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Sample records for continent ileocecal urinary

  1. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is...

  2. Robotic Intracorporeal Continent Cutaneous Urinary Diversion: Primary Description.

    PubMed

    Goh, Alvin C; Aghazadeh, Monty A; Krasnow, Ross E; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Stewart, Julie N; Miles, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose is to present the first report and describe our novel technique for intracorporeal continent cutaneous diversion after robotic cystectomy. After completion of robot-assisted cystectomy using a standard six-port transperitoneal technique, three additional ports are placed, and the robot is redocked laterally over the patient's right side in the modified lateral position. Our technique replicates step-by-step the principles of the open approach. Ileocolonic anastomosis, ureteroenteral anastomoses, and construction of a hand-sewn right colonic pouch are all performed intracorporeally. Tapering of efferent ileal limb and reinforcement of the ileocecal valve are performed via the extraction site, while the stoma is matured through a prospective port site. Successful robotic intracorporeal creation of a modified Indiana pouch was achieved. Operative time for diversion was 3 hours, with negligible blood loss, and without any intraoperative complications. No major (Clavien III-V) 90-day complications were observed. At a follow-up of 1 year, the patient continues to catheterize without difficulty. We demonstrate the first description of robotic intracorporeal continent cutaneous urinary diversion after robot-assisted cystectomy. We present a systematic minimally invasive approach, replicating the principles of open surgery, which is technically feasible and safe with a good functional result. PMID:25556514

  3. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. 876.5280...876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence....5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by...

  11. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  12. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a...

  15. Comparison of three types of continent urinary diversions in a single center.

    PubMed

    Girgin, Cengiz; Sezer, Akif; Ozer, Kutan; Tarhan, Huseyin; Bolukbasi, Ahmet; Gurel, Gozen

    2004-06-01

    The results including the complication and continence rates for 3 types of continent urinary diversion were evaluated. From 1992 to 1998 we performed 58 continent urinary diversions after radical cystectomy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. All three types of continent diversions and ileal loop procedures were discussed and patient preferences were determined. The patient preference rate for continent urinary diversion was 96.6%, and half of these patients wanted to be completely dry. Mean age of the patients was 58.2 years. Of the 58 patients, 9 (15.5%) had a Kock pouch, 15 (25.8%) had a Kock neobladder and 34 (58.6%) had sigmoidorectal pouch (Mainz-II pouch). Early and late complication rates of the three different continent diversions were evaluated. The number of complications, such as urine leakage, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, reflux and stone formation, were similar in all three types of diversions. Two (5.9%) Mainz pouch II patients who had stopped oral alkalinization demonstrated severe hyperchloremic acidosis. Spontaneous pouch rupture occurred in 1 of the Kock pouches. Reoperation rates were higher with the Kock pouch and Kock neobladder cases. Daytime continence rates for the Kock pouch, Kock neobladder and Mainz II pouch were 77.7%, 86.7% and 100% respectively. Even though complete dryness may not be achieved in every patient, orthotopic bladder substitution appears to be the best choice after radical cystectomy. Although it carries the risk of life-long oral alkalinization therapy, the Mainz pouch II is associated with an excellent continence rate and may be a good alternative for patients who desire to be dry. PMID:15349539

  16. Evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary loss of urine that can influence the quality of life, personal hygiene and social interaction. The types of UI that most affect women are stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence. There are several risk factors that result in specific treatments. We aimed to investigate the evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy intervention and its associated factors. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 71 participants who were discharged from physiotherapy sector from August 2006 to April 2012 and met the inclusion criteria. Results Among the studied variables, the number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant association. The urinary continence appeared in 43.7% of the cases, and factors, performance of home exercises, and number of sessions showed a significant association. Conclusion The number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant relationship with each other. PMID:24839462

  17. Postoperative outcomes after continent versus incontinent urinary diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Urh, Anze; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Westin, Shannon; Frumovitz, Michael; Nick, Alpa M.; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana L.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes of patients undergoing continent or incontinent urinary diversion after pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies. Methods Data on patients who underwent pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1993 and December 2010 were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was used and statistical significance was P < 0.05. Results A total of 133 patients were included in this study. The mean age at exenteration was 47.6 (range, 30–73) years in the continent urinary diversion group and 57.2 (range, 27–86) years in the incontinent urinary diversion group (P < 0.0001). Forty-six patients (34.6%) had continent urinary diversion, and 87 patients (65.4%) had incontinent urinary diversion. The rates of postoperative complications in patients with continent and incontinent urinary diversion, respectively, were as follows: pyelonephritis, 32.6% versus 37.9% (P = 0.58); urinary stone formation, 34.8% versus 2.3% (P < 0.001); renal insufficiency, 4.4% versus 14.9% (P = 0.09); urostomy stricture, 13.0% versus 1.2% (P = 0.007); ureteral (anastomotic) leak, 4.4% versus 6.9% (P = 0.71); ureteral (anastomotic) stricture, 13.0% versus 23% (P = 0.25); fistula formation, 21.7% versus 19.5% (P = 0.82); and reoperation because of complications of urinary diversion, 6.5% versus 2.3% (P = 0.34). Among patients with continent urinary diversion, the incidence of incontinence was 28.3%, and 15.2% had difficulty with self-catheterization. Conclusion There were no differences in postoperative complications between patients with continent and incontinent conduits except that stone formation was more common in patients with continent conduits. PMID:23480870

  18. The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jennifer L; Thompson, Rachel H

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing underwear may facilitate the development of toileting skills. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of wearing disposable diapers, disposable pull-on training pants, and underwear on urinary continence of 5 typically developing toddlers in a child-care setting. Underwear decreased incontinence and increased continent urinations for 2 of the 5 participants, produced no improvement in 2 participants, and when combined with increased fluid intake and longer sitting periods, produced some favorable trends for the 5th participant. PMID:17020216

  19. The effects of undergarment type on the urinary continence of toddlers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jennifer L; Thompson, Rachel H

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing underwear may facilitate the development of toileting skills. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of wearing disposable diapers, disposable pull-on training pants, and underwear on urinary continence of 5 typically developing toddlers in a child-care setting. Underwear decreased incontinence and increased continent urinations for 2 of the 5 participants, produced no improvement in 2 participants, and when combined with increased fluid intake and longer sitting periods, produced some favorable trends for the 5th participant. PMID:17020216

  20. Quality of life related to urinary continence in adult spina bifida patients

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caroline; Casey, Jessica T.; Greiman, Alyssa; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Kielb, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To analyze the correlations of bladder management technique, ambulatory status and urologic reconstruction on quality of life (QOL) as affected by urinary symptoms in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. Material and methods Sixty–six adult SB patients completed the RAND 36–Item Health Survey (mSF–36) and Incontinence Quality of Life (I–QOL). Demographic information, history of urinary reconstruction, and bladder management techniques were reviewed and analyzed with respect to survey scores. Results Mean age of patients was 32.3 (SD ±7.2) years and 44 patients (66.7%) were female. Forty–five patients (68.2%) were mainly ambulatory, 21 (31.8%) use a wheelchair and 10 (15.2%) had urologic reconstruction, while 56 (83.3%) did not. Twelve patients (18.2%) void, 42 (63.6%) perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), 4 (6.1%) use an indwelling catheter, 3 (4.5%) have an ileal conduit (IC) and 5 (7.6%) mainly use diapers. Mean mSF–36 General Health score was 56.5 (SD ±22.9) and mean I–QOL Sum score was 50.9 (SD ±21.7), where lower scores reflect lower QOL. mSF–36 and I–QOL scores did not significantly correlate with bladder management technique, ambulatory status or urologic reconstruction. A correlation was noted between I–QOL scales and most mSF–36 scales (all p <0.02). Conclusions In our cohort study of adult SB patients, bladder management technique and urologic reconstruction did not correlate with urinary (I–QOL) or general health (mSF–36) domains, although I–QOL and mSF–36 scores correlated closely, suggesting urinary continence is significantly related to general QOL. However, we are unable to identify a single factor that improves either urinary or general QOL. PMID:25914840

  1. [Postoperative complications of self-catheterizable continent urinary diversions (Kock, Indiana, and appendiceal Mainz pouch) and patient care].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Hamaguchi, A; Kageyama, S; Tomoyoshi, T; Kawakita, M; Terai, A; Yoshida, O

    1995-11-01

    A self-catheterizable continent urinary reservoir has become one of the major options for urinary diversion in patients with invasive bladder cancer or other pelvic malignancies. We performed the Kock pouch, the Indiana pouch and the appendiceal Mainz pouch in 124, 51 and 4 patients with the mean followup periods of 50, 33, and 10 months, respectively. In the Kock pouch, the efferent and afferent nipple valve malfunction was seen in 16.7 and 21.3 percent each, requiring repair surgery, such as fixation of the efferent nipple to the pouch wall, reconstruction of an isoperistaltic nipple valve in the former, and removal of the Dacron fabric collar or re-anastomosis of the ureter to the pouch using LeDuc technique in the latter. In the Indiana pouch, stomal stenosis, an hourglass-like pouch deformity, difficult catheterization occurred in 3, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Among the 4 patients with the appendiceal Mainz pouch, there were no major late postoperative complications except for mild stenosis of the conduit, handled with bougienage. As a whole, surgical revisions, related to urinary diversion, was done in 20.3, 10.6, 0 percent in the Kock, Indiana, Mainz pouch patients, respectively. Stone formation, mostly multiple and recurrent, occurred in 27.8, 6.4, 0 percent in the Kock, Indiana, Mainz pouch, respectively. Most of the stones were removed endoscopically via a stoma or by percutaneous approach. Acidosis was seen in 3 patients in both the Kock and Indiana pouch, and 3 patients with the Kock pouch suffered from symptomatic choleithiasis. At the time of the latest observation, continence was achieved in 90.2, 93.0, and 100 percent, whereas excretory urograms showed normal collecting systems in 64.5, 90.4, and 100 percent in the Kock, Indiana, and Mainz pouch, respectively. In conclusion, the Kock pouch, performed by an original method using unabsorbable polyester fabric collars and metallic staples, has an intolerably high rate of late complications, and either the modified Indiana pouch with ileal patch or the appendiceal Mainz pouch using the umbilicus as a stoma is recommended for a self-catheterization continent urinary diversion. PMID:8533703

  2. Long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Mainz I pouch): A retrospective study of a monocentric experience

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Fahd; Fellahi, Saad; Ouslim, Hicham; Mhanna, Tarik; El Houmaidi, Amine; Aynaou, Mohammed; Boteng, Paapa Dua; Barki, Ali; Nouini, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous reservoir (ICCR) and to review the late complications. Patients and methods In all, 756 patients underwent an ICCR in our department, with long-term follow-up data available in 50 patients. The inclusion criterion was ICCR regardless of the indication and the exclusion criteria were orthotopic neobladder or other continent urinary diversions not performed with the ileocaecum. Patients were followed to record primary outcomes and late complications. Complications were stratified according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The mean patient age was 44 years and pelvic malignancies were the first indication for urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 19 (9–36) years. A stoma stenosis was the most frequent outlet-related complication requiring re-intervention, followed by ischaemic outlet degeneration, and stoma incontinence. Six renal units (RUs) developed obstruction at the anastomotic site and were managed by open surgery. Three RUs had to be removed due to deterioration. A dederivation was necessary in three patients (6%). Conclusion The ICCR is a safe and established technique when an orthotopic pouch is impossible. The long-term follow-up shows acceptable complication rates and satisfactory continence conditions. However, large population studies are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:26609442

  3. Preoperative risk factors for early postoperative urinary continence recovery after non-nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy in Chinese patients: a single institute retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qiqi; Lin, Yiwei; Chen, Hong; Bai, Yu; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiangyi; Liu, Ben; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) remained a significant complication after radical prostatectomy and led to impaired quality of life. Early continence is a goal to take into consideration for better patient satisfaction after radical prostatectomy. To identify the independent preoperative risk factors associated with UI after radical prostatectomy (RP), we evaluated 446 patients treated with non-nerve-sparing RP between 2010 and 2013 at our institution. The incontinence rate was 98.7% and 46.6% after catheter removal and 3 months after surgery, respectively. We examined several preoperative factors including age, smoking, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and preoperative pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME). The results suggested preoperative PFME was the only independent protective risk factor for immediate continence after catheter removal. At 3 month following surgery, age at surgery represented a risk factor for delayed continence, while BMI and preoperative PFME were the protective risk factors for postoperative UI. Our results supported that age and preoperative PFME were predictive factors for early continence after RP. These findings could help clinicians to counsel men and their partners about postoperative incontinence. PMID:26550377

  4. Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A; Lichtbach, Jonas; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in the preservation and restoration of erectile function and urinary continence in conjunction with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods The present study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013 as a randomized prospective trial at two university hospitals. Eligible participants were continent men with an International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score of at least 18, scheduled to undergo nerve-sparing RP. Patients were randomized to a PVS group or a control group. Patients in the PVS group were instructed in using a PVS device (FERTI CARE® vibrator). Stimulation was performed at the frenulum once daily by the patients in their own homes for at least 1 week before surgery. After catheter removal, daily PVS was re-initiated for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery with the IIEF-5 questionnaire and questions regarding urinary bother. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT01067261). Results Data from 68 patients were available for analyses (30 patients randomized to PVS and 38 patients randomized to the control group). The IIEF-5 score was highest in the PVS group at all time points after surgery with a median score of 18 vs 7.5 in the control group at 12 months (P = 0.09), but the difference only reached borderline significance. At 12 months, 16/30 (53%) patients in the PVS group had reached an IIEF-5 score of at least 18, while this was the case for 12/38 (32%) patients in the control group (P = 0.07). There were no significant differences in the proportions of continent patients between groups at 3, 6 or 12 months. At 12 months 90% of the PVS patients were continent, while 94.7% of the control patients were continent (P = 0.46). Conclusion The present study did not document a significant effect of PVS. However, the method proved to be acceptable for most patients and there was a trend towards better erectile function with PVS. More studies are needed to explore this possible effect further. PMID:24127838

  5. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence... nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§...

  10. Continence and micturition: an anatomical basis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adarsh P; Mevcha, Amit; Wilby, Daniel; Alatsatianos, Anton; Hardman, John C; Jacques, Steven; Wilton, Joanne C

    2014-11-01

    Urinary incontinence remains an important clinical problem worldwide, having a significant socio-economic, psychological, and medical burden. Maintaining urinary continence and coordinating micturition are complex processes relying on interaction between somatic and visceral elements, moderated by learned behavior. Urinary viscera and pelvic floor must interact with higher centers to ensure a functionally competent system. This article aims to describe the relevant anatomy and neuronal pathways involved in the maintenance of urinary continence and micturition. Review of relevant literature focusing on pelvic floor and urinary sphincters anatomy, and neuroanatomy of urinary continence and micturition. Data obtained from both live and cadaveric human studies are included. The stretch during bladder filling is believed to cause release of urothelial chemical mediators, which in turn activates afferent nerves and myofibroblasts in the muscosal and submucosal layers respectively, thereby relaying sensation of bladder fullness. The internal urethral sphincter is continuous with detrusor muscle, but its arrangement is variable. The external urethral sphincter blends with fibers of levator ani muscle. Executive decisions about micturition in humans rely on a complex mechanism involving communication between several cerebral centers and primitive sacral spinal reflexes. The pudendal nerve is most commonly damaged in females at the level of sacrospinous ligament. We describe the pelvic anatomy and relevant neuroanatomy involved in maintaining urinary continence and during micturition, subsequently highlighting the anatomical basis of urinary incontinence. Comprehensive anatomical understanding is vital for appropriate medical and surgical management of affected patients, and helps guide development of future therapies. PMID:24615792

  11. Urinary Diversions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Once the bladder has been removed or declared non-functional, some form of urinary diversion must be performed. The diversion can be as simple as bringing the ureters to the skin and as complicated as the creation of a functioning neobladder. The indications for and expectations of the most common types of diversion are explained. Some new techniques for continent diversion are described. PMID:21229045

  12. Large ileocecal submucosal lipoma presenting as hematochezia, a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chehade, Hiba Hassan El Hage; Zbibo, Riad Hassan; Nasreddine, Walid; Abtar, Houssam Khodor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colonic lipomas are rare subepithelial benign tumors affecting mainly middle-aged women. They are usually asymptomatic and, hence, are discovered incidentally on autopsy, surgery, or colonoscopy. There is a wide range of presentations like abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, intussusception, etc. The latter picture constitutes the usual presentation of an ileocecal lipoma. Only few cases of ileocecal lipomas presenting as lower GI bleeding have been reported in the literature. Presentation of case We present a case of an adult female patient who was admitted to our institution complaining of hematochezia and right lower quadrant pain. She was found to have chronic anemia. She was investigated by CT scan of the abdomen & pelvis and by colonoscopy which showed a fungating, submucosal mass with ulcerated base near the ileocecal valve. She underwent a colonic resection. The pathology came out as a submucosal benign pedunculated ileocecal lipoma. Discussion Colonic lipomas represent 4% of benign lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. They are usually asymptomatic hence are often discovered incidentally on colonoscopy, surgery or autopsy. The definitive diagnosis is made by pathological evaluation. Colonic lipomas are usually treated if they are symptomatic or there is any suspicion of malignancy. The treatment modalities include endoscopic and surgical resection. Conclusion We, hereby, describe a case of benign ileocecal lipoma that presented with hematochezia which is an unusual presentation. Also, there is a great controversy regarding the treatment of colonic lipomas. In this article, we tried to answer several questions concerning the management of ileocecal lipomas. PMID:25770697

  13. 21 CFR 876.5310 - Nonimplanted, peripheral electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...electrode is placed onto or inserted into the body at a peripheral location and used to stimulate the nerves associated with pelvic floor function to maintain urinary continence. When necessary, the electrode may be removed by the user. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...into the rectum or into the vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence...nonimplanted electrical continence device and the powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use (§ 884.5940). (b)...

  15. Drug-induced urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Some causes involve physiologic and structural disorders of the urinary system. Other causes do not directly affect the urinary system but are related to difficulties in reacting to the urge to urinate or getting to the toilet alone, or an increase in urine output. Toxic substances or drugs are sometimes implicated. Drugs that affect one or more of the components of the normal continence mechanism expose patients to the risk of urinary incontinence. Some of these drugs act on the urinary system, particularly the autonomic nervous system; some increase urine output; some impair physical or cognitive function; and others cause urinary retention, leading to overflow incontinence. Drugs known to cause urinary incontinence are often prescribed for older patients, who are already at increased risk: sedatives, neuroleptics, antidepressants, cholinesterase inhibitors used in Alzheimer's disease, diuretics, alpha blockers used in hypertension or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and menopausal hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26240882

  16. Superior mesenteric artery Doppler waveform changes in response to inflammation of the ileocecal region.

    PubMed

    Erden, A; Cumhur, T; Olçer, T

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we determined how Doppler waveforms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are affected by inflammatory processes in the ileocecal region. Twenty-two patients (aged 20-69 years) with ileocecal region inflammation (ICRI) were examined with duplex Doppler Ultrasonography to establish whether any significant changes were present in the mean blood flow parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index, pulsatility index, blood flow volume, and diameter of the SMA. The findings were compared with those of 22 volunteer controls. Mean blood flow volume in the SMA in patients with ICRI (1.128 +/- 0. 43 L/min) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that in the control group (0.643 +/- 0.19 L/min). The mean PSV (1.87 +/- 0.44 m/s) and the mean EDV (0.31 +/- 0.18 m/s) were also significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of the means in healthy subjects (mean PSV = 1.44 +/- 0.26 m/s and mean EDV = 0.20 +/- 0.05 m/s). ICRI, regardless of cause, increases both the flow velocities in the SMA and the flow volume to the SMA territory. PMID:9233882

  17. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscles that control urinary control. For men undergoing prostatectomy, incontinence is the primary urinary side effect. On ... some increase in urinary symptoms and urgency after prostatectomy. This seems to be reduced if a nerve- ...

  18. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hyperplasia—also called BPH—urethral stricture, urinary tract stones, cystocele, rectocele, constipation, and certain tumors and cancers ... This condition happens mostly in women. Urinary tract stones. Urinary tract stones develop from crystals that form ...

  19. The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2 g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90 d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12 mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. PMID:23958018

  20. 21 CFR 876.5320 - Nonimplanted electrical continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...pulse source. The plug or pessary is inserted into the rectum or into the vagina and used to stimulate the muscles of the pelvic floor to maintain urinary or fecal continence. When necessary, the plug or pessary may be removed by the user. This...

  1. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzy?ska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  2. Selecting appropriate absorbent products to treat urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant negative effect on a person's life, especially if left unmanaged and untreated. Continence assessment, often carried out by community nurses, is an important element in the management of a person's urinary incontinence, and so is the selection of appropriate absorbent incontinence pads. This article reviews: the causes and effects of urinary incontinence; how to derive the most appropriate information from a continence assessment; strategies for selecting incontinence pads for a person, on the basis of the results of the continence assessment; and some of the problems and risks associated with the use of incontinence pads. PMID:26551385

  3. Female urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, M; Gambacciani, M

    2015-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is more common than any other chronic disease, such as hypertension, depression or diabetes, with the prevalence estimated between 9 and 74%. Among the various forms of urinary incontinence, stress incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent (50%), with urgency incontinence (UUI) representing 11% and mixed type (MUI) 36% (3% not classified). Nowadays, the restoration of urinary continence is one of the greatest challenges for the well-being and quality of life of women. The introduction of minimally invasive surgical procedures changed the anti-incontinence surgery, leading to similar, or even better results as traditional, invasive techniques. The development of the mid-urethral slings offers a viable alternative to surgical correction of SUI. These further developments of mini-sling procedures are appropriate for local anesthesia, less traumatic, 'tension-free' (to ensure continence without obstruction), simple, rapid and repeatable. The latest minimally invasive approaches can be performed in day surgery, with clear advantages compared to traditional procedures. A novel approach through the use of vaginal laser techniques could represent an additional opportunity, as a non-invasive, outpatient method to treat SUI. PMID:26366798

  4. Geochemistry: Rise of the continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cin-Ty A.; McKenzie, N. Ryan

    2015-07-01

    The continents are archives of Earth's evolution. Analysis of the isotopic signature of continental crust globally suggests that buoyant, silicic continents began to form 3 billion years ago, possibly linked to the onset of plate tectonics.

  5. [Cystectomy and urinary diversion: Technique and support].

    PubMed

    Beauval, J-B; Grange, C; Roumiguié, M

    2015-11-01

    Cystectomy and urinary diversion (Bricker ileal conduit or neobladder) are common modalities of care in urology requiring their attention. Oncological surgery as well as functional disorders in particular for neurogenic bladder are the main directions. The optimal decision must be multidisciplinary and requires the fundamental of stomatherapy that urology teams need to know in order to improve the management of the care plan. After cystectomy whose surgical approach depends on the cause (oncological vs other causes), urinary diversions may be non continent (cutaneous ureterostomy or Bricker ileal conduit) or continent (ileal neobladder most of the time.) The monitoring and patient's support remain two most important steps, particularly in cases of bladder diversion to monitor (protection of upper urinary tract, neobladder capacity) and patient education (learning of continence and good emptying). The choice of many surgical techniques must be adapted to the characteristics of the patient, after an informed discussion with the patient. PMID:26475233

  6. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced age and those with significant lower urinary tract symptoms prior to RARP should be counselled on the increased risk of urinary incontinence in the early stages. PMID:25737770

  7. [Continence in low resections].

    PubMed

    Rosa, G; Girardi, S; Lolli, P; Ferrara, R; Fasoli, G L

    1994-01-01

    Anorectal function is an important problem after low anterior resection procedure. This paper reports the results from 14 patients undergoing to low resection at Surgical Pathology Institute of the University of Verona. In 12 cases the restoration of the bowel continuity has been obtained by colon-anal anastomosis (Parks Operation) and in 3 cases by colo-rectal anastomosis at the anorectal ring level. The patients have been examined in the preoperative and in the postoperative period by clinical and manometric study. The results confirm that low resection does not involve faecal continence. PMID:7788809

  8. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls. PMID:24373039

  9. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...implanted in the abdomen with electrodes for pulsed-stimulation that are implanted either in the bladder wall or in the pelvic floor, and a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  10. Predictors of Urinary and Fecal Continence Status After Stroke

    E-print Network

    Griebling, Tomas Lindor

    2008-07-29

    , liquid or solid stool that is a social or hygienic problem.? 19, 20 Most research studies on fecal incontinence exclude those with loss of flatus alone, and include only subjects who experience involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool. Depending.... Independent Variables Variables examined included sex, age at the time of stroke, race/ethnicity, education, and living situation. Race/ethnicity was determined based on self- 24 described categories including white/Caucasian, black/African American...

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can ... or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may ...

  12. Urinary Bladder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  13. Extended Diaper Wearing: Effects on Continence in and out of the Diaper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Rachel S. F.; Williams, W. Larry; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Diaper use is widespread and possibly even increasing across diverse populations in the United States, ranging from infants to very old adults. We found no reports of an experimental analysis of the effect of wearing diapers on the frequency of urinary accidents and the attainment of continence skills (e.g., urinating in the toilet). In this…

  14. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Common Infections > Urinary Tract Infections ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  15. [Urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Braun, Anke K; Pfisterer, Mathias H-D

    2008-08-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common health problem of older adults and affects more than 50% of nursing home residents. Different types of urinary incontinence can be distinguished: urgency, stress, overflow (urinary retention) and extra-urethral incontinence. The pathogenesis of urinary incontinence in older patients is multifactorial. Age-related physiologic changes, urological or gynaecological ailments, neurological diseases, behavioural patterns and functional decline frequently contribute to incontinence to some extent. These pathogenetic factors may appear in close relation to frailty. As incontinence on the one hand may substantially contribute to decompensation of health reserves, and on the other hand is an indicator for frailty, early assessment and treatment are important. Clinical diagnostics focus on history, physical examination, bladder diary and measurement of postvoid residual volume. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to urinary incontinence should focus on finding and treating reversible causes. Behavioural interventions such as toileting procedures may reduce the level of incontinence even in severe cases. Frail older adults with functional decline and urgency incontinence often do not respond well to drug treatment. Paramount for the adequate care for incontinent seniors is the instruction of the affected person and--if necessary--of their caregiver in handling incontinence aids. PMID:18677696

  16. Laparoscopic lower urinary tract reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K R; Clayman, R V

    2000-10-01

    In the past decade laparoscopy has been successfully utilized for both the obliterative and reconstructive management of urologic disease. We have seen not only an advance in the technology available to perform these procedures, but also an effort on the part of laparoscopic urologists to refine their techniques to allow them to perform more complicated procedures. In the lower urinary tract, the development of reconstructive procedures has been slow. While early interest in laparoscopy prompted several pioneers to perform the initial reconstructive procedures, the difficulties associated with these procedures at that time largely precluded their widespread application or adoption. Recently, improvements in the skills of laparoscopic urologists and the advent of instruments to facilitate suturing (e.g. EndoStitch semi-automatic suturing device, Lapra-Ty clips to replace intracorporeal knotting, and advances in staple and clip technology) have facilitated a renewed interest in laparoscopic reconstructive surgery of the lower urinary tract. At present, almost all types of urologic open reconstructive procedures have been accomplished laparoscopically: urinary diversion (e.g. ureteroileal loop urinary diversion and continent diversion), bladder reconstruction (e.g. ureterovesicostomy, bladder augmentation, bladder diverticulectomy, partial cystectomy), ureteral reimplantation, and, most recently, urethrovesical anastomosis following radical prostatectomy. This article will review the development of these procedures. PMID:11131313

  17. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  18. Ileocecal adenocarcinoma with overexpression of P53 protein metastasized to the thenar muscle: report of a rare case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Cuihua; Liu, Zhiyan; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Shuguang; Liu, Lian; Li, Jisheng; Yu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic malignancies of the hand are rare and metastases to the skeletal muscle from the gastrointestinal system are even much rare. Here we present a case of metastatic ileocecal adenocarcinoma to the thenar muscle, which is the first report of thenar muscle metastasis from ileocecal adenocarcinoma with P53 mutation. To date, only two other cases of thenar muscle metastasis have been documented, one is from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and the other is from rectal carcinoma. The present 67-year-old Chinese man of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the ileocecal region developed metastatic carcinoma in the right thenar eminence, which presented with swelling and pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right hand revealed a well-defined enhanced mass in the right thenar muscle. It was proved to be metastatic adenocarcinoma using core needle biopsy, which was supported to be gastrointestinal origination by positive immunoreaction with CDX2. Positive immunoreaction with P53 protein indicated the poor prognosis of the patient. Further systemic evaluation including computerized tomography scans revealed extensive metastases to liver, right kidney, right abdominal wall, left axillary and right subclavicular lymph nodes, and skin of the right thigh. Treatment was given with palliative systemic chemotherapy. After 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the swelling and pain of the right thenar were ameliorated, and the patient regained full use of his right hand and his quality of life was improved. The patient died of liver metastasis 9 months after the diagnosis of the right thenar metastasis. In conclusion, here we display a case of thenar skeletal muscle metastasis from P53 mutated ileocecal adenocarcinoma, who survived 9 months after diagnosis of the rare metastasis. If an oncological patient presents an intramuscular mass, muscle metastasis must be included in the differential diagnosis. Metastatic hand tumors generally indicate systemic spread, so the treatment is usually palliative and the prognosis is poor. The primary objective of treatment is improvement of the patient’s quality of life. PMID:26722571

  19. Posterior leukoencephalopathy following repair of an ileocecal anastomosis breakdown: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome refers to a constellation of neurologic symptoms related to temporary white matter changes. The disease typically presents in the context of an abrupt and drastic elevation in blood pressure (>180/110 mmHg). We report an unusual case of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a post-operative setting, with a blood pressure parameter generally tolerated by most patients. Case presentation We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian man who suffered acute onset visual acuity loss four days after an ileocecal anastomosis. A head magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed findings typically associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. His symptoms developed in the context of blood pressure parameters that are typically well tolerated in a post-operative setting (150-160/80-90 mmHg). He did not have a history of renal failure or immunosuppression. His symptoms resolved with aggressive blood pressure management. Conclusions Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome can occur in a post-operative setting with blood pressure parameters typically well-tolerated in most post-surgical patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment will minimize the risk of permanent neurologic injury. PMID:21247426

  20. Does previous transurethral prostate surgery affect oncologic and continence outcomes after RARP?

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Kai; Katz, Benjamin F; Sehgal, Shailen S; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Su, Yu-Chen; Lightfoot, Andrew; Lee, Ziho; Llukani, Elton; Monahan, Kelly; Lee, David I

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on multiple oncologic and continence outcomes after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We performed a retrospective cohort study of a total of 2693 patients from 2007 to 2014 who underwent RARP. Patients were stratified into 49 patients who had previous TURP prior to RARP (group 1) and 2644 patients who had no TURP prior to RARP (group 2). We collected operative variables including estimated blood loss, operative time, and positive surgical margin (PSM) rates. Urinary continence, defined as 0 pads per day (PPD), and social continence, defined as 1-PPD, were also assessed. American Urological Association Symptoms Score (AUASS), overall ability to function sexually, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire were evaluated at 3 and 12 months after RARP. Weakness of urinary stream (EPIC #4d) at 12 months imposed a greater problem for group 1 patients with prior TURP compared to group 2 patients without prior TURP (p = 0.012). PSM was not statistically significant between the two groups (p = 0.110). Group 1 patients had a greater PSM rate (30.61 %) as compared to group 2 (20.95 %). PSM locations in group 1 patients showed the most common locations at the posterior and apex. The difference between the two groups for AUASS, overall sexual function, estimated blood loss, operative time, urinary continence, and social continence was not statistically significant. We examined the effect of previous TURP on postoperative RARP continence and oncologic outcomes. This data can be used to counsel those with prior TURP before RARP. PMID:26530840

  1. Urinary Tract Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Print Page Overview Condition Information What is a UTI? What is UI? What causes it? How many ... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on ...

