and orogenic crisis (Stein and Hofman, Nature, 1994; Breuer and Spohn, Nature, 1995). However, in the context of continental emergence and strengthening, the shift to the aerobic world, at the Archean to Proterozic transition, may be linked to the time period when the Earth evolved its modern hypsometry, and when the Earth's exogenic and endogenic geochemical reservoirs became strongly coupled via higher erosion rates and fluxes toward the oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rey, P. F.; Flament, N.; Coltice, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10680771"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neonatal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> prostanoid excretion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> excretion of prostanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGE-M (7alpha-hydroxy-5,11-diketo-2,3,4,5,20-penta-19-carboxyprostano ic acid), 6-keto-PGF1alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha, thromboxane B2 (TxB2) 2,3-dinor-TxB2 and 11-dehydro-TxB2 was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in preterm and term infants to show that there is an age-dependent excretion rate of the above prostanoids in infants this young. Group I included premature children with normal postnatal development, Groups II and III included term children who were admitted in the neonatal period for observation because of feeding problems but who were subsequently found to be completely healthy. We present normal data of three primary prostanoids and four prostanoid metabolites. In Group I, excretion rates of 2,3-dinor-TxB2 were significantly lower than in Group II (P = 0.04) and in Group III (P = 0.05). Furthermore, the excretion rate of 11-dehydro-TxB2 in group I was significantly lower than in Group II (P = 0.05). We found no significant age-dependent differences between the three groups in excretion rates of PGE2, PGE-M, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1alpha, and TxB2. PMID:10680771</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoch, B; Bernhard, M; Seyberth, H W; Watzer, B; Schweer, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361224"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter is a fact of medical life. It is a valuable instrument when used for proper indications and when aseptic management is enforced. When improperly used, it is the major source of serious gram-negative infection in hospitalized patients. Male patients who require long-term drainage should be first tried on condom catheter drainage if there is no obstruction to flow or significant residual urine. Condom drainage, however, may lead to severe maceration of the penis if daily changing and cleansing is not done. Indwelling urethral catheters must be attached to a good system of closed drainage whether or not infection is present. Continuous bladder irrigation with neomycin-polymyxin solutions is a useful adjunct once closed drainage is established and working well. Suprapubic catheters are of special value for long-term use because they do not obstruct or irritate the urethra. The development of percutaneous methods of suprapubic drainage should improve and increase the use of this method. PMID:7361224</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kunin, C M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11930851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The University of Michigan Health System <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection CPG provides a summary of evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of UTIs in a format that can easily applied in practice. The authors include a statement of the importance of clinical judgement in the application of the recommendations and the recognition that other treatment approaches may be appropriate. The panel of authors includes physicians of various specialties, an ambulatory care nurse, and a medical education specialist. While the specialties of general and family medicine, OB/GYN, and infectious medicine are represented, there is no urologist or nephrologist listed on the panel. The CPG includes a brief annotated bibliography, summarizing six of the articles considered in the guideline's development. There is no further extended list of references included in the content. The CPG is limited to the treatment of adult women, although there is no specific age cited at which the guideline would begin to apply. It provides the reader with ideas for not only managing women who present to the clinic with symptoms consistent with a UTI, but also ideas for not only managing women who patient self-treatment strategies to minimize the cost associated with recurrent infections. Health care professionals interested in using the CPG in practice are encouraged to obtain and review a full-copy. It is available on the World Wide Web ate cme.medumich.edu.pdf/guideline/UTI.pdf. PMID:11930851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goolsby, M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U21B..10W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica and IGY: New Frontiers in "A <span class="hlt">Continent</span> for Science"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antarctica was established as a laboratory for cooperative international science during the last IGY, and remains an unparalleled model of successful international research. The scientific foundations established in the IGY have led to significant advances in understanding processes in the solid earth, the atmosphere, the oceans, the cryosphere and the global climate system. It is increasingly clear that deciphering the feedbacks and interactions between these spheres is required to comprehend the earth system as a whole, hence understanding the unique Antarctic geodynamic environment is imperative. Yet, in many respects, Antarctica remains an unexplored frontier of the earth system. The Antarctic geoscience community has begun planning a new era of earth science exploration projected to reach fruition at the time of the IGY golden jubilee (see: http://www.geology.ohio-state.edu/agg-group/). International cooperation will be organized through SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). An `Antarctic Geophysical Decade' will include experiments at unprecedented scales across the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, enabled by new technologies. Coordinated airborne and marine geophysical surveys, drilling (offshore and through the ice sheet to bedrock), deployment of GPS and seismic arrays, topical geological studies, and modeling studies, integrated with the wealth of new and upcoming satellite-derived data, will allow us to make the next leaps forward in understanding questions such as: 1) how changing ice mass loads influence lithospheric stress/strain regimes; 2) how glacial isostatic adjustment and the tectono-thermal structure of the lithosphere control modern ice sheet dynamics; 3) inception, growth and fluctuations of Antarctic ice sheets and interhemispheric a/synchroneity; 4) climate sensitivity to forcing factors such as continental-scale paleogeography, volcanism, erosion/sedimentation; 5) the origin and evolution of subglacial lakes and their life forms; and 6) the mode and tempo of supercontinent assembly and dispersal, and relations to global climate change and biotic evolution through earth history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, T.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Deconto, R.; Finn, C.; Harwood, D.; Leventer, A.; Ritzwoller, M.; Tulaczyk, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T21A2315B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Eastern Jan Mayen Micro-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Volcanic Margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Jan Mayen micro-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (JMMC) in the NE Atlantic was created through two Cenozoic rift episodes: Originally part of East Greenland, the JMMC rifted from NW Europe during the Early Eocene under extensive magmatism. The eastern margin is conjugate to the Møre - Faeroes volcanic margin. The western margin underwent prolonged extension before it finally separated from East Greenland during the Late Oligocene. Here we present the modeling by forward/inverse ray tracing of two wide-angle seismic profiles acquired using Ocean Bottom Seismometers, one across the northern, and the other across the southern JMMC. Both extend into the Norway Basin, documenting magma-starved seafloor spreading at the Aegir Ridge. Early Eocene breakup magmatism produced an igneous thickness of 7-9 km in the north, and 12-14 km in the south. The southern JMMC is furthermore embedded in a thick igneous crust: Reduced velocity and crustal thickening identifies one crustal fragment, while a second one closer to the Iceland Plateau is less clear. Our magnetic track data shows seafloor spreading rates off the southern JMMC comparable to that of the conjugate Møre Margin. Transition to ultra-slow seafloor spreading occurs at ˜43 Ma, indicating onset of major deformation of the JMMC. Calculating the igneous thickness -- mean VP relationship at the eastern margin gives the typical positive correlation seen elsewhere on the NE Atlantic margins. The results indicate temperature-driven breakup magmatism under passive mantle upwelling, with a maximum mantle temperature increase above ambient of ˜50 oC in the north and 90-150 oC in the south.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breivik, A. J.; Mjelde, R.; Faleide, J. I.; Murai, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1663226"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that <span class="hlt">continents</span> on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, A G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T42A..05J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary Response to Arc-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Collision, Permian, Southern Mongolia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Eurasian Tien Shan-Yin Shan suture is a ~3000 km-long boundary between Paleozoic arc and accretionary complexes (the Altaids) and Precambrian microcontinental blocks (Tarim and North China block). Stratigraphic data are presented from localities in southern Mongolia spanning more than 800 km along the northern margin of the suture. Facies descriptions, climatic indicators, sandstone provenance, and paleocurrent data help reconstruct Permian basin evolution during and following arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision, and results are integrated with previously published data to create a preliminary regional synthesis. Upper Permian strata of southern Mongolia comprise fluvial successions in the southwest, and marine turbidite deposits in the southeast. Floral assemblages show mixing of Siberian craton and North China block communities, indicating their close proximity to Mongolia by Permian time. There is a rapid transition from humid environments in the Late Permian to more arid conditions in the Early Triassic, which corresponds to the global Permian-Triassic boundary event, but may also reflect more local driving mechanisms such as rain shadow effects. Permian sandstones from Mongolia have undissected to dissected arc provenance, with little input from continental or recycled orogen sources. Timing of the nonmarine-marine facies transition and cessation of arc magmatism broadly supports earlier collision along the western part of the suture zone than the eastern part (e.g., Late Carboniferous-Late Permian). However when regional geologic constraints are integrated, a more complex model involving differential rotation of Tarim and the North China block is preferred. Late Paleozoic rocks of southern Mongolia have been subsequently dismembered along Mesozoic-Cenozoic strike-slip faults, and thus also represent the long-term record of intracontinental deformation within accreted, heterogeneous crust.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, C.; Amory, J.; Zinniker, D.; Lamb, M.; Graham, S.; Affolter, M.; Badarch, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/595632"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of northern mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> petroleum atlas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span>. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Geo....36..551W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in Samoan lavas: Confirmation of <span class="hlt">continent</span> recycling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lavas from the Samoan volcanic chain show the most enrichedgeochemical signatures ever documented in oceanic lavas (87Sr/86Sras high as 0.7205). In order to test the hypothesis that theirsource contains a component of recycled upper continental crust,we measured oxygen isotope compositions of olivine phenocrystsfrom these lavas. Correlations between <IMG SRC="/math/delta.gif" ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">18O of olivines (5.11<IMG SRC="/math/permil.gif" ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0">-5.70<IMG SRC="/math/permil.gif" ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0">)and 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb of whole rocks, as well as Ce/Pband Nb/Th ratios of whole rocks, indicate that (1) measured<IMG SRC="/math/delta.gif" ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">18O are primary, mantle-derived values, and (2) the enrichedmantle source of these lavas contains continental crust or itsderivative sediments. The observed trend between <IMG SRC="/math/delta.gif" ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">18O and 87Sr/86Srcan be fit using either clastic marine sediment or continentalcrust values of <IMG SRC="/math/delta.gif" ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">18O, Sr concentration, and 87Sr/86Sr, but onlythose for clastic marine sediments are compatible with traceelement modeling. We conclude that the enriched source for Samoanbasalts was created by sedimentation of <span class="hlt">continent</span>-derived materialinto a marine environment, followed by subduction and mixingwith ambient mantle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Workman, Rhea K.; Eiler, John M.; Hart, Stanley R.; Jackson, Matthew G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2004102936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prescription Drugs: Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amid heightened awareness that many patients with cancer and other chronic diseases suffer from undertreated pain, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Purdue Pharma's controlled-release pain reliever Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in 1995. Sales grew rapidly, and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA494825"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span> at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, '<span class="hlt">Continent</span> at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America,' was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K. Scott in support of the 49th annual Academy ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. K. Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15377984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence rehabilitation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Benedetto, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3313295"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract malformations. Symptomatology, delayed diagnosis and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examined 88 patients (32 Males and 56 Females) aged between 1 day and 13 years, suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract malformation, diagnosed during 1981-82 . The vesicoureteral reflux was the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract malformation most frequently observed (56.81%). The patients showed symptoms of the illness within the first year of life in a percentage of 52%, while the 82% was symptomatic in 5 years. 30 months and 11 days was the average age at which the symptoms of the illness appeared, while the diagnosis was effected at an average of 47 months and 15 days. The authors pointed out the reasons of this diagnostic delay and the possibilities of filing it up. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection was found at the time of hospitalization in a percentage of 55%. The authors described the kind of germs isolated and their resistance to the most common antibiotics. PMID:3313295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benigno, V; Attardo, S; Dolce, A F; Di Peri, S; Boncori, R; La Grutta, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T11D1287P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Mantle Interactions in a 3D Spherical Convection Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment of the Earth's lithosphere as a set of distinct plates has revolutionized thoughts in many areas of geophysics in recent decades. While much has been learned about present and past continental motions, the mechanism that drives these plates is still under speculation. It is likely that plate motion is directly related to the large scale heterogeneities that characterize the mantle. For example, unusually slow seismic velocities under South Africa suggest some impact from the former supercontinent Pangea. Previous modeling efforts in Cartesian geometry have reinforced the idea of a <span class="hlt">continent</span>-mantle system. However, thorough studies using 3D spherical geometry have yet to be pursued. To investigate the interaction between mantle flow and rigid plates in a domain relevant to the Earth, we present a high resolution, 3D spherical convection model with <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Piecewise uniform continental motion is determined by balancing the viscous torques induced by the underlying flow, in line with earlier Cartesian experiments. We explore the effects of two distinct continental sizes. <span class="hlt">Continents</span> covering 30% of the surface are representative of a supercontinent such as Pangea. Smaller <span class="hlt">continents</span> covering 10% of the surface are representative of present day Asia. These <span class="hlt">continents</span> are introduced into four end-member mantle regimes characterized by combinations of purely bottom or internal heating and uniform or layered viscosity. We find that supercontinents in an internally heated mantle have a significant impact on convection, with a particularly prominent degree 1 feature developing for the layered case. Smaller, Asia-sized <span class="hlt">continents</span> are always relatively compatible with the flow and so exhibit little influence on the convective planform. Surface motions are marked by continental velocities a factor of ~10 smaller than those in oceanic surface regions. And, <span class="hlt">continents</span> that are compatible with the flow move readily at velocities on the order of 1 cm/yr, while those that modify the flow remain almost locked in place. So, rifting of a once stable supercontinent could yield smaller <span class="hlt">continents</span> capable of moving freely about the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillips, B. R.; Bunge, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30917709"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48567455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> and a Regulation Deficiency of the Pharmaceutical Industry: Rethinking State-Corporate Crime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On May 10, 2007, three executives of the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma pled guilty in federal court to misleading doctors\\u000a and patients about the risk of addiction and potential for abuse of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>. Additionally, Purdue Pharma paid over $600\\u000a million in fines and other payments to the United States government and the Commonwealth of Virginia. The drug Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> was\\u000a first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. Hayden Griffin; Bryan Lee Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1029710"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continence</span> in patients with spina bifida: long term results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One hundred and forty four questionnaires relating to bladder and bowel control were sent to a random selection of patients with spina bifida throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and seventeen questionnaires were returned, of which 109 were usable. Twenty eight out of 109 responders had undergone some form of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion, of whom 20 (71%) were reliably dry. The remaining 81 responders emptied their bladders by a variety of techniques including normal voiding, straining, expression, clean intermittent catheterisation, indwelling catheters, or they dribbled urine continuously. Only 31 (38%) of this group were reliably dry. Ninety four of 109 (86%) responders regularly sat on the toilet to evacuate their bowels and most used some aid such as manual evacuation, laxatives, suppositories, or enemas. Fifty five of 104 (53%) responders soiled regularly, 31 (56%) of whom were also wet. Forty seven per cent of dry patients (24/51) were faecally incontinent. Only 25 of 104 (24%) patients responding to all questions were reliably clean and dry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malone, P S; Wheeler, R A; Williams, J E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21756280"> <span id="translatedtitle">TVT-Secur mini-sling for stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence: a review of outcomes at 12 months.