  2. Santosh PGI pouch: A new innovation in urinary diversion

    PubMed Central

    Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To know the feasibility and outcome of the Santosh PGI pouch as a new innovative technique of continent cutaneous diversion (CCD) following cystectomy. Material and methods Twelve patients (eleven with carcinoma of the bladder and one with an exstrophy of the bladder) underwent CCD using the Santosh PGI pouch after cystectomy. A 50-cm segment of terminal ileum was isolated 15-20 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction. The ileal segment was folded into the form of an ‘S’ configuration. On the antimesenteric border three longitudinal incisions were performed of about 7 cm in length. The terminal 8 cm portion of the distal part of the pouch was used for creating the intussuscepted nipple valve. Demucosalization of the interior of the nipple, fixing the nipple valve with the serosa of the pouch wall and wrapping of the catheterizable channel with a pouch wall for providing continence was done. The uretero-pouch anastomosis was done using the serosal lined tunnel technique. The catheterizable channel was brought out through the right rectus muscle. Results Median follow-up of the patients was 13.5 months. No significant complications were noted in the pouch reconstruction. Duration of the pouch reconstruction was around 75-110 min. Postoperatively, one patient had a UTI and another had paralytic ileus on the follow-up. All patients were doing regular CIC with acceptable continence of up to 400 ml. No ureteroileal anastomotic stricture or difficulty in catheterizing the pouch was seen. Conclusions The Santosh PGI pouch, which is a type of CCD, is technically feasible, easy to reconstruct with acceptable continence and offers minimal morbidity. PMID:26251752

  3. Improving continence services for older people from the service-providers’ perspective: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Orrell, Alison; McKee, Kevin; Dahlberg, Lena; Gilhooly, Mary; Parker, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine in depth the views and experiences of continence service leads in England on key service and continence management characteristics in order to identify and to improve our understanding of barriers to a good-quality service and potential facilitators to develop and to improve services for older people with urinary incontinence (UI). Design Qualitative semistructured interviews using a purposive sample recruited across 16 continence services. Setting 3 acute and 13 primary care National Health Service Trusts in England. Participants 16 continence service leads in England actively treating and managing older people with UI. Results In terms of barriers to a good-quality service, participants highlighted a failure on the part of commissioners, managers and other health professionals in recognising the problem of UI and in acknowledging the importance of continence for older people and prevalent negative attitudes towards continence and older people. Patient assessment and continence promotion regardless of age, rather than pad provision, were identified as important steps for a good-quality service for older people with UI. More rapid and appropriate patient referral pathways, investment in service capacity, for example, more trained staff and strengthened interservice collaborations and a higher profile within medical and nurse training were specified as being important facilitators for delivering an equitable and high-quality continence service. There is a need, however, to consider the accounts given by our participants as perhaps serving the interests of their professional group within the context of interprofessional work. Conclusions Our data point to important barriers and facilitators of a good-quality service for older people with UI, from the perspective of continence service leads. Further research should address the views of other stakeholders, and explore options for the empirical evaluation of the effectiveness of identified service facilitators. PMID:23901026

  4. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a urinary (YOOR-uh-nair-ee) tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection anywhere in the ...

  5. Urethral pressure increase on effort originates from within the urethra, and continence from musculovaginal closure.

    PubMed

    Petros, P E; Ulmsten, U

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contribution of intra-abdominal pressure transmission to urinary continence in the female. Five patients with genuine stress incontinence (GSI) were studied. Pressure transmission was measured in equivalent positions inside and outside the urethra and bladder during the Intravaginal Slingplasty procedure, a surgical operation used for treatment of urinary incontinence, and performed under local anaesthesia. A 6 mm diameter channel was created alongside the urethra. Two separate microtransducer catheters appropriately marked for length were inserted, one inside the urethra, and the other inside the described channel. With the vaginal hammock intact, an average of 10 simultaneous pressure measurements were made intraoperatively in response to coughing and straining in equivalent positions inside the urethra, and directly outside. Significantly higher pressure readings were found inside the urethra (P = 0.0025), indicating that an active component within the urethra may have created this pressure rise. After opening out two suburethral vaginal flaps, large quantities of urine were lost on coughing in all patients. Continence was achieved on tightening the suburethral vagina, indicating that an adequately tight vaginal hammock is a critical element in the continence process. The findings of this study question intraabdominal pressure as a mechanism contributing to continence, but support an alternative mechanism, musculovaginal closure of the urethra. PMID:7581470

  6. Urinary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most common socio-economically devastating parasitic disease after malaria, affecting about 240 million residents of developing countries. In Africa, it predominantly manifests as urogenital disease, and the main infective agent is Schistosoma hematobium. Endemicity is propagated by poor socio-economic status and environmental degradation due to rapid urbanization. Recreational swimming is a potent medium for the spread of disease in children and adolescents. Most affected individuals are asymptomatic. The male and female worms are equipped with an extraordinary capacity for immune evasion and are able to co-habit for several decades within the pelvic venous plexus. Eggs deposited in the bladder wall resist elimination by type 1 T lymphocytes. Instead, they are sustained by pro-fibrogenic encapsulation (as modulated by type 2 helper cells). Progressive bladder disease results in obstructive uropathy and predisposes to (mostly) squamous cell carcinoma. Schistosomal glomerulopathy manifests as a clinical spectrum of asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrosis and/or nephritic syndrome. Findings on renal biopsy may be influenced by co-morbidity with Salmonella bacteria, amyloidosis and hepatitis C infection. Potentially fatal Katayama fever and spinal radiculopathy may ensue in tourists visiting an endemic zone. Early detection by urine microscopy is hampered by low urinary excretion rates of the parasite eggs. Although useful in travelers with newly acquired disease, the results of the serological antibody assay may be false positive in residents of an endemic zone. Cystoscopy, however, may be invaluable. Due to its safety, effectiveness and once-daily dosing, praziquantel is the drug of choice. An integrated approach that includes mass chemotherapy, environmental health programs and public health education is the most cost-effective preventive strategy. PMID:24469437

  7. Urinary incontinence products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ... and dry your skin. WHERE TO BUY URINARY INCONTINENCE PRODUCTS You can find most products at your ...

  8. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  9. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  10. Pinch test for diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Petros, P E; Ulmsten, U I

    1990-01-01

    This office test reinforces the Integral Theory of Female Urinary continence which states that there are two distinct anatomical segments of vagina which transmit the muscular contractions of the pelvic floor muscles, and in so doing, constitute the 1st and 2nd closure mechanisms. The test is based on tightening the loose vagina, hereby correcting the anatomical defects causing the stress incontinence. The Pinch Test, and with it, the Bonney Test, are analysed with reference to the 1st and 2nd closure mechanisms presented in the Theory of Female Urinary Incontinence described earlier in this issue. PMID:2093270

  11. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible tubular...

  12. Urinary diversion metabolic complications - underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wojciech; Piszczek, Rados?aw; Krajewska, Magdalena; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent human cancers. In 2011 more than six thousand people in Poland developed BC and more than three thousand died because of it. Treatment of bladder cancer depends on its stage. In less advanced tumours (Ta, Tcis, T1) transurethral resection of bladder tumor with adjuvant immunotherapy is often therapeutic. In more advanced cases (? T2) radical cystectomy is needed. There are several surgical types of post-cystectomy urinary diversion divided into two fundamental types - enabling and not enabling urine continence. The most common procedures include ureterocutaneostomy, ileal or colon conduit, orthopic ileal bladder, heterotopic continent bladder replacement (pouch) and urinary diversion via the rectum. Depending on type of cystectomy, various metabolic complications occur, because the absorptive-secretory function of used bowel segment is intact. Complications include bowel dysfunction, malabsorption of various vitamins, acid-base imbalance, electrolyte imbalance, abnormalities in bone metabolism, formation of renal calculi, secondary malignancies and disturbances in function of kidneys or liver. Early diagnosed complications can be treated easier, recognised in advanced stages are often irreversible. In our paper we present review of different approaches to bladder cancer treatment and metabolic complications occurring after these procedures. PMID:25166450

  13. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baku?a, Stanis?aw

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  14. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search FAQs Surgery ... Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary ...

  15. Relationship between mode of delivery and development of urinary incontinence: A possible link is demonstrated

    PubMed Central

    Saadia, Zaheera

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence is a major problem faced by many mothers and has been traditionally linked to diverse ways of delivery. However, there is still a lack of clinical data, which can corroborate this notion. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of urinary incontinence developed in women under different modes of delivery that have been used during childbirth. The study was conducted by considering three ways of delivery such as vaginal, cesarean section and the use of instruments during childbirth. The results were compared in each group in terms of number of women that developed or experienced urinary incontinence with those who have no problem at all or have minor problems. Methods The study was conducted at Qassim University Clinic, and Maternity and Child Hospital Buraidah from Jan–May 2015 as a descriptive cross sectional study. The objective was to determine the core reasons as to why women tend to develop some urinary incontinence after delivery. First 111 women without urinary incontinence and 100 women with urinary incontinence were asked retrospectively about the number of vaginal deliveries they had underwent. Then another group (111 without urinary incontinence and 100 with urinary continence were asked about the number of instrumental deliveries they had undegone. The same was repeated (111 women without urinary incontinence and 100 with urinary incontinence) for women with cesarean section. Results Having five or more vaginal births had a significantly (p<0.001) high risk for development of urinary incontinence (n=74, 66.67%) as compared to no urinary incontinence (n=8, 8.0%). In the group who had no cesarean section, there was a significantly (p <0 .001) larger proportion of participants with urinary problems (n = 100, 90.09%) than those without urinary problems (n = 61, 61.0%). For participants who have had an instrumental delivery, there was a significantly (p =0 .014) larger proportion of participants with urinary problems (n = 22, 19.82%) than those without urinary problems (n = 8, 8.0%). However, for participants that have not had an instrumental delivery, there was a significantly larger amount of participants without urinary problems than those with urinary problems (p <0 .001). Conclusion Women with 5 or more vaginal deliveries as well as instrumental deliveries were more liable to develop urinary incontinence in this study. This may be because vaginal deliveries and instrumental deliveries lead to perineal damage. This is further supported by the results of this study showing that women who never had cesarean section were more likely to report urinary incontinence PMID:26715925

  16. African Universities Tackle the Continent's Agricultural Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Pests, population growth, and depleted soil have wreaked havoc on agriculture in Africa, so universities across the continent are rethinking how they teach the topic. Some African universities have been building their own networks and pooling their limited resources to train more agricultural scientists and improve their responsiveness to the…

  17. TheTheTheThe Lost ContinentLost ContinentLost ContinentLost Continent Manuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel AlfonsecaManuel Alfonseca

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    continentlost continentlost continentlost continent Book 5 in the Chronicles of the Magic Jigsaw Puzzle Manuel................................ 49 10.The legend of the Magic Jigsaw Puzzle............ 53 11.When the earth trembled and commander in chief of the armies of the kingdom of Tiva, paced nervously around the room. His forehead

  18. Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

  19. Urinary Incontinence in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... try medicines or a continence device—either an artificial sphincter or a catheter. For some men, surgery ... such as spinal cord injury or radical prostatectomy. Artificial sphincter: Some men may eliminate urine leakage with ...

  20. Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Agnew, Rona; Benedetti, Andrea; Thomas, Doneal; van den Heuvel, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. A second objective was to determine whether changes in incontinence-related knowledge and new uptake of risk-modifying behaviours explain these improvements. Setting 71 community organisations across the UK. Participants 259 women aged 60?years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions The three active interventions consisted of a single 60?min group workshop on (1) continence education (20 clusters, 64 women); (2) evidence-based self-management (17 clusters, 70 women); or (3) combined continence education and self-management (17 clusters, 61 women). The control intervention was a single 60?min educational group workshop on memory loss, polypharmacy and osteoporosis (17 clusters, 64 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was self-reported improvement in incontinence 3?months postintervention at the level of the individual. The secondary outcome was change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in incontinence-related knowledge and behaviours were also assessed. Results The highest rate of urinary symptom improvement occurred in the combined intervention group (66% vs 11% of the control group, prevalence difference 55%, 95% CI 43% to 67%, intracluster correlation 0). 30% versus 6% of participants reported significant improvement respectively (prevalence difference 23%, 95% CI 10% to 36%, intracluster correlation 0). The number-needed-to-treat was 2 to achieve any improvement in incontinence symptoms, and 5 to attain significant improvement. Compared to controls, participants in the combined intervention reported an adjusted mean 2.05 point (95% CI 0.87 to 3.24) greater improvement on the ICIQ from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in knowledge and self-reported risk-reduction behaviours paralleled rates of improvement in all intervention arms. Conclusions Continence education combined with evidence-based self-management improves symptoms of incontinence among untreated older women. Community organisations represent an untapped vector for delivering effective continence promotion interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT01239836. PMID:24334159

  1. Current interventional management of male stress urinary incontinence following urological procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Ireneusz; ?led?, Emil; Ciechan, Janusz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Przydacz, Mikolaj; Wiatr, Tomasz; Stangel-Wojcikiewicz, Klaudia; Ch?osta, Piotr L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in surgical techniques and implementation of minimally invasive procedures, male stress urinary incontinence affects a substantial number of patients after prostatic surgery. In response to increasing demand of optimal treatment modality, new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter have recently been introduced. This review summarises the therapeutic surgical options with their outcomes in management of postprostatectomy stress incontinence. Material and methods We performed a literature review by searching the PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases for articles published from January 2000 until April 2015 based on clinical relevance. Results Artificial urinary sphincter is currently considered the “gold standard” treatment of male stress urinary incontinence. Although the new devices in this group have recently been investigated, the AMS 800 remains the only widely used implant. Male slings and adjustable continence devices, achieve the social continence rates up to 60%. Periurethral injections of bulking agents, have limited efficacy of male stress incontinence. Argus sling and ProACT are both associated with substantial explantation rates. Stem cell therapy is a promising option but still requires additional testing. Conclusions The development of new alternatives to artificial urinary sphincter is constantly progressing. Although recently introduced minimally invasive treatment options have not yet surpassed the outcomes of the artificial urinary sphincter they should continue to be evaluated and compared against the gold standard. PMID:26568879

  2. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, the involuntary leakage of urine, is caused by a variety of factors and may result in a wide range of urinary symptoms that can affect women's physical, psychological, and social well-being and sometimes can impose significant lifestyle restrictions. Identifying the etiology of each woman's urinary incontinence symptoms and developing an individualized treatment plan is essential for improving her quality of life. The purpose of this joint document of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society is to review information on the current understanding of urinary incontinence in women and to outline guidelines for diagnosis and management that are consistent with the best available scientific evidence. PMID:26506157

  3. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  4. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePLUS

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common ...

  5. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. The infection most commonly develops ...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  7. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  8. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  9. Lithospheric properties on a continent-continent collisional scenario: the Pyrenean range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo; Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montse; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2013-04-01

    Continent-continent collision is a fundamental tectonic process that plays a primary role in the development and evolution of continents. The Pyrenees resulted from the continental collision between the Iberian and European plates during the Alpine orogeny. This mountain range offers an unique opportunity to study orogenic processes due to the well constrained geological evolution and the significant amount of geophysical data available. In this paper present a joint quantitative interpretation of the available geophysical and geochemical data along two transects across the Pyrenean orogeny. These new results confirm the previous hypothesis of partial melting of the subducted Iberian lower crust and constrain the depth of the lithosphere-astenosphere boundary (LAB). The bulk mantle electrical conductivity and seismic velocities have been modelled using the software package LitMod, which allows for coupled petrological and geophysical modeling of the lithosphere and sublithospheric upper mantle within an internally consistent thermodynamic-geophysical framework.

  10. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections What is a urinary catheter? What is a urinary tract infection? What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection? ...

  11. When continents were flat and flooded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltice, N.; Rey, P. F.; Flament, N.

    2010-12-01

    The end of the Archaean was a period of global changes for our planet . It has been suggested that the causes of these profound changes could have arised from the initiation of plate tectonics or other changes in the style of mantle convection. Transitions in the mode of mantle dynamics in the late Archaean are difficult to explain on the basis of continuum mechanics, and linking them to the environmental changes remains challenging. In contrast, the continental crust experienced drastic changes in its thermal and rheological state mostly because of the decay of radiogenic heat sources. Based on thermo-mechanical calculations and field observations, we show that the Archaean hypsometry was mostly flat with plateau elevation not exceeding 2000m. Moreover, the warm and weak Archaean crust could not sustain the heavy load of magmatic provinces and elevation anomalies were removed in a very short time (<1Myr) by lower crustal flow. These simulations, together with freeboard models (Flament et al., 2008), show that continents must have been mostly flooded and flat during the Archaean, drastically limiting chemical exchanges between continental crust and atmosphere/ocean system as well as with the mantle. Towards the late Archaean, the cooling and strengthening of the continents favoured the formation of higher orogenic plateaux. Combined with the secular deepening of the oceanic floor, this resulted in the emergence of the continents. The late-Archaean acquisition of modern erodability triggered major changes in the composition of Earth’s surface envelopes because of increases in weathering and erosion of the continental crust. Flament, N., Coltice, N., and Rey, P. F., 2008. A case for late-Archaean continental emergence from thermal evolution models and hypsometry. Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 275, 326-336.

  12. Developing an Internationally-Applicable Service Specification for Continence Care: Systematic Review, Evidence Synthesis and Expert Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Wagg, Adrian S.; Newman, Diane K.; Leichsenring, Kai; van Houten, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care. Objectives To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care. Method Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems. Results A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures. Conclusions This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and payers of health and social care could consider using to provide high-quality continence care. A shift towards a community-delivered, nurse-led model appears to be associated with clinical and cost-effective care for people with bladder and bowel incontinence. PMID:25121511

  13. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...The totally implanted device may consist of a static pressure pad, or a system with a container of radiopaque fluid in the abdomen and a manual pump and valve under the skin surface that is connected by tubing to an adjustable pressure pad or to a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...The totally implanted device may consist of a static pressure pad, or a system with a container of radiopaque fluid in the abdomen and a manual pump and valve under the skin surface that is connected by tubing to an adjustable pressure pad or to a...

  15. The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing…

  16. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  17. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  18. Stability, continence and breathing: the role of fascia following pregnancy and delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, D G; Lee, L J; McLaughlin, L

    2008-10-01

    Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PRPGP) has a prevalence of approximately 45% during pregnancy and 20-25% in the early postpartum period. Most women become pain free in the first 12 weeks after delivery, however, 5-7% do not. In a large postpartum study of prevalence for urinary incontinence (UI) [Wilson, P.D., Herbison, P., Glazener, C., McGee, M., MacArthur, C., 2002. Obstetric practice and urinary incontinence 5-7 years after delivery. ICS Proceedings of the Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol. 21(4), pp. 284-300] found that 45% of women experienced UI at 7 years postpartum and that 27% who were initially incontinent in the early postpartum period regained continence, while 31% who were continent became incontinent. It is apparent that for some women, something happens during pregnancy and delivery that impacts the function of the abdominal canister either immediately, or over time. Current evidence suggests that the muscles and fascia of the lumbopelvic region play a significant role in musculoskeletal function as well as continence and respiration. The combined prevalence of lumbopelvic pain, incontinence and breathing disorders is slowly being understood. It is also clear that synergistic function of all trunk muscles is required for loads to be transferred effectively through the lumbopelvic region during multiple tasks of varying load, predictability and perceived threat. Optimal strategies for transferring loads will balance control of movement while maintaining optimal joint axes, maintain sufficient intra-abdominal pressure without compromising the organs (preserve continence, prevent prolapse or herniation) and support efficient respiration. Non-optimal strategies for posture, movement and/or breathing create failed load transfer which can lead to pain, incontinence and/or breathing disorders. Individual or combined impairments in multiple systems including the articular, neural, myofascial and/or visceral can lead to non-optimal strategies during single or multiple tasks. Biomechanical aspects of the myofascial piece of the clinical puzzle as it pertains to the abdominal canister during pregnancy and delivery, in particular trauma to the linea alba and endopelvic fascia and/or the consequence of postpartum non-optimal strategies for load transfer, is the focus of the first two parts of this paper. A possible physiological explanation for fascial changes secondary to altered breathing behaviour during pregnancy is presented in the third part. A case study will be presented at the end of this paper to illustrate the clinical reasoning necessary to discern whether conservative treatment or surgery is necessary for restoration of function of the abdominal canister in a woman with postpartum diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA). PMID:19083692

  19. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (?30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 ?g/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (? = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  20. Acute Urinary Tract Disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rakhee H; Unnikrishnan, Raman; Remer, Erick M

    2015-11-01

    Acute urinary tract disorders often manifest as flank pain and are a common complaint of patients who present to the emergency department. The pain is often a vague, poorly localized sensation that may have a variety of causes. Laboratory and clinical findings, such as hematuria, are neither sensitive nor specific for determining the cause of the flank pain. Accordingly, imaging is an important tool in determining a diagnosis and management plan. Patients with acute urinary tract disorders who present with pain include those with calculi as well as renal infection, vascular disorders, and hemorrhage. PMID:26526438

  1. Knowledge and understanding of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Katherina; Hunter, Kathleen F.; Wagg, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate family physicians’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and understanding of urinary incontinence (UI), as well as their perceptions of barriers to continence care, as a foundation for designing interventions to improve service provision for those in northern Alberta who suffer from UI. Design Descriptive survey using a standardized instrument. The survey instrument was completed either by telephone interview or on paper copy faxed back to the researchers, depending on participant preference. Setting Northern Alberta. Participants Random sample of family physicians (N = 158). Main outcome measures Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward UI, UI management practices, and barriers to providing UI care. Results Survey response rate was 10.6% (158 of 1488); 84.2% (133 of 158) of respondents practised in urban settings, 44.9% (71 of 158) had been in practice for fewer than 15 years, 24.1% (38 of 158) reported having no training in UI management since graduation, and 53.8% (85 of 158) reported that they proactively discussed UI with their patients. Overall, 70.0% of respondents felt fairly confident in managing UI. Most family physicians referred patients for specialist care, with few referrals to community services. Respondents thought that continence services were scarce, with long waiting times, and that such services were generally overstretched; they believed that although high-quality continence care was a personal priority, it was not a priority focus for their practice partnerships or networks. In terms of the highest ranked areas for improvement in UI management, increased awareness and understanding among physicians (ranked first by 28.5% of respondents), followed by dedicated incontinence clinics or nurses for referral (17.7%) and improving patient awareness and understanding (12.0%). Conclusion There continues to be considerable variation in knowledge about UI management and a relative overreliance on specialist care, despite well recognized difficulties in gaining access to services. Respondents believed that increased awareness among patients and health care providers coupled with greater access to continence services were key factors in improving care delivery. PMID:23851561

  2. The effect of urinary incontinence status during pregnancy and delivery mode on incontinence postpartum. A cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Wesnes, SL; Hunskaar, S; Bo, K; Rortveit, G

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum and to study how continence status during pregnancy and mode of delivery influence urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum in primiparous women. Design Cohort study. Setting Pregnant women attending routine ultrasound examination were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Population A total of 12 679 primigravidas who were continent before pregnancy. Methods Data are from MoBa, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data are based on questionnaires answered at week 15 and 30 of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence 6 months postpartum is presented as proportions, odds ratios and relative risks (RRs). Results Urinary incontinence was reported by 31% of the women 6 months after delivery. Compared with women who were continent during pregnancy, incontinence was more prevalent 6 months after delivery among women who experienced incontinence during pregnancy (adjusted RR 2.3, 95% CI 2.2–2.4). Adjusted RR for incontinence after spontaneous vaginal delivery compared with elective caesarean section was 3.2 (95% CI 2.2–4.7) among women who were continent and 2.9 (95% CI 2.3–3.4) among women who were incontinent in pregnancy. Conclusion Urinary incontinence was prevalent 6 months postpartum. The association between incontinence postpartum and mode of delivery was not substantially influenced by incontinence status in pregnancy. Prediction of a group with high risk of incontinence according to mode of delivery cannot be based on continence status in pregnancy. PMID:19220234

  3. Slab Rollback Instability and Super-Continent Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Super-continents coalesce over subduction zone complexes and their subsequent dispersal is usually attributed to heating and upwelling of continent-insulated mantle. This dispersal mechanism, however, requires considerable mantle internal heating. Alternatively, the super-continent configuration may be mechanically unstable and disperse regardless of heating mode. In particular, increased drag on plates or subducting slabs (e.g., by accumulating continents) causes them to slow down and trenches to rollback. Once subcontinental slabs are slightly separated, resistance to their descent increases, inducing further trench migration. Slabs thus undergo a rollback instability, which disperses super-continents. A simple theoretical model illustrates this instability and shows there are two equilibrium states, one unstable super-continent state where slabs are conjoined, and one stable state where slabs are widely separated. Slab rollback from the unstable to stable states occurs at typical slow tectonic speeds, and over a period commensurate with the age of ocean basins and the Wilson cycle.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  5. A "Stratospheric Drain" over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented from operational rawinsonde data surrounding the maritime continent that the net mass flux near the tropopause is downward over this region, contrary to the behavior of current numerical models. The air is descending year-round, despite mean upward motion below and above the descending layer. This sinking implies the existence of a significant energy-removing process, which is argued to be the injection of cold air by overshooting convective clouds. The mass, energy, and horizontal momentum budgets are examined in reaching these conclusions. The implied cooling effect of convective overshoots can be simulated with a simple, parcel-sorting convective mixing model. The findings contradict the common view that the mean flow enters the stratosphere in this strongly-convecting region, and have important implications for transport of water vapor and other gases into the stratosphere.

  6. Circular structures of the earth's continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briukhanov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Bush, Vil'iam Arturovich; Glukhovskii, Marat Zinov'evich; Zverev, A. T.; Kats, Ia. G.

    The relationship between the composition of the lithosphere and the circular structures (CSs) visible on remote images of the earth surface is investigated using space observations and geological, geophysical, geomorphological, and mapping data. The CSs are divided into classes according to their structural, or size, parameters (megastructures, macrostructures, mesostructures, ministructures, and microstructures) and their genetic types (e.g., nuclear, abyssal, metagenic, and exogenic). The distribution of these structural-genetic CS types on the earth's continents (with the exception of the Antarctic) is discussed, and the specificity of the features of these CS types is examined. Special attention is given to the correlations between the distribution of CSs and the regional distribution of metallogenic rocks.

  7. 4981 Chemical weathering shapes continents 5099 Single amyloid -peptide examined

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    4981 Chemical weathering shapes continents 5099 Single amyloid -peptide examined 5105 Faster path in mice GEOLOGY, EVOLUTION Chemical weathering shapes continents Continental crust rises higher than crust. Cin-Ty Lee et al. argue that chemical weathering alters the composition of continental crust

  8. OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

  9. Study protocol: ICONS: Identifying continence options after stroke: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence following acute stroke is common, affecting between 40%-60% of people in hospital after a stroke. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for urinary incontinence and urinary incontinence after stroke, national audit data suggest incontinence is often poorly managed. Conservative interventions (e.g. bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training and prompted voiding) have been shown to have some effect with participants in Cochrane systematic reviews, but have not had their effectiveness demonstrated with stroke patients. Methods/Design A cluster randomised controlled pilot trial designed to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomised trial and to provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a systematic voiding programme for the management of continence after stroke. Stroke services will be randomised to receive the systematic voiding programme, the systematic voiding programme plus supported implementation, or usual care. The trial aims to recruit at least 780 participants in 12 stroke services (4 per arm). The primary outcome is presence/absence of incontinence at six weeks post-stroke. Secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of incontinence, quality of life and cost-utility. Outcomes will be measured at six weeks, three months and (for participants recruited in the first three months) twelve months after stroke. Process data will include rates of recruitment and retention and fidelity of intervention delivery. An integrated qualitative evaluation will be conducted in order to describe implementation and assist in explaining the potential mediators and modifiers of the process. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN08609907 PMID:21599945

  10. Urinary diversion: long-term functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Cerruto, Maria Angela

    2014-01-01

    Functional aspects and quality of life (QOL) of patients with a urinary diversion (UD) represent important issues in Urology. Any form of UD has its specific problems. In experienced hands and with regular long-term follow-up, serious complications can be avoided and excellent long-term results can be achieved. Thus, the selection of an appropriate UD is critical to patient's long-term satisfaction. Patients must be fully counseled in all types of UD and should have ready access to all options. There are 3 kinds of factors to be considered in the selection of UD: patient, physician, and general factors. In the pre-operative counseling, it is mandatory to explain all factors that over time may contribute to affect the patient's urinary tract function and QOL, mainly linked to long-term complications of UD. One of the most important requirements for any bladder substitution is that it should not jeopardize the renal function. There are many urological and non-urological potential reasons for deterioration in renal function following UD. Continence results after neobladder (NB) are difficult to compare between series published in the literature because of a lack of consensus of definitions, varied follow-up periods, and different mechanisms of data collection. In up to 22% of patients with NB, significant residual urine volumes were observed. The overall patients' QOL reported in most articles was good, irrespective of the type of UD. QOL of patients with a well functioning NB seems to be significantly better than other forms of diversion. Well-designed randomized prospective trials are warranted to render definitive conclusions. PMID:24874307

  11. Midurethral Slings for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the current review was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of midurethral slings compared with traditional surgery. Background This assessment was undertaken in order to update and expand upon the health technology & policy assessment of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT, Gynecare Worldwide, a division of Ethicon Inc, a Johnson & Johnson company, Somerville, New Jersey) sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence published by the Medical Advisory Secretariat in February 2004. Since the publication of the 2004 assessment, a number of TVT-like sling alternatives have become available which employ the same basic principles as TVT slings: minimally invasive, midurethral placement, self-fixing, and tension-free. This update will evaluate the efficacy and safety of midurethral slings. Clinical Need Normal continence is controlled by the nervous system and involves co-ordination between bladder, urethra, urethral sphincter, and pelvic floor. Incontinence occurs when the relationship among the above components is compromised, either due to physical damage or nerve dysfunction. (1) Stress urinary incontinence is the most common form of urinary incontinence in women. It is characterized by the “complaint of involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing” when there is increased abdominal pressure without detrusor (bladder wall) contraction. (2) There are 2 factors which define stress urinary incontinence: a weakening in the support of the proximal urethra, causing urethral hyper-mobility and deficiency in the sphincter, causing urethral leakage. Both factors are thought to coexist. (1) Accurate tests are not available to distinguish these 2 types of stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is estimated to affect about 250,000 Canadian women and 8 million American women aged 65 and over. (3;4) The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence is very difficult to measure because women with stress urinary incontinence may not tell their health practitioner about their symptoms due to embarrassment associated with stress urinary incontinence. A cross-sectional postal survey of 15,904 adults aged 40 and over who were registered with a local GP in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, revealed that 18% to 34% of respondents had symptoms of SUI. (5) Just over 9% reported symptoms “sometimes,” while almost 3% reported symptoms “most of the time.” Stress urinary incontinence was most common for women in their 50s. A more recent study suggests that 24% of women aged 18 to 44 years and 37% of women aged 45 and over have symptoms of stress urinary incontinence. (6) Stress urinary incontinence has been associated with a broad range of psychosocial stress and disablement, such as difficulties with activities of daily living, avoidance of social activities, fear of unpleasant odour, and embarrassment. (7) Economic burden may include the cost of pads, drugs, and devices, and the inability to participate in the work force in severe cases. Midurethral Slings Suburethral slings differ according to several criteria including placement, approach, method of fixation, and sling material. This review will evaluate slings which fulfill all of the following criteria: Midurethral placement (as opposed to bladder neck placement) Self-fixing (no sutures, bone anchors, etc.) Minimally invasive (using local, epidural, or general anesthesia) “Tension-free” placement The different types of midurethral slings available vary according to 3 main parameters: Implant material, i.e., monofilament, multifilament, elastic, non-elastic, smooth, serrated, etc., Delivery instruments, i.e., needles, curved trocars, disposable, reusable, etc., Surgical approach As any one, or any combination of these parameters may vary across the different sling brands, it is difficult to ascribe observed differences in efficacy and safety across slings to any one factor. Review Strategy The literature published between January 2000 and February 20

  12. Tablet-based screening improves continence management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beadnall, Heidi N; Kuppanda, Kushi E; O’Connell, Annmaree; Hardy, Todd A; Reddel, Stephen W; Barnett, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether electronic continence questionnaires aid early identification and optimizes management of sphincter dysfunction in a multiple sclerosis clinic. Methods A custom designed, tablet-based cross-platform software tool was designed to capture validated multiple sclerosis (MS) patient-reported outcomes. An unselected cohort of MS patients from a tertiary referral clinic completed electronic tablet-based versions of the Bladder Control Scale (BLCS) and the Bowel Control Scale in the waiting room. Data were captured wirelessly “on-the-fly” and stored in a deidentified, secure database; and individual questionnaire results were immediately available to the treating neurologist in the electronic medical record. Scores of ?2 on either questionnaire generated an automated electronic referral to the clinic MS continence nurse (MS CN). Results One hundred and fifty-seven MS patients completed a total of 184 electronic continence test sets and on two occasions only the BLCS was completed. An automatic electronic referral for formal continence review was generated 128 times in 108 patients. Fifty-seven formal continence assessments were undertaken by the MS CN following automated referral. All reviews resulted in at least one clinical intervention being made. Interpretation Tablet-based data capture and automated continence referral using this software tool is an efficient, sensitive, and feasible method of screening MS patients for bladder and bowel dysfunction. Concordance with the results of formal continence assessment in this pilot study validates the use of this technology as a screening tool. PMID:26125042

  13. Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Transgenic Sickle Cell Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Claudino, Mário Angelo; Leiria, Luiz Osório Silveira; da Silva, Fábio Henrique; Alexandre, Eduardo Costa; Renno, Andre; Mónica, Fabiola Zakia; de Nucci, Gilberto; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Urological complications associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), include nocturia, enuresis, urinary infections and urinary incontinence. However, scientific evidence to ascertain the underlying cause of the lower urinary tract symptoms in SCD is lacking. Objective Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate urinary function, in vivo and ex vivo, in the Berkeley SCD murine model (SS). Methods Urine output was measured in metabolic cage for both wild type and SS mice (25-30 g). Bladder strips and urethra rings were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. In isolated detrusor smooth muscle (DSM), relaxant response to mirabegron and isoproterenol (1nM-10?M) and contractile response to (carbachol (CCh; 1 nM-100?M), KCl (1 mM-300mM), CaCl2 (1?M-100mM), ?,?-methylene ATP (1, 3 and 10 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 1-32 Hz) were measured. Phenylephrine (Phe; 10nM-100?M) was used to evaluate the contraction mechanism in the urethra rings. Cystometry and histomorphometry were also performed in the urinary bladder. Results SS mice present a reduced urine output and incapacity to produce typical bladder contractions and bladder emptying (ex vivo), compared to control animals. In DSM, relaxation in response to a selective ?3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) and to a non-selective ?-adrenergic (isoproterenol) agonist were lower in SS mice. Additionally, carbachol, ?, ?-methylene ATP, KCl, extracellular Ca2+ and electrical-field stimulation promoted smaller bladder contractions in SS group. Urethra contraction induced by phenylephrine was markedly reduced in SS mice. Histological analyses of SS mice bladder revealed severe structural abnormalities, such as reductions in detrusor thickness and bladder volume, and cell infiltration. Conclusions Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that SS mice display features of urinary bladder dysfunction, leading to impairment in urinary continence, which may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the enuresis and infections observed the SCD patients. PMID:26241312

  14. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  15. [Characteristics of urinary incontinence in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R

    2014-10-01

    Geriatric patients are defined as being over 70 years of age and are vulnerable due to multimedication and multimorbidity. The typical incontinence type in geriatric patients is the overactive bladder syndrome as a result of anatomical alterations and the influence of conditions which typically occur in the elderly, e.g. diabetes mellitus, vaginal atrophy, constipation, neurological affections and dementia. This multimorbidity leads to multimedication but many pharmaceutical compounds aimed at indications of diseases distant from the urinary tract can also influence the continence situation. This has been proven for cardiac medications, such as alpha-blockers and diuretics, neurological drug therapy and analgesics. Diagnostic investigations in geriatric patients are usually non-invasive and include geriatric assessment to quantify incontinence symptoms but invasive diagnostic tools are required if the primary therapy fails or an operative intervention is planned. Pharmacotherapy considers the special requirements of the very old patient with cognitive impairment and vulnerability due to falls or delirium. In the group of anticholinergic drugs, trospium chloride seems to be the favorite substance to treat this group of patients because this hydrophilic compound is considered to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore minimizes the risk of side effects in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:25228458

  16. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI. PMID:16854356

  17. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  18. Moon: the 8th continent HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT 2025

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Moon: the 8th continent HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT 2025 Moon:the8thcontinentHUMANSPACEFLIGHT2025 11 DECEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Life Sciences: Beyond the ISS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 The Moon as an Observational Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Economic Elements of a Moon Base

  19. Equatorial Electrojet Observations in the African Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R.; Zesta, E.

    2008-12-01

    Although Satellite observations in the African sector show unique equatorial ionospheric structures that can severely impact navigation and communication systems, the study of ionospheric disturbances in this region is difficult due to the lack of ground-based instruments. This has created a gap in global understanding of the physics behind the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. Therefore, in order to have a more complete global understanding of equatorial ionosphere motion, the international space science community has begun to develop an observational infrastructure in the African sector. This includes the deployment of a number of arrays of small instruments, including the AMBER magnetometer array, through the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) cooperative program with the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. Two AMBER magnetometers have been deployed successfully at Adigrat (~6°N magnetic) in Ethiopia and at Medea in Algeria (28°N magnetic), and became fully operational on 03 August 2008. The remaining two AMBER magnetometers will be deployed soon in Cameroon and Namibia. One of the prime scientific objectives of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, magnetic activity, and season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanism of ionospheric plasma (E × B drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other about 6 off the equator. Therefore, using the AMBER magnetometer at Adigrat and the INTERMAGNET magnetometer located at Addis Ababa (0.9°N magnetic) in Ethiopia, the equatorial electrojet (E × B drift) activities in that longitudinal sector of the African continent is estimated. The paper also presents the comparison between the estimated vertical drift and the drift values obtained from the vector electric field instrument observation onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The evolution of equatorial ionospheric irregularities will also be presented using data from the growing number of ground- and space-based (on Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites) GPS receivers in the African region.

  20. Levels of continence in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupendra K; Masey, Hazel; Morton, Richard

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the levels of continence in children with cerebral palsy and what factors affect this. This study was conducted to determine levels of urine and stool continence in children with cerebral palsy in relation to their learning disability (LD) and mobility. The aim was to enable us to predict level of continence that can be achieved for these children with a given level of learning disability and mobility. Data were obtained from medical notes and by telephone interview on mobility, degree of learning disability and urine and stool continence of 55 children in Southern Derbyshire. Most of the children who have nil to moderate disabilities in learning and mobility were able to achieve a decent level of continence around a median age of three years. Therefore, their toilet training should be started at the usual age with ongoing support from parents/carers. In children with severe learning disability and severe immobility, the probability of continence is very slim after the age of eight years. After this age it may be better to divert resources to other aspects of care, for example nutrition and physiotherapy, to improve their quality of life. PMID:16719038

  1. A comparison of bladder neck preservation and bladder neck reconstruction for urinary incontinence after radical retro pubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein; Honarmand, Ramin; Khorrami, Mohammad Hataf; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and will include about 30% of all malignancies in men. Since the initial report of the anatomic radical prostatectomy, refinements in the surgical technique have been made. Several studies show that bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy makes improve early return of urinary continence, erectile function or both. However, some clinical trials have suggested little difference between the return of continence while using modifications. In this study, we compared outcomes of BNP and bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 60 patients at a referral university hospital from March 2010 to March 2012. Study population was all patients candidate for RRP (RRP in this period. All patients divided into two groups, A and B (30 patients in each group). Group A (n = 30) who preserved bladder neck (BNP) and Group B (n = 30) who had BNR. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) before and at 2, 6, 9, 12 and18 months after surgery, anastomotic stricture symptoms, positive bladder neck margin, Gleason score and urine incontinence were compared between two groups. Also, we compared bladder neck contracture, urinary continence and positive surgical margin rates after BNP and BNR while retropubic prostatectomy in 24 months period follow-up. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.81 ± 7.15 years (range, 50-74 years). After a follow-up period of 24 months, the PSA rising was not different between the two groups. After 2 months, 19 (63.33%) of patients in A group and the same number in B group were continent (P = 0.78). Stricture of the bladder neck at the anastomosis site requiring transurethral dilation occurred in 7 (23.33%) and 3 (10.0%) patients in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Although there was no difference in prevalence and duration of return of urinary continence after the operation between two groups, but results of our study showed that stenosis of the bladder neck was lower in BNP. Hence in the group of BNP, need for further operation and overflow incontinency due to the obstruction of urinary tract will be less likely than BNR and patients have better long time (24 months) urinary continence. PMID:25709654

  2. The definition, prevalence, and risk factors for stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Luber, Karl M

    2004-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has an observed prevalence of between 4% and 35%. Whereas the clinical definition of SUI has been established by the International Continence Society, the epidemiologic definition has not been established, leading to a broad disparity in reported prevalence rates. Numerous risk factors for SUI have been identified. Aging, obesity, and smoking appear to have consistent causal relationships with the condition, whereas the roles of pregnancy and childbirth remain controversial. The prevalence of many of these risk factors is increasing in the adult female population of the United States. These population changes, combined with increasing physician awareness and the availability of nonsurgical therapy, will likely increase the number of women receiving care for SUI over the next 3 decades. PMID:16985863

  3. The Definition, Prevalence, and Risk Factors for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Luber, Karl M

    2004-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has an observed prevalence of between 4% and 35%. Whereas the clinical definition of SUI has been established by the International Continence Society, the epidemiologic definition has not been established, leading to a broad disparity in reported prevalence rates. Numerous risk factors for SUI have been identified. Aging, obesity, and smoking appear to have consistent causal relationships with the condition, whereas the roles of pregnancy and childbirth remain controversial. The prevalence of many of these risk factors is increasing in the adult female population of the United States. These population changes, combined with increasing physician awareness and the availability of nonsurgical therapy, will likely increase the number of women receiving care for SUI over the next 3 decades. PMID:16985863

  4. Components of the Urinary System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  5. When you have urinary incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 69. Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Wyman J, Wilt TJ. Systematic review: randomized, ... Shamilyan TA, Wyman JF, Ping R, Wilt TJ, Kane RL. Male urinary incontinence: Prevalance, risk factors, and ...

  6. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 5–7 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ?104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  7. Wrench faulting initiated by continent-continent collision between the Eratosthenes Seamount and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount (ESM), located in the Eastern Mediterranean south of Cyprus, is considered to represent a continental fragment originating from the former African-Arabian continental margin. In the late Miocene the subduction of the African-Arabian Plate below the Anatolian Plate turned to continent-continent collision when the ESM collided with the island of Cyprus. This altered the tectonic pattern of the entire Eastern Mediterranean. Since the ESM blocks the northward drift of the African Plate south of Cyprus, the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate (around 1cm/year) has to be compensated along wrench faults. The Baltim Hecateus Line (BHL) separates the ESM on its eastern side from the deep Levantine Basin. The BHL formed as an extensional fault system during the Triassic formation of the Levatine Basin. During the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene so called Syrian Arc inversion the BHL was reactivated. A set of recent multichannel seismic 2D lines (MCS), acquired with the R/V Maria S. Merian (MSM14-2) in 2010, will be presented here. The NW-SE trending lines show a transformal to transpressional nature of the Baltim Hecateus Line. We propose that the BHL converted to a transform fault during the incipient collision of the ESM with the island of Cyprus in order to compensate the northward motion of the African-Arabian Plate. At the eastern rim of the ESM the BHL continues beneath a prominent bathymetric escarpment. Whereas the escarpment matches the trace of the BHL it is covered below the thick Messinian Evaporites south and north of the ESM. Owing to the ductile properties of salt the Messinian evaporites decouple the sub salt sediments from the supra salt sediments. As a result no direct observations of the BHL are possible. However, seismic imaging reveals thrust folds at the western side of the Levantine Basin pointing to a transpressional nature of the BHL. The overlying sediments are thinned as a reaction to the transform motion. Due to a dense spacing of MCS lines perpendicular to the strike of the Baltim Hecateus Line it was possible to trace the line also in the salt covered parts south and north of the ESM.

  8. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, K.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Saul, P.B.; Wharton, J.T.; Rutledge, F.N.

    1986-05-01

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience.

  9. Continent-scale linearity of kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism, mid-continent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Genet Ide; Carlson, Richard W.; Frost, Carol D.; Hearn, B. C.; Eby, G. Nelson

    2014-10-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary kimberlite-carbonatite magmatism in mid-continent North America extends along a N40°W linear trend from Louisiana to Alberta, and occurs in at least four different pulses (?109-85, 67-64, 55-52, and less than 50 Ma). The lack of spatial age progressions of magmatism consistent with motion of North America over a fixed hot spot, the presence of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic and trace-element compositions that show a temporal evolution from lithospheric to asthenospheric melt-sources, and the orientation of the magmatic belt parallel to the western subduction margin of the North American plate, suggest that this linear zone is the surface expression of mantle melting related to the subduction system. We propose that fragmentation of Farallon and Kula plates opened slab windows perpendicular to their convergence direction. In this model, sheet-like mantle upwellings were induced along slab-window margins, and these upwellings underwent low-degree partial melting to produce highly alkalic magmas along the trend parallel to, but ?2000 km east of, the convergent margin. The N40°W trend may reflect melting associated with penetration of the mantle transition-zone by the downgoing oceanic plate(s).

  10. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Morton, Douglas M.; Little, Mark G.; Kistler, Ronald; Horodyskyj, Ulyana N.; Leeman, William P.; Agranier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. PMID:18362343

  11. CCSF Lunch Summary South America: Blueprint for a Green Continent

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    on hydroe- lectric power. Continent wide, about 25% of the total energy consumed comes from hydropower (see appendix). Worldwide, dependence on hydropower is only about 5% of total energy production On September 17, 2008, the Cornell Center for a Sustainable Future hosted a topical luncheon on energy, climate

  12. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  13. Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

  14. Choosing and using disposable body-worn continence pads.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Rachel

    Disposable, body-worn pads are the product most commonly chosen to contain and absorb urine and faeces (Pomfret, 2000). The cost to the NHS of supplying continence pads has been estimated at 80 million pounds per annum (Euromonitor, 1999) and is a huge financial burden on local services. PMID:16052946

  15. Sige social sur le continent amricain Cisco Systems, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Meunier, Michel

    Siège social sur le continent américain Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134-1706 États-Unis http://www.cisco.com Tél. : +1 408 526-4000 +1 800 553-NETS (6387) Fax : +1 408 527-0883 Guide de l'utilisateur de l'Outil Web Cisco Unity Connection Interface téléphonique Version 7

  16. Regulating continent growth and composition by chemical weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, C.-T.A.; Morton, D.M.; Little, M.G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U.N.; Leeman, W.P.; Agranier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Continents ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of continents were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into continents. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from continents by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  17. Basins in arc-continent collisions AMY E. DRAUT

    E-print Network

    Clift, Peter

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins

  18. Laparoscopic implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter around the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Ch?osta, Piotr; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Bondad, Jasper; Szopi?ski, Tomasz; Korzelik, Ignacy; Borówka, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the first laparoscopic periprostatic implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) after a transurethral resection of the prostate. Background The implantation of an AUS is a standard procedure for severe urinary incontinence. In men it is usually implanted through a perineal approach, with the cuff placed around the bulbous urethra, bladder neck, or even around the prostate. Method We report a laparoscopic periprostatic implantation of an AUS after a transurethral resection of a prostate in a 72-year-old-man with incontinence. Results The operative duration was 180 min and the blood loss was 150 mL. There were no complications. After activating the AUS the patient was totally continent. Conclusion The laparoscopic periprostatic implantation of an AUS is a safe, effective and considerably less invasive procedure. PMID:26413345

  19. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    You have urinary incontinence. This means that you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube ... urine out of your body from your bladder. Urinary incontinence may occur as you get older. It ...

  20. MP/H Rules Presentation - Urinary

    Cancer.gov

    1 Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary 2 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, Tables and Illustrations 3 Introduction • Change in groupings – Previous: Kidney, ureter, renal pelvis • Bladder, ureter, renal pelvis – Lower urinary tract – Lined by

  1. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid ... you can buy many types of urinary incontinence products. These products help keep your skin dry and ...

  2. Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cornella, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Although there is renewed interest in conservative therapies for stress urinary incontinence, such as pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and duloxetine therapy, surgery remains the primary choice in managing this condition. Surgical options include paravaginal defect repair, the Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz procedure, open and laparoscopic Burch urethropexy, and pubovaginal sling procedures. There is a growing trend in the United States toward use of the pubovaginal sling procedure as the primary operation for urinary incontinence due to less invasive techniques. Studies comparing the pubovaginal sling with open urethropexy have shown similar short-term cure rates. More large prospective, randomized studies are needed to assess long-term rates. PMID:16985904

  3. Effectiveness of deslorelin acetate subcutaneous implantation in a domestic queen with after-spaying urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-04-01

    A 2-year-old female ovariectomised Norwegian Forest cat with a history of post-spaying urinary incontinence was diagnosed with acquired urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although there is no literature regarding the treatment of post-spaying USMI in cats, deslorelin acetate is successful in the treatment of post-spaying USMI in dogs. Deslorelin acetate implants have been shown previously to be effective for contraception and oestrus suppression in queens, and suppression of reproductive function in tomcats. Therefore, deslorelin acetate implant treatment was chosen for treatment of post-spaying USMI in this queen. Follow-up examinations were performed on days 8, 15 and 30 after deslorelin implant insertion. Urinary continence was restored about 25 days after implantation and maintained for at least 15 months, without treatment-related negative effects. In the present case report, the post-spaying urinary incontinence related to the acquired USMI was successfully treated with a deslorelin acetate implant. In addition, safe implantation was easy in cats and the single injection resulted in long-lasting efficacy. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of deslorelin acetate treatment for post-spaying USMI in queens and to better delineate the duration of efficacy. PMID:23873046

  4. Integrating yoga therapy in the management of urinary incontinence: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vinchurkar, Suhas Ashok; Arankalle, Dhananjay Vijay

    2015-04-01

    A 63-year-old overweight female prediagnosed of stress urinary incontinence presented with exacerbated events of urine leakage. She was advised a residential lifestyle and behavioral program, primarily consisting of a monitored yoga therapy module, apart from her ongoing anticholinergic medicine, for 21 days. Assessments were based on a frequency volume chart, a bladder diary for the entire duration of treatment, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form questionnaire on the days of admission and discharge. A total of 1.9 kg of weight loss was observed during her stay. Usage of pad, as reported in her diary, reduced from 3 to 1 per day. Her International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form score reduced from 16 to 9, indicating better continence. She expressed subjective well-being and confidence in her social interactions. This is probably the first case report demonstrating feasibility of integration of yoga therapy in the management of urinary incontinence. PMID:25539839

  5. Continents on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the continents over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the continents' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)

  6. Commissioning continence services--turning policy into action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sue

    2004-05-18

    Incontinence of urine and faeces is a major issue in health care today. The financial cost is enormous with the NHS purchasing an annual 80 m Pounds worth of absorbent products alone (Euromonitor, 1999). But the financial cost is only part of the equation. Incontinence also has a considerable impact on the quality of life of those who experience it. The nature and impact on quality of life varies among individuals. However, where expert services are available cure rates can exceed 50 per cent (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). This suggests that specialist continence services have a vital role to play in helping patients improve their incontinence or manage their continence problems more effectively. PMID:15176280

  7. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  8. Diurnal Variability and Kelvin Wave Propagation Through Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatau, M. K.; Baranowski, D. B.; Flatau, P. J.; Matthews, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 10 year series of the equatorial Kelvin waves obtained from the analysis of TRMM precipitation were examined to evaluate the impact of the diurnal variability of convection on the wave propagation through Maritime Continent. The convection in the Kelvin waves appears to be strongly phase locked in the area of the Maritime continent with the pronounced afternoon maximum. The diurnal phase locking is also evident as Kelvin waves propagate trough the Indian Ocean basin, suggesting that at least some Kelvin waves in this area are forced by the diurnally varying heat source related either to the convection over the land such as Eastern Africa or Madagascar, or over ocean areas with the high SST variability. We examine the hypothesis that the "matching" of the convective phase of the waves with the afternoon maximum of convection over Sumatra influences the wave strength after it crosses the Maritime Continent and can contribute to MJO propagation. The observational results based on observed Kelvin waves are supported by the results of the shallow water model of the interaction of the dry Kelvin wave with the diurnally oscillating heat source.

  9. Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents

    E-print Network

    Manga, Michael

    May 2005 Abstract It is generally assumed that continents, acting as thermal insulation above is principally by conduction [4­6] and continents thus act as thermal insulation above the convecting mantle [7Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents A. Lenardica

  10. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored continence care…

  11. [Possibilities in the preservation and restoration of anal continence].

    PubMed

    Lestár, B; Asztalos, I; László, S; Polányi, C; Hornok, L; Ritter, L; Rózsa, I

    2001-06-01

    The preservation of anal continence and the improvement of the patients' quality of life in general are primary objectives of colorectal surgery. Earlier the loss of the entire rectum, colon required a definitive stoma. This review describes surgical procedures designed to preserve anal continence. This paper also describes operative techniques designed to improve impaired sphincter function. Total extirpation of the mesorectum reduces local recurrence of rectal tumours. At the same time, this operation requires formation of the anastomosis low, at the level of the levator muscle. Low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses are associated with higher incidence of suture leakage and poor functional outcome. The distance between anastomosis and anal verge was less than 7 cm in 249 sphincter-sparing rectal resections performed during the examined 6-year period in our institute. Different techniques to perform anastomoses were applied, the prevalence of suture leakage and the functional results are analysed. Restorative proctocolectomy has dramatically improved the treatment of familial polyposis and ulcerative colitis with rectal involvement. Although proctocolectomy is necessary to cure the disease, acceptable faecal continence can be achieved by creating ileoanal anastomosis with ileal reservoir. We discuss our results after 43 operations. Weakness of the sphincter apparatus is the most common cause of continence problems. Occasionally, the sphincter is no longer suitable for reconstruction because of extensive damage or denervation. In such cases, the levator muscles or--if neither these are of acceptable quality--the gluteus maximus muscle can be used to repair the external sphincter. Anterior levator plasty involves tightening the levator plate by suturing its arches together between the rectum and the vagina. This procedure enhances the resistance of the sphincter barrier primarily by increasing functional sphincter length. The functional outcome of this procedure was acceptable in two-thirds of the 52 operations. Post anal repair was performed only in 3 patients. This method comprises reinforcing the levator plate through an access between the external and the internal sphincters. When the levator plate is unsuitable, bilateral gluteus plasty can be performed to increase the strength of sphincter muscles. As the gluteus is a striated muscle it can improve only the of the external sphincter function. Therefore this procedure can restore acceptable continence to hard stool only. This is demonstrated by our clinical experience obtained in 10 patients. PMID:11432169

  12. First experience with the ATOMS® implant, a new treatment option for male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Cansino, Jose Ramón; Portilla, María Alejandra; Rodriguez, Simón Claudio; Hidalgo, Luis; De la Peña, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any complaint of involuntary urine leakage. A description is provided of our experience with the ATOMS® (Adjustable Transobturator Male System. Agency for Medical Innovations. A.M.I.) adjustable implant in patients with mild to moderate UI. Material and methods A retrospective study was made of the data referring to 13 patients treated with this adjustable system. Demographic and personal data were collected along with information on the etiology, severity, characteristics, duration of UI, complementary tests, surgery times, complications and results obtained. Results The full continence (no use of pad) recovery rate at the close of the study was 12/13 (92.3%). Three cases required a single filling during the mean 16 months of follow–up (range 4–32; median 14 months). A complication in the form of perineal hematoma was resolved with conservative treatment and a case of urinary retention was resolved by placing a bladder catheter for the duration of one week. Three patients experienced perineal–scrotal dysesthesias that disappeared spontaneously in the first three months. Conclusions The described adjustable continence system has been found to be very effective in males with mild to moderate UI. In our experience, the ATOMS® implant offers excellent results over the middle term with a very low rate of complications that were easily resolved in all cases. PMID:25667760

  13. Managing Urinary Incontinence in Patients with Dementia: Pharmacological Treatment Options and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Orme, Susie; Morris, Vikky; Gibson, William; Wagg, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent in late life and are strongly associated with dementia and frailty. Incontinence is extremely common among those living in long-term care and is most commonly due to urgency incontinence. Although national and international guidelines for continence care exist, they often fail to consider the complex comorbidity found in patients with dementia and are often not followed; continence practices in long-term care may promote rather than prevent incontinence. The majority of those with dementia living in the community can be managed successfully with standard treatments, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological; the expectations and aims of treatment of both the patient and their caregivers should be considered. A dementia diagnosis does not preclude management of incontinence, but treatment options may be more limited in those with advanced dementia who are unable to retain information and modify behaviors. High-quality data to guide the choice of pharmacological agent in those with dementia are lacking. Oxybutynin has been shown to have significant adverse cognitive effects, but data to support the use of trospium, solifenacin, darifenacin, and fesoterodine are limited. No data are available for mirabegron. Neither age, frailty, nor dementia should be considered a barrier to pharmacological management, but consideration should be given to the total anticholinergic load. Evidence to guide the treatment of incontinence in this vulnerable patient group is scarce, and available guidelines adapted for each individual's situation should be applied. PMID:26169438

  14. [Definition and etiologic factors of hypotonic urethra in relation to urinary stress incontinence in the female].

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, T; Schwenzer, C; Schwenzer, M

    1989-10-01

    In 555 stress-induced urinary incontinent and 119 continent women patients, we studied the history, clinical and urodynamic investigations to define the hypotonic urethra and to find out important etiological factors of the low urethral closure pressure. The linear depression of the urethral pressure and the urethral closure pressure at rest--well known from literature--has been confirmed in this study. With hypotonic urethra, closure pressure values were found to be below the simple standard deviation from a norm-curve. Also, in cases of stress urinary incontinence, we found a nearly linear depression of closure pressure. The stress incontinent patients could be divided in two groups: 46% with hypotonic urethra, 54% with nearly normal closure pressure. History of former incontinence surgery, but also of other operations such as simple abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy, is correlated with low urethral closure pressure. The degree of closure pressure is correlated with shortening of the functional urethral length. The maximum closure pressure shifts distally. Women, who, despite hypotonic urethras, are continent, build up a positive closure pressure throughout a broad zone of the functional urethral length. Contrarily, in the case of incontinent patients, even a weak coughing spasm, which does not even break through the bladder sphincter in maximum closure, can cause opening of the urethra and establishment of pressure equilibration between bladder and urethra. PMID:2583428

  15. What is the best surgical intervention for stress urinary incontinence in the very young and very old? An International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society update.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Castro-Diaz, David; Giarenis, Ilias; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Anding, Ralf; Burton, Claire; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of continence procedures are being performed in women of all ages. An overview of the existing literature and consensus regarding surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in the young and the old was presented and discussed at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society Think Tank. This manuscript reflects the Think Tank's summary and opinion. Despite the increasing number of continence procedures, there are relatively few data to guide management in the very young and the very old. When considering continence surgery in the young, long-term efficacy and safety are paramount, and the future effects of pregnancy and childbirth need to be carefully considered. Conversely, in the elderly, minimally invasive procedures with low morbidity are important, especially in the frail elderly who may have significant co-morbidities. Further research including prospective randomised trials, cohort studies and national registries, should help guide our management in these two challenging groups of patients. PMID:26202394

  16. Urinary incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Elie; Hajjar, Ramzi R

    2012-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem in the elderly which is under-reported and under-treated.It can have profound effects on the quality-of-life of affected persons and their companion or caregiver. Though common, incontinence is not an inevitable consequence of aging, but multiple anatomic and physiologic age-related changes increase the risk of UI with advancing age. Many treatment modalities are available for managing UI, some more effective than others. Patient education, and careful selection of treatment modalities can significantly improve urinary incontinence, and in some cases cure it, but treatment complications and side effects are common and must be closely monitored for successful long-term management. Surgical management of stress incontinence is a safe and effective intervention that is underutilized. PMID:23461088

  17. Studies on human urinary arylamidases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, P. N.; Ellis, S.

    1975-01-01

    Human urinary protein was found to contain enzymes that hydrolyze leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl-beta-naphthylamides. The kinetic constants of these enzymes were determined and their chemical properties studied. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of the various naphthylamides were also determined. Glycyl-prolyl-arylaminade was inhibited by Co(2+) and Mn(2+), while two other arylamidases were slightly activated by Co(2+). p-Chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate and puromycin significantly inhibited leucyl and alanyl arylamidases. The mean values for 24-hour urinary output for leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl arylamidases in normal human male subjects were 4.32, 9.97, and 2.2 units, respectively.