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">• Synthetic mid-urethral slings (MUSs) are considered the first choice surgical procedure for stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Recent publications have raised concerns about the efficacy of third generation single-incision mini-slings. The present paper is a systematic review of studies reporting 12-month outcomes after the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) procedure. • Pubmed/Medline online databases, abstracts from recent International <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Society and International Urogynecological Association annual scientific meetings and the Clinicaltrials.gov and Controlled-trials.com online trial registries were searched for English-language articles containing the terms 'TVT-Secur', 'TVT Secur' or 'mini-sling'. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective cure rates at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included peri-operative (vaginal perforation, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection [UTI]) and postoperative (mesh exposure, de novo overactive bladder (OAB), dyspareunia and return to theatre) complication rates. • Among 1178 women undergoing the TVT-S procedure, from 10 studies, both objective and subjective cure rate at 12 months was 76%, with objective cure significantly higher in women undergoing the 'U-type' approach. Vaginal perforation was a complication in 1.5% of cases, with a 2.4% incidence of mesh exposure in the first year. The incidence of de novo OAB symptoms was 10%. Rates of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention (2.3%), UTI (4.4%), dyspareunia (1%) and return to theatre for complications (0.8%) were low. In the first year after a TVT-S procedure 5% of women required repeat <span class="hlt">continence</span> surgery. • Longer-term studies and randomized comparisons with more established MUSs are required before TVT-S should be routinely used in the surgical treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. PMID:21756280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, Colin A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424057"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers of Oxidative Status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas <span class="hlt">urinary</span> 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Il'yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22683781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers of oxidative status.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F?-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F?-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas <span class="hlt">urinary</span> 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Il'yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890891"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers in lupus nephritis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has long been a need for biomarkers of disease activity in lupus nephritis (LN). Such markers ideally would be capable of detecting early sub-clinical disease and could be used to gauge response to therapy thus obviating the need for serial renal biopsies. Since urine can be readily obtained it lends itself as an obvious biological sample. Much of the focus has been on the measurement of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> chemokines and cytokines in patients with LN. Elevations in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> IL-6 and IL-10 had initially been reported to be associated with disease activity in LN but these markers have proven to be less reliable in larger studies. We and others have recently reported that MCP-1, a key chemokine involved in monocyte chemotaxis can be consistently found at high levels in the urine of patients with active LN. Moreover <span class="hlt">urinary</span> MCP-1 levels decline with treatment of nephritis. In contrast <span class="hlt">urinary</span> IL-8, a chemokine involved primarily in neutrophil chemotaxis is not a good predictor of disease activity in LN. Further longitudinal studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to determine the utility of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers such as MCP-1 which may act as surrogates of ongoing inflammation in LN. PMID:16890891</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yi; Tucci, Marco; Narain, Sonali; Barnes, Elena V; Sobel, Eric S; Segal, Mark S; Richards, Hanno B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19674312"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small <span class="hlt">continent</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New Zealand has long been a conundrum to biogeographers, possessing as it does geophysical and biotic features characteristic of both an island and a <span class="hlt">continent</span>. This schism is reflected in provocative debate among dispersalist, vicariance biogeographic and panbiogeographic schools. A strong history in biogeography has spawned many hypotheses, which have begun to be addressed by a flood of molecular analyses. The time is now ripe to synthesize these findings on a background of geological and ecological knowledge. It has become increasingly apparent that most of the biota of New Zealand has links with other southern lands (particularly Australia) that are much more recent than the breakup of Gondwana. A compilation of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ca 100 plant and animal groups reveals that only 10% of these are even plausibly of archaic origin dating to the vicariant splitting of Zealandia from Gondwana. Effects of lineage extinction and lack of good calibrations in many cases strongly suggest that the actual proportion is even lower, in keeping with extensive Oligocene inundation of Zealandia. A wide compilation of papers covering phylogeographic structuring of terrestrial, freshwater and marine species shows some patterns emerging. These include: east-west splits across the Southern Alps, east-west splits across North Island, north-south splits across South Island, star phylogenies of southern mountain isolates, spread from northern, central and southern areas of high endemism, and recent recolonization (postvolcanic and anthropogenic). Excepting the last of these, most of these patterns seem to date to late Pliocene, coinciding with the rapid uplift of the Southern Alps. The diversity of New Zealand geological processes (sinking, uplift, tilting, sea level change, erosion, volcanism, glaciation) has produced numerous patterns, making generalizations difficult. Many species maintain pre-Pleistocene lineages, with phylogeographic structuring more similar to the Mediterranean region than northern Europe. This structure reflects the fact that glaciation was far from ubiquitous, despite the topography. Intriguingly, then, origins of the flora and fauna are island-like, whereas phylogeographic structure often reflects continental geological processes. PMID:19674312</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wallis, Graham P; Trewick, Steven A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21140719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment-guided therapy of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence after stroke.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence (UI) frequently occurs after stroke and often remains an extensive problem for these patients and their relatives even after discharge from the hospital. Therapeutic interventions, such as behavioral training, can help manage UI. Recently, a multimodal application of nursing interventions was recommended (Wilbert-Herr, Hürlimann, Imhof & Wilbert, 2006). The primary goals of the study discussed in this article were to introduce therapeutic interventions of UI management into clinical rehabilitation practice based on a structured process of interdisciplinary caregiving and test the treatment effect. Forty-four patients who had suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were included in the study. Nursing interventions included distinction of stress or urge UI and the assessment of different forms of UI. The latter intervention was based on the functional independence measure (FIM Item G-bladder management), the protocol of micturition, urine dipstick, and ultrasound measurement of post-void residual urine (PVR). Interventions were applied according to the recommendations of the 3rd International Consultation on Incontinence. An algorithm of the interdisciplinary process was implemented, and the nursing staff received specific education regarding the interventions. Twenty-one (47%) of the patients in the study were diagnosed with UI; 67% of these patients achieved the targeted level of <span class="hlt">continence</span> by individually tailored interventions, which consisted of a systematic nursing assessment and standards for prompted voiding, timed voiding, and habit training. Planned processes, including screening procedures, assessment, profile of <span class="hlt">continence</span>, intervention, and education and evaluation, increase the likelihood of positive results of rehabilitation of patients after CVA. Additional intervention studies are suggested to investigate the effectiveness of the algorithm used in this study. PMID:21140719</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herr-Wilbert, Isabella S; Imhof, Lorenz; Hund-Georgiadis, Margret; Wilbert, Dirk Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7966673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technique for endoscopy of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion conduits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endoscopic evaluation of bowel conduits used for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion can be a cumbersome and untidy endeavor. We present a simple technique that facilitates this type of examination using an ostomy bag connected to a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> drainage bag. PMID:7966673</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hollander, J B; Gaynes, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000393.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in children - aftercare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... even if when they begin to feel better. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections that are not well treated and become worse ... White B. Diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections in ... G, Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2881359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial adherence and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial adherence is important in the initiation of disease of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tracts. This article reviews the mechanisms by which it occurs and presents specific examples of its importance in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections. PMID:2881359</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22039736"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Epidemiology of female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence becomes a real public health issue in France, with high frequency and outcomes on 20 to 30% of concerned women. Prevalence of incontinence is widely under-estimated because few women consult a physician for this problem, and because of the lack of epidemiologic data about it. Despite female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence will increase in the next future with "baby boom" population, and in spite of new treatments, medical help is not suitable. Physicians but also nurses and physical therapists must have better professional training to help and care better these women. PMID:22039736</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Egrot, Christophe; Peyrat, Laurence; Ciofu, Calin; Haab, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2952144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincters. Radiographic evaluation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A small selected group of patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence can be treated effectively with an artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter. Since the fluid in the hydraulic system of this device is radiopaque, radiography is useful in its evaluation. An immediate postoperative radiogram should be performed to control the position and integrity of the system. It also serves as a useful baseline study in case of later complications. It should include radiograms both in the deactivated and activated state. A few cases of tube kinking may be overlooked when exposures in only one projection are used. Experience with 110 implanted sphincters is presented. PMID:2952144</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorentzen, T; Dorph, S; Hald, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32401574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections have a great impact on clinical medicine. They are almost exclusively complicated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections. Clinical diagnosis in some patients. (e.g., sedated patients, paediatric or geriatric patients) might be delayed for the lack of symptoms. About 80% of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections are catheter-associated. However, certain diseases favour <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections: diabetes mellitus or cystic renal diseases,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. M. E Wagenlehner; K. G Naber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15285759"> <span id="translatedtitle">Massive bilateral perirenal hematoma following <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheterization for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> obstruction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract obstruction is a common problem associated with many complications. Decompression of an enlarged bladder has been associated with several complications, mainly vesicular bleeding. We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient who developed bilateral renal subcapsular hematomas secondary to relief of an extremely enlarged bladder. PMID:15285759</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haydar, Ali A; Hujairi, Nabil M; Quateen, Aiman; Hatoum, Tarek; Goldsmith, David J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48389688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study protocol: ICONS: Identifying <span class="hlt">continence</span> options after stroke: A randomised trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence following acute stroke is common, affecting between 40%-60% of people in hospital after a stroke. Despite\\u000a the availability of clinical guidelines for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence after stroke, national audit data\\u000a suggest incontinence is often poorly managed. Conservative interventions (e.g. bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training\\u000a and prompted voiding) have been shown to have some effect with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lois H Thomas; Caroline L Watkins; Beverley French; Christopher Sutton; Denise Forshaw; Francine Cheater; Brenda Roe; Michael J Leathley; Christopher Burton; Elaine McColl; Jo Booth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19385256"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Effect of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH value on the composition of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nanocrystals].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH value on the composition of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nanocrystals was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The differentiation of composition of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nanocrystals not only occurred between the people with different <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH, but also occurred in the same person when his or her <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH changed. At lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH (such as pH<5.8), most of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> components are uric acid, acidic phosphate, calcium oxalate etc. However, most of these components are urate, phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, calcium oxalate etc at higher <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH (such as pH>6.2). Combining XRD and FTIR methods, t he compositions o f <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nanocrystals can b edetermined accurately. It is helpful to exploring the cause of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones. PMID:19385256</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Mu-Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33251563"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Kallikrein Excretion in Chronic Pancreatic Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> kallikrein in pancreatic diseases were ascertained, and possible influencing factors were investigated. Serum amylase and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of glandular kallikrein, pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase),?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and amylase were measured in 24 control subjects, 39 patients with pancreatic cancer, 49 with pancreatitis and 63 with extra-pancreatic diseases. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> kallikrein was found to be elevated in a substantial number of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlo Fabris; Maria Piera Panozzo; Daniela Basso; Giuseppe Del Favero; Mario Plebani; Martina Zaninotto; Paola Fogar; Tamara Meggiato; Paola Scalon; Chiara Ferrara; Remo Naccarato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jama.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/JAMA/23360/jpg120003_1877_1877.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">JAMA Patient Page: <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">JAMA PATIENT PAGE <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection White blood cell Bacteria Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra Urine Ureter <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract anatomy Infected urine B L A D D E R CROSS SECTION T he <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract is made up of the bladder, the urethra, the ureters, and the kidney. Urine is made ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113610H"> <span id="translatedtitle">LINET Lightning Characteristics Observed on 4 Different <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During recent field campaigns DLR operated its six-station VLF/LF lightning detection network LINET in co-operation with the University of Munich and nowcast GmbH as well as local partners in 4 different <span class="hlt">continents</span>. For TROCCINOX (Tropical convection, cirrus and nitrogen oxides experiment) the network was set in Sao Paulo state in Brazil during Jan/Feb 05, for the tropical EU SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere) and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment) campaigns during Nov/Dec 2005 and Jan/Feb 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, for AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) in Benin/W-Africa during June-Nov 2006 and for measurements in Southern Germany during June-August 2005. Using the same experimental set up in all areas it became possible to compare the lightning characteristics for the different climatic regions and also to assess the relative significance for lightning NOx production. Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin), land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia) and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia). Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak wet monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N-Australia. The frequency of occurrence of such days was by far the largest in N-Australia. In accordance with radar observed storm structures, the intra-cloud stroke mean emission heights were found distinctly different in Germany (8 km) as compared to the tropics (up to 12 km in N-Australia). The fraction of intra-cloud strokes (compared to all strokes) was found to be relatively high in Brazil and Australia (0.83 and 0.74, respectively) as compared to Benin and Germany (0.67 and 0.69, respectively). Using stroke peak currents and vertical location information, lightning NOx (LNOx) production under defined standard conditions can be compared for the different areas of observation. LNOx production per standard stroke was found to be most efficient for the N-Australian and S-German thunderstorms whereas the yield from Brazilian and W-African strokes was nearly 40% less. On the other hand, the main NO contribution in Brazil was from intra-cloud (IC) strokes whereas in Benin it was due to cloud-to-ground (CG) components. For the German and Australian strokes both stroke types contributed similar amount to the total NO outcome.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoeller, H.; Betz, H.-D.; Schmidt, K.; Calheiros, R. V.; May, P.; Houngninou, E.; Scialom, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3202377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Representations of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in North American newspapers and medical journals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: There are public concerns regarding Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> (Purdue Pharma, Canada) and charges within the pain medicine community that media coverage of the drug has been biased. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare representations of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in medical journals and North American newspapers in an attempt to shed light on how each contributes to the ‘social problem’ associated with Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>. METHODS: Using searches of newspaper and medical literature databases, two samples were drawn: 924 stories published between 1995 and 2005 in 27 North American newspapers, and 197 articles published between 1995 and 2007 in 33 medical journals in the fields of addiction/substance abuse, pain/anesthesiology and general/internal medicine. The foci, themes, perspectives represented and evaluations of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> presented in these texts were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Newspaper coverage of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> emphasized negative evaluations of the drug, focusing on abuse, addiction, crime and death rather than the use of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> for the legitimate treatment of pain. Newspaper stories most often conveyed the perspectives of law enforcement and courts, and much less often represented the perspectives of physicians. However, analysis of physician perspectives represented in newspaper stories and in medical journals revealed a high degree of inconsistency, especially across the fields of pain medicine and addiction medicine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of negative representations of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> is often blamed on biased media coverage and an ignorant public. However, the proliferation of inconsistent messages regarding the drug from physicians plays a role in the drug’s persistent status as a social problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whelan, Emma; Asbridge, Mark; Haydt, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30250570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship of vesicoureteric reflex (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 94 children (188 kidneys) with proved <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection in a district general hospital. There were 61 girls and 33 boys, with nine girls and 17 boys aged less than 1 year, 31 girls and nine boys aged between 1 and 5 years, the remaining 28 children were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F V Gleeson; I Gordon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kt811k31818780lj.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasonography in stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaluation of the urethrovesical junction in stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is essential. For this reason the Q-tip test, a clinical test with debatable specificity; lateral cystourethrography, a conventional method; and videourethrocystography, a sophisticated method, have been in use. Because ultrasonography is inexpensive, reliable, easy to apply and free of any contrast material and X-ray exposure, it has practically replaced all the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Demirci; P. M. Fine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57172503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Müllerianosis of the <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Müllerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder müllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Josefa Elizabeth Olivia Vella; Nithin Nair; Stephen Robert Ferryman; Ramanand Athavale; Pallavi Latthe; Lynn Hirschowitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mullerianosis of the <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mullerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22919142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mullerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mullerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is a rare and morphologically complex tumor-like lesion, composed of several types of mullerian lesions like endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis. This disease occurs in women of reproductive age group. Implantative and metaplastic origins have been suggested in the pathogenesis. PMID:22919142</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kudva, Ranjini; Hegde, Padmaraj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8304750"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Factors of female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The history, physical examination and complementary investigations must be directed towards analysis of the multiple factors responsible for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, whose relative roles differ from one patient to another. Treatment is primarily directed towards factors which are the easiest to correct. Urethral and vesical factors are summarised in this brief introductory article. PMID:8304750</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susset, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD733568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paraganglioma of the <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of 24 previously unreported cases of paraganglioma involving the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder are described and compared with the 34 other neoplasms of this type reported or referred to in the literature. Bladder paragangliomas represent about 0.06% of all bl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. B. Price J. E. Leestma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140717"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection: immunological aspects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The immunological aspects of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection are of great importance in patients with recurrent episodes. Host factors such as immune response to uropathogens and increased susceptibility are reported. The authors describe pathogenic aspects of bacteria, including determinants of aggressiveness and interactions with normal bacterial flora. Initial efforts with vaccines to prevent the recurrence of infection are also considered. PMID:12140717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Girão, Manuel J B C; Baracat, E C; Lima, G R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting <span class="hlt">continence</span>. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34+ cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3463212"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers in Obstructive Nephropathy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Background and objectives Obstructive nephropathy is a leading cause of CKD in children. The assessment of severity of renal impairment and the prediction of which children will progress to renal failure are, however, challenging. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements This case-control study measured the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of candidate biomarkers in 27 prevalent case-patients with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) and 20 age-matched controls, correlated their <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration with GFR, and analyzed receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and regression analyses to assess their performance as tests for low GFR. Results The median <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio was higher in children with PUV (45 g/mol; range, 5–361 g/mol) than in controls (7 g/mol; range, 3–43 g/mol) (P<0.01) and correlated inversely with renal function (r = ?0.44; P<0.05). In whole urine, excretion of aquaporin-2 was significantly decreased, whereas that of TGF? and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) was significantly increased. Whole-urine TGF? excretion correlated inversely with GFR (r = ?0.53; P<0.05). As tests for low GFR, whole-urine TGF?, L1CAM, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio performed best, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.788, 0.795, and 0.814, respectively. By linear regression analysis, whole-urine TGF?, L1CAM, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio were associated with low GFR in the case-patients. Conclusions Candidate biomarkers of obstructive nephropathy can be readily measured in whole urine and in urine exosomes. In boys with PUV, these biomarkers correlate with GFR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trnka, Peter; Ivanova, Larissa; Hiatt, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867496"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Do People Make <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose:?Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality <span class="hlt">continence</span> care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on <span class="hlt">continence</span> care practices in two NHs.?Design and Methods:?This ethnographic study explored <span class="hlt">continence</span> care from the perspectives of NH stakeholders, including residents and interdisciplinary team members. Data were collected through participant observation, interviews, and archival records.?Results:?Human relations dimensions of organizational culture influenced <span class="hlt">continence</span> care by affecting institutional missions, admissions and hiring practices, employee tenure, treatment strategies, interdisciplinary teamwork, and group decision making. Closed system approaches, parochial identity, and an employee focus stabilized staff turnover, fostered evidence-based practice, and supported hierarchical toileting programs in one facility. Within a more dynamic environment, open system approaches, professional identity, and job focus allowed flexible care practices during periods of staff turnover. Neither organizational culture fully supported interdisciplinary team efforts to maximize the bladder and bowel health of residents.?Implications:?Organizational culture varies in NHs, shaping the <span class="hlt">continence</span> care practices of interdisciplinary teams and leading to the selective use of treatments across facilities. Human relations dimensions of organizational culture, including open or closed systems, professional or parochial identity, and employee or job focus are critical to the success of quality improvement initiatives. Evidence-based interventions should be tailored to organizational culture to promote adoption and sustainability of resident care programs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyons, Stacie Salsbury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18396235"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Management of male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence after radical prostatectomy (CTMH AFU 2006 - 5/5). Prevention of incontinence and CTMH guidelines].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preservation of <span class="hlt">continence</span> essentially depends on the operator and the quality of the operative procedure. The number of publications on this subject reflects the desire of urologists to provide their patients not only with control of the cancer but also preservation of their sexual and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> functions. Ideally, surgery should preserve the striated sphincter and levator muscles, the neurovascular pedicles when oncologically acceptable, and the bladder neck and a leak-proof anastomosis must be ensured. The surgeon must satisfy two imperatives to achieve these objectives: a good knowledge of anatomy and meticulous preservation of this anatomy from the beginning to the end of the operation by highly selective dissection in selected patients. Finally, the Comité des Troubles Mictionnels de l'Homme (Male Voiding Disorders Committee) proposes guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence after radical prostatectomy. PMID:18396235</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Devonec, M; Saussine, C; Fourmarier, M; Azzouzi, A-R; Ballereau, C; Desgranchamps, F; Haillot, O; Lukacs, B; Castel, E; de la Taille, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.prostata.it/files/pdf/rhabdosphincter%20and%20continence%20after%20prostatectomy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restoration of Posterior Aspect of Rhabdosphincter Shortens <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Time After Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Prolonged postoperative incontinence is a major drawback of RRP. Age, scars in the rhabdosphincter, nonnerve sparing surgery and postoperative sphincter insufficiency can cause temporary or definitive <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. We believe that sphincter deficiency is the main cause of early incontinence. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> leakage results from the shortening of anatomical and functional sphincter length due to caudal retraction of the urethral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Rocco; L. Carmignani; P. Acquati; F. Gadda; P. Dell’Orto; B. Rocco; G. Bozzini; G. Gazzano; A. Morabito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40448844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamic processes of Taiwan arc–<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision and comparison with analogs in Timor, Papua New Guinea, Urals and Corsica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Taiwan arc–<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision involves four geodynamic processes: intra-oceanic subduction; initial arc–<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision; advanced arc–<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision; and arc collapse\\/subduction. These processes now occur simultaneously in 19–24°30?N but have operated sequentially southward since the Late Miocene. Although the geological and geophysical features appear to change progressively from north to south across the island, they are distinct within individual tectonic regimes. Using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chi-Yue Huang; Peter B Yuan; Ching-Weei Lin; Tan K Wang; Chung-Pai Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v085/iB08/JB085iB08p04431/JB085iB08p04431.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comments on 'Pre-Tertiary Velocities of the <span class="hlt">Continents</span>: A Lower Bound From Palcomagnetic Data' by R. G. Gordon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">calculate minimum absolute drift velocities for these <span class="hlt">continents</span> during the last 350 m.y. Their results suggest that at times in the past, <span class="hlt">continents</span> have moved much more rapidly than they do today and that in particular, during a brief (-30 m.y.) interval approximately 200 m.y. ago, each of these <span class="hlt">continents</span> achieved minimum absolute rms velocities comparable to those of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. O. McWilliams; A. Cox; GLYN M. JONES; STEFAN GARTNER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/50-minute-lessons-sorted-by-grade/?page_id=474?&passid=11"> <span id="translatedtitle">MY NASA DATA Contributed Lesson 3: Comparisons of Snow Cover on Different <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each <span class="hlt">continent</span>. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each <span class="hlt">continent</span> for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scearce, Deann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17192226"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of severe chronic constipation through the antegrade <span class="hlt">continent</span> enema procedure].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The antegrade <span class="hlt">continent</span> enema procedure was first described in 1990 by Malone for the treatment of severe fecal neurogenic incontinence in children. Since then, this technique has been successfully carried out in adults, as well as in patients with refractory constipation. The procedure provides a <span class="hlt">continent</span> and catheterizable channel, generally an appendicostomy, through which antegrade washouts are given to produce colonic emptying. We describe the case of a 23-year-old man with severe constipation and overflow fecal incontinence who underwent an appendicostomy. There were no immediate postoperative complications and saline washouts were started on the fourth day. Since then, the patient has had a bowel movement between 1 and 3 hours after each washout, has recovered <span class="hlt">continence</span>, and no longer wears an absorbent pad. PMID:17192226</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pera, Miguel; Parés, David; Pascual, Marta; Pérez, Marta; Cañete, Nuria; Sánchez de la Blanca, M Isabel; Andréu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ephedrine hydrochloride: Novel use in the management of resistant non-neurogenic daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the adrenoceptor agonist, ephedrine hydrochloride, is an effective treatment for resistant non-neurogenic daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in children. METHODS: From 2000 to 2010, eighteen children with resistant non-neurogenic daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence were treated with oral ephedrine hydrochloride at our institution. Sixteen were female and two were male. Median age at treatment was 12 years (range 5-15 years). Two children had spina bifida occulta. There were no other co-morbidities. Multiple anticholinergics were prescribed and dose maximized to support a bladder and bowel training programme, without achieving <span class="hlt">continence</span> in this resistant group of children. Pre-treatment urodynamics were normal in 10, but revealed an open bladder neck in 8 patients. None showed detrusor over-activity. Oral ephedrine hydrochloride was started at 7.5 mg or 15 mg twice daily and titrated up to a maximum of 30 mg four times daily according to response. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 7 years (range 6-8 years). Seventeen children (94%) reported improvement in symptoms and six (33%) achieved complete <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span>. All patients maintained compliant bladders on post-treatment urodynamics. Seven of the 8 previously open bladder necks were closed. No patients reported any significant side effects. Patients with open bladder necks on pre-treatment urodynamics were more likely to show a full response to ephedrine (odds ratio 15; 95% CI 1.2-185.2). CONCLUSIONS: Oral ephedrine hydrochloride is an effective treatment for carefully selected children with resistant non-neurogenic daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. PMID:23332206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Featherstone, Neil; Stanwell, Joanna; Affleck, Susan; Wang, Kate; Murphy, Feilim; Boddy, Su-Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3758608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Major Odorants Released as <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Volatiles by <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinent Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, volatile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Major odorants released as <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volatiles by <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinent patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, volatile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1273322"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in the Elderly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is a common and distressing problem for elderly patients, their families and friends, and the health professionals who care for them. It is a heterogeneous condition, and appropriate management depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of the multiple factors that can play a role in its cause and perpetuation. Identifying reversible causes of transient incontinence, and appropriate management of incontinence that is associated with acute illness, can be important in preventing the problem from becoming established. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in the elderly, and appropriate use of the different types of therapy, will greatly improve the management in these cases. The need and opportunities for research to improve the management of incontinent elderly persons should be considered by all those involved in caring for this population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ouslander, Joseph G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30993257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Mutagens and Lifestyle Factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background.Lifestyle determines the amount of exposure to environmental carcinogens\\/mutagens. We examined the relationship between various lifestyle factors and the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> level of mutagens, which reflects both exposure dose and metabolism of these carcinogens\\/mutagens.Methods.Twenty-four-hour urine specimens obtained from 69 males were subjected to blue rayon extraction, after which the elutions were fractionated by carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography. The mutagens were measured</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kanae Mure; Tatsuya Takeshita; Toru Takeuchi; Kanehisa Morimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48541091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cefotaxime in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary According to available studies the experience with cefotaxime in the treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTI) is presented. Because of its broad spectrum antibacterial activity cefotaxime is active against most of the causative organisms, including multiresistant strains (except enterococci). Of 400 isolates cultured from 400 urological inpatients with complicated and\\/or hospital acquired UTI 90.2% of the gramnegatives and 87.7%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. G. Naber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17511293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention among astronauts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case. PMID:17511293</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170889"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">urinary</span> citrate: an overview.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypocitraturia is a known risk factor for kidney stone formation. By forming soluble complexes with calcium, citrate prevents crystal nucleation, aggregation and growth; therefore, the presence of citrate in the urine reduces the risk for calcium stone formation. Ingested citrate is rapidly metabolized, and plasma citrate levels vary little, so changes in filtered load do not significantly influence <span class="hlt">urinary</span> citrate excretion. Changes in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> citrate excretion are predominantly influenced by the rate of citrate absorption from the glomerular filtrate and metabolism by the proximal tubule cell. The former is mediated by the apical membrane cotransporter NaDC1, and the latter is mediated by both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolism. Acid-base status is the most important physiological determinant of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> citrate excretion, by modulating the activities of NaDC1 and cytoplasmic (ATP citrate lyase) and mitochondrial (m-aconitase) enzymes involved in citrate metabolism. Following an acid load, both the transport and metabolic processes are up-regulated leading to hypocitraturia; in contrast, an alkaline load increases citrate excretion, by regulating only the mitochondrial metabolic process. PMID:21170889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zacchia, Miriam; Preisig, Patricia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545628"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral nerve sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy is associated with faster <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery but not with erectile function recovery compared with retropubic open prostatectomy: the need for accurate selection of patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) shows measurable advantages, compared to conventional open surgery, even if some aspects are, still, under debate. The aim of this study was to compare the potency recovery rate of patients with clinically localised prostate cancer treated by bilateral nerve-sparing (BNS) RARP or retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), and secondarily, the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery evaluation and the oncological efficacy. All patients treated with BNS-RARP or BNS-RRP for clinically localised prostate cancer, performed by a single dedicated surgeon, between January 2004 and December 2008, were enrolled in this non-randomised prospective comparative study. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and erection hardness score (EHS), in the form of a questionnaire, were self-administered to each patient pre-operatively and after 12 months. The presence of surgical margins was considered as oncological outcome measure. Eighty-two patients underwent BNS-RARP while 48 underwent BNS-RRP. For BNS-RARP and BNS-RRP the median operative time was 221 and 103 min, respectively (P<0.001; df=128; t=721.43),and intra-operative blood loss was 280 and 565 ml, respectively (P<0.001; df=128; t=1742.44). At a mean follow-up period of 12.4±2.3 months, 12 patients (25%) in the BNS-RRP group and 22 (26.8%) in the BNS-RARP group were considered potent with or without drugs (P=0.81). Moreover, we did not find any statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of IEFF and EHS scores after treatment (17.21 vs. 16.98; P=0.16 and 2.1 vs. 2.0; P=0.54). On the other hand, statistically significant differences between the 2 groups were found in terms of faster <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery and the presence of positive surgical margins (P<0.001, P=0.009). Shorter catheterization duration (7 vs. 3 days) and post-operative hospital stays (8 vs. 4 days; P<0.001) were found in the BNS-RARP group compared to the BNS-RRP group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that BNS-RARP does not improve erectile function recovery compared to open radical prostatectomy; however, it significantly improves <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> and decreases the presence of positive surgical margins. PMID:23545628</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ludovico, Giuseppe Mario; Dachille, Giuseppe; Pagliarulo, Giovanni; D'Elia, Carolina; Mondaini, Nicola; Gacci, Mauro; Detti, Beatrice; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Cai, Tommaso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1022035"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections in children. An update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection is a common and frequently recurring condition in children. The susceptibility of the host, the presence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract abnormalities, and the virulence of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pathogens are of primary importance in the development of the infection. Renal parenchymal scarring, hypertension, and renal insufficiency are well-established complications of the infection in children. To reduce the risk of renal damage, diagnosis and treatment must be prompt. The diagnosis demands radiologic evaluation of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract in all boys, all children younger than 5 years, all patients with voiding dysfunction, and school-aged girls with recurrent infection to identify those patients with vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction, or other <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract abnormalities. Both voiding cystourethrography and renal ultrasonography are the initial examinations to use to determine the next appropriate study. Children with vesicoureteral reflux or with recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections should receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy and should be observed closely to prevent renal scarring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zelikovic, I; Adelman, R D; Nancarrow, P A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/13/5/1394.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends in male:female ratio among newborn infants in 29 countries from five <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have analysed trends in male:female ratios among newborns between 1950 and 1990 in 29 countries from five <span class="hlt">continents</span>. The numbers of liveborn males and females over the period 1950-1994 were derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) database. Countries for which reliable data were available included 20 major European countries (excluding the former Soviet Union, Albania and a few</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabio Parazzini; Carlo La Vecchia; Fabio Levi; Silvia Franceschi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200990"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> fall temperatures at the 10-cm soil depth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recommendations for applying N-fertilizer in autumn involve delaying applications until daily soil temperature at 10 cm depth is = or < 10° C. Daily soil temperature data during autumn were examined from 26 sites along a transect from 36° to 49° N latitude in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> USA. After soils first...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Antarctica%22&pg=3&id=EJ554629"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lost <span class="hlt">Continents</span>? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify <span class="hlt">continent</span> shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=199743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> Great Rivers (USA)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=critique+AND+of+AND+feminism&pg=2&id=EJ740145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Manipulation of the Family Photo Album: Esther Parada's Transplant--A Tale of Three <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this article, the author focuses on Esther Parada's non-traditional use of the Web to communicate her art, and offers a critique of Parada's work, "Transplant: A Tale of Three <span class="hlt">Continents</span>," and suggestions for critiquing Web art in the school classroom. Parada creates an intersection between this new medium and the more traditional medium of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eggemeyer, Valerie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55541939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boundary Layer Development over a Tropical Island during the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Thunderstorm Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data collected during the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Thunderstorm Experiment (MCTEX) (10 November-10 December 1995) have been used to analyze boundary layer development and circulations over two almost flat, tropical islands. The two adjacent islands have a combined length of about 170 km from east to west and 70 km from north to south. Intense thunderstorms formed over these islands every day</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert Schafer; Peter T. May; Thomas D. Keenan; Kendal McGuffie; Warner L. Ecklund; Paul E. Johnston; Kenneth S. Gage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48530198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonic Crustal Uplift on the <span class="hlt">Continents</span> and its Possible Mechanisms. The Case of Southern Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to a large volume of data an intensive crustal uplift began in the Oligocene over most of the continental areas after a long period of relative tectonic stability. This Neotectonic uplift formed most of the present positive topographic features on the <span class="hlt">continents</span>, and its strong acceleration took place during the last several million years. In many regions the uplift</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eugene V. Artyushkov; Albrecht W. Hofmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42528853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between ice breakup dates of lakes and local air temperature on the Eurasian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ice breakup dates on lakes are related to the local air temperature, and are useful for understanding the local climate. However, little study has been done on lakes on the Eurasian <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Therefore, an ice breakup date estimation method, using water temperature trend and threshold surface temperature and aided by satellite remote sensing, was developed in our previous study in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Nonaka; T. Matsunaga; A. Hoyano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44476072"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the Relationship between Western Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Monsoon Rainfall and ENSO during Northern Winter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies have reported that Indonesian rainfall is poorly correlated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events during the northern winter wet monsoon season. This work studies the relationship between the Niño-3 (5°S 5°N, 150° 90°W) sea surface temperature (SST) and the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> monsoon rainfall during 1979 2002. The study indicates that the correlations are mostly negative except in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C.-P. Chang; Zhuo Wang; Jianhua Ju; Tim Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=planned+AND+parenthood&pg=5&id=ED031328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Streams.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The information in this directory is designed to promote continuity in family planning services for migrant families in mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> streams. It provides professional personnel with a new tool to help meet the distinctive needs of individual migrants. Names, addresses, schedules, methods, and fee information of service agencies (health…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016518"> <span id="translatedtitle">A northern Cordilleran ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brew, D. A.; Karl, S. M.; Barnes, D. F.; Jachens, R. C.; Ford, A. B.; Horner, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f6k308719x1326j2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema in the treatment of obstructed defaecation with or without faecal incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Obstructed defaecation and faecal incontinence are complex functional disorders that pose management challenges. In recent times, the antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE) has been tried both as a primary procedure and as a final resort to avoid a colostomy in patients with a variety of functional problems. The pur- pose of this study was to evaluate the role of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. R. Hirst; P. J. Arumugam; A. J. Watkins; P. Mackey; A. R. Morgan; N. D. Carr; J. Beynon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44475919"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and Its Role in the Global Climate: A GCM Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span>, with its complex system of islands and shallow seas, presents a major challenge to models, which tend to systematically underestimate the precipitation in this region. Experiments with a climate version of the Met Office model (HadAM3) show that even with a threefold increase in horizontal resolution there is no improvement in the dry bias. It is argued</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Neale; Julia Slingo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53125405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane over the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span> - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Karen; D. Blake; S. Meinardi; N. Blake; G. Sachse; T. Slate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41057792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysing NDVI for the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> using the geostationary meteosat second generation SEVIRI sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents first results on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor onboard the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) covering the African <span class="hlt">continent</span>. With a temporal resolution of 15 min MSG offers complementary information for NDVI monitoring compared to vegetation monitoring based on polar orbiting satellites. The improved temporal resolution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rasmus Fensholt; Inge Sandholt; Simon Stisen; Compton Tucker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r501801178711331.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema in children: A report of two cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takayuki Yamamoto; Hiroyuki Kubo; Makoto Honzumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31442443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Y-appendicoplasty: A technique to minimize stomal complications in antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE) is an effective method of treatment of fecal incontinence and constipation. However, the original procedure described is not easy to perform and is associated with a high complication rate, especially stomal stenosis-necrosis (55%). Even with introduction of orthotopic appendicostomy, composite series still report an incidence of 30% with stomal problems. The authors report a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul K. H Tam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011pimo.conf...22D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Meteor Shower observations from the Indian Sub-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> (Visual Photographic and Radio)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We review the present status of meteor shower observing from the Indian sub-<span class="hlt">continent</span>. Some amateur groups are active in visual observations, although they are restricted by the lack of good observing sites. Ham radio appears to be promising as a technique to monitor the major meteor showers in this region. We present radio observations of the 2006 Quadrantids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dabhade, R.; Savant, V.; Belapure, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33231333"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Malone Antegrade <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Enema Procedure in the Management of Patients with Spina Bifida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: In patients with spina bifida, traditional bowel management programs such as suppositories, retrograde enemas, and manual disimpaction have been largely unsatisfactory. The Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE) procedure has largely changed our approach to bowel management in this patient group.Study Design: Over a 3-year period between January 1994 and January 1997, 27 patients with spina bifida underwent the Malone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terry W. Hensle; Elizabeth A. Reiley; David T. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52218921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic Relationships among Venomous Snakes of the Genus Agkistrodon from Asia and the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">AMONG a great number of venomous snakes, Agkistrodon is the only genus which is found in both Asia and the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span>. The Asiatic members of Agkistrodon consist of seven species and range from Japan, Formosa, China, south-east Asia (excluding Celebes and Philippines), India, Central Asia and southern Siberia, to the borders of the Caspian Sea and the Ural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anthony T. Tu; Bryant L. Adams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52305982"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Springs Supporting a Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Marine Ecosystem: An Analogue for Martian Springs?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L\\/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen E. Grasby; Kathleen L. Londry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28735573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creation of a pedicle valve unit (PVU) for establishment of enteric <span class="hlt">continence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to develop a natural tissue valve that could be anastomosed into any area of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to act as a fecal “brake” and so establish enteric <span class="hlt">continence</span> at that site. A 4-cm-long valve created from an intussuscepted small bowel pedicle was anastomosed into the cecum and brought out through the abdominal wall</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael E. Pezim; Hjalmar W. Johnson; Kris D. Gillespie; Peter Willard; David A. Owen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applying Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing to <span class="hlt">continence</span> care: Part 2.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theory based nursing practice provides a framework for initiation of the research process. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing clearly relates and can be easily applied to <span class="hlt">continence</span> care. Orem's Theory guides nursing practice with theoretical concepts and goal setting providing a foundation upon which nurses can question the practice and expand the avenue for nursing research. PMID:12593229</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernier, Francie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21791784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurogenic bowel and <span class="hlt">continence</span> programs for the individual with spina bifida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The neurogenic bowel in the person with spina bifida has been difficult to manage. Current literature reveals very little research conducted on the outcome of <span class="hlt">continence</span> programs in the person with spina bifida. It has different characteristics than the neurogenic bowel seen with spinal cord injury because it occurs during fetal development. Management of the neurogenic bowel to achieve <span class="hlt">continence</span> is based upon thirteen assessment items that include stool form, individual physiologic parameters, family patterns, diet and medications. Programs are developmentally related to appropriately support the child's involvement. <span class="hlt">Continence</span> strategies include the use of oral medication early in the day and timed sitting, suppositories or enemas later in the day at a time convenient to the family. The timing of the medications and evacuation is very important to the success. An interdisciplinary team is important in supporting the family as the child with spina bifida grows into an independent adult. The dietician and occupational therapist have invaluable insight into diet, fluids, adaptive aids and techniques that contribute to positive outcomes of the <span class="hlt">continence</span> program. PMID:21791784</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leibold, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uralces.ru/extension/publications/china_001_pdf/018.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The modern «Silk way» and subregional cooperation within the Eurasian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The central region of the Eurasian <span class="hlt">continent</span> including Xinjiang of China, central and western parts of Siberia, and also adjoining areas of Mongolia and five countries of Central Asia, is allocated with riches and a variety of the resources and specific features of the environment. It is one of the most perspective regions for development in the world. Subregional cooperation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ìà Intszjun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41053482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparent polar wandering for the Atlantic-bordering <span class="hlt">continents</span>: Late Carboniferous to Eocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a compilation of reliable paleomagnetic pole positions from five continental plates (North America, Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, and South America) for ten time intervals ranging from Late Carboniferous to Eocene. Only well-dated results obtained by demagnetization techniques have been used. Paleomagnetic poles are plotted with respect to the paleo-positions of the <span class="hlt">continents</span>, as reconstructed from correlations of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. van der Voo; R. B. French</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=continents&pg=4&id=EJ947747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Educational Visions from Two <span class="hlt">Continents</span>: What Tagore Adds to the Deweyan Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this global village, it is relevant to look at two educational visionaries from two <span class="hlt">continents</span>, John Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore. Dewey observed that the modern individual was depersonalized by the industrial and commercial culture. He, thus, envisioned a new individual who would find fulfillment in maximum individuality within maximum…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samuel, Francis A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=162787"> <span id="translatedtitle">REGENERATION OF TEN TRIFOLIUM SPECIES ENDEMIC TO THE CENTRAL AFRICAN <span class="hlt">CONTINENT</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clover accessions, including T. baccarinii, T. bilineatum, T. calocephalum, T. multinerve, T. pichisermollii, T. quartinianum, T. ruppellianum, T. schimperi, T. steudneri, and T. tembense originating from the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> were direct seeded into soil inside a greenhouse during mid April at a te...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=250318"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (USA) great rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55050387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relating Precipitation Phenomena with MODIS Detected Hot Spots in the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies of land use practices in SE Asia's Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> (MC) have raised questions over potential meteorological implications including smoke-cloud interaction and changes in the regional radiation budget. Land management practices on Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula include biomass burning to clear primary forest as well as to maintain oil palm plantations. Burning is also employed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. M. Ramirez; J. S. Reid; P. Xian; E. Hyer; J. Turk; M. Flatau; C. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nrmsc.usgs.gov/files/norock/products/GCC/HydroProc_Selkowitz_02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variations in snowpack in the Crown of the <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecosystem changes such as glacier recession and alpine treeline advance have been documented over the previous 150 years in the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana and southern British Columbia and Alberta, a region known as the Crown of the <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Ecosystem (CCE). Such changes are controlled, at least partially, by variations in snowpack. The CCE consists primarily of public lands,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David J. Selkowitz; Daniel B. Fagre; Blase A. Reardon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5115758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally assumed that <span class="hlt">continents</span>, acting as thermal insulation above the convecting mantle, inhibit the Earth's internal heat loss. We present theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments to test the validity of this intuitive and commonly used assumption. A scaling theory is developed to predict heat flow from a convecting mantle partially covered by stable continental lithosphere. The theory</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Lenardic; L.-N. Moresi; A. M. Jellinek; M. Manga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51591521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> [rapid communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally assumed that <span class="hlt">continents</span>, acting as thermal insulation above the convecting mantle, inhibit the Earth's internal heat loss. We present theory, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments to test the validity of this intuitive and commonly used assumption. A scaling theory is developed to predict heat flow from a convecting mantle partially covered by stable continental lithosphere. The theory</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Lenardic; L.-N. Moresi; A. M. Jellinek; M. Manga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52195002"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Surface Area of <span class="hlt">Continents</span> and Oceans and the Cooling of the Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solid Earth looses it internal heat principally through convection. The oceanic lithosphere is the active upper thermal boundary layer of mantle convection and its overturn is critical to the Earth's mode of heat loss. Long lived, conducting <span class="hlt">continents</span> at the Earth's surface locally insulate the convecting mantle and thus also effect global cooling rate. We explore the dynamics of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Lenardic; L. Moresi; A. Jellinek; M. Manga; C. M. Cooper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/structure/SGT2012/activities/63807.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Views of an Old <span class="hlt">Continent</span>: A Tectonics Lab Exercise Using Geophysical Maps of Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lab activity students are given five different map views of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of Australia: Geology, Gravity Anomaly, Magnetic Anomaly, Digital Elevation, and Satellite Image, and asked to investigate and interpret these different data sets. The primary goal is to introduce students to the potential of geophysical data for regional geologic and tectonic investigations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59466286"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span>-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, <span class="hlt">continent</span>-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. L. Chown; A. H. L. Huiskes; N. J. M. Gremmen; J. E. Lee; A. Terauds; K. Crosbie; Y. Frenot; K. A. Hughes; S. Imura; K. Kiefer; M. Lebouvier; B. Raymond; M. Tsujimoto; C. Ware; B. van de Vijver; D. M. Bergstrom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4599608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to estimate for the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span> the overall biomass productivity, water balance, and nutrient exports from the soil. We used a steady-state model which describes the uptake of carbon by plants, limited by the available energy, water and nutrients, and the cycling of carbon and nutrients within the soil. The model solves steady-state equations of the balances of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KIRBY Mac; RAUPACH Mike; BARRETT Damian; BRIGGS Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22760907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cranberries and lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection prevention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials. PMID:22760907</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/dyqnb1hle9hfbg8h.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Diversion for Incontinence in Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">:   <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is a common condition affecting up to 50% of the female population, but only a third seek medical help.\\u000a Although the majority of these are satisfactorily managed with conservative or conventional surgical treatment, 10%–15% continue\\u000a to remain incontinent despite intervention. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> diversion is a management option for this group. The different techniques\\u000a of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion, their results,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Natarajan; G. Singh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3370320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cranberries and lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection prevention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377527"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioural Interventions for <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the treatment and management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling seniors. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence defined as “the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine” was identified as 1 of the key predictors in a senior’s transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario’s community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies. Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., <span class="hlt">continence</span> pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products). The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures. Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. Description of Technology/Therapy Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or moto</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2218705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacology of the Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advances in our understanding of the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract have improved our ability to treat disorders of bladder and urethral function. Similarly, many classes of drugs used in treating various medical conditions can cause lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span>-tract symptoms and dysfunction. Based on objective urodynamic evaluation, the clinician is able to sort out bladder and urethral abnormalities and scientifically choose appropriate pharmacologic regimes to treat these conditions. This article reviews lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span>-tract physiology and provides the clinician with a rational, objective, neuro-pharmacologic approach to lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span>-tract disorders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drutz, Harold P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/37/3/553.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Lactoferrin as a Marker of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The usefulness of the measurement of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> lactoferrin (LF) released from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and of an immunochromatography test strip devised for measuring <span class="hlt">urinary</span> LF for the simple and rapid diagnosis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTI) was evaluated. Urine specimens were collected from apparently healthy persons and patients diagnosed as suffering from UTI. In the preliminary study, the LF concentrations in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SHINSUKE ARAO; SHIRO MATSUURA; MITSUO NONOMURA; KANJI MIKI; KEIGO KABASAWA; HISAO NAKANISHI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770852"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Surgical Procedure Is the Most Important Factor Affecting <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Recovery after Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose We analyzed factors associated with early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Among 467 patients treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer between 2007 and 2012, 249 patients who underwent a preoperative urodynamic study were enrolled. The patients' age, prostate volume, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, pathologic stage, and preoperative urodynamic parameters were recorded. The preoperative membranous and prostatic urethral length on magnetic resonance image, nerve sparing technique, and type of surgical procedure (extrafascial and intrafascial) were analyzed. Patients were considered to have early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> when they needed no pad in 3 months or less after surgery. Results Ninety-two patients were in the early recovery group and 157 were in the late recovery group. The membranous urethral lengths were 12.06±2.56 and 11.81±2.87 mm, and prostatic urethral lengths were 36.39±6.15 and 37.45±7.55 mm in each group, respectively. The membranous-posterior urethral length ratios were 0.25±0.06 and 0.24±0.06, and prostatic-posterior urethral length ratios were 0.75±0.06 and 0.76±0.06, respectively. In and of themselves, the membranous and prostatic urethral lengths were not associated with recovery duration however, the membranous-total and prostatic-total urethral length ratios were related (p=0.024 and 0.024, respectively). None of the urodynamic parameters correlated with <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery time. In the multivariate analysis, the type of surgical procedure (odds ratio [OR], 7.032; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.660 to 18.590; p<0.001) and membranous urethral length (OR, 0.845; 95% CI, 0.766 to 0.931; p=0.001) were significantly related to early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Conclusions The current intrafascial surgical procedure is the most important factor affecting early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Seungsoo; Yoon, Chang Jin; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jeong Zoo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5653268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span>: Similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principal objective of this paper is to present a simple and self-consistent review of the basic physical processes controlling heat loss from the earth. To accomplish this objective, we give a short summary of the oceanic and continental data and compare and contrast the respective mechanisms of heat loss . In the oceans we concentrate on the effect of hydrothermal circulation, and on the <span class="hlt">continents</span> we consider in some detail a model relating surface heat flow to varying depth scales for the distribution of potassium, thorium, and uranium. From this comparison we conclude that the range in possible geotherms at depths below 100 to 150 km under <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans overlaps and the thermal structure beneath an old stable <span class="hlt">continent</span> is indistinguishable from that beneath an ocean were it at equilibrium. Oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> are part of the same thermal system. Both have an upper rigid mechanical layer where heat loss is by conduction and a lower thermal boundary layer where convection is dominant. The simple conductive definition of the plate thickness is an oversimplification. The observed distribution of area versus age in the ocean allows us to investigate the dominant mechanism of heat loss which is plate creation. This distribution and an understanding of the heat flow through oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> can be used to calculate the heat loss of the earth. This heat loss is 10/sup 13/ cal/s (4.2 x 10/sup 13/W) of which more than 60% results from the creation of oceanic plate. The relation between area and age of the oceans is coupled to the ridge and subducting slab forces that contribute to the driving mechanism for plate motions. These forces are self-regulating and maintain the rate of plate generation required to achieve a balance between heat loss and heat generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sclater, J.G.; Parsons, B.; Jaupart, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3057761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Improvement in <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> and Bowel Incontinence for Home Health Patients Using Electronic Health Record Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose The purpose of the study was to discover which patient and support system characteristics and interventions documented by home health clinicians were associated with improvement in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> and bowel incontinence contrasting logistic regression and data mining approaches. Subjects and Setting 1,793 patients in this study had 2,072 episodes of care representing all non-maternity patients who were ages 18 or older and receiving skilled home health services in 2004 from a convenience sample of 15 home health agencies. Design This study is a secondary analysis of data from 15 home health agencies' electronic health records. Instruments Data for this study were documented by home care clinicians using the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) structured assessment form and the Omaha System interventions, which is a standardized terminology. Results There were 684 patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and 187 with bowel incontinence. By discharge 38% improved in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and 45% improved their bowel incontinence. Using logistic regression, no patient or support system characteristics were associated with improvement in either <span class="hlt">urinary</span> or bowel incontinence, only a limited number of interventions were significant. A data mining decision tree was producible only for bowel incontinence, demonstrating a combination of patient and support system factors as well as selected interventions were important in determining whether patients would improve in bowel incontinence. Conclusions Home health patients have complex comorbid conditions requiring home care nurses to have broad, generalized knowledge. Future research is needed to determine if the inclusion of a certified wound, ostomy, and <span class="hlt">continence</span> nurse would improve outcomes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westra, Bonnie L.; Savik, Kay; Oancea, Cristina; Choromanski, Lynn; Holmes, John H.; Bliss, Donna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10509310"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Part and parcel of being a woman": female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and constructions of control.