  18. Urinary Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since urinary biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising urinary biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, urinary proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis. PMID:20127204

  19. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  4. Catchment sediment yield in Africa: a continent-wide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Broeckx, Jente; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    While several studies compiled and analyzed measured contemporary catchment sediment yield (SY, [t/km²/y]) values for various regions of the world, Africa remains strongly underrepresented in these studies. We therefore conducted a review on published SY data for Africa, explored the spatial variability of these SY data and examined which environmental factors explain this variability. We collected SY measurements of at least one year for 682 African catchments across the continent (> 8340 catchment-years) from 84 publications and reports. Catchment areas range from 0.02 km² to > 3,800,000 km². Observed SY values range between 0.2 and 15,699 t/km²/y (median: 160 t/km²/y, average: 634 t/km²/y). Correlation and partial correlation analyses showed that spatial variation of SY in Africa is mainly explained by differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. Other factors such as lithology, catchment area or reservoir impacts showed less clear correlations. Based on these findings we propose a simple regression model that allows simulating the observed regional patterns of SY in Africa fairly well. This model predicts an average SY of 42 t/km²/y for the entire African continent, a value that corresponds closely to earlier estimates of the sediment output of the African continent to the oceans. The fact that SY shows the strongest correlation with seismic activity, while climatic variables explain little of the observed variation can be considered surprising as Africa is relatively inactive in terms of seismic activity and is characterized by a very large climatic variability. This suggests that processes such as tectonically related rock-fracturing and earthquake-triggered landslides may have a stronger influence on contemporary SY-values than previously assumed.

  5. Exploring the dark continent with fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkwright, John W.; Wang, David Hsiao-Chuan; Maunder, Simon A.; Blenman, Neil G.; Underhill, Ian; Patton, Vicki; Dinning, Phil G.

    2014-05-01

    The lower gastrointestinal tract has been referred to as the `Dark Continent' of the human body because it is so hard to access without resorting to a surgeon's blade. In response to an unmet clinical need we have developed a fibre optic manometry catheter that is now in clinical use across Australia and New Zealand. The unparalleled detail of colonic activity that these devices provide is being hailed as ground breaking by global experts. In this paper we present the design and clinical application of the catheters, and also some of the (sometimes surprising) requirements of our clinical colleagues.

  6. Currents in the mantle and the geology of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. Tuzo

    1991-02-01

    This paper is the first of a series which have considered the possible effects of currents in the mantle upon continents. It mentions effects of aging in oceans upon the direction of slope of coastal peneplains. When oceans are young the coasts are cliffs from which peneplains dip downward on the inland side. As the margins separate from the ridge they cool and the slopes reverse. It suggests how Jeffreys' arguments against convection currents breaking the lithosphere can be avoided and discusses the possibility that upwelling has penetrated beneath the southwestern United States.

  7. Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting continence. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34+ cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to urinary incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:24179600

  8. Stone symptoms and urinary deposits.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-02-01

    There is a general belief among the public and clinicians that urinary stone problem is always associated with symptoms like pain, dysuria and haematuria. Many patients stop medical treatment when they are symptom free and return with excruciating pain, dysuria and haematuria either alone or in combination. The objective of this study was to determine stone activity in an individual patient by assessing the urinary deposits at the time of the visit to the stone clinic and correlate with the presence or absence of symptoms at that time. 418 patients who attended the stone clinic in 2007 with proved urinary stone disease, including stone, colic and crystalluria, were studied. Presence or absence of symptoms at the time of presentation was recorded. Minimum of two samples of urine was collected (early morning and random) to assess the presence and extent (1-5) of urinary deposits namely red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid and phosphate. The scores obtained were correlated with the presence or absence of symptoms by logistic regression. Of the 418 patients studied, 238 had symptoms and 180 had no symptoms. The total score of the deposits of patients with symptoms was 1,215 with a mean of 3.39 per patient against the score of 350 in the patients without symptoms with a mean of 2.99. This difference was not statistically significant. The total values and mean scores of the urinary deposits of all patients grouped together were RBC 561 (3.51), PC 434 (3.29), COM 177 (3.34), COD 237 (3.25), phosphate 113 (3.23) and uric acid 43 (1.95). Comparison of the total values and mean scores of the deposits of the patients with and without symptoms showed the variations as RBC 428 (3.51) versus 133 (3.5) PC 341 (3.38) versus 93 (3.0), COM 143 (3.25) versus 34 (3.78), COD 190 (3.88) versus 47 (1.96), phosphate 76 (3.3) versus 37 (3.1) and uric acid/ammonium urate 37 (1.95) versus 6 (2.0). Of these, the RBC, PC, uric acid and phosphates were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the presence of COD was significantly more in patients with symptoms (P < 0.05) and COM was significantly more in patients without symptoms (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the presence or absence of symptoms does not alter the presence and extent of urinary deposits significantly in the urinary stone patients. COD was more in symptomatic patients and COM was more in the asymptomatic patients. This contrast could be due to the morphology of the COD crystal which is dipyramidal and produces injury to urolthelium whereas COM is dumbbell shaped and produces lesser injury and lesser symptoms. PMID:19888570

  9. Urinary disorders and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jaclyn; Sweet, Genevieve; Shindel, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Overactive bladder urinary incontinence and female sexual dysfunction are common in women, but often go unreported and/or untreated. All of these conditions can have a markedly negative impact on quality of life. There is a growing body of evidence that sexual and urinary problems are often comorbid and possibly synergistic in women. Increasingly robust evidence indicates that management of urinary concerns may enhance sexual function and quality of life. It is important for health care providers who see women to consider both urinary and sexual health concerns during patient encounters. Additional research attention to the interrelationships between these genitourinary disorders is warranted. PMID:23716031

  10. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial medications with a known side effect of urinary retention are also associated with urinary retention during flight. However, not all cases of urinary retention surrounded medication use inflight. It is also known that UTI is a terrestrial cause of urinary retention. Furthermore, the treatment of urinary retention with a urinary catheter may be more likely to initiate a UTI in space than on the ground, as aseptic techniques can be particularly challenging with an inexperienced provider in a free-floating environment. Inflight urinary retention and UTI have proven to be highly associated and urinary risks should be considered collectively when planning for space flight.

  11. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection can occur. If you have a urinary catheter, germs can travel along the catheter and cause ... tract infection (or “CA-UTI”). What is a urinary catheter? A urinary catheter is a thin tube placed ...

  12. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Kidney & Urinary System > Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Print A A A Text ...

  13. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  14. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  15. Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-Continent as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-Continent, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.

  16. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents.

    PubMed

    Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John

    2014-07-15

    The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  17. Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early continents

    PubMed Central

    Mole, David R.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F.; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Romano, Sandra S.; Doublier, Michael P.; Belousova, Elena A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Miller, John

    2014-01-01

    The generation and evolution of Earth’s continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of continents also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50–30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean–Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early continents thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873

  18. Correlation of Mid-Continent Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) Brachiopods

    SciTech Connect

    Weibel, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Biostratigraphic correlations of Pennsylvanian strata in the Illinois basin with those of the Western Interior basin have been restricted largely to comparison of ostracode faunules and a few fusulinid occurrences. Seventeen brachiopod species from the Bogota and Greenup Limestone Members of the upper Mattoon Formation in east-central Illinois resemble species from Late Pennsylvanian Mid-Continent localities. Five Bogota species have relatively restricted ranges and are useful for correlation. Neochonetes granulifer var. transversalis is rare in the Douglas Group but abundant in the Shawnee and Wabaunsee. Lissochonetes geinitzianus var. plattsmouthensis ranges from uppermost Missourian to upper Shawnee and L. geinitzianus var. geronticus ranges from upper Wabaunsee to Lower Permian. Derbyia texana occurs in the Thrifty Formation of north Texas (probably upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee). Antiquatonia jemezensis has not been reported in the Mid-Continent but occurs in the upper Madera formation (probable Shawnee or early Wabaunsee) of New Mexico. A compositid from the younger Greenup Limestone Member is morphologically intermediate between the Early Pennsylvanian Composita wasatchensis and the middle Permian C. affinis. Other species from the Bogota and Greenup members range throughout the Upper Pennsylvanian, except for one linoproductid of Missourian affinities. This study, along with a previous study of brachiopods (Shumway Limestone Member) and of fusulinids, indicates that the Bogota is of middle Shawnee age, the Greenup is of upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee age, and the Missourian-Virgilian boundary in the Illinois basin is stratigraphically near the Omega Limestone Member.

  19. Is anterior genital tract trauma associated with complaints of postpartum urinary incontinence?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Rebecca G; Leeman, Lawrence M; Kleyboecker, Sallie; Pukite, Mary; Manocchio, Regina; Albers, Leah L

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated whether anterior genital trauma is associated with urinary incontinence after vaginal birth. A prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to mapping of trauma at birth and assessment of continence postpartum. Trauma was categorized into intact, anterior (periuretheral, clitoral, labial), perineal or both. Incontinence was defined as a positive response to the question, "Since the birth of your baby, have you leaked urine when you did not mean to?" and social impact assessed by the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7). Of 554 eligible women, 436 (79%) provided incontinence data 3 months postpartum. Genital trauma was common, occurring in 80% of women: in 148 (34%) trauma was anterior, 119 (27%) had both anterior and perineal trauma and 80(18%) had only perineal trauma. Since delivery, 27% (118/436) women leaked urine. Fewer had IIQ-7 scores greater than 0, at 55/436 (12%). Women with anterior trauma, 29/148 (20%), were less likely to complain of incontinence than all others, 89/288 (31%) (P = 0.01). Urinary incontinence is common after giving birth, although most women have mild symptoms. Anterior trauma is not associated with increased complaints of urinary incontinence. PMID:17429558

  20. Urinary Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ross, Ashley E; Sokoll, Lori J; Partin, Alan W; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2016-02-01

    In light of the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with widespread prostate-specific antigen-based screening, controversy persists surrounding the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Given its anatomic proximity to the prostate, urine has been proposed as a noninvasive substrate for prostatic biomarkers. With greater understanding of the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis and significant technological advances, the breadth of potential biomarkers is substantial. In this review, the authors aim to provide an evidence-based assessment of current and emerging urinary biomarkers used in the detection and prognostication of PCa and high-grade PCa, with particular attention on clinically relevant findings. PMID:26614026

  1. Advances in Urinary Tract Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopy in veterinary medicine has become the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment in the subspecialty of small animal urology over the past decade. This subspecialty is termed endourology. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of endoscopic-assisted alternatives using interventional endoscopic techniques has become appealing to both owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common urologic procedures being performed in veterinary medicine. PMID:26440205

  2. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  3. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  4. Current concepts in female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Long, R M; Giri, S K; Flood, H D

    2008-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is a social burden for up to one-third of the adult female population. Careful assessment, a methodical approach and appropriate treatment can lead to long-term success in the management of these patients. This article gives an outline of current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of stress urinary incontinence. PMID:19110826

  5. Urinary tract infection in children - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days. ... If diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI), your child will take antibiotic medicines by mouth at home. These may come as pills, capsules, or a liquid. ...

  6. A Zn isotope perspective on the rise of continents.

    PubMed

    Pons, M-L; Fujii, T; Rosing, M; Quitté, G; Télouk, P; Albarède, F

    2013-05-01

    Zinc isotope abundances are fairly constant in igneous rocks and shales and are left unfractionated by hydrothermal processes at pH < 5.5. For that reason, Zn isotopes in sediments can be used to trace the changing chemistry of the hydrosphere. Here, we report Zn isotope compositions in Fe oxides from banded iron formations (BIFs) and iron formations of different ages. Zinc from early Archean samples is isotopically indistinguishable from the igneous average (?(66) Zn ~0.3‰). At 2.9-2.7 Ga, ?(66) Zn becomes isotopically light (?(66) Zn < 0‰) and then bounces back to values >1‰ during the ~2.35 Ga Great Oxygenation Event. By 1.8 Ga, BIF ?(66) Zn has settled to the modern value of FeMn nodules and encrustations (~0.9‰). The Zn cycle is largely controlled by two different mechanisms: Zn makes strong complexes with phosphates, and phosphates in turn are strongly adsorbed by Fe hydroxides. We therefore review the evidence that the surface geochemical cycles of Zn and P are closely related. The Zn isotope record echoes Sr isotope evidence, suggesting that erosion starts with the very large continental masses appearing at ~2.7 Ga. The lack of Zn fractionation in pre-2.9 Ga BIFs is argued to reflect the paucity of permanent subaerial continental exposure and consequently the insignificant phosphate input to the oceans and the small output of biochemical sediments. We link the early decline of ?(66) Zn between 3.0 and 2.7 Ga with the low solubility of phosphate in alkaline groundwater. The development of photosynthetic activity at the surface of the newly exposed continents increased the oxygen level in the atmosphere, which in turn triggered acid drainage and stepped up P dissolution and liberation of heavy Zn into the runoff. Zinc isotopes provide a new perspective on the rise of continents, the volume of carbonates on continents, changing weathering conditions, and compositions of the ocean through time. PMID:23421593

  7. Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary In early August 2007, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Aging in the Community project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding healthy aging in the community. The Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the ministry’s newly released Aging at Home Strategy. After a broad literature review and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified 4 key areas that strongly predict an elderly person’s transition from independent community living to a long-term care home. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these 4 areas: falls and fall-related injuries, urinary incontinence, dementia, and social isolation. For the first area, falls and fall-related injuries, an economic model is described in a separate report. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html, to review these titles within the Aging in the Community series. Aging in the Community: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Prevention of Falls and Fall-Related Injuries in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis Caregiver- and Patient-Directed Interventions for Dementia: An Evidence-Based Analysis Social Isolation in Community-Dwelling Seniors: An Evidence-Based Analysis The Falls/Fractures Economic Model in Ontario Residents Aged 65 Years and Over (FEMOR) Objective To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling seniors. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Urinary incontinence defined as “the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine” was identified as 1 of the key predictors in a senior’s transition from independent community living to admission to a long-term care (LTC) home. Urinary incontinence is a health problem that affects a substantial proportion of Ontario’s community-dwelling seniors (and indirectly affects caregivers), impacting their health, functioning, well-being and quality of life. Based on Canadian studies, prevalence estimates range from 9% to 30% for senior men and nearly double from 19% to 55% for senior women. The direct and indirect costs associated with UI are substantial. It is estimated that the total annual costs in Canada are $1.5 billion (Cdn), and that each year a senior living at home will spend $1,000 to $1,500 on incontinence supplies. Interventions to treat and manage UI can be classified into broad categories which include lifestyle modification, behavioural techniques, medications, devices (e.g., continence pessaries), surgical interventions and adjunctive measures (e.g., absorbent products). The focus of this review is behavioural interventions, since they are commonly the first line of treatment considered in seniors given that they are the least invasive options with no reported side effects, do not limit future treatment options, and can be applied in combination with other therapies. In addition, many seniors would not be ideal candidates for other types of interventions involving more risk, such as surgical measures. Note: It is recognized that the terms “senior” and “elderly” carry a range of meanings for different audiences; this report generally uses the former, but the terms are treated here as essentially interchangeable. Description of Technology/Therapy Behavioural interventions can be divided into 2 categories according to the target population: caregiver-dependent techniques and patient-directed techniques. Caregiver-dependent techniques (also known as toileting assistance) are targeted at medically complex, frail individuals living at home with the assistance of a caregiver, who tends to be a family member. These seniors may also have cognitive deficits and/or moto

  8. [Plastic repair of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Bondar', G V; Bulava, V V; Panova, L A

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observations of 76 patients in whom an artifical urinary bladder was constructed from the rectum are presented. 52 patients were operated upon for cancer of the urinary bladder, total papillomatosis, a metastasis of uterine cancer in the bladder, cancer of the sigmoid with the urinary bladder involvement, sarcoma and cancer of the prostate with the bladder involvement. 17 patients were operated upon for extrophy, 7 -- for cancer of the urethra. An isolation of the rectum is followed by ligation of the upper rectal and vein. Fifteen patients died postoperatively due to peritonitis (6), ascending infection of the urinary tract (4), postoperative shock (I), phlegmon of the minor pelvis (I). In late postoperative period an artificial urinary bladder provides for reservoir and excretory functions. PMID:997414

  9. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r?=??0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  10. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  11. The evolving continents /2nd revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windley, B. F.

    The earth's history is traced through the tectonic evolution of the continental crust from the very beginning of the geological record, rather than by studying the stratigraphy of a particular area. The topics addressed include: Archean granulite-gneiss belts; Archean greenstone belts; crustal evolution in the Archean; early to mid-Proterozoic basic ultrabasic intrusion, basins, and belts; mid-Proterozoic anorogenic magmatism and abortive rifting; mid-late Proterozoic basins, dykes, glaciations, and life forms; late Proterozoic mobile belts; and crustal evolution in the Proterozoic. Also considered are: paleomagnetism and continental drift; paleoclimatology and the fossil record; Caledonian-Appalachian fold belt; the Hercynian fold belt; Pangaea and its breakup; plate tectonics and sea-floor spreading; island arcs; continental margin orogenic belts; the Western Americas; the Alpine fold belt; the Himalayas; and the evolving continents.

  12. Moho depth and residual topography of the Antarctic continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Alexey; Molinari, Irene; Morelli, Andrea; Danesi, Stefania

    2013-04-01

    A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic continent has been recently assembled (ANTMoho), merging information retrieved from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data have been analyzed: from active seismic prospection,including DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent passive seismic receiver function and geological studies. ANTMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. The oldest Archean and Proterozoic crust of East Antarctica has a thickness of 36-56 km (with an average of about 41 km). The continental crust of the Transantarctic Mountains, the Antarctic Peninsula and Wilkes Basin has a thickness of 30-40 km (with an average Moho of about 30 km). The youngest rifted continental crust of the West Antarctic Rift System has a thickness of 16-28 km (with an average Moho of about 26 km). The mean Moho depth of the whole model is 33.8 km. We compare this new model to other available for the whole continent (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography -- an indicator of dynamic response to large-scale mantle flow. We adopt the semianalytical methodology implemented in the HC code (developed and maintained by Prof. T. Becker). The spatial resolution is limited by the L=127 of the input model. The Transantarctic Mountains appear not to be isostatically compensated, such as the neighboring Wilkes Subglacial Basin. East Antarctica on a large scale does not show significant uncompensated topography. There are however some smaller-scale residual topography features, that correlate with sub-glacial topography and that may indicate some limitation in resolution or laterally-variable crustal density. Better knowledge of crustal structure is therefore an important tool for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.

  13. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2–6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11–0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04–0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  14. Effects of urinary volume on urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid, coproporphyrin, creatinine, and total solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S

    1980-01-01

    Urinary volume was related to urinary concentrations of lead, delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrin (COPRO), creatinine, and total solutes in nine lead workers. On a log scale, linear relationships were found between urinary volume and the urinary concentrations. There was a certain difference in the extent of the effects of urinary volume on the urinary concentrations. For example, the concentration of creatinine was more affected by urinary volume than those of lead, ALA, and total solutes among the substances examined: similarly, the concentration of COPRO more than that of ALA. An equation was introduced to eliminate the effects of urinary volume on urinary concentrations. The effects of urinary volume on the concentrations adjusted to urinary specific gravity, osmolality, and creatinine are discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:7370193

  15. Adjustment of urinary concentration to urinary volume in relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations: an evaluation of urinary heavy metals and organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of urinary volume on adjusted and nonadjusted urinary excretion of 11 heavy metals and organic substances were examined in relation to plasma and erythrocyte concentrations in 19 metal workers under conditions of water restriction and loading. Blood lead concentrations in these workers ranged from 25 to 59 micrograms/dl. The results indicated that: urinary volume significantly affects not only nonadjusted urinary concentration for all substances, but also affects timed excretion and concentrations adjusted to urinary specific gravity and to urinary creatinine for most substances; the concentration adjusted to urinary volume is, on the other hand, independent of urinary volume; and urinary excretion of lead and mercury is related more closely to erythrocyte concentration than to plasma concentration. This last finding reflects complex renal excretory mechanisms for these heavy metals.

  16. Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    O’Riordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N.; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N.; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocolbiopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including ?1-micro-globulin, ?2-micro-globulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

  17. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Charles J. Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-02-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium {>=}0.88 {mu}g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 {mu}g/g creatinine.

  18. [Epidemiological aspects of the female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Chmel, R; Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as an involuntary loss of urine, which makes social and hygienic problem. It is a symptom with different causes. According to the typical clinical manifestation it is classified as stress, urge, reflex and paradox urinary incontinence. Loss of small amount of urine related to the increase of intraabdominal pressure (during coughing, sneezing or running) is characteristic for stress urinary incontinence. Sudden and uncontrollable voiding with loss of greater amount of urine is typical for urge incontinence. Reflex incontinence means that urinary bladder is emptying without voiding. Paradox incontinence is caused by an acquired smooth muscle weakness of the bladder and it manifests with incomplete emptying and with growing residual urine. Prevalence of urinary incontinence increases with age. Significant increase of female urinary incontinence symptoms is found in fifth and sixth decade. Urinary incontinence in young women is more a dynamic than a permanent symptom but the postmenopausal incontinence obviously does not disappear spontaneously. Urge and mixed incontinence are less frequent than stress symptomatology (between 10 and 15%). According to the prevalence studies only 1,5 to 6% of incontinent women are looking for a medical help. Because the urge symptoms are more limiting, the patients with urge incontinence are searching treatment possibilities more often than those with stress incontinence. PMID:15807294

  19. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY...Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system...Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is...for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is used in the diagnosis and treatment of calculi of the...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY...Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system...Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is...for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is used in the diagnosis and treatment of calculi of the...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY...Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system...Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is...for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is used in the diagnosis and treatment of calculi of the...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY...Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system...Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is...for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi is used in the diagnosis and treatment of calculi of the...

  3. Urinary Calculi and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Chen, Yung-Tai; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that urinary calculi are associated with increased risks of urinary tract cancers. However, the association between urinary calculi and overall cancers is a largely undefined body of knowledge. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 and 2009. Patients were excluded if they had antecedent cancers or urinary calculi before the enrollment. All study subjects were followed until the occurrence of cancer, dropout from the NHI program, death, or the end of 2010. Patterns of cancer incidence in patients with urinary calculi were compared with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratio (SIR). A total of 43,516 patients with urinary calculi were included. After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 1891 patients developed cancer. The risk of overall cancers was significantly increased (SIR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–1.83). We observed that urinary calculi was associated with higher risk of cancers of kidney (4.24; 95% CI, 3.47–5.13), bladder (3.30; 95% CI, 2.69–4.00), thyroid (2.50; 95% CI, 1.78–3.40), hematologic origin (2.41; 95% CI, 1.92–2.99), breast (1.84; 95% CI, 1.54–2.20), lung (1.82; 95% CI, 1.59–2.07), digestive tract (1.69; 95% CI, 1.57–1.82), and head and neck (1.54; 95% CI, 1.32–1.79), respectively. Our study shows that urinary calculi are associated with higher risk of systemic cancers in addition to urinary tract cancers. Further study is required to validate this association. PMID:25546684

  4. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. December 1976 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in many countries of the world. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning. Population statistics are included for five continents and many countries. Data for the continents include population in 1976, projected population in 2000,…

  5. CoE Maritime Continent Workshop 4-5 December 2013

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Andrew

    for MJO over Maritime Continent...SST/convection phasing? (TBC) MJO responds better to intraCoE Maritime Continent Workshop 4-5 December 2013 Tropical prediction: the MJO and the Maritime: What's next? Investigate SST-convection phasing over MC in coupled & uncoupled ACCESS runs Coupled

  6. Synoptic Disturbances over the Equatorial South China Sea and Western Maritime Continent during Boreal Winter

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chih-Pei

    Synoptic Disturbances over the Equatorial South China Sea and Western Maritime Continent during, California 93943. E-mail: cpchang@nps.navy.mil. #12;Abstract During boreal winter, the Maritime Continent is a region of deep cumulus convection and heavy precipitation systems that play a major role in several

  7. [What to do with a normal urinary strip in case of lower urinary tract symptoms?].

    PubMed

    Sabeh, N; Gambirasio, I Kaelin; Caviezel, A; Delémont, C

    2012-09-26

    Patients very often consult for lower urinary tract symptoms, that do not necessarily equate to common cystitis. When urinary leucocytes and nitrites are absent, the urinary strip has a very good negative predictive value and makes the diagnosis of a lower urinary tract infection very unlikely. One then has to search for other diagnoses and to clarify the nature of the symptoms, irritating or obstructive ones, their duration and to correlate them to the patient's age and gender. In sexually active young patients, infectious diseases predominate, such as uretritis or vaginitis, while, with age, the prevalence of dysfunction of vesical emptying, benign prostatic hyperplasia or atrophic vaginitis increase. PMID:23097864

  8. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients' quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  9. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... free vaginal tape is placed to treat stress incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  10. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  11. Development of a Prosthesis for Urinary Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for urinary control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.

  12. Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 69. Shamliyan TA, Kane RL, Wyman J, Wilt TJ. Systematic review: randomized, ... Shamilyan TA, Wyman JF, Ping R, Wilt TJ, Kane RL. Male urinary incontinence: Prevalence, risk factors, and ...

  13. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-10-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  14. Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Johnson, Randall S.; Hyer, Edward J.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Sessions, Walter

    2013-03-01

    Smoke transport patterns over the Maritime Continent (MC) are studied through a combination of approaches, including a) analyzing AODs obtained from satellite products; b) aerosol transport modeling with AOD assimilation along with the atmospheric flow patterns; c) analyzing smoke wet deposition distributions; and d) examining forward trajectories for smoke events defined in this study. It is shown that smoke transport pathways are closely related to the low-level atmospheric flow, i.e., during June-Sept, smoke originating from the MC islands with a dominant source over central and southern Sumatra, and southern and western Borneo, is generally transported northwestward south of the equator and northeastward north of the equator with the cross-equatorial flow, to the South China Sea (SCS), the Philippines and even further to the western Pacific. During the October-November transitional period, smoke transport paths are more zonally oriented compared to June-September. Smoke originating from Java, Bali, Timor etc, and southern New Guinea, which are in the domain of easterlies and southeasterlies during the boreal summer (June-November), is generally transported westward. It is also found that smoke transport over the MC exhibits multi-scale variability. Smoke typically lives longer and can be transported farther in El Niño years and later MJO phases compared with non El Niño years and earlier MJO phases. During El Niño periods there is much stronger westward transport to the east tropical Indian Ocean. Finally, orographic effect on smoke transport over the MC is also clearly discernable.

  15. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  16. The ocean-continent transition of western Iberia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmarsh, R.B.; Miles, P.R.; Pinheiro, L.M. ); Boillot, G. ); Recq, M. )

    1991-08-01

    The western continental margin of the Iberian peninsular has the characteristic of a rifted non-volcanic continental margin with half-graben and tilted fault blocks seen in several places on multichannel seismic reflection profiles. The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is therefore expected to be where thinned continental crust and oceanic crust are juxtaposed, as elsewhere. The authors located the OCT off western Iberia in order to constrain the pre-lift fit of Iberia to North America. This fit is only marginally constrained by sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies because the Cretaceous constant polarity interval is adjacent to the OCT. Thinned continental crust can be distinguished from oceanic crust by the nature of the lower crustal velocity structure. In 1986-1987, a series of seismic refraction profiles was shot across three parts of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the OCT can be detected not only from seismic velocities but also by modeling magnetic anomalies. The chosen location of the OCT is consistent with the interpretation of subsequently acquired multichannel profiles. Off Galicia Bank, the OCT, recognized from seismic velocities and multichannel profiles, corresponds to a seabed peridotite ridge, which has been extensively sampled. In the Tagus Abyssal Plain, limited seismic data gives a less clear picture of the OCT.

  17. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  18. Diversity of frankiae in soils from five continents.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Babur S; Welsh, Allana; Rieder, Julie P; Paschke, Mark W; Hahn, Dittmar

    2009-12-01

    Clone libraries of nifH gene fragments specific for the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia were generated from six soils obtained from five continents using a nested PCR. Comparative sequence analyses of all libraries (n=247 clones) using 96 to 97% similarity thresholds revealed the presence of three and four clusters of frankiae representing the Elaeagnus and the Alnus host infection groups, respectively. Diversity of frankiae was represented by fewer clusters (i.e., up to four in total) within individual libraries, with one cluster generally harboring the vast majority of sequences. Meta-analysis including sequences previously published for cultures (n=48) and for uncultured frankiae in root nodules of Morella pensylvanica formed in bioassays with the respective soils (n=121) revealed a higher overall diversity with four and six clusters of frankiae representing the Elaeagnus and the Alnus host infection groups, respectively, and displayed large differences in cluster assignments between sequences retrieved from clone libraries and those obtained from nodules, with assignments to the same cluster only rarely encountered for individual soils. These results demonstrate large differences between detectable Frankia populations in soil and those in root nodules indicating the inadequacy of bioassays for the analysis of frankiae in soil and the role of plants in the selection of frankiae from soil for root nodule formation. PMID:19692194

  19. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  20. Convective Transport of Trace Gases in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Passage of air through the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) is the major route for troposphere to stratosphere transport. The UK CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) campaign took place in the West Pacific in January/February 2014. The field campaign was based mainly in Guam (13.5oN, 144.8oE) and had three components: CAST with the NERC FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft; the NASA ATTREX project based around the Global Hawk; the NCAR-led CONTRAST campaign based around the Gulfstream V (HIAPER) aircraft. Together, these aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. The CAST team also made ground-based and ozonesonde measurements at the ARM site on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea during February 2014, and halocarbon measurements were made at several West Pacific sites. I will present an overview of the CAST campaign along with the results of high resolution global Unified Model studies and NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) trajectory calculations to look at the transport of air into the TTL in convective systems over the Maritime continent and West Pacific. I will focus on the transport of air from in and around the boundary layer and will assess the possible importance of natural and anthropogenic emissions for TTL composition.