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article draws on extensive interviews with middle-aged Australian women experiencing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Our discussion derives from the difficulties women face in seeking advice on the management of incontinence, as a consequence of their perception that the condition is an inevitability, a "normal" part of being female. Women do not, on the whole, support a single cause for incontinence but, rather, explain its incidence in terms of personal history, which may include childbearing and parturition, menopause and aging, and early socialization. In addition, women link their own <span class="hlt">continence</span> problems with perceived personal failings (e.g., lack of exercise, being overweight) and, hence, see the condition as a symbol of their lack of moral worth. Following this, women's understandings of the relationship of incontinence to their social membership extend far beyond the difficulties of disguising their physical problems. PMID:10509310</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peake, S; Manderson, L; Potts, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3054169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suprapubic bladder neck suspension for the management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in the myelodysplastic girl.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four young girls with myelodysplasia who remained incontinent despite intermittent catheterization and pharmacological manipulation underwent suprapubic bladder neck suspension along with bladder augmentation. Of the patients 3 underwent augmentation for decreased detrusor compliance and 1 as a part of a planned <span class="hlt">urinary</span> undiversion. There was a mean increase in <span class="hlt">continence</span> length of 1 cm. and a mean increase of 49 cm. water in urethral closure pressure in all patients. All patients currently are dry on intermittent self-catheterization and oxybutinin chloride with a minimum followup of 18 months with no evidence of upper tract deterioration. Therefore, suprapubic bladder neck suspension can be used successfully in the female patient with decreased outlet resistance. The procedure is easy to perform and would be easily reversible should incontinence recur and a further operation be required. PMID:3054169</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gearhart, J P; Jeffs, R D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2009-title21-vol8-sec862-1780.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1780 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system is a device...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec862-1780.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1780 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calculi (stones) test system is a device...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2009-title21-vol8-sec862-1340.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1340 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2009-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1340 <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3042699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urgency <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Women >= 50 years: Incidence, Remission and Predictors of Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives To estimate 2 year incidence, remission and predictors of urgency <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UUI) in a community based population of women ?50. Methods We analyzed 2004–2006 data in the Health and Retirement Study. Subjects were women ? 50 with baseline and follow-up UUI information. UUI incidence and remission were calculated. Predictors of UUI progression and improvement were estimated controlling for age, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), parity, psychiatric illness, medical co-morbidities, functional limitations and stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI). We evaluated whether baseline UUI status predicted follow-up status and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictor variables. Results 8,581 women reported UUI status at baseline and follow-up. Of 7,244 women <span class="hlt">continent</span> at baseline, 268 affirmed UUI at follow-up for a 2 year incidence of 3.7%. Of 581 women with UUI at baseline, 150 were <span class="hlt">continent</span> at follow-up for a 2 year remission of 25.8%. Predictors of UUI development included increased age (7th and 10th decade compared to 6th decade; OR 1.5 and 7.2, CI 1.1–2.1 and 4.2–12.5, respectively), obesity (OR 1.6, CI 1.2–2.1), history of psychiatric illness (OR 1.6, CI 1.3–2.0), functional limitations (OR 6.2, CI 4.2–9.2) and SUI (OR 5.0, CI 3.0–8.3). Women who denied UUI at baseline were also likely to deny UUI at follow-up (OR 47.4, CI 22.9–98.1). Conclusions In this community based population of women ? 50 UUI incidence was low and remission was high. Predictors of UUI included increased age, severe obesity, functional limitations, a positive psychiatric history and incontinence status at baseline.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Komesu, YM; Schrader, RM; Rogers, RG; Ketai, LH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21632636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Müllerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Müllerianosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is a rare condition that encompasses 3 histological entities (endometriosis, endocervicosis, and endosalpingiosis). The authors report 2 patients with bladder müllerianosis, one of whom had endometriosis and the other a history of past pelvic surgery, describe the histological and cystoscopic features, and review the literature on this condition. Mucosal hyperemia and submucosal nodules or cysts with associated fibrosis and distortion of the bladder wall may mimic malignancy on cystoscopy, as may the infiltrative growth pattern sometimes evident histologically. Recognition of this complex diagnostic entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigation. There is a clinical association with endometriosis and past pelvic surgery. PMID:21632636</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olivia Vella, Josefa Elizabeth; Nair, Nithin; Ferryman, Stephen Robert; Athavale, Ramanand; Latthe, Pallavi; Hirschowitz, Lynn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T44B..05K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basement Structures in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Region: Some Perspectives Based on Regional Geophysical Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of geophysical data show us that the basement structure of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region is very complex. Most of this complexity involves structures that are 1.1 billion years old or less and many are Phanerozoic in age. The dimensions of many of these structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually make the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The continental crust of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region as we recognize it today is due to a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. However, the resulting supercontinent did not last long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region, the subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and, at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. These events, the Laramide orogeny, and the late Cenozoic uplift to the west are topics of great current scientific interest. There has been increasing emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region, and these data have been particularly effective when used in an integrated fashion with seismic and drilling data. These studies have shown that rifting during the late Precambrian and Cambrian affected large areas of the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region and created sedimentary basins that have in many cases survived to the present. In addition, younger structures such as those associated with the Ancestral Rocky Mountains have often been affected by older rift structures preserving Cambrian and older strata. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains is often a massive inversion of these rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic. These studies show that we are still learning about the structure and history of the basement in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> region and thus there is much to be learned from EarthScope data as they become available.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, G. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.si.mahidol.ac.th/eng/publication1/2005/vol88_no10_26.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catheter-Associated <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives : To study the incidence, risk factors, clinical outcomes and antibiotic costs of catheter-associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (CAUTI) in patients with indwelling <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter for one week and longer. Material and Method : Patients in neurology and neurosurgery wards in a teaching hospital were studied. Patients with UTI before catheterization and in whom the catheter was removed before one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somwang Danchaivijitr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59288916"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence in adult bitches : 1. Investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">URINARY</span> incontinence in the adult female dog is encountered fairly commonly in practice and is a frequent cause of referrals and advice calls to specialist centres. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence represents a significant concern to the owner, despite the fact that the affected animal often appears unaware of the problem. The significance is often due to the soiling of the household environment,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alasdair Hotston Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30260292"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction in cerebral palsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The clinical features and management of 27 children with cerebral palsy referred with symptoms of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction were reviewed. The mean age at referral was 9.9 years. Daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence was the commonest presenting symptom. Videourodynamic studies were abnormal in 23 patients (85%). Only two children had evidence of upper renal tract damage. Treatment was determined by urodynamic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C J Reid; M Borzyskowski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10617801"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> lithiasis: between metabolism and dietetics].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prevalence and incidence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> lithiasis are increasing in western countries. Oxalocalcic stone is the major form of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calculi but other forms are not unusual. Caracteristics of the collected stone may improve the diagnosis investigations. Rationnal blood and urine examinations are essential for this medical managment. Most of the various metabolic abnormalities in cause can be corrected from specific dietary measures. PMID:10617801</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Böhme, P; Klein, M; Weryha, G; Leclère, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=75173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">URINARY</span> MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract We investigated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6153501"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of Haemophilus parainfluenzae <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection is reported, with clinical history and bacteriologic data. Other reports of this organism causing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection could not be found. The importance of correlating data from clean-catch urine microscopic analysis, Gram stain, and culture is emphasized, together with the possible modes of spread in a compromised host. PMID:6153501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blaylock, B L; Baber, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35284090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection in women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTI) are common among young healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tracts. Women with recurrent UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens, which is due to a greater propensity for uropathogenic coliforms to adhere to uroepithelial cells. Risk factors for recurrent UTI include sexual intercourse, use of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas M Hooton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/reprint/50/12/2286.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Immunochemically Nonreactive <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Albumin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Conventional immunoassays underesti- mate the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> albumin concentration because intact albumin in urine exists in two forms, immunoreactive and immunochemically nonreactive. Methods: <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> albumin concentration measured by HPLC (which measures total albumin, i.e., the sum of immunoreactive albumin immunochemically nonre- active albumin) or RIA was compared with densitomet- ric analysis of albumin bands in diabetic urine samples separated by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanya M. Osicka; Wayne D. Comper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33235227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors governing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract stone disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard W. E. Watts</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/920657"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose and vitamin C.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent popularization of self-prescribed large doses of vitamin C has increased the possibility for erroneous conclusions to be drawn from standard clinical methods used in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> glucose monitoring, due to interference with these methods by the greatly elevated excretion of vitamin C. The coupled-enzyme-chromogen strip tests showed erroneously negative glucose levels in urines of both a diabetic individual and a subject with a genetic low renal threshold for glucose when they were supplementing their normal diets with 1-2 g vitamin C per day. With this regimen, their <span class="hlt">urinary</span> vitamin C levels reached 200 mg/dl (11.4 mmol/l). For normal urine with vitamin C added, false-positive tests for glucose were found using Benedict's reagent when vitamin C was present at 250 mg/dl (14.3 mmol/l) or higher concentrations. In diabetic individuals consuming large quantities of vitamin C, this interference with standard coupled-enzyme-chromogen strip tests or Benedict's test could present a significant problem in diagnosis and clinical management of the disease. A simple anion exchange method of treating the urine was used to correct the false results. PMID:920657</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brandt, R; Guyer, K E; Banks, W L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4085281"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Ileocecal</span> Crohn disease with sigmoid involvement].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report concerns 14 patients with Morbus Crohn and inflammatory conglomerat tumors between ileo-coecum and sigma. In the case of primary affliction of the ileo-coecum and secondary involvement of the sigma (group A), it is generally sufficient to perform an ileo-coecal resection and suture over the sigma, if a fistula is present. In case of Morbus Crohn afflicting primarily the sigma (group B) or simultaneous involvement of ileo-coecum and sigma (group C), a double resection is necessary. It was always possible to demonstrate the presence of an ileo-sigmoidal fistula by means of barium enema and mostly possible with barium meal or enteroclysis. We consider preoperative colonoscopy with graduated biopsies to be absolutely necessary to determine the exact stage of the illness. Fistulas can be more accurately demonstrated by radiogram than endoscopically. PMID:4085281</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thiele, H; Lorenz, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23783882"> <span id="translatedtitle">A systematic review of the treatment for female stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence by ACT(®) balloon placement (Uromedica, Irvine, CA, USA).