  1. Capillary zone electrophoresis of humic acids from the American continent.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria de Lourdes; Havel, Josef

    2002-01-01

    A multicomponent background electrolyte (BGE) was developed and its composition optimized using artificial neural networks (ANN). The optimal BGE composition was found to be 90 mM boric acid, 115 mM Tris, and 0.75 mM EDTA (pH 8.4). A separation voltage of 20 kV, 20 degrees C and detection at 210 nm were used. The method was applied to characterize several humic acids originating from various countries of the American continent: soil (Argentina), peat (Brazil), leonardite (Guatemala and Mexico) and coal (United States). Comparison with humic acids of International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) standard samples was also done. Well reproducible electropherograms showing a relatively high number of peaks were obtained. Characterization of the samples by elemental analysis and UV spectrophotometry was also done. In spite of the very different origins, the similarities between humic acids are high and by matrix assisted desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry it was shown that most of the m/z patterns are the same in all humic acids. This means that humic acids of different origin have the same structural units or that they contain the same components. PMID:11840535

  2. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    PubMed

    Okr?g?a, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract. PMID:24934526

  3. Urinary tract infection and hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Hülya; Ozek, Eren; Unver, Tamer; Biyikli, Ne?e; Alpay, Harika; Cebeci, Dil?at

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns with asymptomatic, unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two weeks of life. Jaundiced infants, otherwise clinically well, less than two weeks of ages, with a total bilirubin level above 15 mg/dl were eligible for the study. A bilirubin work-up including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) level, as well as urinalysis and a urine culture were performed in all patients. Patients with UTI, defined as more than 10,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single pathogen obtained by bladder catheterization, were evaluated for sepsis. Renal function tests and renal ultrasound were performed in cases with UTI. During follow-up, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) were performed as well. A total of 102 patients were enrolled. The bilirubin work-up of patients did not demonstrate any significant underlying disorder. None of the infants had a high direct bilirubin level. UTI was diagnosed in eight (8%) cases [Enterobacter aerogenes (3/8:38%), Enterococcus faecalis (2/8:25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2/8:25%) and Escherichia coli (1/8:12%)]. Of those eight patients, only four (50%) had pyuria. Bacteriuria was present in seven (88%) patients. The sepsis screen was negative in all but one case with a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level. None of the patients had a positive blood culture. Renal function tests were within normal levels in all patients. Renal ultrasound showed urinary tract abnormalities in three (38%) patients (hydronephrosis, n=1 and pelviectasis, n=2). VCUG was performed in all patients during the study period and one had unilateral grade 3-4 reflux, while only one patient had a diverticulum of the bladder. DMSA was performed in seven patients and none had renal scars. It is of importance that UTI can occur in asymptomatic, jaundiced infants even in the first week of life. Although it is well known that UTI is a common cause of prolonged jaundice, urine culture should be considered in the bilirubin work-up of infants older than three days of age with an unknown etiology. PMID:16562786

  4. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Bush, S. J.; Schiemann, R.; Turner, A. G.; Martin, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography (see Figure 1) is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Changes in moisture convergence, precipitation and circulation due to improved resolution of the orography then affect precipitation in the wider Indo-Pacific region.

  5. Diagnosing resolution sensitivity over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Stephanie; Scheimann, Reinhard; Woolnough, Steve; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent, with over 25,000 islands ranging from hundreds to 780,000 square kilometers, is a key challenge for cumulus-convection and coastal parameterizations in climate resolution GCMs. We studied the resolution sensitivity of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in the MetUM AGCM at horizontal resolutions ranging from approximately 200 to 40 km. We found robust increases in summer precipitation over the Maritime Continent Islands and decreases in summer precipitation over the northern Maritime Continent seas, similar to the resolution sensitivity seen in other studies. These precipitation changes near the Maritime Continent can be large, exceeding 5 mm/day, and are the largest changes in tropical precipitation as resolution is increased. To explore the source of these changes, we present novel experiments to diagnose the role of increased resolution of different components of the AGCM, such as the orography, coastlines and atmospheric dynamics, in the Maritime Continent domain. Our results suggest that total orographic precipitation in the Maritime Continent domain is resolution dependent at these scales. While increased precipitation associated with the higher resolution of the mean orography is compensated for by decreasing precipitation associated with changes in the subgrid orography and its effect on parameterized drag, the total orographic precipitation is not equal across resolutions. Experiments are in progress to determine the impact of better resolving other boundary conditions, such as coastlines.

  6. Guideline of guidelines: urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Syan, Raveen; Brucker, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the article is to review key guidelines on the management of urinary incontinence (UI) to guide clinical management in a practical way. Guidelines produced by the European Association of Urology (updated in 2014), the Canadian Urological Association (updated in 2012), the International Consultation on Incontinence (updated in 2012), and the National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (updated in 2013) were examined and their recommendations compared. In addition, specialised guidelines produced by the collaboration between the American Urological Association and the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction on overactive bladder and the use of urodynamics were reviewed. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE) instrument was used to evaluate the quality of these guidelines. There is general agreement between the groups on the recommended initial evaluation and the use of conservative therapies for first-line treatment, with a limited role for imaging or invasive testing in the uncomplicated patient. These groups have greater variability in their recommendations for invasive procedures; however, generally the mid-urethral sling is recommended for uncomplicated stress UI, with different recommendations on the approach, as well as the comparability to other treatments, such as the autologous fascial sling. This 'Guideline of Guidelines' provides a summary of the salient similarities and differences between prominent groups on the management of UI. PMID:26033093

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dadhania, Vipulkumar; Czerniak, Bogdan; Guo, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in the urinary bladder which may arise primarily in the bladder as well as secondarily from a number of other organs. Our aim is to provide updated information on primary and secondary bladder adenocarcinomas, with focus on pathologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical relevance. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma exhibits several different growth patterns, including enteric, mucinous, signet-ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed patterns. Urachal adenocarcinoma demonstrates similar histologic features but it can be distinguished from bladder adenocarcinoma on careful pathologic examination. Secondary bladder adenocarcinomas may arise from the colorectum, prostate, endometrium, cervix and other sites. Immunohistochemical study is valuable in identifying the origin of secondary adenocarcinomas. Noninvasive neoplastic glandular lesions, adenocarcinoma in situ and villous adenoma, are frequently associated with bladder adenocarcinoma. It is also important to differentiate bladder adenocarcinoma from a number of nonneoplastic lesions in the bladder. Primary bladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis largely because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Urachal adenocarcinoma shares similar histologic features with bladder adenocarcinoma, but it has a more favorable prognosis than bladder adenocarcinoma, partly due to the relative young age of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26309895

  8. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  9. Stratigraphy, structure, and extent of the East Continent Rift Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, L.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The proven existence of pre-Mt. Simon sedimentary rocks named the Middle Run Formation in southwestern Ohio led to the establishment of the Cincinnati Arch Consortium, a joint industry-government partnership to investigate the areal extent, nature, and origin of this new unit. Utilizing available well, seismic, and potential-field data, the consortium has shown that the Middle Run was deposited in a Precambrian rift basin, named the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). These data indicate the ECRB assemblage consists of a large folded and faulted wedge of interlayered volcanic and sedimentary rocks, unconformably overlain by Cambrian strata. This wedge is estimated to be thickest (up to about 22,000 feet) on the western edge, where it is in fault contact with Grenville Province rocks. To the west, the ECRB may extend as far as central Illinois and postdates the Precambrian Granite-Rhyolite Province rocks. The contact between the ECRB and this older province appears to be in part an angular unconformity and in part block faulted. The northern limit of this basin was not encountered in the study area; this may indicate a connection with the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan. In central Kentucky, the boundary conditions are more complex. It appears that the ECRB is constricted between a large block of the Granite-Rhyolite Province to the west and the Grenville Front on the east. Large Cambrian extensional structures (Rough Creek Graben and Rome Trough) were overprinted on the Granite-Rhyolite and Grenville Provinces. The ECRB may have acted as a stable block between these Cambrian features. The relationships of the ECRB to overlying Paleozoic features may be profound. Indeed, the ECRB may prove to be the reason for the very existence of the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches.

  10. Organic geochemistry of mid-continent Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Early Paleozoic oils retain the biochemical imprint of oceanic life prior to evolution of land plants and vertebrates. Thus, these oils have geochemical features which make them unique with respect to younger oils, but also share some common properties with the latter. Characteristic mid-continent Ordovician oil features include predominance of n-C/sub 14/ to n-C/sub 19/ over n-C/sub 20/+ alkanes in the C/sub 15/+ saturate hydrocarbon fraction, low amounts of isoprenoids and abundant C/sub 27/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes relative to normal steranes. Properties common to both Ordovician and younger oils are: nearly equal amounts of C/sub 15/+ n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics and pristane/phytane ratios of 0.7 to 1.6. Collectively, these Ordovician oils have a relatively negative stable carbon isotopic composition but are not unique with respect to other marine oils. Although terpane distributions are generally similar to geologically-younger oils, the Ordovician oils contain significant amounts of C/sub 19/, C/sub 20/, and C/sub 21/ tricyclic diterpanes relative to the C/sub 23/ homolog as well as large contributions by C/sub 31/+ pentacyclic triterpanes. Presence of long-chained n-alkanes, C/sub 29/ steranes, and C/sub 24/ tetracyclic terpanes, which are generally accepted as input from land plants in, e.g., Tertiary deposits, are also present in Ordovician oils. The characteristics listed above describe oils from the Williston and Michigan basins as well as Ordovician oils from Kansas and Oklahoma.

  11. Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A.Yu. )

    1993-09-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

  12. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  13. The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

  14. Continent-ocean chemical heterogeneity in the mantle based on seismic tomography.

    PubMed

    Forte, A M; Dziewonski, A M; O'connell, R J

    1995-04-21

    Seismic models of global-scale lateral heterogeneity in the mantle show systematic differences below continents and oceans that are too large to be purely thermal in origin. An inversion of the geoid, based on a seismic model that includes viscous flow in the mantle, indicates that the differences beneath continents and oceans can be accounted for by differences in composition in the upper mantle superposed on mantle-wide thermal heterogeneities. The net continent-ocean density differences, integrated over depth, are small and cause only a low flux of mass and heat across the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone. PMID:17746544

  15. Correlates of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ariana L; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Anger, Jennifer T; Mangione, Carol M; Trejo, Laura; Rodríguez, Larissa V; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) has varied in the literature and is reflective of the definition and sampling methodologies used, as well as the age, ethnicity, and sex being studied. The aim of the current study was to measure the prevalence and correlates of UI in a sample of 572 older Latinos participating in Caminemos, a trial of a behavioral intervention to increase walking. Participants completed an in-person survey and physical performance measures. UI was measured using the International Consultation on Incontinence item: "How often do you leak urine?" Potential correlates of UI included sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, medical comorbidity, physical performance, activity of daily living (ADL) impairment, use of assistive ambulatory devices, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of UI in this sample was 26.9%. Women were more likely to report UI, as were those who were less physically active; used assistive ambulatory devices; and had depressive symptoms, greater medical comorbidity, worse physical performance, greater ADL impairment, worse cognitive function, and lower HRQoL. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that medical comorbidity was independently associated with higher rates of UI (odds ratio (OR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.30-2.12), whereas better cognitive function (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.57-0.93) and higher weighted physical activity scores (OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.60-0.98) were independently associated with lower rates of UI. UI is highly prevalent but not ubiquitous among community-residing older Latinos, suggesting that UI is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Future studies should examine whether interventions that decrease comorbidity and cognitive decline and increase physical activity improve continence status. PMID:20406311

  16. Evaluation of transvaginal slings using different materials in the management of female stress urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Mohamed; Salem, Emad A.; Naguib, Mohamed; Kamel, Mostafa; Hasan, Usama; Elfayoumi, Abdel Rahman; Kamel, Hussein M.; El Adl, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate tailored polypropylene (prolene) mesh, anterior rectus sheath, and vaginal wall slings positioned under the mid-urethra, to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women, as SUI is a common pathological condition causing considerable distress and compromising social, physical, psychological, and sexual health, and for which surgical treatment remains controversial. Patients and methods This prospective randomised study included 32 patients with SUI, evaluated by SEAPI (Stress, Emptying, Anatomy, Protection, and Instability) symptom score and urodynamics. According to sling material, 12 patients had tailored prolene mesh, 12 had anterior rectus sheath and eight had anterior vaginal wall slings. Operative variables (intraoperative bleeding, duration, complications and hospital stay) were documented, and postoperative complications and continence status were assessed. The follow-up was 12–18 months. Results Patients who received tailored prolene mesh slings had a lower operative duration and hospital stay, and less intraoperative bleeding. Postoperative complications, e.g. urinary retention and urgency, were <12%, with no significant differences. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups in the success rate (75%, 67% and 75%). Conclusions Tailored prolene mesh, anterior rectus sheath and the vaginal wall sling are good alternatives to treat SUI in women, with comparable results in a short-term follow up. The surgeon’s experience and the patient’s clinical circumstances should be considered when choosing a sling material, as success rates are comparable, being slightly better for the prolene sling in operative duration, bleeding and hospital stay.

  17. The urethral plug II: an alternative treatment in women with genuine urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1993-10-01

    An improved design of the recently developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the 2-sphere or the 1-sphere plug during period 1 (2 weeks). In period 2 (2 weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period 3 (2 months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period 3 with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the 2-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. To accommodate variations in urethral length and to avoid the loss of plugs, the devices are available in different lengths. Six women developed urinary tract infections and 2 of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:8261298

  18. [The urethral plug--an alternative treatment of women with urinary stress incontinence].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Walter, S; Maegaard, E; Kromann-Andersen, B

    1995-05-29

    A developed urethral plug was evaluated for the treatment of women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug consists of an oval meatal plate, a soft stalk and one or two spheres along the stalk with fixed distances between the meatal plate and the spheres. Inside the stalk is a removable semi-rigid guide pin to ease insertion. Forty women were randomly allocated to treatment with either the two-sphere or the one-sphere plug during period one (two weeks). In period two (two weeks) the patients used the other plug. They then continued with what they judged to be the better plug in period three (two months). Eighteen patients (45%) completed period three with the "preference" plug and 17 were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. Fourteen of these women preferred the two-sphere device. The plugs were equally effective in patients with mild or severe incontinence. Six women developed urinary tract infections and two of these had a plug in the bladder. The urethral plug is an effective treatment in a group of women with stress incontinence. Removal by hand is advisable in order to avoid retention of plugs in the bladder. PMID:7770983

  19. The urethral plug: a new treatment modality for genuine urinary stress incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K K; Kromann-Andersen, B; Jacobsen, H; Nielsen, E M; Nordling, J; Holm, H H; Larsen, J F

    1990-11-01

    A new modality, the urethral plug, was used to treat 22 women with genuine urinary stress incontinence. The plug is made of thermoplastic elastomer (Kraton G), and consists of a meatal plate, a soft stalk and 1 or 2 spheres along the stalk. The spheres were located according to the result of the urethral pressure profile. The midpoint of the proximal sphere was placed at the bladder neck and the distal sphere was placed just above the maximum urethral pressure point. At voiding the plug was removed and afterwards a new plug was inserted. The plug with 2 spheres was tested in week 1 (period 1) and the plug with only the distal sphere was tested in week 2 (period 2). A total of 22 patients completed period 1. Eight patients did not complete period 2, mostly due to either unchanged incontinence during period 1 or a repeated loss of the plug with 1 sphere. In periods 1 and 2, 73 and 79% of the patients were subjectively and objectively continent or improved. A total of 14 patients completed both periods. Eight patients preferred the plug with 2 spheres, 1 preferred the other plug and 5 had no preference. The side effects were few. This preliminary study shows that the urethral plug seems to be a promising alternative treatment for female genuine urinary stress incontinence. PMID:2231895

  20. Urolastic for the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: 24-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zajda, Janusz; Farag, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the efficacy and durability of Urolastic, a new urethral bulking agent in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), after a follow-up of 24-months. Material and methods A follow-up study of women with SUI who received a Urolastic injection and successfully passed the 12-month follow-up. Assessment included the Stamey Grade, 1-h Pad weight test, and the International quality of life (I-QoL) score. Results Nineteen women who completed the 12-month follow-up were invited for the 24-month follow-up study. One patient did not respond to the correspondence. Four of the 18 patients who responded to the correspondence reported removal of the Urolastic implant at another facility, based on their desire. The explanation for this removal was painful intercourse (n = 1) or less than optimal dryness (n = 3). The overall objective improvement in continence status at 24-months was 66% compared to the 89% at the 12-month follow-up, while in addition the 1-h pad weight test showed >50% reduction in pad weight in 66% of patients compared to 84% at the 12-month follow-up. Adverse events reported were urinary tract infection (n = 1), local genital infection with erosion into the vagina (n = 1), painful intercourse (n = 2), and urgency (n = 4). Conclusions Urolastic is comparable to other bulking agents in terms of durability, efficacy, and complications. PMID:26568877

  1. Cellular organization of urinary acidification.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, P R

    1986-08-01

    The turtle bladder contains transport systems for active sodium absorption, electrogenic proton secretion, and bicarbonate secretion (coupled to chloride absorption) that are functionally separate and occur in specialized epithelial cells. Maneuvers that alter the intracellular acid-base state, such as changes in PCO2, cause marked changes in the apical membrane area of alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (CA) cells by addition or retrieval of membrane vesicles but have no effect on the granular cells that transport sodium. The apical cell membrane of alpha-CA cells contains characteristic rod-shaped intramembrane particles (RSP) by freeze fracture and is coated on its cytoplasmic side with studs. A subpopulation of CA cells (beta-type), which is characterized by apical microvilli, fails to exhibit an apical response to CO2 stimulation and does not reveal RSPs or studs at its apical membranes; instead, these elements can be demonstrated at the basolateral membrane. The reversal in the polarity of these elements as well as physiological evidence suggest that beta-type cells are responsible for bicarbonate secretion. Structure-function studies of CO2 stimulation of H+ secretion by alpha-CA cells indicate that the secretion rate (JH) correlates with apical membrane area and numbers of RSPs. The view that RSPs represent arrays of transmembrane channels and that studs represent catalytic units of H+ pumps is supported by quantitative considerations but remains to be proven. Urinary acidification is regulated not only by changes in the number of H+ pumps but also by the intrinsic properties of the H+ pump itself. For a given pump population, JH is closely controlled by the delta microH across the active transport pathway. PMID:2426975

  2. Human Urinary Exosomes as Innate Immune Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F.; Charles, Philip D.; Gracia, Tannia; Hester, Svenja S.; Gatto, Laurent; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Floto, R. Andres; Su, Ya; Skepper, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, approximately 50 nm in diameter, derived from the endocytic pathway and released by a variety of cell types. Recent data indicate a spectrum of exosomal functions, including RNA transfer, antigen presentation, modulation of apoptosis, and shedding of obsolete protein. Exosomes derived from all nephron segments are also present in human urine, where their function is unknown. Although one report suggested in vitro uptake of exosomes by renal cortical collecting duct cells, most studies of human urinary exosomes have focused on biomarker discovery rather than exosome function. Here, we report results from in-depth proteomic analyses and EM showing that normal human urinary exosomes are significantly enriched for innate immune proteins that include antimicrobial proteins and peptides and bacterial and viral receptors. Urinary exosomes, but not the prevalent soluble urinary protein uromodulin (Tamm–Horsfall protein), potently inhibited growth of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and induced bacterial lysis. Bacterial killing depended on exosome structural integrity and occurred optimally at the acidic pH typical of urine from omnivorous humans. Thus, exosomes are innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense within the urinary tract. PMID:24700864

  3. Reliability of Serum and Urinary Isoflavone Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gary E.; Franke, Adrian A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Bennett, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Sporadic intake and short half lives of serum or urinary biomarkers may make serum and urinary isoflavones quite unreliable indicators of longer-term dietary soy intake. In 26 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) participants we obtained two measures of fasting morning serum isoflavones, 1–2 years apart. In another 76 subjects we obtained an overnight urine sample, and six 24 hour dietary recalls over a period encompassing the time of the urine sample. Intra-class correlations (ICC) values for serum isoflavones were 0.11 (log[daidzein]) and 0.28 (log[genistein]). Assuming that the correlation(true dietary intake, true urinary excretion)<0.90, it is shown that this implies an ICC for urinary estimates that exceeds 0.56. As expected, the previous day’s soy intake, and its timing, influenced the next morning’s serum levels. These results suggest that fasting morning serum isoflavone estimates will provide a poor index of long-term soy intake, but that overnight urinary estimates perform much better. PMID:19863459

  4. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  5. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status. PMID:24579085

  6. [Diagnostic algorithms in female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Vlk, R; Chmel, R

    2005-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is frequent problem with significantly negative impact on the quality of life. The correct plan of examination leads to the proposal of the appropriate treatment. The history, correct judgment of symptoms of incontinence and detailed gynaecological examination are important at the beginning of the diagnostic process. Negative urine cultivation is necessary condition for the invasive investigation of the urinary tract. Special questionnaires, micturition diary and clinical tests belong to the physical examination. The pad-weight test is based on the measurement of weight gain of absorbent pads during a test period under standardised conditions. Q-tip test (cotton swab test) measures the degree of mobility of urethra and bladder neck. Most of the clinical tests can be replaced by the ultrasound examination (introital or perineal approach), which helps to appreciate the vigour of urethra, bladder neck and vagina during the resting period and at stress. Urodynamic examination records pressure changes during the bladder filling, pressure gradients in urethra and the velocity of the urinary flow. It should be carried out when antiincontinence surgery is planned or when conservative therapy failed. Urodynamic examination helps to distinguish between stress and urge type of incontinence. Urethrocystoscopy is indicated for the diagnosis of the recurrent urinary infections, urge incontinence when structural pathologies of the urinary bladder are suspected, iatrogenic incontinence or postoperative complications. PMID:15807295

  7. Convective cloud and rainfall processes over the Maritime Continent : simulation and analysis of the diurnal cycle

    E-print Network

    Gianotti, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Louise)

    2013-01-01

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global ...

  8. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental changes to the total discharge of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. While it is unclear if the Teays River ever flowed into the St. Lawrence drainage or developed as a westward-flowing tributary to the buried Mahomet valley in Illinois, both the ancestral Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers originated as headwaters of the St. Lawrence basin before being rerouted as part of the Mississippi basin. The areas formerly drained by the Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers comprise ~8% of the modern Mississippi River basin, and modern discharge from those areas represent ~14% of the mean annual discharge of the Mississippi River. The transfer of this drainage area and discharge to the Mississippi basin is mirrored by an equivalent loss from the St. Lawrence system during the Quaternary as a direct result of glacially-driven drainage system reorganization.

  9. New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Graham P; Trewick, Steven A

    2009-09-01

    New Zealand has long been a conundrum to biogeographers, possessing as it does geophysical and biotic features characteristic of both an island and a continent. This schism is reflected in provocative debate among dispersalist, vicariance biogeographic and panbiogeographic schools. A strong history in biogeography has spawned many hypotheses, which have begun to be addressed by a flood of molecular analyses. The time is now ripe to synthesize these findings on a background of geological and ecological knowledge. It has become increasingly apparent that most of the biota of New Zealand has links with other southern lands (particularly Australia) that are much more recent than the breakup of Gondwana. A compilation of molecular phylogenetic analyses of ca 100 plant and animal groups reveals that only 10% of these are even plausibly of archaic origin dating to the vicariant splitting of Zealandia from Gondwana. Effects of lineage extinction and lack of good calibrations in many cases strongly suggest that the actual proportion is even lower, in keeping with extensive Oligocene inundation of Zealandia. A wide compilation of papers covering phylogeographic structuring of terrestrial, freshwater and marine species shows some patterns emerging. These include: east-west splits across the Southern Alps, east-west splits across North Island, north-south splits across South Island, star phylogenies of southern mountain isolates, spread from northern, central and southern areas of high endemism, and recent recolonization (postvolcanic and anthropogenic). Excepting the last of these, most of these patterns seem to date to late Pliocene, coinciding with the rapid uplift of the Southern Alps. The diversity of New Zealand geological processes (sinking, uplift, tilting, sea level change, erosion, volcanism, glaciation) has produced numerous patterns, making generalizations difficult. Many species maintain pre-Pleistocene lineages, with phylogeographic structuring more similar to the Mediterranean region than northern Europe. This structure reflects the fact that glaciation was far from ubiquitous, despite the topography. Intriguingly, then, origins of the flora and fauna are island-like, whereas phylogeographic structure often reflects continental geological processes. PMID:19674312

  10. Relationship of a pelvic floor rehabilitation program for urinary incontinence to Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Francie

    2002-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is considered a significant social problem affecting many individuals' quality of life. Nursing theory is a set of concepts or propositions derived from philosophical beliefs about the phenomena of interest to the discipline. The ability to use theory to guide nursing practice brings reasoning and logic to professional nursing practice. Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing gets to the heart of what nursing is and how continence nursing care can be offered and delivered as a broadly inclusive professional, rather than narrowly procedural, practice offering individual care targeting the self-care agent (client) rather than the medical diagnosis. PMID:12593228

  11. [Stress urinary incontinence. Its surgical management].

    PubMed

    Neri Ruz, E S; Azcona Arteaga, F J

    1991-10-01

    Ninety eight patients with stress urinary incontinence treated surgically at Central Military Hospital, were studied. We analyzed the risk factors as age, weight, height, parity, menopause age, and previous medical and surgical procedures. They were divided in two groups. The Group I, vaginal approach, with 35 patients and Group II, retropubic surgery, with 63 patients. There were no differences both groups regarding age, weight, height, parity and menopausal age. The most frequent illness associated with stress urinary incontinence, was pelvic floor relaxation. The complications were 17.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The efficacy of Burch is procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 84.1% versus 62.1% in the vaginal approach, was confirmed. PMID:1752448

  12. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense. PMID:26318186

  13. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...A urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of urinary homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...

  18. Urinary Proteomic Analysis for Assessment of HIV Clinical Mary Pacold

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    individual. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the immunomagnetic evaluation of urinary exosomes will help 1 subjects. Using our recently developed techniques to study urinary exosomes, we aim to create proteomic

  19. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. PMID:26475949

  1. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  2. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in...

  5. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christine V; Zhang, Fan; Sinclair, David; Olliaro, Piero L

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms typically migrate to the venous plexus of the human bladder and excrete eggs which the infected person passes in their urine. Chronic infection can cause substantial morbidity and long-term complications as the eggs become trapped in human tissues causing inflammation and fibrosis. We summarised evidence of drugs active against the infection. This is new edition of a review first published in 1997. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS and reference lists of articles up to 23 May 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antischistosomal drugs and drug combinations compared to placebo, no intervention, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two researchers independently screened the records, extracted the data and assessed risk of bias. The primary efficacy outcomes were parasitological failure (defined as the continued presence of S. haematobium eggs in the urine at time points greater than one month after treatment), and percent reduction of egg counts from baseline. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR), and continuous data as mean difference (MD), alongside their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate we combined trials in meta analyses or tables. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 30 RCTs enrolling 8165 participants in this review. Twenty-four trials were conducted in children in sub-Saharan Africa, and 21 trials were over 20 years old. Many studies were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias due to inadequate descriptions of study methods. Praziquantel On average, a single 40 mg/kg dose of praziquantel reduced the proportion of people still excreting eggs in their urine by around 60% compared to placebo at one to two months after treatment (treatment failure: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.59, 864 participants, seven trials, high quality evidence). The proportion of people cured with praziquantel varied substantially between trials, from 22.5% to 83.3%, but was higher than 60% in five of the seven trials. At one to two months following praziquantel treatment at 40 mg/kg, the mean number of schistosome eggs in the urine was reduced by over 95% in five out of six trials (678 participants, six trials, high quality evidence). Splitting praziquantel 40 mg/kg into two doses over 12 hours probably has no benefits over a single dose, and in a single trial of 220 participants the split dose caused more vomiting (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.86) and dizziness (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.94). Metrifonate A single dose of metrifonate 10 mg/kg reduced egg excretion (210 participants, one trial, at eight months), but was only marginally better than placebo at achieving cure at one month (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.94, 142 participants, one trial). In a single trial comparing one, two and three doses, the absolute number of participants cured improved from 47% after one dose to 81% after three doses (93 participants, one trial, low quality evidence). Two small trials compared 40 mg/kg single dose praziquantel with two or three doses of 10 mg/kg metrifonate and found no clear evidence of differences in cure (metrifonate 2 x 10 mg/kg at one month: RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.34, 72 participants, one trial; metrifonate 3 x 10 mg/kg at three months: RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.57, 100 participants, one trial. In one trial both drugs performed badly and in one trial both performed well. Other drugs Three trials have evaluated the antimalarial artesunate; with inconsistent results. Substantial antischistosomal effects were only seen in one of the three trials, which was at unclear risk of bias due to poor reporting of the trial methods. Similarly, another anti-malarial mefloquine has been evaluated in two small trials with inconsistent e

  6. Flexural Tectonics in Continents: Critical Stress amid Immeasurable Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    With a few notable exceptions, most fatalities from earthquakes in the past millennium have occurred in mid-continent regions along the southern edge of the Eurasian plate where earthquakes are not expected due to their infrequency, or absence, in local historical records. Although the spatial density geodetic measurement in many parts of the Indo-Eurasian collision zone is currently poor, geodetically estimated strain rates where these are sufficiently dense (e.g. North America) are now being considered an important option to quantify the stressing rate of regions where seismic productivity is low. Certain assumptions attend the use of surface strain as a measure of seismic productivity: that the observed surface strain rate provides a measure of strain at seismogeninc depths, that none of the observed strain is dissipated in aseismic processes, that currently measured rates are uniform in time, and perhaps most importantly, whether regional strain rate alone is an adequate measure of the failure process. The first of these assumptions can be violated in locations in continental collisional settings, such as India, where flexural stresses prevail. The minimum in-plane northerly directed compressional stress in the Indian plate required to support the Tibetan Plateau is overwhelmed by the flexural stresses caused by the depression of its northern edge. Flexure results in static stresses that vary with depth and latitude, but which, averaged over the entire plate vary negligibly with time, because the rocks of India stream through the >600 km wavelength flexural stress-field at rates of only 2 cm/yr. This theoretical result is consistent with India's mean north-south strain rate observed geodetically, which is less than a few nanostrain each year. The spatial distribution of flexural stress, however, varies spatially as a function of distance from the Himalayan front. Strain rates exceed 2 bars/km in a flexural trough between 1000-1800 km south of the Himalaya, and reverse to extensional surface stresses less than 800 km north of the flexural bulge. The high absolute stress levels that prevail in certain locations (>2 kbar) means that despite India's slow movement northward, existing zones of weakness are critically close to failure, and that the inferred 1 bar/millenium changes in surface stress attributable to India's northward motion (invisible to current geodesy) may be responsible for triggering local seismicity. Variable sediment rates in flexural troughs in the oceanic plate south of India suggest that the in-plane stresses responsible for the amplitude of the continental bulge have not been constant with time in the past several millions of years. It is also possible that anthropogenic loading and unloading of the Indian plate (groundwater withdrawal in the north and reservoir loading in central India) may be adversely perturbing the seismogenic charateristics of the flexural stress field.

  7. The continent-ocean transition of the Pearl River margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameselle, A. L.; Ranero, C. R.; Franke, D.; Barckhausen, U.

    2013-12-01

    Rifted continental margins form by lithospheric extension and break-up. The continent to ocean transition (COT) architecture depends on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes, and thus, to study the COT variability of different systems is key to understand rifting. We use MCS data and magnetic lineations across the Pearl River margin (PRM) of South China Sea to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The structure of the PRM presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. We reprocessed about 2250 km of MCS data along 4 regional, crustal-scale lines and found that 3 of them possibly display the COT. The time-migrated seismic sections show differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, in the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections, that we interpret to represent clear continental and oceanic domains. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope passing abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. Comparatively the oceanic crust has a highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. The PRM shows arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin displays abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a change in the tectonic structure from NE to SW. On the two NE-most lines, crustal thinning and break-up occur over 20-40 km wide segments. To the SW, continental extension occurred over a comparatively broader ~100-110 km segment of tilted fault-block structure. We interpret, that this 3D structural variability and the narrow COT was caused by the lateral NE to the SW propagation of a spreading center. In the NE, early spreading center propagation during ongoing rifting stopped continental stretching, causing an abrupt break-up and a narrow COT to seafloor spreading. Later arrival of spreading center propagated to the SW, resulted in a comparatively broader segment with fault-block structures of extended continental crust. However, the COT to clear oceanic crust is narrow. Spreading center propagation in the basin is however not a simple phenomena and ridge jumps and abrupt cessation of spreading contributed to form narrow COT that laterally change to highly thinned continental crust segments. We suggest that the tectonic architecture of continental extension and the abrupt COT along the PRM have been controlled by 3D oceanic spreading center propagation to a degree larger than by the local lithospheric structure during rifting.