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: (1) To describe the minimally invasive adjustable <span class="hlt">continence</span> therapy (ACT)(®) balloon placement surgical technique. (2) To analyse the results of ACT(®) balloon in the treatment for female stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI). METHOD: A review of the literature was performed by searching the PubMed database using the following search terms: ACT balloons, female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, and female <span class="hlt">continence</span>. RESULTS: Eight studies were published between 2007 and 2013. The mean follow-up of these studies was 1-6 years. The mean age of the patients ranged between 62 and 73 years; 40-100 % of patients had already been treated surgically for their SUI. A significant reduction in the number of pads used per day was observed after ACT(®) balloon placement, with improvement of short pad tests from 49.6 to 77.3 g preoperatively to 11.2-25.7 g after ACT(®) balloon placement. Fifteen to 44 % of patients considered that their SUI had been cured and 66-78.4 % were satisfied with the result. The explantation rate ranged between 18.7 and 30.8 %. Quality of life was significantly improved, and no major complication was reported. CONCLUSION: ACT(®) balloons constitute a reasonable, minimally invasive alternative for the treatment for female SUI due to intrinsic sphincter disorder, especially in patients who have already experienced failure of standard surgical treatment and in clinical settings incompatible with invasive surgical placement of an artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter (especially women over the age of 80 years). Long-term results are essential to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment. PMID:23783882</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phé, Véronique; Nguyen, Kien; Rouprêt, Morgan; Cardot, Vincent; Parra, Jérôme; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22156088"> <span id="translatedtitle">The danger of imperfect regulation: Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> use in the United States and Canada.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drug companies aggressively market their products to increase sales and economic rewards. Different countries have different regulatory regimes for controlling promotion. In the United States control rests directly with the Food and Drug Administration whereas Canada relies on a mixture of voluntary self-regulation and an autonomous agency. Each method has significant weaknesses. We examine these weaknesses by analyzing the promotion of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> (the time release version of the opioid oxycodone) by Purdue in Canada and the United States. We then look at the association between promotion and the misuse and abuse of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in both countries. Finally, we advance specific recommendations for regulating promotion for drugs that may have a high abuse potential. PMID:22156088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lexchin, Joel; Kohler, Jillian Clare</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1286215"> <span id="translatedtitle">A staff management system for maintaining improvements in <span class="hlt">continence</span> with elderly nursing home residents.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a staff management system for maintaining treatment gains achieved on a specialized <span class="hlt">continence</span> unit located in a geriatric nursing home. Geriatric assistants learned to use a prompted voiding procedure to maintain improved dryness for 4 elderly residents. The staff management system included self-monitoring and recording of prompted voiding activities and supervisory monitoring and feedback based on group performance of these activities. Results show that the system was effective in maintaining prompted voiding activities with corresponding maintenance of improved patient <span class="hlt">continence</span>. However, a gradual decline in staff performance was noted 4 to 5 months after the initiation of the system. During a subsequent phase of the study, provision of individual feedback restored staff performance to previous levels. Results are discussed in relation to the practicality of prompted voiding interventions in nursing home environments and the applicability of staff management systems in this setting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burgio, L D; Engel, B T; Hawkins, A; McCormick, K; Scheve, A; Jones, L T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CRGeo.341..363B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ophiolites in ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transitions: From the Steinmann Trinity to sea-floor spreading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Before the theory of plate tectonics took hold, there was no coherent model for ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transitions that included both extant continental margins and fragmentary ancient examples preserved in orogenic belts. Indeed, during the early 1900, two strands of thought developed, one relying on the antiquity and permanence of <span class="hlt">continents</span> and oceans, advocated by the mainstream of the scientific community and one following mobilist concepts derived from Wegener's hypothesis (1915) of continental drift. As an illustration of the prevailing North-American view, the different composition and thickness of continental and oceanic crust and the resulting isostatic response showed "how improbable it would be to suppose that a <span class="hlt">continent</span> could founder or go to oceanic depth or that ocean floor at ± 3000 fathoms could ever have been a stable land area since the birth of the oceans" [H.H. Hess, Trans. R. Soc. London, A 222 (1954) 341-348]. Because of the perceived permanence of oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span>, mountain chains were thought to originate from narrow, elongated, unstable belts, the geosynclines, circling the <span class="hlt">continents</span> or following "zones of crustal weakness" within them, from which geanticlines and finally mountain belts would develop. This teleological concept, whereby a geosyncline would inevitably evolve into a mountain chain, dominated geological interpretations of orogenic belts for several decades in the mid-twentieth century. However, the concept of permanence of oceans and <span class="hlt">continents</span> and the concept of the geosyncline had already met with the critiques of Suess and others. As early as 1905, Steinmann considered the association of peridotite, "diabase" (basalt/dolerite) and radiolarite (a typical ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition assemblage), present in the Alps and Apennines, as characteristic of the deep-ocean floor and Bailey (1936) placed Steinmann's interpretation into the context of continental drift and orogeny. Indeed, in both authors' writings, the concept of ophiolites as ocean crust is apparent. Between 1920 and 1930, the stage was thus potentially set for modern mobilist concepts that were, however, to prove attractive to only a small circle of Alpine and peri-Gondwanian geologists. After the Second World War, the 1950s saw the rapid progress of the geophysical and geological exploration of oceans and continental margins that provided the data for a reevaluation of the geosynclinal concept. Actualistic models now equated the former preorogenic miogeosyncline of Stille (1940) and Kay (1951) with passive continental margins [C.L. Drake, M. Ewing, G.H. Sutton, Continental margin and geosynclines: the east coast of North America, north of Cape Hatteras, in: L. Ahrens, et al. (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 3, Pergamon Press, London, 1959, pp. 110-189], the (American version of the) eugeosyncline and its igneous rocks with "collapsing continental rises" [R.S. Dietz, J. Geol. 71 (1963) 314-333] and the ophiolites, the Steinmann Trinity, of the (European) eugeosyncline with fragments of oceanic lithosphere [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620]. The concept of sea-floor spreading [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620; H.H. Hess, Mid-oceanic ridges and tectonics of the sea-floor, in: W.F. Whittard, R. Bradshaw (Eds), Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Colston Papers 17, Butterworths, London, 1965, pp. 317-333] finally eliminated the weaknesses in Wegener's hypothesis and, with the coming of the "annus mirabilis" of 1968, the concept of the geosyncline could be laid to rest. Ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transitions of modern oceans, as revealed by seismology and deep-sea drilling, could now be compared with the remnants of their ancient counterparts preserved in the Alps and elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernoulli, Daniel; Jenkyns, Hugh C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sci...335...73B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Exhumation History of <span class="hlt">Continents</span> over Billion-Year Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth’s history can provide insight into the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blackburn, Terrence J.; Bowring, Samuel A.; Perron, J. Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H.; Dudas, Francis O.; Barnhart, Katherine R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22223803"> <span id="translatedtitle">An exhumation history of <span class="hlt">continents</span> over billion-year time scales.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth's history can provide insight into the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> themselves. PMID:22223803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blackburn, Terrence J; Bowring, Samuel A; Perron, J Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H; Dudas, Francis O; Barnhart, Katherine R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9017969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fecal incontinence successfully managed by antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema in children: a report of two cases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two children with intractable fecal incontinence after correction of high anorectal malformations were successfully managed by the daily administration of a glycerin enema into the cecum via an appendicocecostomy or tubularized cecostomy, according to the method of Malone's antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE). Fluoroscopic defecography performed during this procedure in each patient disclosed that the glycerin enema promptly evoked cecal peristalsis, which was transmitted to the distal colon and rectum, and squeezed out almost all the fecal matter, evacuating it from the anus. However, two enemas within a short interval were required to achieve a complete washout of feces. Although this report describes only two patients, our experience confirmed that the ACE was very effective and that adding the word "<span class="hlt">continence</span>" to antegrade enema was justifiable. Moreover, fluoroscopic defecography was proven to play a significant role in determining the appropriate regimens of this technique to achieve complete washout of the feces. PMID:9017969</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamamoto, T; Kubo, H; Honzumi, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56229929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling complex ecosystems in support of the NACP Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Intensive</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The WLEF tall tower near Park Falls, Wisconsin, is the only long-term tall tower being used as part of the NACP Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Intensive. Therefore, scaling tower results to the regional level is vital for comparison against other methods (e.g., inverse modeling) of obtaining the carbon balance. We use the Biome-BGC ecosystem process model over an area within a 4.5-km radius</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. A. Heinsch; B. D. Cook; P. V. Bolstad; K. J. Davis; B. Bond-Lamberty; S. W. Running</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56502407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Major arc-forearc detachment system in the active Taiwan arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision, eastern Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been known that continental-margin detachments are a dominant feature in the Taiwan arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision, as well as in most compressive sediment-rich mountain belts. Thrust faults that are bedding-parallel in the hanging wall are widespread throughout western Taiwan and lie within structural settings that indicate large cumulative displacements, >100km shortening of the continental margin. The 1999 M7.8 Chi-Chi</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Suppe; S. Carena; Y. Wu; S. Nagai; C. Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31474196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Left-colon antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution’s experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir.Methods: From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernard M Churchill; Daniel A De Ugarte; James B Atkinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.igw.uni-jena.de/geodyn/Reprint/WalzerEtAl2008-Whole-mantle.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whole-Mantle Convection, <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Generation, and Preservation of Geochemical Heterogeneity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The focus of this paper is numerical modeling of crust-mantle differentiation. We begin by surveying the observational constraints\\u000a of this process. The present-time distribution of incompatible elements are described and discussed. The mentioned differentiation\\u000a causes formation and growth of <span class="hlt">continents</span> and, as a complement, the generation and increase of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM).\\u000a Here, we present a solution of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uwe Walzer; Roland Hendel; John Baumgardner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58264892"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Growing Influence of Al-Qaeda on the African <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Al-Qaeda’s influence in Africa is growing. From 2009 to 2011, activity by Al-Qaeda was noted in 19 African nations and regions. Four regional Al-Qaeda organizations operate on the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, which in turn often have several sub-organizations: the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (with its suborganizations Al-Qaeda in Mali, Al-Qaeda in Mauritania, Al-Qaeda</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hans Krech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3862290"> <span id="translatedtitle">The borehole temperature record of climate warming in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> of North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground-surface temperature (GST) histories, determined from a carefully selected set of twenty-nine borehole temperature profiles, show a warming trend over the last century that increases systematically with latitude in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> of North America. Except one site in north Texas, the borehole locations lie within a 500 × 1000 km transect that extends from the Kansas-Nebraska border into southern Manitoba.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. D. Gosnold; P. E. Todhunter; W. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55027879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applications of advanced methods for identification and detection of nuclear explosions from the Asian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report presents the results of a continuing effort to obtain an optimum multi-discriminant\\/detection procedure for earthquakes and explosions occurring within the Asian <span class="hlt">Continent</span>. Significant improvement of theoretical predictions of teleseismic ground motion from explosions was realized using a deterministic computer model which merges nonlinear shock code calculations with far-field stress wave propagation through a realistic earth structure. The addition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. C. Bache; J. T. Cherry; J. M. Savino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49416431"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Paleoproterozoic in the South-American <span class="hlt">continent</span>: Diversity in the geologic time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Paleoproterozoic blocks and terranes that constiture of the South-American <span class="hlt">continent</span> basement register rock-forming events (orogeny and taphrogeny) clustered in the four different periods as defined by the International Stratigraphic Chart (IUGS\\/UNESCO 2004). There are some particular cases for which rifting and drifting events precede the processes of convergent interaction between lithospheric plates, representing therefore examples of Wilson Cycles. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31265040"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sonographic evaluation of the bladder neck in <span class="hlt">continent</span> and stress-incontinent women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To evaluate a new sonographic method to measure depth and width of proximal urethral dilation during coughing and Valsalva maneuver and to report its use in a group of stress-incontinent and <span class="hlt">continent</span> women.Methods: Fifty-eight women were evaluated, 30 with and 28 without stress incontinence proven urodynamically, with a bladder volume of 300 mL and the subjects upright. Urethral pressure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriel N Schaer; Daniele Perucchini; Eva Munz; Ursula Peschers; Ossi R Koechli; John O. L DeLancey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50779006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model and algorithm of integrated lot planning for steelmaking-<span class="hlt">continous</span> casting-hot rolling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Integrated lot planning(ILP) for steelmaking-<span class="hlt">continous</span> casting-hot rolling(SM-CC-HR) is analyzed and a prize collecting vehicle routing problem model is proposed. The model considers a lot of SM, CC and HR production process constraints.An improved MAX-MIN Ant System(IMMAS) with Variable Neighborhood Search(VNS) is introduced for the model.In the IMMAS, The heuristic information is constructed according to the rules to give slabs with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naiwei Tu; Hui Huang; Tianmu Ma; Binglin Zheng; Tianyou Chai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44965134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and paleoecology of algae from Missourian (Upper Pennsylvanian) cyclic sequences, Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span>, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study are fourfold: (1) document the basinal to inner shelf and vertical distribution of marine algae from Missourian transgressive-regressive depositional sequences of the U.S. Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span>: (2) integrate observed taphonomic and petrographic properties with the distribution patterns to produce empirically derived paleoecologic interpretations of these algae; (3) propose an algal-carbonate facies model for Upper Pennsylvanian depositional sequences;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a 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<div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58909613"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Epidemic and Crime Panic in Rural Kentucky</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the late 1990s in the United States, rural Kentucky (and rural pockets of nearby states) witnessed the emergence of a new pharmaceutical drug of abuse. The powerful oxycodone Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, first manufactured in 1996 and designed for time-release pain relief, found a ready population in rural hamlets and mountain communities. Intended for patients in pain associated with terminal disease, it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth D. Tunnell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31968459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of results of laparoscopic and open antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema procedures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several modifications of the Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (ACE) procedure have now been reported. In this study we have\\u000a compared the results of our experience with the laparoscopic appendicostomy (LACE procedure) with the published results of\\u000a previously described open ACE procedures. Children who had the LACE procedure at our institutions were reviewed. Intra- and\\u000a postoperative problems were identified by review</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. Lynch; S. W. Beasley; R. W. Robertson; P. N. Morreau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5206433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Churchill's soft-underbelly approach onto the European <span class="hlt">continent</span> - a missed opportunity. Study project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes Winston Churchill's World War II proposal to enter the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of Europe via the Balkans, the soft-underbelly. It considers the failure of the United States to have a national policy or grand strategy in place upon which to weigh such proposals. The American, British, and Russian perspectives are then reviewed, conclusion drawn, and suggestions made for a future strategy in Europe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawton, J.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-05-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54117200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-lived <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean interaction in the Early Proterozoic Ungava orogen, northern Quebec, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Early Proterozoic Ungava orogen contains evidence for the development of a longlived (>80 m.y.) and presumably wide ocean that was subsequently destroyed during plate convergence leading to arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision. A magmatic arc was built on 2.00 Ga oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone between about 1.90 and 1.86 Ga. Development of a south-verging continental thrust belt containing units</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. B. Lucas; M. R. St-Onge; R. R. Parrish; J. M. Dunphy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57538194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rebirth of a Strategic <span class="hlt">Continent</span>?: Problematizing Africa as a Geostrategic Zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It was during World War II that Africa publicly ceased to be the place of safari and became a <span class="hlt">continent</span> endowed with strategic significance. I argue in this reflection piece that American geographer-diplomats and politically-minded cartographers played a key role in this shift. Global historical forces and developments provided the ideal context to understand this attitudinal change among American decision-makers,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abou B. Bamba</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/14475/1/00-0915.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flood Mapping over the Asian <span class="hlt">Continent</span> during the 1999 Summer Monsoon Season</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Backscatter data from the SeaWinds scat- terometer on the QuikSCAT satellite are used to delin- eate floods over the Asian <span class="hlt">continent</span>. SeaWind acquires Ku-band (13.4 GHz) data at the vertical polarization over a very large swath of 1800 km, and at the horizontal polar- ization over a 1400-km swath. We present the flood areas together with topography on land and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. V. Nghiem; W. T. Liu; W.-Y. Tsai; X. Xie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50189494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flood mapping over the Asian <span class="hlt">continent</span> during the 1999 summer monsoon season</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Backscatter data from the SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite are used to delineate floods over the Asian, <span class="hlt">continent</span>. SeaWinds acquires Ku-band (13.4 GHz) data at the vertical polarization over a very large swath of 1800 km, and at the horizontal polarization over a 1400-km swath. The authors present the flood areas together with topography on land and wind field</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. V. Nghiem; W. T. Liu; W.-Y. Tsai; X. Xie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24028230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Use on a Rural Midwest American Indian Reservation: Demographic Correlates and Reasons for Using.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2009 we surveyed 400 tribal members of a midwestern American Indian reservation to assess the prevalence of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> use. Thirty percent of tribal participants reported nonmedical use of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> ever, 18.9% in the past year, and 13.4% in the past month. Participants aged 18 to 25 years were most likely to have used Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>. Reasons given for use of the drug included pain relief (59.3%) and getting high (52.2%), indicating a need for opioid treatment programs. PMID:24028230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Momper, Sandra L; Delva, Jorge; Tauiliili, Debbie; Mueller-Williams, Amelia Cromwell; Goral, Patricia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593228"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how <span class="hlt">continence</span> nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernier, Francie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9870288"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continence</span> mechanism of the ileal neobladder in women: a urodynamics study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We undertook this study to evaluate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">continence</span> in women who underwent modified radical cystectomy and creation of an ileal neobladder. Our surgical technique was modified in accordance with detailed anatomic dissection of female pelvises with attention to the innervation of the pelvic musculature and urethral sphincter. Ten women aged 41-71 years (mean 64.3 years) underwent nerve-sparing radical cystectomy and creation of an orthotopic neobladder with detubularized ileum. Videourodynamic evaluation was performed 6 months postoperatively to evaluate sphincteric and reservoir function. Seven of the ten patients were totally <span class="hlt">continent</span> after the procedure, requiring no protective pad. Of these, one requires intermittent self-catheterization. Videourodynamic evaluation revealed a low-pressure reservoir with a mean capacity of 467 ml, and leakage did not occur during Valsalva maneuver. Three patients reported significant incontinence (more than one pad per day) after orthotopic reconstruction. These patients demonstrated intrinsic sphincteric deficiency with a low mean abdominal leak-point pressure of 48.3 cmH2O. Two of these women had stress incontinence preoperatively. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">continence</span> can be preserved in most women after modified radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder replacement. Success results from preservation of the intrinsic sphincteric mechanism and the creation of a low-pressure, compliant reservoir. A history of stress incontinence preoperatively appears to predispose to sphincteric weakness postoperatively. PMID:9870288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aboseif, S R; Borirakchanyavat, S; Lue, T F; Carroll, P R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..182Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variability of Rainfall Over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Based on Trmm pr Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal and spatial distribution of near surface rain and three types of rainfall namely shallow rain, convective rain, and stratiform rain over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> (90E-150E, 15S-15N) was investigated using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar in a 10-years dataset (1998-2007). This research also using least square method to confirm distribution of annual and semiannual oscillation of rainfall over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> (IMC). Climatology rainfall of shallow, stratiform, and convective have agreement to seasonal variability of rainfall over IMC that influenced by monsoon which was rainfall became increased from November to April and reached peak value in January. Conversely, rainfall decreased from May to October and reached lowest value in July. The distribution of shallow rain showed the unique seasonal rainfall for local region namely Sulawesi, Maluku, and closely region. Seasonal of shallow rain in those regions approve to local type of rainfall which was reach peak value in July and August. This rainfall type was opposite to equator rainfall and monsoon rainfall in the most of IMC regions which are dry season occured in the same period. Shallow rain may contributed to local rainfall type over IMC. It might be drived by increasing low level moisture and strongly of subsidence flow in boundary layer which is also influenced by enhancement of Sea Surface Temperature in Malacca Strait at the same period. Keyword: Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span>, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Seasonal Vari-ability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yulihastin, Erma; Kodama, Yasu-Masa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSAES..32..270D"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Paleoproterozoic in the South-American <span class="hlt">continent</span>: Diversity in the geologic time</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Paleoproterozoic blocks and terranes that constiture of the South-American <span class="hlt">continent</span> basement register rock-forming events (orogeny and taphrogeny) clustered in the four different periods as defined by the International Stratigraphic Chart (IUGS/UNESCO 2004). There are some particular cases for which rifting and drifting events precede the processes of convergent interaction between lithospheric plates, representing therefore examples of Wilson Cycles. In other cases, the records of extensional processes and those of convergent interaction of lithospheric plates (orogenies) are either concurrent in time (with difficult discrimination between them) or concurrent in the geographic-geologic space (they occur in different and separated domains), privileging different regions. The four periods of rock-forming events discussed here (Siderian, Rhyacian, Orosirian, Statherian) are mainly recorded and recognizable for most of the cratonic domains of the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, but they are gradually being identified within the Paleoproterozoic basement blocks ("inliers") in the large Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano) provinces of the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. In the latter, such discrimination is much more difficult due to the overprint of the Brasiliano thermo-dynamic processes. For many years (in the recent past), the word "Transamazonian" (event, orogeny, cycle) had been used to cover indiscriminately all these many different Paleoproterozoic events, of the four different periods. With the present discrimination of the four major stages (periods) on time of rock-forming processes (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary assemblages) the term Transamazonian has naturally become obsolete, and its usage is no longer advisable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Brito Neves, Benjamim Bley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21491677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal <span class="hlt">Continence</span> in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: hans.geinitz@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, Monika [Sektion Psychoonkologie, Klinik fuer Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Pehl, Christian [Medizinische Klinik, Kreiskrankenhaus Vilsbiburg, Vilsbiburg (Germany); Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Busch, Raymonde [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889669"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Catheterization in Medical Wards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: The study aims to determine the: 1. frequency of inappropriate catheterization in medical wards and the reasons for doing it. 2. various risk factors associated with inappropriate catheterization, catheter associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (CAUTI) and bacterial colonization on Foley's catheters (BCFC). Settings and Design: Hospital-based prospective study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients admitted consecutively in the medical wards of a tertiary care hospital, who underwent catheterization with a Foley's catheter, at admission, have been included in the study. Patient profiles were evaluated using the following parameters: age, sex, diagnosis, functional status, mental status, indication, duration and place of catheterization, development of BCFC and CAUTI. Statistical tests used: Chi-square test. Results: Thirty-six out of 125 (28.8%) patients included were inappropriately catheterized. BCFC developed in 52.8% and 22.4% were diagnosed with a CAUTI. The most frequent indication for inappropriate catheterization was <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence without significant skin breakdown (27.8%). The risk factors for inappropriate catheterization were female sex (RR=1.29, 95% CI=0.99, 1.69, P<0.05) and catheterization in the emergency (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.61, 0.90, P<0.05). The risk factors for developing a BCFC were age>60 years (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48, 0.89, P<0.05), non-ambulatory functional status (RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.39, 0.84, P<0.01), catheterization in the emergency (RR=2.01, 95% CI=1.17, 3.46, P<0.01) and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.43, 0.89, P<0.01). The risk factors for acquiring a CAUTI were age>60 years (RR=0.47, 95% CI=0.25, 0.90, P<0.05), impaired mental status (RR=0.37, 95% CI=0.18, 0.77, P<0.01) and duration of catheterization>3 days (RR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10, 0.58, P<0.01). Conclusions: Inappropriate catheterization is highly prevalent in medical wards, especially in patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. The patients catheterized in the medical emergency and female patients in particular are at high risk. Careful attention to these factors can reduce the frequency of inappropriate catheterization and unnecessary morbidity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Daga, Mradul K; Garg, Sandeep; Prakash, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Association of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium and myocardial infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Everett, Charles J. [Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 295 Calhoun Street, P.O. Box 250192, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)], E-mail: everettc@musc.edu; Frithsen, Ivar L. [Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 295 Calhoun Street, P.O. Box 250192, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)], E-mail: frithse@musc.edu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6430447"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During 1968-77, 572 consecutive children with one or more positive urine cultures who were referred by their family doctors to one paediatric surgical outpatient clinic were investigated and prospectively recorded. An abnormality requiring treatment was found in 45%. The yield of positive findings and need for operation were greater in those referred after one infection than in those with recurrent infection. Among those under 2 years old 90% had an abnormality. One third of children with vesicoureteric reflux showed renal scarring at the time of first attendance. The results of medical and surgical treatment over five to 15 years of follow up were analysed. They emphasised the importance of culturing the urine whenever there may be <span class="hlt">urinary</span> infection in a child and of investigating immediately those with a positive urine culture. PMID:6430447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKerrow, W; Davidson-Lamb, N; Jones, P F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioural treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and encopresis in children with learning disabilities: transfer of stimulus control.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> and faecal incontinence present a considerable problem in people with learning disabilities, despite the general effectiveness of behavioural techniques in <span class="hlt">continence</span> training. Children with learning disabilities and obsessional behaviour may be particularly resistant to toilet training, even where relatively cognitively able, and often despite a substantial degree of control over their eliminatory functions. Their resistance may be more appropriately regarded as a challenging behaviour and their incontinence better explained by factors other than a simple failure to learn. A 'stimulus-control' hypothesis proposes that the child's nappy (diaper)/potty/underwear has developed strong stimulus control over the elimination response. This report describes three case studies in which treatment-resistant children, aged between 8 and 12 years, with mild or moderate learning disabilities, were successfully treated for nappy-dependent nocturnal encopresis or diurnal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. The children were routine case referrals for whom previous attempts to train bowel or bladder control had failed. Behavioural techniques, such as 'shaping' (gradually increasing the proximity to the toilet), 'fading' (reducing the presence of the nappy), and rewards for eliminating, effected successful transfer of stimulus control over elimination from nappy to toilet. Treatment times varied, depending on the degree of the child's obsession and resistance to change. PMID:10795568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, L; Smith, P; Lee, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40450891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep root of a <span class="hlt">continent–continent</span> collision belt: Evidence from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) deep borehole in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (HP–UHP) metamorphic terrane, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) deep borehole, which reached a depth of 5158 m in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane, provides a new window into the deep root of a <span class="hlt">continent–continent</span> collision belt, and the tectonic processes by which supracrustal material is recycled into the mantle by subduction and then uplifted to the surface. Major research themes of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhiqin Xu; Wencai Yang; Shaocheng Ji; Zeming Zhang; Jingsui Yang; Qin Wang; Zhemin Tang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907613"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Up to 11.3% of girls and 3.6% of boys will have had a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) by the age of 16 years, and recurrence of infection is common. Vesicoureteric reflux is identified in up to 40% of children being investigated for a first UTI, and is a risk factor for, but weak predictor of, renal parenchymal defects. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection in children? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 25 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (short initial intravenous antibiotics, long initial intravenous antibiotics, initial oral antibiotics, single-dose or single-day courses of oral antibiotics, short courses of oral antibiotics, long courses of oral antibiotics, immediate empirical antibiotics, delayed antibiotics, prolonged delay of antibiotics, prophylactic antibiotics); immunotherapy; surgical correction of minor functional abnormalities; and surgical correction of moderate to severe vesicoureteric reflux.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15302567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Duloxetine: a new approach for treating stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Duloxetine is a potent and balanced dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that enhances urethral rhabdosphincter activity and bladder capacity in a cat irritated bladder model. Whether this is beneficial in women suffering from stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) has been investigated in one phase 2 and three phase 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials with very comparable inclusion and exclusion criteria and outcome variables. In addition, one phase 3 study was performed in women with SUI awaiting incontinence surgery. These trials involved investigational centers in 5 <span class="hlt">continents</span>: North America, Europe, Australia, South America and Africa. Duloxetine 80 mg per day (40 mg twice daily) decreased the frequency of incontinence episode frequency (IEF) and improved incontinence-related quality of life (I-QOL) independent of baseline incontinence severity and also in patients awaiting surgery