  8. Housestaff Knowledge Related to Urinary Catheter Use and Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Paras, Molly L; Shenoy, Erica S; Hsu, Heather E; Walensky, Rochelle P; Hooper, David C

    2015-11-01

    Despite published catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention guidelines, inappropriate catheter use is common. We surveyed housestaff about their knowledge of catheter-associated urinary tract infections at a teaching hospital and found most are aware of prevention guidelines; however, their application to clinical scenarios and catheter practices fall short of national goals. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1355-1357. PMID:26278269

  9. Expectations of Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery in Patients With Mixed Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Brucker, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Mixed urinary incontinence is estimated to affect 30% of all women who have urinary incontinence, and it has been shown to be more bothersome to women than pure stress incontinence. Given the degree of bother, many women will undergo surgical correction for incontinence. Patients have high expectations about the success of these interventions. Understanding mixed incontinence and the effects of our interventions can help guide therapeutic choices and manage patients’ expectations. PMID:26028996

  10. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  11. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Griffiths, Derek; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies in humans and animals that have provided insights into the neural circuitry and neurotransmitter mechanisms controlling the lower urinary tract. The functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. The neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchical system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brain stem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brain stem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily in infants and young children until the age of 3 to 5 years, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults can cause the re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. Neuroplasticity underlying these developmental and pathological changes in voiding function is discussed. PMID:25589273

  12. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  13. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  14. Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major in an aquatic insect larva Basic Anatomy of the Respiratory System I Air enters through the nose Inside nose Anatomy of the Respiratory System II #12;3 The Alveoli Alveoli are the capillaries of the lung; gas

  15. [Lower urinary tract infections in urogynaecology].

    PubMed

    Novácková, M; Vlk, R; Horcicka, L

    2005-01-01

    Urinary tract infections belong among the most common infectious diseases in adult women. Sporadic infection is usually not a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Recurrent lower urinary tract infections significantly decrease the quality of life of the affected women. Colonisation of the vagina, vulva and the perineum by the uropathogens is the main risk factor of any urinary infection, but only concomitant action of some other factor (e.g. immunosuppression, urethral stenosis, urolithiasis, urethral diverticulum, diabetes and urinary incontinence) can induce the recurrent infection. Correct primary treatment and proper used preventive method is highly advantageous not only from the individual but also from the global point of view (high diagnostic and therapeutic expenses, increase of resistance and imminent success decrease of the modern treatment). Continuous low dose antimicrobial treatment is the most common prophylactic modality. Postcoital antimicrobial prophylaxis and immunomodulative therapy are the other used modalities. Local vaginal estrogen therapy is recommended in postmenopausal women. Estrogens improve the symptoms of the urogenital atrophy and decrease the vaginal pH, which is very important in prevention of the pathological bacterial colonisation of the vagina. Decision about the individual therapy and prophylaxis must be preceded by the evaluation of the risk factors with positives and negatives of the used drug. PMID:15945485

  16. Psychosomatic Aspects of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Debus, G.; Kästner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. With increasing age its prevalence and severity of its manifestations increase. Among nursing home residents the frequency is between 43 and 77?%, 6 to 10?% of all admissions to nursing homes are due to urinary incontinence. The risk for urinary incontinence among women with cognitive deficits is 1.5- to 3.4-fold higher than for women without mental disorders. The most common form is stress incontinence (50?%), followed by mixed stress-urge incontinence (40?%) and purely urge incontinence (OAB = overactive bladder, 20?%). With regard to its cause, the latter remains unclarified in about 80?% of the cases. It is often difficult to treat. There are also cases in which urge incontinence is related to traumatic events. In such cases behavioural and psychotherapeutic options may be helpful. Almost inevitably every form of incontinence has psychological consequences: shame and insecurity are often results of uncontrolled loss of urine. Among others, in the long term, they lead to the avoidance of social contacts and possibly to depression and isolation. Consideration of the psychosomatics is important in the therapy for female urinary incontinence from three points of view: 1) the efficacy of treatment is better suited to the patient, 2) the treatment costs are lower, 3) the professional satisfaction of the responsible physician increases. PMID:25797959

  17. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  18. How Do People Make Continence Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Stacie Salsbury

    2010-01-01

    Purpose:?Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality continence care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on continence care practices in two NHs.?Design and Methods:?This ethnographic study explored continence care from the perspectives of NH stakeholders, including residents and interdisciplinary team members. Data were collected through participant observation, interviews, and archival records.?Results:?Human relations dimensions of organizational culture influenced continence care by affecting institutional missions, admissions and hiring practices, employee tenure, treatment strategies, interdisciplinary teamwork, and group decision making. Closed system approaches, parochial identity, and an employee focus stabilized staff turnover, fostered evidence-based practice, and supported hierarchical toileting programs in one facility. Within a more dynamic environment, open system approaches, professional identity, and job focus allowed flexible care practices during periods of staff turnover. Neither organizational culture fully supported interdisciplinary team efforts to maximize the bladder and bowel health of residents.?Implications:?Organizational culture varies in NHs, shaping the continence care practices of interdisciplinary teams and leading to the selective use of treatments across facilities. Human relations dimensions of organizational culture, including open or closed systems, professional or parochial identity, and employee or job focus are critical to the success of quality improvement initiatives. Evidence-based interventions should be tailored to organizational culture to promote adoption and sustainability of resident care programs. PMID:20008040

  19. Growth of the Maritime Continent and its possible contribution to recurring Ice Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Cronin, Timothy W.

    2015-03-01

    The areal extent of the Maritime Continent (the islands of Indonesia and surrounding region) has grown larger by ~60% since 5 Ma. We argue that this growth might have altered global climate in two ways that would have contributed to making recurring Ice Ages possible. First, because rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent not only is heavier than that over the adjacent ocean but also correlates with the strength of the Walker Circulation, the growth of the Maritime Continent since 5 Ma may have contributed to the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific since that time. Scaling relationships between the strength of the Walker Circulation and rainfall over the islands of the Maritime Continent and between sea surface temperature (SST) of the eastern tropical Pacific and the strength of easterly wind stress suggest that the increase in areal extent of islands would lead to a drop in that SST of 0.75°C. Although only a fraction of the 3-4°C decrease in SSTs between the eastern and western tropical Pacific, the growth of the Maritime Continent may have strengthened the Walker Circulation, increased the east-west temperature gradient across the Pacific and thereby enabled ice sheets to wax and wane over Canada since 3 Ma. Second, because the weathering of basaltic rock under warm, moist conditions extracts CO2 from the atmosphere more rapidly than weathering of other rock or of basalt under cooler or drier conditions, the increase in weathering due to increasing area of basalt in the Maritime Continent may have drawn down enough CO2 from the atmosphere to affect global temperatures. Simple calculations suggest that increased weathering of basalt might have lowered global temperatures by 0.25°C, possibly important for the overall cooling.

  20. The Making of Early Continents and the Initiation of Plate Tectonics on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a simple, self-consistent model to explain a range of puzzling observation made in many Archean cratons including 1/ the marked petrological stratification of the lithospheric mantle; 2/ the multimodal polybaric volcanism of greenstone covers; 3/ the regional and temporal overlap between komatiitic-tholeiitic basalts and arc-volcanism; and 4/ the mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity mapped across several cratons. This model also explains the possible transition from a stagnant-lid regime to a transient then steady-state plate tectonic regime. We performed several series of 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to investigate the effect of an early continent on mantle convection. We considered a composite lid including 1/ a continent consisting of 55 km thick crust - made of TTG and continental flood basalts - above a 170-km-thick strongly depleted, strong and buoyant lithospheric mantle, and 2/ an oceanic lid including a 15-km-thick basaltic crust. These experiments show that the continent slowly spreads laterally toward the adjacent oceanic lid. The spreading and thinning of the continent drives exhumation of the fertile sub-continental mantle, which in turn promotes polybaric decompression melting producing komatiitic and tholeiitic basalts. Continental boudinage and rifting accompanying the spreading drives further upwelling and decompression melting to even shallower depths. This partial melting produces a moderately depleted mantle layer, progressively incorporated through cooling to the base of the continent. Our numerical experiments also show that spreading continents force the adjacent oceanic lid into the convective mantle, promoting subduction of the oceanic lid and temporal overlap between Archean komatiitic-tholeiitic basalts with arc-volcanism. Spreading and thinning of the continent lead to a sub-horizontal litho-tectonic fabric in the mantle, with a possible major discontinuity between the older strongly depleted mantle, and the younger moderately depleted accreted mantle. Our experiments show that early continents acted as kick-starters of subduction until plate tectonics became self-sustaining through the increasingly negative buoyancy of the oceanic lithosphere.

  1. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  2. Neoplasms of the urinary tract in fish.

    PubMed

    Lombardini, E D; Hard, G C; Harshbarger, J C

    2014-09-01

    The veterinary literature contains scattered reports of primary tumors of the urinary tract of fish, dating back to 1906. Many of the more recent reports have been described in association with the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, and most of the spontaneous neoplasms of the kidney and urinary bladder are single case reports. In rare instances, such as described in nephroblastomas of Japanese eels and tubular adenomas/adenocarcinomas of Oscars, there is suggestion of a genetic predisposition of certain populations to specific renal neoplasms, environmental carcinogenesis, or potentially an unknown infectious etiology acting as a promoter. Hematopoeitic neoplasms have been infrequently described as primary to the kidney of a variety of fish species, and therefore those case reports of renal lymphoma and plasmacytic leukemia are addressed within the context of this review. PMID:24318975

  3. Urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a proteobacterium, is a facultative anaerobe, which is generally present as the normal flora of water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions. The infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare but mostly fatal. It is responsible for causing fatal cases of septicemia, visceral abscesses, skin and soft tissue infections, meningitis, diarrhea, and rarely urinary tract infection. The bacteria has high propensity to spread causing sepsis. Delayed proper treatment due to limited awareness related to the C. violaceum infection is responsible for the high mortality rate. Here, we describe a rare case of urinary tract infection by C. violaceum in a chronic kidney disease patient, which was managed with timely proper antimicrobial therapy as per the culture sensitivity report. PMID:26392784

  4. Urinary schistosomiasis in a Japanese man.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Inoue, Takeshi; Tomioka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yozo; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2004-07-01

    A 29-year-old Japanese man with a history of travel to Africa visited the Department of Urology, Nara Medical University complaining of intermittent asymptomatic gross hematuria over a period of 30 months. As he was suspected of being infested with schistosomal parasites based on his past history of swimming in Malawi Lake during his stay in Egypt two years previously, we examined his urine microscopically for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs and diagnosed him as having urinary schistosomiasis. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple small erythematous torose lesions on the right posterior wall of the urinary bladder. Since he was treated by oral administration of praziquantel every 6 h for 2 days (total daily dose of 2400 mg), a specific anthelmintic drug for schistosomiasis, the disease has been successfully kept under control without significant lesions in the bladder mucosa after the immediate disappearance of the eggs in his urine. PMID:15242371

  5. Composition of apatites in human urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, P F; García-Ramos, J V; Santos, M

    1979-11-01

    Calcium-deficient carbonate apatites in urinary calculi from 17 patients have been studied. Magnesium ions in each case were detected as a component of apatite. In most of the cases, CO23- ions were included in the apatitic lattice. Using a calcination procedure, we have determined the most probable average value for the CO23- content, degree of deficiency, x, and the Mg/Ca ratio in each sample. PMID:116735

  6. Control of Urinary Drainage and Voiding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Urine differs greatly in ion and solute composition from plasma and contains harmful and noxious substances that must be stored for hours and then eliminated when it is socially convenient to do so. The urinary tract that handles this output is composed of a series of pressurizable muscular compartments separated by sphincteric structures. With neural input, these structures coordinate the delivery, collection, and, ultimately, expulsion of urine. Despite large osmotic and chemical gradients in this waste fluid, the bladder maintains a highly impermeable surface in the face of a physically demanding biomechanical environment, which mandates recurring cycles of surface area expansion and increased wall tension during filling, followed by rapid wall compression during voiding. Afferent neuronal inflow from mucosa and submucosa communicates sensory information about bladder fullness, and voiding is initiated consciously through coordinated central and spinal efferent outflow to the detrusor, trigonal internal sphincter, and external urethral sphincter after periods of relative quiescence. Provocative new findings suggest that in some cases, lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incontinence, urgency, frequency, overactivity, and pain may be viewed as a consequence of urothelial defects (either urothelial barrier breakdown or inappropriate signaling from urothelial cells to underlying sensory afferents and potentially interstitial cells). This review describes the physiologic and anatomic mechanisms by which urine is moved from the kidney to the bladder, stored, and then released. Relevant clinical examples of urinary tract dysfunction are also discussed. PMID:24742475

  7. The Human Urinary Proteome Fingerprint Database UPdb

    PubMed Central

    Husi, Holger; Barr, Janice B.; Skipworth, Richard J. E.; Stephens, Nathan A.; Greig, Carolyn A.; Wackerhage, Henning; Fearon, Kenneth C. H.; Ross, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of human urine as a diagnostic tool has many advantages, such as ease of sample acquisition and noninvasiveness. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers, as well as biomarker patterns, in urine is hindered mainly by a lack of comparable datasets. To fill this gap, we assembled a new urinary fingerprint database. Here, we report the establishment of a human urinary proteomic fingerprint database using urine from 200 individuals analysed by SELDI-TOF (surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight) mass spectrometry (MS) on several chip surfaces (SEND, HP50, NP20, Q10, CM10, and IMAC30). The database currently lists 2490 unique peaks/ion species from 1172 nonredundant SELDI analyses in the mass range of 1500 to 150000. All unprocessed mass spectrometric scans are available as “.xml” data files. Additionally, 1384 peaks were included from external studies using CE (capillary electrophoresis)-MS, MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation), and CE-MALDI hybrids. We propose to use this platform as a global resource to share and exchange primary data derived from MS analyses in urinary research. PMID:24222850

  8. Mirabegron for male lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Oscar; Osborn, David; Kaufman, Melissa; Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. Patients with BPH often present with a combination of obstructive and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. It is postulated that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) from BPH results in concomitant OAB symptoms through ischemic induced variations in the response to neurotransmitters of both the detrusor and the urothelium. This altered response leads to the pathologic activation of the micturition reflex, generating sensory dysfunction and involuntary bladder contractions. Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are commonly used to treat the BOO caused by BPH. Anticholinergic agents are frequently used to treat concurrently OAB symptoms caused by the BOO. Unfortunately, anticholinergic medications demonstrate bothersome side effects and a theoretical risk of urinary retention. Basic science and clinical research has led to the development of a new class of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of overactive bladder with diminished risk of urinary retention and lacking many anticholinergic side effects. This novel compound, mirabegron (Mybertriq, Astellas Pharma US, Inc.), is a ??-adrenoceptor agonist and represents a promising new class of oral agents designed for the treatment of OAB symptoms, with minimal effect on voiding. PMID:23913200

  9. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection. PMID:26006302

  10. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Santacreu, Marta; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session. PMID:21753868

  11. Long-term outcomes of urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. U.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    The advent of specialized spinal units and better understanding of the pathophysiology of neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction has made long-term survival of these patients a reality. This has, in turn, led to an increase in quality and choice of management modalities offered to these patients including complex anatomic urinary tract reconstructive procedures tailored to the unique needs of each individual with variable outcomes. We performed a literature review evaluating the long-term outcomes of these reconstructive procedures. To achieve this, we conducted a world-wide electronic literature search of long-term outcomes published in English. As the premise of this review is long-term outcomes, we have focused on pathologies where evidence of long-term outcome is available such as patients with spinal injuries and spina bifida. Therapeutic success following urinary tract reconstruction is usually measured by preservation of renal function, improvement in quality-of-life, the satisfactory achievement of agreed outcomes and the prevention of serious complications. Prognostic factors include neuropathic detrusor overactivity; sphincter dyssynergia; bladder over distension; high pressure storage and high leak point pressures; vesicoureteric reflex, stone formation and urinary tract infections. Although, the past decade has witnessed a reduction in the total number of bladder reconstructive surgeries in the UK, these procedures are essentially safe and effective; but require long-term clinical and functional follow-up/monitoring. Until tissue engineering and gene therapy becomes more mainstream, we feel there is still a place for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:24235796

  12. Changes of urinary angiotensinogen concentration and its association with urinary proteins in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen; Bai, Qiong; A, Lata; Liang, Yaoxian; Zheng, Danxia; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It had been reported that angiotensinogen might be a marker for activation of renin-angiotensin system, which was associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional roles of AGT in DN in vitro. Methods: Diabetic rat models were built by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups, two of the three groups were treated with different doses of losartan, the other diabetic group was as control and normal rats acted as healthy control. In a 12-week investigation, we detected the changes of AGT in all rats’ blood and urine and the association between AGT concentration and RAS activation and urinary proteins were analyzed in this study. Results: The serum AGT of rats had no significant differences (P>0.05 for all). The urinary AGT of the diabetic rats was significantly different from the control group, moreover, the urinary AGT of the diabetic rats under different treatments was also obviously different (P<0.05 for all). Besides, the results of immunohistochemical assay indicated that AGT expression level was correlated with renal tissues damage. The level of AGT was positively associated with urinary protein (r=0.493, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with CCr (r=-0.474, P=0.007) and the dose of ARB (r=-0.575, P=0.001). Moreover, the dose of ARB was independently associated with urinary AGT (B=-2.963, P=0.024) in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Urinary AGT may be a marker for the activation of local RAS in kidney and independently associated with ARB. PMID:26722381

  13. Annual Cycle of Southeast Asia -Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chih-Pei

    a wet monsoon during boreal winter and a dry season during boreal summer. However, the complex, the TRMM rainfall measurements to identify the monsoon regimes of the four seasons in the entire SoutheastAnnual Cycle of Southeast Asia - Maritime Continent Rainfall and the Asymmetric Monsoon Transition

  14. A northern Cordilleran ocean-continent transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Karl, S.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Jachens, R.C.; Ford, A.B.; Horner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake continent-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors

  15. Evaluation Plan of the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, FY1996-FY2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe

    This evaluation plan, which is updated annually, provides a synthesis of the various evaluation activities of Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). During 1999, the fourth year of the Laboratory's contract period with the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, special studies and integrated studies were designed to…

  16. Rotational inertia of continents: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, M.F.

    1972-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between continents and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.

  17. Observations related to plate tectonics " Ocean and continent topography, hypsometry, and crustal thickness.

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    · Observations related to plate tectonics " Ocean and continent topography, hypsometry, and crustal and gravity anomaly Marine magnetic anomalies " · Plate tectonic theory ­ types of plate boundaries! · Plate of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere (strong layer) is divided into a small number of nearly

  18. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  19. Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-continent great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...

  20. Mid-continent fall temperatures at the 10-cm soil depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for applying N-fertilizer in autumn involve delaying applications until daily soil temperature at 10 cm depth is = or < 10° C. Daily soil temperature data during autumn were examined from 26 sites along a transect from 36° to 49° N latitude in the mid-continent USA. After soils first...

  1. Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , for example, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Until the early 1980s, global atmospheric general exchange, evapotranspiration, and carbon exchange by plants (8­10). Some are beginning to incorporateModeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J

  2. HumanWildlife Interactions 4(2):, Fall 2010 Metapopulation dynamics of mid-continent

    E-print Network

    Rockwell, Robert F.

    and management efforts worldwide, especially since human populations are increasing and inhabiting ever dynamics, population momentum, transient dynamics Human­wildlife conflicts complicate conservationHuman­Wildlife Interactions 4(2):, Fall 2010 Metapopulation dynamics of mid-continent lesser snow

  3. Mechanisms and geologic significance of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity in the continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Olugboji, Tolulope; Park, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    The stable continents have a puzzling structure. Recent seismological studies have revealed a marked drop in seismic velocity at middle-lithosphere depths, but a generally small velocity drop at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The mid-lithosphere discontinuity has previously been attributed to changes in composition and/or crystal alignment (anisotropy) caused by metasomatic alteration, as well as to partial melting and/or accretion of intruded materials that occurred after the formation of the continents. We show that these models cannot easily explain the global presence of a large seismic velocity drop in the middle lithosphere and a small velocity change at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These models are also difficult to reconcile with long-term continental stability and, in particular, observations of nearly depth-invariant ages of rocks in the continental lithosphere that do not support the notion of late alteration events. Instead, we propose an elastically accommodated grain-boundary sliding model that predicts a substantial velocity drop at the mid-lithosphere discontinuity and a weak seismic signal at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, as observed, without invoking late-stage modifications to the lithosphere. In this model, the mid-lithosphere discontinuity is a general feature of the stable continents, the precise depth of which depends primarily on temperature and water content. Consequently, the depth of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity may provide clues to the evolution of continents.

  4. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  5. Lost Continents? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette

    1996-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify continent shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)

  6. Papers presented to the Conference on Heat and Detachment in Crustal Extension on Continents and Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Several topics relative to heat and detachment in crustal extension on continents and planets are discussed. Rifting on Venus, heat flow and continental breakup, magnetism, the mountains and tectonic processes of Io, and the ductile extension of planetary lithospheres are among the topics covered.

  7. Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents

    E-print Network

    Tackley, Paul J.

    Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents C. J. Tackley (2007), Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application April 2007; published 1 August 2007. [1] A scaling law for the heat flux out of a convective fluid

  8. Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard assessment

    E-print Network

    Stein, Seth

    LETTERS Long aftershock sequences within continents and implications for earthquake hazard interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely heavily on the assumption that the locations of small are uncertain of the times and loca- tions of future large earthquakes. Present earthquake hazard assess- ments

  9. Long Aftershock Sequences within Continents and Implications for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China has prompted concern about a repetition of the 1976 M7.8 earthquake that destroyed the city, killing more than 242,000 people. However, the decay of seismicity there implies that the recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of the 1976 event. This 37-year sequence is an example of the phenomenon that aftershock sequences within continents are often significantly longer than the typical 10 years at plate boundaries. The long sequence of aftershocks in continents is consistent with a simple friction-based model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Hence the slowly-deforming continents tend to have aftershock sequences significantly longer than at rapidly-loaded plate boundaries. This effect has two consequences for hazard assessment. First, within the heavily populated continents that are typically within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely significantly on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. This assumption would lead to overestimation of the hazard in presently active areas and underestimation elsewhere, if some of these small events are aftershocks. Second, successful attempts to remove aftershocks from catalogs used for hazard assessment would underestimate the hazard, because much of the hazard is due to the aftershocks, and the declustering algorithms implicitly assume short aftershock sequences and thus do not remove long-duration ones.

  10. The Eighth Continent: A Vision for Exploration of the Moon and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Alonso, Juan J.

    The Eighth Continent: A Vision for Exploration of the Moon and Beyond No¨el M. Bakhtian and Alan H., Palo Alto, California 94306 Four decades have passed since man first set foot on the Moon. The ensuing aspiration quickly faded. Should we return to the Moon? Should we visit some other solar system destination

  11. AbstractIn 1996, using the contin uous underway fish egg sampler (CU-

    E-print Network

    554 Abstract­In 1996, using the contin uous underway fish egg sampler (CU- FES),we carried out a preliminary study with the daily egg production method (DEPM) for estimating fish biomass of Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax. Full water-column abundance of sardine eggs was correlated with the abundance of eggs taken

  12. Can Individualized Health Care Plans Help Increase Continence in Children with Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisclair-Fahey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    School-age children with dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES) do not always have school support for their treatment plans, including an every 2-hr voiding schedule. The objective of this study was to increase school support of treatment plans by allowing access to bathrooms, thereby improving continence. An eight-question survey about bathroom…

  13. Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

  14. Toward constraining regional-scale fluxes of CO2 with atmospheric observations over a continent

    E-print Network

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    its potential to constrain terrestrial carbon fluxes at the regional scale using observations of CO2-receptor relationship (footprint) at high temporal and spatial resolution; (2) an observation-based lateral boundary error over the continent. Thus the representation error reflects the effect of aggregation errors

  15. Educational Visions from Two Continents: What Tagore Adds to the Deweyan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In this global village, it is relevant to look at two educational visionaries from two continents, John Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore. Dewey observed that the modern individual was depersonalized by the industrial and commercial culture. He, thus, envisioned a new individual who would find fulfillment in maximum individuality within maximum…

  16. Hadley Circulation Response to Orbital Precession. Part II: Subtropical Continent TIMOTHY M. MERLIS

    E-print Network

    Bordoni, Simona

    Hadley Circulation Response to Orbital Precession. Part II: Subtropical Continent TIMOTHY M. MERLIS simulations (Merlis et al. 2013a, hereafter Part I), we investigate how land surfaces modify the response of the Hadley circulation, in Corresponding author address: Timothy M. Merlis, Princeton University

  17. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Holtzer-Goor, K. M.; Gaultney, J. G.; van Houten, P.; Wagg, A. S.; Huygens, S. A.; Nielen, M. M. J.; Albers-Heitner, C. P.; Redekop, W. K.; Rutten-van Mölken, M. P.; Al, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS) was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands. Method A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS) located with the general practitioner (GP). This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer), home care, informal care, and implementation costs. Results With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%), or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved. Conclusion Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting. PMID:26426124

  19. Circadian rhythms in urinary functions: possible roles of circadian clocks?

    PubMed

    Noh, Jong-Yun; Han, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Ji-Ae; Kim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Kim, Chang-Ju; Cho, Sehyung

    2011-06-01

    Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that harmonize a variety of physiological processes within the body. Although many urinary functions exhibit clear daily or circadian variation in diurnal humans and nocturnal rodents, the precise mechanisms of these variations are as yet unclear. In this review, we briefly introduce circadian clocks and their organization in mammals. We then summarize known daily or circadian variations in urinary function. Importantly, recent findings by others as well as results obtained by us suggest an active role of circadian clock genes in various urinary functions. Finally, we discuss possible research avenues for the circadian control of urinary function. PMID:21811695

  20. Circadian Rhythms in Urinary Functions: Possible Roles of Circadian Clocks?

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jong-Yun; Han, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Ji-Ae; Kim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that harmonize a variety of physiological processes within the body. Although many urinary functions exhibit clear daily or circadian variation in diurnal humans and nocturnal rodents, the precise mechanisms of these variations are as yet unclear. In this review, we briefly introduce circadian clocks and their organization in mammals. We then summarize known daily or circadian variations in urinary function. Importantly, recent findings by others as well as results obtained by us suggest an active role of circadian clock genes in various urinary functions. Finally, we discuss possible research avenues for the circadian control of urinary function. PMID:21811695

  1. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...glucose in urine). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system....

  7. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system....

  8. 21 CFR 862.1560 - Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1560 Urinary phenylketones (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification....

  9. Scale interactions between the MJO and the Maritime Continent in a convection-permitting regional climate model

    E-print Network

    Birch, Cathryn

    Scale interactions between the MJO and the Maritime Continent in a convection- permitting regional of the Maritime Continent (MC). Convection is triggered in the late afternoon just inland of the coasts due to sea-scale convective environment of the MJO and processes governing the strong diurnal cycle over the islands

  10. A computer-based automated reminder increases the percentage of urinary catheters justified by an order and increases urinary catheter discontinuation orders.

    PubMed

    Nadelman, Rebecca V; Nadelman, Daniel A; Montecalvo, Marisa A

    2015-06-01

    Use of an automated reminder for an order to continue or to discontinue a urinary catheter resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of urinary catheters justified by an order and the percentage of urinary catheter discontinuation orders increased. This is an essential first step toward reducing inappropriate urinary catheter use. PMID:25840716

  11. 77 FR 11133 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...Industry on Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability...entitled ``Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Specifically, this...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system...Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1115 - Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative...Test Systems § 862.1115 Urinary bilirubin and its conjugates (nonquantitative... (a) Identification. A urinary bilirubin and its conjugates...

  16. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

  17. Upper urinary tract lipoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lmezguidi, Khalid; Hajji, Fouad; Sinaa, Mohamed; Janane, Abdellatif; Ghadouane, Mohamed; Ameur, Ahmed; Albouzidi, Abderrahmane; Abbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Upper urinary tract (UUT) benign tumours are rare. We present a case of UUT lipoma in a 41-year-old man with left flank pain. A computed tomographic urography scan revealed an irregular thickening of the left renal collecting system wall extending from the upper calices to the renal pelvis. The diagnosis of UUT was made and the patient underwent a nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision, as standard treatment. However, macroscopic and histological examination revealed a lipomatous tumour with no sign of malignancy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of its kind of a UUT managed first with a minimally invasive approach. PMID:26425240

  18. Bone and metabolic complications of urinary diversions.

    PubMed

    Cano Megías, Marta; Muñoz Delgado, Eva Golmayo

    2015-02-01

    Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a complication of urinary diversion using ileum or colon. Its prevalence ranges from 25% and 46% depending on the procedure used and renal function of the patient. It is a consequence of intestinal fluid and electrolyte exchange between intestinal mucosa and urine. The main mechanism is absorption of ammonium and chloride from urine. Long-term chronic metabolic acidosis in these patients may lead to impaired bone metabolism and osteomalacia. Regular monitoring of pH, chlorine, bicarbonate, and calcium-phosphorus metabolism is therefore essential for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25481805

  19. Which efficiency index for urinary stones treatment?

    PubMed

    Raynal, Gauthier; Petit, Jacques; Saint, Fabien

    2009-08-01

    Clinical results in urinary stones management are often reported using the stone-free (SF) rate, which is simple, reproducible and useful to compare techniques or centers. But this index does not take into account costs or patients' quality of life. In a way, SF "pursuit", which cannot be considered as a universal therapeutic goal could increase costs and decrease patients' comfort. We retrospectively reviewed files of stone management to describe costs according to several items and we emphasize the need for a true efficiency index. PMID:19513704

  20. Treatment of Fungal Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lewis; Tracy, Chad R

    2015-11-01

    Funguria, and particularly candiduria, is an increasingly common problem encountered by the practicing urologist and is associated with high-acuity care, indwelling catheters, diabetes mellitus, antibiotic and steroid use, and urinary tract disease. In most cases, candiduria is asymptomatic and follows a benign clinical course with antifungal therapy only required in symptomatic or high-risk cases, because spontaneous resolution is common in patients with asymptomatic colonization. Rarely, invasive infections can occur (such as fungus balls or renal abscesses) and may require percutaneous and endoscopic interventions. This article highlights the workup and treatment of funguria and its related urologic manifestations. PMID:26475944

  1. Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in hospital and community settings. The major risk factor for developing a UTI is having a urethral catheter in situ. The longer the catheter remains in place, the higher the risk of infection. The consensus in guidelines is that indwelling urethral catheters should not be used unless necessary and should be removed within 24 hours if possible. The care of patients and nursing home residents who are catheterised for long periods could be improved if guidelines were implemented fully. PMID:26530593

  2. [Catheter-associated urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Liedl, B

    2015-09-01

    In patients with indwelling urethral catheters significant bacteriuria develops within 4 weeks of indwelling time in practically 100% of the cases. Catheter encrustation and obstruction can occur in approximately 40% of patients. Symptomatic ascending urinary tract infections, urethral complications and urolithiasis can occur in significant numbers in the long term. Regular educational and surveillance programs in nursing homes, hospitals and in home care are important to instruct personnel in hygiene procedures, to learn the indications for catheterization, to keep the indwelling time of catheters as short as possible, to detect any complications early and to initiate appropriate diagnostics and therapy by the urologist. PMID:26275988

  3. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our results is not yet conceivable. Further studies are needed to evaluate the property of the aforementioned biomarkers to assess disease state at early ADPKD stage. PMID:25875363

  4. Is there any correlation between continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Charitra; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Rolf et al. (EPSL, 2012) and Coltice et al. (Science, 2012) have previously shown that continents exert a first order influence on Earth's mantle flow by affecting convective wavelength and surface heat flow. However, how continents influence the development and location of mantle plumes (upwellings) remains a topic of considerable debate. While Heron and Lowman (GRL, 2010; Tectonophysics, 2011) propose regions where downwelling has ceased (irrespective of overlying plate) as the preferred location for plumes, O'Neill et al. (Gondwana Research, 2009) show an anti-correlation between the average positions of subducting slabs at continental margins, and mantle plumes at continental/oceanic interiors. Continental motion is attributed to the viscous stresses imparted by the convecting mantle and the extent of this motion depends on the heat budget of the mantle. Core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux, internal heating from decay of radioactive elements, and mantle cooling contribute to this heat budget. Out of these sources, CMB heat flux is not well defined. However, the recent determination of core's high thermal conductivity requires a CMB heat flow of at least 12 TW (de Koker et al., PNAS 2012; Pozzo et al., Nature 2012; Gomi et al., PEPI 2013). Thus it is necessary to characterize the impact of basal heating on mantle dynamics with continents and self-consistent plate tectonics. By systematically varying parameters like CMB temperature, continental size, mantle heating modes (basal and internal), and Rayleigh number; we model Boussinesq, incompressible, thermo-chemical mantle convection in 2D spherical annulus geometry using StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). We observe correlation between continents and elevated temperatures in the subcontinental mantle irrespective of the variations in basal heating and continental size (except for very small continents). Moreover, we see episodicity between correlation and anti-correlation with increasing Rayleigh number. Furthermore, the effect of radioactivity in the continental crust on this correlation is investigated. At present, mobile continents in StagYY are simplified into a compositionally distinct field drifting at the top of the mantle; thereby lacking the complexities of real Earth. We aim to further develop the code to allow for realistic continental growth and destruction.

  5. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Ma?gorzata; S?upska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosi?czuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence. PMID:26445533

  6. [Contemporary potential of the mini-invasive surgical treatment of the female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Chmel, R; Horcicka, L; Vlk, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    In 1994 DeLancey published the hammock hypothesis. According to this theory the increase of the urethral closure pressure depends on the urethral compression by the suburethral supportive tissue and the intraabdominal position of the proximal urethra and the bladder neck are not the main factors ensuring the continence. In connection with this new theory Ulmsten published (in 1996) results of the stress incontinence treatment with the tension-free polypropylene vaginal tape (TVT). This operation represents a revolution in the antiincontinent surgery. The success rate of this procedure is about 90% and it is the same in obese and in non obese women. Concomitant TVT and transvaginal procedures for prolapse do not decrease the effectiveness and do not increase the perioperative and postoperative morbidity. The procedure is connected with some peroperative (bladder perforation, retropubic haematoma), early postoperative (urinary retention) and late postoperative complications (urge incontinence, vaginal protrusion of the tape). In 2003 newly developed tape procedure--TOT (transobturator tape) was an evolutionary step in the improvement of tape procedures. The evaluation of the efficacy and complications rate of this modification is premature up to this time but hitherto positive results predetermine this surgical modality to successful expand. PMID:15887396

  7. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections are no longer routinely recommended. A large number of children must be given prophylaxis to prevent one infection and antibiotic resistance is a major concern when treating community-acquired urinary tract infections. The results of three recent significant studies are examined, with focus on the efficacy of prophylaxis, and recommendations are made. PMID:25722643

  8. Urinary and metabolic clearances of arginine vasopressin in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, A.M.; Steciak, E.

    1986-08-01

    Synthetic arginine vasopressin (AVP) was infused into 11 hydrated normal subjects at five different infusion rates ranging from 10 to 350 U kg min . Each infusion rate was continued for 1 h, and urinary determinations were made on the 30- to 60-min specimens during which time there was no further rise in plasma AVP. Urinary AVP concentrations ( U/ml) and excretion rates ( U/min) increased linearly with increasing infusion rates, and the concentration of AVP in urine increased 120 times more rapid than plasma. Urinary and metabolic clearances of AVP also increased linearly with the maximum urinary clearance being 60.6% of the creatinine clearance. The total metabolic clearance of AVP (including urinary clearance) was 17.8 times that of the urinary clearance of AVP alone. These data clarify the relationships between plasma and urinary AVP in normal hydrated subjects during AVP infusion under steady-state conditions and emphasize the potential advantage of measuring urinary AVP as a monitor of endogenous AVP secretion. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  9. The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-12-01

    The female genital and lower urinary tracts share a common embryological origin, arising from the urogenital sinus and both are sensitive to the effects of the female sex steroid hormones throughout life. Estrogen is known to have an important role in the function of the lower urinary tract and estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the vagina, urethra, bladder and pelvic floor musculature. In addition estrogen deficiency occurring following the menopause is known to cause atrophic change and may be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms such as frequency, urgency, nocturia, urgency incontinence and recurrent infection. These may also co-exist with symptoms of urogenital atrophy such as dyspareunia, itching, vaginal burning and dryness. Epidemiological studies have implicated estrogen deficiency in the aetiology of lower urinary tract symptoms with 70% of women relating the onset of urinary incontinence to their final menstrual period. Whilst for many years systemic and vaginal estrogen therapy was felt to be beneficial in the treatment of lower urinary and genital tract symptoms this evidence has recently been challenged by large epidemiological studies investigating the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of the sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on the lower urinary tract and to review the current evidence regarding the role of systemic and vaginal estrogens in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms and urogenital atrophy. PMID:24336244

  10. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  11. Novel urinary biomarkers in early diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-08-01

    In diabetic kidney disease, detection of urinary albumin is recommended to aid in diagnosis, evaluate disease severity, and determine effects of therapy. However, because typical histopathologic changes in diabetic kidney disease or early progressive renal decline may occur in patients with normoalbuminuria, urinary albumin may not be sufficient to identify patients with early-stage diabetic kidney disease or to predict its progression. Therefore, intensive efforts have been made to identify novel noninvasive urinary biomarkers to discriminate patients with a higher risk of end-stage renal failure. Because diabetic kidney disease progression is associated with the extent of histologic changes in the glomeruli and the degree of tubulointerstitial changes, urinary biomarkers that accurately reflect the degree of histopathologic damage may be excellent biomarkers. This review article summarizes the clinical significance of new urinary biomarkers in the early detection of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:24919751

  12. [Sport and urinary incontinence in women].

    PubMed

    Lousquy, R; Jean-Baptiste, J; Barranger, E; Hermieux, J-F

    2014-09-01

    Women are more attentive to their physical appearance and a quarter of French women use to practice a regular physical activity. Benefits of sport on general health are recognized. However, sport may be the cause of various diseases when it is poorly chosen or improperly performed. In literature, intensive exercise is a risk factor for urinary incontinence, defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine". It is essentially stress urinary incontinence, occurring because of the phenomenon of intrabdominal hyperpressure, inherent with certain activities, and excess capacity of sphincters. Some sports are more risky than others, and high-level sportswomen are the most exposed. Health professionals must invest in information, screening, prevention, counseling and treatment track athletes So, the general practitioner and the doctor of sports play a vital role in informing, screening, prevention, therapeutic and monitoring of sportswomen. Better information is needed because according to the severity of incontinence and its impact, there are simple, effective, more or less invasive treatment options. The aim of this study was to establish an inventory of scientific knowledge and to improve the management of these patients. PMID:24996876

  13. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. PMID:22411938

  14. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ?40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    de Toro-Peinado, Inmaculada; Concepción Mediavilla-Gradolph, M; Tormo-Palop, Nuria; Palop-Borrás, Begoña

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases observed in primary care; up to one-third of women will have at least one symptomatic UTI by age 24, and more than one-half of women will be affected by the end of life. In addition, UTIs represent 40% of nosocomial infections, and being usually associated with urinary catheters. Although urine cultures would not be indicated in all cases, these samples are the most abundant in the laboratories of clinical microbiology. Thus, the working protocols applied to these samples have an important impact in the performance of the laboratory. The samples are collected by mid stream urine, and 60-70% of them are negative culture. At present, several commercial systems have been introduced in order to simplify and automate this process. A urine culture with ? 10(5) CFU/ml has classically been considered as positive, although lower counts are valued in certain clinical settings. Factors related to this count e.g. methods to obtain urine, conservation of the sample or use of chemical preservatives as well as low counts are critical points to be discussed in detail. The development of antimicrobial resistance logically affects uropathogens, mainly Escherichia coli, which remains the most frequently isolated in urine cultures. The aim of this paper is to review the most innovating aspects influencing the microbiological diagnosis of UTI. PMID:26320994

  16. Ophiolites in ocean-continent transitions: From the Steinmann Trinity to sea-floor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernoulli, Daniel; Jenkyns, Hugh C.

    2009-05-01

    Before the theory of plate tectonics took hold, there was no coherent model for ocean-continent transitions that included both extant continental margins and fragmentary ancient examples preserved in orogenic belts. Indeed, during the early 1900, two strands of thought developed, one relying on the antiquity and permanence of continents and oceans, advocated by the mainstream of the scientific community and one following mobilist concepts derived from Wegener's hypothesis (1915) of continental drift. As an illustration of the prevailing North-American view, the different composition and thickness of continental and oceanic crust and the resulting isostatic response showed "how improbable it would be to suppose that a continent could founder or go to oceanic depth or that ocean floor at ± 3000 fathoms could ever have been a stable land area since the birth of the oceans" [H.H. Hess, Trans. R. Soc. London, A 222 (1954) 341-348]. Because of the perceived permanence of oceans and continents, mountain chains were thought to originate from narrow, elongated, unstable belts, the geosynclines, circling the continents or following "zones of crustal weakness" within them, from which geanticlines and finally mountain belts would develop. This teleological concept, whereby a geosyncline would inevitably evolve into a mountain chain, dominated geological interpretations of orogenic belts for several decades in the mid-twentieth century. However, the concept of permanence of oceans and continents and the concept of the geosyncline had already met with the critiques of Suess and others. As early as 1905, Steinmann considered the association of peridotite, "diabase" (basalt/dolerite) and radiolarite (a typical ocean-continent transition assemblage), present in the Alps and Apennines, as characteristic of the deep-ocean floor and Bailey (1936) placed Steinmann's interpretation into the context of continental drift and orogeny. Indeed, in both authors' writings, the concept of ophiolites as ocean crust is apparent. Between 1920 and 1930, the stage was thus potentially set for modern mobilist concepts that were, however, to prove attractive to only a small circle of Alpine and peri-Gondwanian geologists. After the Second World War, the 1950s saw the rapid progress of the geophysical and geological exploration of oceans and continental margins that provided the data for a reevaluation of the geosynclinal concept. Actualistic models now equated the former preorogenic miogeosyncline of Stille (1940) and Kay (1951) with passive continental margins [C.L. Drake, M. Ewing, G.H. Sutton, Continental margin and geosynclines: the east coast of North America, north of Cape Hatteras, in: L. Ahrens, et al. (Eds.), Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 3, Pergamon Press, London, 1959, pp. 110-189], the (American version of the) eugeosyncline and its igneous rocks with "collapsing continental rises" [R.S. Dietz, J. Geol. 71 (1963) 314-333] and the ophiolites, the Steinmann Trinity, of the (European) eugeosyncline with fragments of oceanic lithosphere [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620]. The concept of sea-floor spreading [H.H. Hess, History of ocean basins, in: Petrologic Studies: a Volume to Honor A.F. Buddington, Geol. Soc. Am., New York. 1962, pp. 599-620; H.H. Hess, Mid-oceanic ridges and tectonics of the sea-floor, in: W.F. Whittard, R. Bradshaw (Eds), Submarine Geology and Geophysics, Colston Papers 17, Butterworths, London, 1965, pp. 317-333] finally eliminated the weaknesses in Wegener's hypothesis and, with the coming of the "annus mirabilis" of 1968, the concept of the geosyncline could be laid to rest. Ocean-continent transitions of modern oceans, as revealed by seismology and deep-sea drilling, could now be compared with the remnants of their ancient counterparts preserved in the Alps and elsewhere.

  17. Relationship of multispectral satellite data to land surface evaporation from the Australian continent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Based on NOAA-9 AVHRR and Nimbus-7 SMMR satellite data, satellite indices of vegetation from the Australian continent are calculated for the period of May 1986 to April 1987. Visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectances and the normalized difference (ND) vegetation index are calculated from the AVHRR sensor. The microwave polarization difference (PD) is also calculated as the difference between the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at 37 GHz. ND, PD, VIS, and NIR indices were plotted against rainfall and water balance estimates of evaporation. It is concluded that direct satellite monitoring of annual evaporation across the Australian continent using PD or VIS satellite indices of vegetation biomass appears possible for areas with evaporation less than 600 mm/y and that use of the ND relationship at continental scale may underpredict monthly evaporation of forests relative to agriculture.

  18. Use of urinary markers in cancer setting: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Leonard; Wong, Erin; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chiu, Nicholas; Lam, Henry; McDonald, Rachel; Pulenzas, Natalie; Hamer, Julia; Lao, Nicholas; Chow, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In bone metastases, the disruption of normal bone processes results in increased resorption and formation rates, which can often be quantitatively measured by biomarkers in the urine and blood. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant studies of urinary markers used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic tool, as well as its potential and advances in directing therapy. Methods A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to July 2014), EMBASE (1950 to 2014 week 30) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (3rd Quarter 2014) to identify studies that detailed the use of urinary markers in the cancer setting, specifically involving markers for bone metastases. Search terms included “urinary markers”, “cancer”, and “bone metastases”. Results A total of 35 articles, with 24 original studies, were identified. In general, urinary markers can be used to detect early signs of bone metastases prior to skeletal imaging, but still must be used in conjunction with imaging to avoid false positive results. The use of urinary markers, such as N-telopeptide, as a prognostic tool remains controversial, but can provide information on the relative risk of skeletal related events (SREs), disease progression, as well as death. Finally, while urinary markers have shown to be potentially useful in confirming the efficacy of bone metastases treatments, exploring the appropriate dosages for treatment, and directing therapy, it is still unclear to what extent urinary markers should be reduced by. Conclusion The potential use of urinary markers in the management of bone metastases is promising as it can allow for earlier and more convenient detection of bone metastases in comparison to other techniques. However, additional studies involving prospective clinical trials are suggested to further examine the potential of urinary markers in developing appropriate treatment strategies and endpoints, especially in developing a clearer protocol on the extent urinary markers should be reduced by to correlate with achievement of clinical benefit. PMID:26579485

  19. Uplift and Erosion Histories of Continents From Inversion of Drainage Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. G.; White, N.; Rudge, J. F.; Paul, J. D.; Czarnota, K.

    2014-12-01

    The physiography of landscapes is a complex response to uplift generated by crustal and sub-crustal processes. Conversely, landscapes, when properly decoded, could provide information about histories of uplift and denudation rates. On most continents drainage networks set the pace of denudation. Since these networks are widespread, the notion of combining a quantitative understanding of drainage development with independent calibration is attractive. We build upon our recent work to show that it is possible to determine meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of uplift rates from linearised inversion of longitudinal river profiles. The uplift rate histories of Africa and Australia are estimated by inverting 964 river profiles, following careful calibration of a simplified version of the stream power erosional model (?z/?t=-KAmSn+Upartial z/partial t=-KA^mS^n+U, where n=1n=1). Misfit between calculated and theoretical profiles is small (Africa, ?2=2.4\\chi^2=2.4; Australia, ?2=1.8\\chi^2=1.8). Calculated patterns of uplift suggest that the topography of both continents grew during the last 65 million years. The calculated uplift histories are consistent with the age of emergent marine terraces, sedimentary flux information, the history of magmatism, rock cooling and denudation estimates in both continents. Using more general non-linear inverse methods we show that precipitation rate has to vary with a periodicity of 10 million years or more to significantly effect our results. Large changes in upstream drainage area (±50%pm50%) have a small effect on the timing or amplitude of calculated uplift. Residual misfit between families of observed and theoretical river profiles is smallest when n=1n=1. Drainage networks contain coherent signals that record the growth of topography on the continents.

  20. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  1. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  2. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  3. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  4. Transport and scavenging of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. H.; Wang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning frequently occurs in summertime over the maritime continent, especially in Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Under certain weather conditions, particulate matters emitted from such fires cause degrade of air quality and thus occurrence of often weekly long haze in downwind locations such as Singapore. It is possible that these biomass burning aerosols may have influenced convective clouds in the maritime continent though such cases have not been well simulated and understood. In order to improve understanding of the spatiotemporal coverage and influence of biomass burning aerosols in the maritime continent, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the transport of biomass burning aerosols from Malaysia peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, using biomass burning emissions from the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) version 1.0. We choose to use emissions from the month of August because the annual emissions peak often occurs within this month. Based on a multi-year ensemble simulation, we have examined the influences of various meteorological regimes on the aerosol transport and wet removal.

  5. OxyContin Use on a Rural Midwest American Indian Reservation: Demographic Correlates and Reasons for Using

    PubMed Central

    Momper, Sandra L.; Delva, Jorge; Tauiliili, Debbie; Mueller-Williams, Amelia Cromwell; Goral, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 we surveyed 400 tribal members of a midwestern American Indian reservation to assess the prevalence of OxyContin use. Thirty percent of tribal participants reported nonmedical use of OxyContin ever, 18.9% in the past year, and 13.4% in the past month. Participants aged 18 to 25 years were most likely to have used OxyContin. Reasons given for use of the drug included pain relief (59.3%) and getting high (52.2%), indicating a need for opioid treatment programs. PMID:24028230

  6. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 934947, April 2011 B The diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    cycle over the Maritime Continent. However, the convective response in the lower-resolution models 2011 B The diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in a high-resolution atmospheric.love@uea.ac.uk Climate models can exhibit systematic errors in their mean precipitation over the Maritime Continent

  7. A Multi-Scale Model for the Intraseasonal Impact of the Diurnal Cycle over1 the Maritime Continent on the Madden-Julian Oscillation2

    E-print Network

    Majda, Andrew J.

    convection prevails over the Maritime Continent and releases a huge amount of latent34 heat to the atmosphere circulation (Ramage 1968; Neale and Slingo 2003). Tropical convection over36 the Maritime Continent a poor job of resolving45 tropical convection over the Maritime Continent. One of the significant errors

  8. Monitoring of Internet Forums to Evaluate Reactions to the Introduction of Reformulated OxyContin to Deter Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    Background Reformulating opioid analgesics to deter abuse is one approach toward improving their benefit-risk balance. To assess sentiment and attempts to defeat these products among difficult-to-reach populations of prescription drug abusers, evaluation of posts on Internet forums regarding reformulated products may be useful. A reformulated version of OxyContin (extended-release oxycodone) with physicochemical properties to deter abuse presented an opportunity to evaluate posts about the reformulation in online discussions. Objective The objective of this study was to use messages on Internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated OxyContin and to identify methods aimed to defeat the abuse-deterrent properties of the product. Methods Posts collected from 7 forums between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 were evaluated before and after the introduction of reformulated OxyContin on August 9, 2010. A quantitative evaluation of discussion levels across the study period and a qualitative coding of post content for OxyContin and 2 comparators for the 26 month period before and after OxyContin reformulation were conducted. Product endorsement was estimated for each product before and after reformulation as the ratio of endorsing-to-discouraging posts (ERo). Post-to-preintroduction period changes in ERos (ie, ratio of ERos) for each product were also calculated. Additionally, post content related to recipes for defeating reformulated OxyContin were evaluated from August 9, 2010 through September 2013. Results Over the study period, 45,936 posts related to OxyContin, 18,685 to Vicodin (hydrocodone), and 23,863 to Dilaudid (hydromorphone) were identified. The proportion of OxyContin-related posts fluctuated between 6.35 and 8.25 posts per 1000 posts before the reformulation, increased to 10.76 in Q3 2010 when reformulated OxyContin was introduced, and decreased from 9.14 in Q4 2010 to 3.46 in Q3 2013 in the period following the reformulation. The sentiment profile for OxyContin changed following reformulation; the post-to-preintroduction change in the ERo indicated reformulated OxyContin was discouraged significantly more than the original formulation (ratio of ERos=0.43, P<.001). A total of 37 recipes for circumventing the abuse-deterrent characteristics of reformulated OxyContin were observed; 32 were deemed feasible (ie, able to abuse). The frequency of posts reporting abuse of reformulated OxyContin via these recipes was low and decreased over time. Among the 5677 posts mentioning reformulated OxyContin, 825 posts discussed recipes and 498 reported abuse of reformulated OxyContin by such recipes (41 reported injecting and 128 reported snorting). Conclusions After introduction of physicochemical properties to deter abuse, changes in discussion of OxyContin on forums occurred reflected by a reduction in discussion levels and endorsing content. Despite discussion of recipes, there is a relatively small proportion of reported abuse of reformulated OxyContin via recipes, particularly by injecting or snorting routes. Analysis of Internet discussion is a valuable tool for monitoring the impact of abuse-deterrent formulations. PMID:24800858

  9. Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The African continent is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the continent show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the continent. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the continent. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the continent reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system, the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).

  10. Significance of Urinary Proteome Pattern in Renal Allograft Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Suhail, Sufi M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary proteomics is developing as a platform of urinary biomarkers of immense potential in recent years. The definition of urinary proteome in the context of renal allograft and characterization of different proteome patterns in various graft dysfunctions have led to the development of a distinct science of this noninvasive tool. Substantial numbers of studies have shown that different renal allograft disease states, both acute and chronic, could portray unique urinary proteome pattern enabling early diagnosis of graft dysfunction and proper manipulation of immunosuppressive strategy that could impact graft prognosis. The methodology of the urinary proteome is nonetheless not more complex than that of other sophisticated assays of conventional urinary protein analysis. Moreover, the need for a centralized database is also felt by the researchers as more and more studies have been presenting their results from different corners and as systems of organizing these newly emerging data being developed at international and national levels. In this context concept of urinary proteomics in renal allograft recipients would be of significant importance in clinical transplantation. PMID:24757556

  11. ?–Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M.; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D.; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P.; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E.; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E.; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D’Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J.; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ?–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC–dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system. PMID:24937428

  12. Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

  13. Coupling of a regional atmospheric model (RegCM3) and a regional oceanic model (FVCOM) over the maritime continent

    E-print Network

    Wei, Jun

    Climatological high resolution coupled climate model simulations for the maritime continent have been carried out using the regional climate model (RegCM) version 3 and the finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) ...

  14. General Tour Information & Educational Activities The Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) welcomes visitors to observe and learn

    E-print Network

    1 General Tour Information & Educational Activities The Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED guidelines are recommended. ELIGIBILITY: Clubs, technical, college, and university classes; and other events). Activities provided these groups must be appropriate for educational purposes with minimal

  15. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  16. Urinary Infection in Two Selected Neonatal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gower, P. E.; Husband, P.; Coleman, J. C.; Snodgrass, G. J. A. I.

    1970-01-01

    The urines from 204 infants admitted to a neonatal special care unit and from 25 infants whose mothers had bacteriuria in the last trimester of pregnancy were cultured and examined for white cells. A comparison of 39 bag collected urines with suprapubic specimens showed that growth in a bag collection was usually due to contamination, and that the presence of more than 10 WBC/cu.mm. in the suprapubic aspirate was not usually associated with a positive culture. Only 2 infants from a total of 70 studied in the special care unit had more than 100,000 organisms/ml. with more than 10 WBC/cu.mm. in the bladder urine. All urines, which were obtained from infants whose mothers had bacteriuria in the last trimester of pregnancy, were sterile. These results support the view that neonatal urinary infection is uncommon and that infants of this age is not justified. PMID:4986864

  17. Urinary retention presenting as complete bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Papeš, Dino; Altarac, Silvio; Arslani, Nuhi; Rajkovi?, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old male was admitted to hospital for clinical and radiological signs of large bowel obstruction with clinical signs of generalized peritonitis. As such, he was scheduled to undergo emergency exploratory laparotomy. During preoperative preparation, over 2000 mL of urine was obtained after catheterization. We suggested re-evaluation, and after several hours the symptoms resolved. Although rare, pressure from the distended bladder due to urinary retention can cause complete bowel obstruction and signs of peritonitis. If a large volume of urine is obtained during preoperative preparation for mechanical bowel obstruction, it is recommended to re-evaluate the patient to avoid unnecessary surgery and imaging studies. PMID:24409213

  18. Nursing management of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older people and can lead to serious complications. Infections can worsen underlying medical conditions, adversely affect recovery and be alarming to patients, their families and caregivers. UTIs have a complex pathophysiology but the most common cause is the ascent of bacteria from the periurethral area, which explains their prevalence in older women. As a result of antibiotic resistance, an accurate diagnosis is imperative and should be based on clinical history, presence of typical signs and symptoms and test results. Nurses can assist patients through the diagnostic process, treatment and prevention of UTIs, promoting their wellbeing and empowerment. This article explores the pathophysiology of UTIs and diagnosis, prevention and nursing management in a variety of care settings. PMID:26310231

  19. Correlates of extramedical use of OxyContin® versus other analgesic opioids among the US general population

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Zhu, Hong; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been substantial public and media attention regarding extramedical use of OxyContin®, but few studies focus on the characteristics of extramedical OxyContin® users and whether they differ from extramedical other opioid users. Methods We used data from 8,218 respondents who were past-year extramedical opioid analgesic users in the 2005 and 2006 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We investigated differences in socio-demographic and psychiatric characteristics associated with past-year extramedical OxyContin® use (n=1,144) versus extramedical other opioid analgesics use (n=7,074). Data on opioid sources was compared among past-month users. We also compared extramedical opioid users (n=8,218) versus other drug users (n=16,214), and individuals with an analgesic disorder who had past-year extramedical OxyContin® use (n=339) versus those with other opioid use (n=820). Results Past-year opioid users were more likely than users of other illegal drugs to be more educated and have a past-year major depressive episode. Past-year OxyContin® users were more likely than other opioid users to be 18–25 years old (aOR=1.9[1.1,3.2]), and have mental health and deviant behavior problems. Those with past-year analgesic disorder who used OxyContin® were more likely to be younger, sell illegal drugs (aOR=2.5[1.5,4.2]), and use illegal drugs than those who used other opioids. Past-month OxyContin® users were more likely than past-month other opioid users to buy analgesics from drug dealer/other stranger and obtain opioid analgesics from multiple sources. Conclusion Our findings point out differences between OxyContin® and other opioid users that might help prevention specialists and assist efforts to curb opioid analgesics diversion. PMID:18706774

  20. The new world of the urinary microbiota in women.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence challenges the long-held paradigm that the healthy bladder is sterile. These discoveries may provide new opportunities to address important women's health conditions, which include preterm labor and delivery, urinary tract infections, and common forms of urinary incontinence. Traditional tools for urinary bacterial assessment, which includes urinary dipsticks and standard urine cultures, have significant limitations that restrict the information that is available to clinicians. For example, the standard urine culture does not detect slow-growing bacteria that die in the presence of oxygen. Two new, complementary tools, however, can detect these and other organisms, which permits a more complete characterization of bacterial communities within the female bladder. Obstetrician-gynecologists should become familiar with these new approaches (expanded quantitative urine culture and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing) that can detect previously unrecognized organisms. These advances are making it possible to answer previously intractable scientific and clinical questions. Traditional nomenclature used to describe the bacterial status in the bladder is quite dated and unsuited for the emerging information about the bacterial milieu of the female urinary tract. In the context of the sterile bladder paradigm, clinicians have learned about "uropathogens," "asymptomatic bacteriuria," and "urinary tract infection." Given that the lower urinary tract is not sterile, these terms should be reevaluated. Clinicians can already benefit from the emerging knowledge regarding urinary organisms that have previously gone undetected or unappreciated. For example, in some subpopulations of women with urinary symptoms, existing data suggest that the urinary bacterial community may be associated with women's health conditions of interest. This Clinical Opinion highlights the inadequacies of the current tools for urinary bacterial assessment, describes the new assessment tools, explains the current interpretation of the resulting data, and proposes potential clinical uses and relevance. A new world is opening to our view that will give us the opportunity to better understand urinary bacteria and the bladder in which they live. This new knowledge has significant potential to improve patient care in obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:26003055

  1. Refertilization-driven destabilization of subcontinental mantle and the importance of initial lithospheric thickness for the fate of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. P.; Lee, C.-T. A.; Lu, J. G.; Zhao, J. H.; Wu, Y. B.; Xia, B.; Li, X. Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Liu, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Continents are underlain by thick, cold thermal boundary layers. Thermal contraction should render these boundary layers negatively buoyant and unstable; this is why old, cold oceanic lithospheres subduct. However, the ancient lithospheric roots of many continents appear to have existed for billions of years. In the common view, this preservation is due to the fact that the thermal boundary layers are compositionally distinct from the ambient mantle in that they are highly melt-depleted and dehydrated; the former provides positive buoyancy and the latter provides strength. Here, we show using mantle xenoliths that the Precambrian South China Block originally was underlain by highly depleted mantle, but has been refertilized via silicate melts generated from the asthenosphere. It is now more fertile than the ambient convecting mantle and is intrinsically denser by more than 1.5%. Achieving sufficient melt generation for refertilization is only possible if the lithosphere is thin enough to provide “headspace” for decompression melting. Thus, continental boundary layers thinner than the maximum depth of melting should experience refertilization, whereas thicker continents would altogether suppress melting and hence the potential for refertilization. We propose that refertilization, once initiated, will destabilize the base of the continent; this in turn will increase the amount of “headspace” and promote further refertilization, resulting in a positive feedback that could culminate in lithospheric destruction. By contrast, continents that are thick enough may not experience significant refertilization. This suggests that initial lithospheric thickness, as well as lithospheric composition, may be important for defining the fate of continents.

  2. Attachment of Escherichia coli to urinary sediment epithelial cells from urinary tract infection-prone and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Svanborg-Edén, C; Jodal, U

    1979-12-01

    Escherichia coli isolated from patients with recurrent urinary tract infections were tested for ability to attach to human urinary sediment epithelial cells in vitro. Higher mean capacity to bind bacteria was found for epithelial cells of the patient from whom the E. coli strain had been isolated than for epithelial cells from subjects without a history of urinary tract infection. The two populations were age matched. No relation was found between the age of the cell donor (0 to 15 years) and the capacity for E. coli attachement. PMID:393634

  3. Micro-continents offshore Western Australia: implications for East Gondwana reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Joanne; Williams, Simon; Halpin, Jacqueline; Daczko, Nathan; Gardner, Robyn

    2014-05-01

    The southern part of the Western Australian margin formed at the nexus of rifting and breakup between the East Gondwanan continents India, Australia and Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous. However, understanding the basin evolution along this margin has been hampered by a lack of data from the offshore Perth Abyssal Plain, and from the conjugate Greater Indian margin, which was highly deformed during collision with Eurasia. The Batavia Knoll and Gulden Draak Knoll are two prominent, previously unsampled, bathymetric features located >1600 km offshore Australia that have typically been assumed to be igneous features. In late 2011, successful dredges on the western flanks of both knolls recovered continental basement rocks, revealing that both knolls are micro-continents. Felsic orthogneiss and granite from Gulden Draak and Batavia knolls yield 2.8 Ga, 1.3-1.2 Ga and 540-510 Ma U-Pb zircon ages. The affinity of these geological samples, coupled with existing geological sampling and geophysical data, allow us to test alternative reconstructions for East Gondwana breakup. A number of alternative models have been proposed for the pre-rift configuration of Australia and Antarctica. Competing models make very different predictions for the kinematics of Mesozoic rifting that produced the basins along the Southern Australian margin; the magnitude of extension during rifting; and how mapped Paleozoic and Proterozoic geological terranes and fault zones can be correlated between Australia and Antarctica. We will present reconstructions that reconcile our new samples from Indian Ocean micro-continents with observations from India, Antarctica, Australia, and the evolution of the Indian Ocean.

  4. A satellite-based perspective of convective systems over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A.; Houze, R.; Virts, K.; Zuluaga, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data from TRMM, the A-Train satellites, and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) have been used to study extreme weather throughout low latitudes, from deep convection over the Himalayas to oceanic mesoscale systems associated with the MJO. This study presents a more in-depth examination of convection over the Maritime Continent (Indonesia and Malaysia). During November to February, this area is the rainiest regional climate on Earth, thus constituting one of the atmosphere's primary heat sources. On multiple temporal and spatial scales, it is a complex region with clouds and precipitation having both oceanic and orographic influence. The November-February season encompasses both the eastward propagation of the MJO through this region and rainfall associated with the Asian-Australian monsoon. More specifically, the precipitation in this region is strongly modulated by MJO phases, pulsations of the monsoon, and the powerful diurnal effects of the islands and ocean. Through a feature-based analysis of convective and stratiform components of storms, the evolution of precipitating clouds in this region will be described using data from the November-February time period over multiple years. This analysis leads to an increased understanding of the characteristics of convection associated with the intraseasonal and diurnal variability during these months over the Maritime Continent. Previous work using A-Train data noted the prevalence of smaller separated MCSs over the region during the locally active phase of the MJO, and WWLLN data have shown a peak in lightning density as convection becomes deeper and more numerous leading up to this active period. By applying the analysis of the TRMM data in addition to the A-Train and WWLLN datasets, the relative roles of convective and stratiform components of MCSs to the behavior of convection can be determined during the MJO and monsoonal maxima of rainfall over the Maritime Continent.

  5. Regional climate projection of the Maritime Continent using the MIT Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IM, E. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Given that warming of the climate system is unequivocal (IPCC AR5), accurate assessment of future climate is essential to understand the impact of climate change due to global warming. Modelling the climate change of the Maritime Continent is particularly challenge, showing a high degree of uncertainty. Compared to other regions, model agreement of future projections in response to anthropogenic emission forcings is much less. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal behaviors of climate projections seem to vary significantly due to a complex geographical condition and a wide range of scale interactions. For the fine-scale climate information (27 km) suitable for representing the complexity of climate change over the Maritime Continent, dynamical downscaling is performed using the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) during two thirty-year period for reference (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) climate. Initial and boundary conditions are provided by Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations under the emission scenarios projected by MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). Changes in mean climate as well as the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events are investigated at various temporal and spatial scales. Our analysis is primarily centered on the different behavior of changes in convective and large-scale precipitation over land vs. ocean during dry vs. wet season. In addition, we attempt to find the added value to downscaled results over the Maritime Continent through the comparison between MRCM and CESM projection. Acknowledgements.This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  6. Methane over the North American Continent - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.

    2005-12-01

    During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American continent as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the continent. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the continent to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.

  7. Imaging the North American continent using waveform inversion of global and USArray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2014-09-01

    The deployment of USArray during the last decade has produced dense sampling of the central part of the North American continent with broadband seismic data. Regional tomography is now mapping the deep structure of the continent in great detail, in particular beneath the western US where USArray initiated. At the scale of the entire continent, however, the resolution of seismic imaging is uneven, much poorer away from the footprint of the array than beneath it. Important questions regarding the deep structure, lateral extent and evolution of the North American Craton, most of it not covered by USArray, thus remain difficult to answer. Here we present a new model of the upper mantle beneath North America constrained by waveform fits of 717 thousand vertical-component, broadband seismograms, of which over 228 thousand are from the Transportable Array component of USArray, a few tens of thousands from other USArray-affiliated stations, and the rest from global networks and arrays. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S waveforms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with highly complementary USArray and global-network subsets within it, produces improved resolution for a variety of features in North American upper mantle, compared to other available models. The internal structure of the North American Craton is resolved in detail. The lithosphere beneath the 1 Ga failed Mid-Continental Rift shows wavespeeds not as high as beneath surrounding cratons; it was probably altered. The sharp northern boundaries of the cratonic lithosphere closely follow the coastlines, with North America's and Greenland's lithospheric roots clearly separate. Sharp velocity gradients in western Canada indicate that the craton boundary at depth closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front at the surface. High velocities between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing evidence for the recently proposed ‘MacKenzie Craton’, unexposed at the surface.

  8. Preliminary Results for Continence Recovery after Intrafascial Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Hoon; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Chung, Moon Kee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We present our initial experience and surgical outcomes for the most recent refinement of bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (nsELRP). Materials and Methods Among 62 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, 50 patients underwent intrafascial nsELRP by a single surgeon at Pusan National University Hospital from November 2011 to April 2012. As part of the intrafascial technique, the dissection plane is directly on the prostatic capsule to preserve most of the periprostatic fascia containing small vessels and nerves, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle, and puboprostatic ligament. Postoperative continence recovery was established by daily consumption of pads. Follow-up was done at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. Results The patients' mean age was 66.5±6.2 years. The mean operation time and mean blood loss were 149.3±28.1 minutes and 155.4±168.1 ml, respectively. The mean hospitalization time and mean catheterization time were 6.3±5.1 days and 5.5±4.7 days, respectively. Two weeks after the operation, a total of 14 patients (28.0%) were pad-free but the other incontinent patient group used on average 2.3 pads per day. After 6 weeks, 35 patients (70.0%) achieved pad-free status and 7 patients (14.0%) required more than 2 pads per day. At 3 months after surgery, a total of 31 patients were available for follow-up, and 26 patients (83.9%) were pad-free. Conclusions Compared with conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy, the intrafascial nsELRP procedure enables the preservation of periprostatic structures that are essential to the recovery of surgical structures related to continence. As a result, early postoperative continence can be achieved. PMID:23301127

  9. 21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... A urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to detect and estimate urobilinogen (a bile pigment degradation product of red cell hemoglobin) in urine. Estimations obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1785 - Urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... A urinary urobilinogen (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to detect and estimate urobilinogen (a bile pigment degradation product of red cell hemoglobin) in urine. Estimations obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis...

  11. Correlates among nocturnal agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in dementia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Karen; Specht, Janet; Forch, Windy

    2015-02-01

    Family caregivers of elders with dementia often face the challenging behaviors of nighttime agitation, sleep disturbances, and urinary incontinence. To date, no study has examined the interrelationships of these behaviors in community-dwelling persons. This single group, descriptive study employs wireless body sensors to objectively collect data on nighttime agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in patients with dementia in their homes over a 5- to 7-day period. The aims are to (1) examine the feasibility and acceptability of the use of body sensors in community-dwelling persons with dementia; (2) describe patterns of nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence; and (3) examine the relationships among nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence. Data collection is in early stages and is still in progress. Challenges and advantages from preliminary data collection are reported. PMID:24670931

  12. Pseudo-renal failure: bladder rupture with urinary ascites.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Masami; Ando, Naokatsu; Kumabe, Ayako; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of pseudo-renal failure caused by urinary ascites due to spontaneous bladder rupture following transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TUR-BT). A 63-year-old man presented with 2?months of abdominal distension due to ascites. Laboratory findings showed elevated serum creatinine and hyperkalaemia. Peritoneal fluid urea, creatinine and potassium levels were greater than those in serum levels. CT scan showed partial wall thinning in the bladder wall, and cystography indicated fragility in the dome where the latest TUR-BT was performed. Pseudo-renal failure (laboratory abnormalities of acute kidney injury in the setting of normal kidney function) from urinary ascites and reverse intraperitoneal dialysis was diagnosed. Symptoms and laboratory abnormalities improved promptly with insertion of a urinary catheter. This report aims to increase recognition of urinary ascites when a patient with genitourinary surgical procedures or radiation therapy, or blunt abdominal trauma, presents with ascites and elevated creatinine simultaneously. PMID:26590189

  13. What I Need to Know about Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bacteria that live in the bowel. The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes most UTIs. The urinary tract ... siss-TAHS-kuh-pee) diaphragm (DY-uh-fram) Escherichia coli (esh-uh-RIK-ee-uh) (KOH-ly) kidneys ( ...

  14. MPH Urinary Practicum : Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 20 07

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM BREEZE SESSION Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other Urinary Sites Practicum February

  15. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ... sure your doctor knows if you could be pregnant before starting the antibiotics. Your doctor may also ...

  16. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal injuries.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection remains an important problem for patients with spinal cord injury. Interventions used to promote bladder emptying and maintain low-pressure voiding have variable risks for urinary tract infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in this population and should not be treated. However, identification of symptomatic infection is compromised by difficulties in ascertainment of symptoms. Use of hydrophilic coated catheters for intermittent catheterization does not influence the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection. Botulinum toxin injection in the detrusor muscle or the urethral sphincter improves bladder emptying and does not influence the frequency of urinary infection. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding in pregnant women with spinal cord injury, but optimal management is not clear. Other research needs include further development and evaluation of interventions to decrease the frequency of infection, improve diagnostic precision, and limit the emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:24445675

  17. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1340 Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a)...

  19. Unusual Cancers of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause signs or symptoms. Unusual Cancers of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is a disease in ... are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ...

  20. MPH Urinary Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Feb 16 07

    Cancer.gov

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM Breeze Session Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules—Renal Pelvis, Ureter and Bladder and Other Urinary Sites February 16, 2007

  1. Scale interaction between the MJO and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peatman, Simon; Matthews, Adrian; Stevens, David

    2013-04-01

    The Maritime Continent is a highly-populated region of many islands and shallow oceans, located in the oceanic warm pool, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A strong diurnal cycle of precipitation exists due to onshore breezes causing strong convergence of moist air - enhanced by topographic effects - over the land during the day time, peaking during afternoon-evening. The respective diurnal cycle over the ocean is far weaker and does not peak until early in the morning. On intra-seasonal time-scales the greatest source of variability in the tropics is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The convectively active part of the MJO propagates slowly (~5 ms-1) eastward through the warm pool from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, followed by the convectively suppressed part. The complex topography of the Maritime Continent means the exact nature of the propagation through this region is unclear. Model simulations of the MJO are often poor over the region, leading to errors in latent heat release and, subsequently, global errors in medium-range weather prediction and climate simulation. Using 14 northern hemisphere winters of high-resolution satellite data it is shown that, over regions where the diurnal cycle is strong, more than 80% of the variance in precipitation during an MJO cycle is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. A canonical view of the MJO is of smooth eastward progression of a large-scale precipitation envelope over the warm pool. However, by computing "MJO harmonics" it is shown that the leading edge of the precipitation envelope advances over the islands of the Maritime Continent approximately 6 days or 2000 km ahead of the main body. This behaviour can be accommodated within existing theories of MJO propagation. When the active convective MJO envelope is over the eastern Indian Ocean, frictional moisture convergence and topographic blocking in the easterlies of the equatorial Kelvin wave response supply moisture to the islands of the Maritime Continent. When combined with the relatively clear skies and strong short-wave flux, the low thermal inertia of the islands allows a rapid response in the diurnal cycle which rectifies onto the lower-frequency MJO. Hence, an accurate representation of the diurnal cycle and its scale interaction appear to be necessary ingredients for models to simulate the MJO successfully.

  2. Gravity domains and assembly of the North American continent by collisional tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    A gravity trend map of North America, based on a horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient map produced from gravity data for Canada and the conterminous United States, is presented and used to define a continental mosaic of gravity trend domains akin to structural domains. Contrasting trend characteristics at gravity domain boundaries support the concept of outward growth of the continent primarily by accretionary tectonics. Gravity patterns, however, indicate a different style of tectonics dominated in the development of now-buried Proterozoic orogenic belts in the south-central United States, supporting a view that these belts formed along the leading edge of a southward-migrating Proterozoic continental margin.

  3. Evaluating mid-Holocene precipitation over Australasia and the Maritime Continent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian INTIMATE (INTegration of Ice-core, Marine and Terrestrial records) initiative (INQUA project #0809) was undertaken to develop a consistent chronological assessment of the climate of the past 30000 years over Australia, New Zealand and the Maritime Continent. Work has continued as part of SHAPE initiative (INQUA project #1302), but there has currently been little use of this comprehensive resource for evaluating the available climate model data. Therefore, this work presents the initial assessment of model simulations of the mid-Holocene over the Australasian and Maritime Continents (taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project, PMIP) in relation to those available data. The mid-Holocene (6 ka) encompasses a period after sea level stabilisation (around 8-7.5 ka) and before the onset of strong ENSO-related variability (post 4 ka). There is some evidence of possibly drier conditions over northern Australia with increased coastal dune activity, along with slightly wetter conditions over Borneo and Papua New Guinea. Weakening of the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude westerlies (relative to the early Holocene) is also likely to have occurred, as evidenced by drier conditions in Western Tasmania and Victoria. The modelled results from the mid-Holocene simulations indicate that conditions were approximately 1-6% drier over much of continental Australia than at present. There is also evidence of slightly wetter conditions (1-3%) over the northern tip of Australia and parts of Papua New Guinea and Borneo. The Southern Hemisphere westerlies in the mid-latitudes (around 50S) are also weaker by 1-2 m s-1 in the model simulations. There are also differences in the seasonal cycle of precipitation and circulation in these models in response to the changes in the orbital parameters in the mid-Holocene relative to present day. The precipitation in the early half of the monsoon season (October, November and December-OND) is typically 10% higher in the mid-Holocene simulations with anomalous onshore flow onto the continent. Conversely, the precipitation is typically more than 10% lower in the late half of the monsoon period (January, February and March-JFM) with anomalous anticyclonic flow over the Australian continent. These anticyclonic anomalies are likely to be caused by reduced convection from the weaker insolation during JFM at 6 ka relative to 0 ka. The increase in OND precipitation and decrease in JFM implies that the monsoon onset and retreat may have been earlier than at present (in response to the insolation forcing), and therefore it is important to assess the changes over the whole monsoon period (October to March) instead of just the summer months (December, January and February).

  4. The CONTIN algorithm and its application to determine the size distribution of microgel suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, A.; Liu, W.; Hyatt, J. S.; Herman, E. S.; Choi, H. S.; Kim, J. W.; Lyon, L. A.; Gasser, U.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

    2015-06-01

    We review a powerful regularization method, known as CONTIN, for obtaining the size distribution of colloidal suspensions from dynamic light scattering data. We show that together with the so-called L-curve criterion for selecting the optimal regularization parameter, the method correctly describes the average size and size distribution of microgel suspensions independently characterized using small-angle neutron scattering. In contrast, we find that when using the default regularization process, where the regularizer is selected via the "probability to reject" method, the results are not as satisfactory.

  5. The CONTIN algorithm and its application to determine the size distribution of microgel suspensions.

    PubMed

    Scotti, A; Liu, W; Hyatt, J S; Herman, E S; Choi, H S; Kim, J W; Lyon, L A; Gasser, U; Fernandez-Nieves, A

    2015-06-21

    We review a powerful regularization method, known as CONTIN, for obtaining the size distribution of colloidal suspensions from dynamic light scattering data. We show that together with the so-called L-curve criterion for selecting the optimal regularization parameter, the method correctly describes the average size and size distribution of microgel suspensions independently characterized using small-angle neutron scattering. In contrast, we find that when using the default regularization process, where the regularizer is selected via the "probability to reject" method, the results are not as satisfactory. PMID:26093577

  6. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Stec, Donald F.; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup ?/?} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be useful new tools in metabolomic studies relevant to human pathology.

  7. Stem cell applications for pathologies of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Noha A; Abou-Taleb, Hisham A; Orabi, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    New stem cell based therapies are undergoing intense research and are widely investigated in clinical fields including the urinary system. The urinary bladder performs critical complex functions that rely on its highly coordinated anatomical composition and multiplex of regulatory mechanisms. Bladder pathologies resulting in severe dysfunction are common clinical encounter and often cause significant impairment of patient’s quality of life. Current surgical and medical interventions to correct urinary dysfunction or to replace an absent or defective bladder are sub-optimal and are associated with notable complications. As a result, stem cell based therapies for the urinary bladder are hoped to offer new venues that could make up for limitations of existing therapies. In this article, we review research efforts that describe the use of different types of stem cells in bladder reconstruction, urinary incontinence and retention disorders. In particular, stress urinary incontinence has been a popular target for stem cell based therapies in reported clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the development of bladder cancer. A key subject that should not be overlooked is the safety and quality of stem cell based therapies introduced to human subjects either in a research or a clinical context. PMID:26131312

  8. Prediction of urinary and fecal nitrogen excretion by beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Dong, R L; Zhao, G Y; Chai, L L; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    An analysis of predicting urinary and fecal N excretion from beef cattle was conducted using a data set summarizing 49 published studies representing 180 treatment means for 869 animals. Variables included in the data set were initial BW (kg), DMI (kg/d), dietary CP content (% of DM), N intake (g/d), apparent total tract N digestibility (%), and urinary and fecal N excretion (g/d). Correlation analysis examined relationships between animal and dietary variables and N excretion. A mixed model regression analysis was used to develop equations to predict N excretion in urine and feces and the proportion of urinary N in total N excretion as a function of various animal and dietary variables. Of the single animal and dietary variables, N intake was the best predictor of N excretion in urine and feces, whereas apparent total tract N digestibility was best to predict the proportion of urinary N in total N excretion. Low prediction errors and evaluation of the equations using cross-validation indicated the prediction equations were accurate and robust. Urinary and fecal N excretion can be accurately and precisely predicted by N intake, whereas the proportion of urinary N in total N excretion was best predicted solely using apparent total tract N digestibility. PMID:25149338

  9. Two years long field campaign YMC - A challenge to the complicated Maritime Continent weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Hayati, Noer; Katsumata, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC), which spans from the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific via the complicated land topography, hosts various weather and climate phenomena and plays a role of the heat engine for the global atmospheric circulation. However, most of our knowledge on them are qualitative and result in unrealistic simulation by numerical models. For example, most climate models are suffering from the systematic errors of precipitation with overestimate/underestimate over the land/ocean. Interaction between the local circulation due to the heating diurnal cycle and large-scale phenomena might be a key to understand them quantitatively. To cover the entire monsoon cycle, two-year long field campaign, Years of the Maritime Continent or YMC, is proposed. While long-term atmospheric and oceanic monitoring is done by or through the collaboration with the MC countries, several coordinated intensive observations using ship, aircraft, mooring, float, land-based are planned. Their main targets include convective diurnal cycle, aerosol-cloud interaction, the Madden-Julian oscillation, equatorially trapped waves, troposphere-stratosphere interaction, Indonesian through flow, coastal upwelling, and so on. In this presentation, current status will be reviewed.

  10. Repeated arc-continent collision as a key mechanism for continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitchison, J.; Buckman, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prevailing 'consensus' models for the Phanerozoic development of eastern Australia invoke a retreating accretionary orogen model in which slab retreat results in development of offshore island arcs in front of marginal basins. Periodically these basins close and the arcs are retro-thrust back onto the continental margin. Implicit in this model is the notion that all elements develop in an upper plate location upon the accretionary margin and that west-dipping subduction beneath eastern Gondwana was a long-lived phenomenon. We suggest this concept is flawed and instead propose a new testable hypothesis that eastern Australia grew through a series of arc-continent collisions in which east-directed subduction beneath intra-oceanic island arcs led to their collision with eastern Australia. At least four such arc-continent collisions are posited in mid-Cambrian (Mt Stavely arc), Late Ordovician (Macquarie arc), mid-Devonian (Gamilaroi arc) and Late Permian (Gympie arc) times. This process effectively transferred new material to the continental crust resulting in net growth. When collisions were followed by subduction flip episodes of west-directed subduction beneath the continental margin ensued giving rise to the S- and I-type granites for which eastern Australia is famous.

  11. India-Asia convergence driven by the subduction of the Greater Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, F. A.; Morra, G.; Goes, S.; Weinberg, R. F.; Moresi, L.

    2010-02-01

    The most spectacular example of a plate convergence event on Earth is the motion of the Indian plate towards Eurasia at speeds in excess of 18cmyr-1 (ref. 1), and the subsequent collision. Continental buoyancy usually stalls subduction shortly after collision, as is seen in most sections of the Alpine-Himalayan chain. However, in the Indian section of this chain, plate velocities were merely reduced by a factor of about three when the Indian continental margin impinged on the Eurasian trench about 50million years ago. Plate convergence, accompanied by Eurasian indentation, persisted throughout the Cenozoic era, suggesting that the driving forces of convergence did not vanish on continental collision. Here we estimate the density of the Greater Indian continent, after its upper crust is scraped off at the Himalayan front, and find that the continental plate is readily subductable. Using numerical models, we show that subduction of such a dense continent reduces convergence by a factor similar to that observed. In addition, an imbalance between ridge push and slab pull can develop and cause trench advance and indentation. We conclude that the subduction of the dense Indian continental slab provides a significant driving force for the current India-Asia convergence and explains the documented evolution of plate velocities following continental collision.

  12. Organic geochemistry of Mid-Continent middle and Late Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.; Palmer, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Ordovician oils in Mohawkian and Cincinnatian reservoirs of the US Mid-Continent retain the biochemical imprint of Middle and Upper Ordovician oceanic life before the evolution of land plants and most vertebrates. Thus, these oils have some geochemical features that distinguish them from younger oils. These features include (1) a predominance of n-C/sub 15/, n-C/sub 17/, and n-C/sub 19/ alkanes in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, (2) relatively low amounts of longer chain n-alkanes, (3) low amounts of chlorophyll-derived isoprenoids, such as pristane and phytane, and (4) abundant C/sub 29/ sterane relative to C/sub 27/ with rearranged forms (diasteranes) predominant over normal steranes. Ordovician oils also generally contain little sulfur and have a somewhat variable light stable carbon isotopic composition with delta/sup 13/C/sub sat/ and delta/sup 13/C/sub aro/ values of -28 to -31 per thousand (PDB), but these features are typical of many marine oils. The unusual chemistry of these Ordovician oils supports the interpretation of Reed, Illich, and Horsfield (1986) that prokaryotic organisms provided the organic matter for most Ordovician oils. Although their claim for Gloeocapsamorpha (a problematic unicellular prokaryote, possibly a blue-green alga or an unusually large bacterium) cannot be proven from oil chemistry alone, knowing that indigenous Mid-Continent Ordovician oils were derived from prokaryotic organisms may aid in future exploration for these reservoirs. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Tectonic evolution of Late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian continent. The kinematic progression of the arc-continent collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain ranges of Taiwan. By incorporating geological information into plate kinematics, the collision can be attributed to the northwesterly impingement of the Luzon arc upon the continental margin in the last 12 million years. During the initial stage of the collision, some of the continental materials might have been metamorphosed in the deep subduction zone, but no distinct effects can be perceived in the sedimentary record. In the Mio-Pliocene time (about 5 Ma), the accretionary wedge grew large enough to become a sediment source for the Luzon forearc basin and to induce foreland subsidence on the continental margin. In the early late Pliocene (about 3 Ma), drastic collision caused rapid uplift of the collision orogen that shed voluminous orogenic sediments into the forearc and foreland basins. Continued collision progressively accreted the forearc and foreland basins to the collision orogen from north to south to the present configuration.

  14. American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S. M.; Weston, Mike A.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior. PMID:25226165

  15. Onset of oxidative weathering of continents recorded in the geochemistry of ancient glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaschnig, Richard M.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; McDonough, William F.; Kaufman, Alan J.; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan

    2014-12-01

    Glacial diamictites deposited in the Mesoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, and Paleozoic eras record temporal variations in their average compositions that reflect the changing composition of the upper continental crust (UCC). Twenty six of the 27 units studied show elevated chemical index of alternation (CIA) and low Sr abundances, regardless of their age, documenting pervasive weathering of the average UCC. Lower abundances of transition metals reflect a shift towards more felsic crustal compositions after the Archean. Superimposed on this chemical difference is the signal of the rise of oxidative weathering of the continents, recorded by changes in the absolute and relative abundances of the redox sensitive elements Mo and V. Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic diamictites show pervasive depletion in Mo and V, reflecting their loss from the continents due to increasing intensity of oxidative weathering, as also recorded in some of the Paleoproterozoic diamictites. A few of the Paleoproterozoic diamictites deposited after the Great Oxidation Event show no depletion in Mo and V (e.g., Gowganda), but such signatures could be inherited from their provenance. In contrast, the pre-GOE Duitschland diamictite (ca. 2.3-2.5 Ga) from South Africa reveals evidence of intense oxidative weathering (i.e., large depletions in Mo), supporting a growing body of observations showing the presence of measurable atmospheric oxygen prior to permanent loss of the mass independent fractionation signal in sulfur isotopes.

  16. Circumpolar oil-and-gas-bearing basins of the arctic part of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2015-09-01

    Major geotectonic elements of the reviewed territory of the Arctic part of the North American continent are the Hyperborean Precambrian Platform, the Franklin folding belt, the northern part of the Precambrian Canadian platform, and the Mesozoic folding belt of Canada and Alaska. The rise of the Arctic slope of Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, and the Sverdrup basin are located in the southern margins of the Hyperborean Platform. The structure and peculiarities of development of these structural elements are genetically related to the evolution of this platform, as well as the current state of petroleum potential of the most promising exploration region of Arctic in the 21st century. The forced exploration of the Arctic regions of the United States and Canada has become an important milestone in the current development of the world energetics. Up to 100 oil, gas, and gas condensate fields have been discovered as a result of violent studies, and the potential oil and gas reserves in the Arctic part of the North American continent have been estimated to 30 billiion t and 50 trillion cubic meters, respectively. Many prospects are related to the continental slopes of all three above-mentioned basins; the total potential reserves of slopes are estimated as 10-12 billion t of oil and 20-25 trillion cubic meters of gas.

  17. Attractiveness of reformulated OxyContin(R) tablets: assessing comparative preferences and tampering potential.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Perrino, Peter J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Harris, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    Reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release or ORF) was developed as a tamper and abuse-deterrent product, to reduce the risk of product abuse, misuse and their consequences. This noninterventional single-session study asked participants who were medically-healthy recreational opioid users, aged 18 years and older, to consider how they would use commonly available supplies to tamper with placebo ORF and placebo original OxyContin (OC) tablets, and how they would assess the attractiveness of tampering and abusing ORF tablets, as compared with other opioid formulations. Participants provided information on past opioid use, and they assessed the properties of five nonhypothetical oxycodone products and two hypothetical oxycodone products. Participants provided feedback on tampering preferences, preferred tamper methods for each product, overall tampering potential and product preferences. We had 30 participants (27 males and 3 females; mean age 35 years, range 18-51) complete both the interview and tampering sessions. Participants judged OC as the most attractive, valuable, desirable and most likely to be tampered with, from among all opioid products studied. By contrast, they rated ORF as the least attractive, least valuable, least desirable, and least likely to be tampered with among all the nonhypothetical opioid products studied. These results suggested that recreational drug abusers view ORF tablets as tamper-deterrent products. PMID:23784739

  18. Paleokarst and fracture overprints in Mid-Continent carbonates in evaluation of horizontal drilling potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R.D.; Shelton, J.W. ); Esteban, M. ); Wilson, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Mid-Continent region, especially in Oklahoma and Arkansas, contains thick Paleozoic carbonate sections that are dolomitic and karstic in character. These sections commonly exhibit strong structural overprints, including intense fracturing, due primarily to Pennsylvanian orogenies. Because of their rather wide association with source rocks, these carbonates are thought to represent good potential targets for horizontal drilling. The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, the Ordovician Viola Group, the Siluro-Devonian Hunton Group, and the Mississippian Limestone all contain zones that are locally productive. These stratigraphic units are either uniformly tight or they are heterogeneous with complex porosity profiles. In karst terranes both types commonly occur together; both require fracturing to increase porosity and permeability. Both youthful and mature stages of paleokarst are observed in the Arbuckle Group; the best porosity is developed in the youthful stage. These stages can develop microporous, planar porous, or macroporous types of reservoir geometry. All of these may be heterogeneous in nature, requiring fractures to interconnect porous intervals. Horizontal drilling is yet to be proved as a reliable method for increasing production efficiency in Mid-Continent carbonates. An evaluation of diagenetic history, especially karst processes, along with local and regional structural settings, may provide a key for improved understanding of the horizontal drilling potential in these carbonates.

  19. The Mesozoic Tectono-Magmatic Sequence and Tectonic Dynamic in Southeast China Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Hu, Q.; Guo, K.

    2005-12-01

    There are large-scale magmatism and metallogenic processes in Southeast China, where has been generally considered to posses the characteristics of large igneous province. As a major part of East Asia, Southeast China is very complex region involving multiple stages of the Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity. Various tectonic models have been proposed in last two decades: (1) an active continental margin related to the subduction of a paleo-Pacific plate (e.g., Jahn et al.,1976; Holloway,1982; Huang et al.,1986; Zhou and Li,2000); (2) an Alpine-type continental collision (Hsu et al., 1988,1990); (3) a wrench fault system (Xu et al.,1987,1993); (4) continental extension and rifting (Gilder et al.,1991,1996; Li,2000) and (5) mantle plume tectonics (Xie et al., 1996; Xie and Mao., 1997; Mao et al.,1999a,1999b; Xie et al., 2001). The Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity in Southeast China might have been divided into three major stages: Collision and compression of inter-continents between North China and Yangtze block, Indochina and South China block 258-230Ma: Collision and compression of inter-continents between North China plate and Yangtze block-- Ultra-high pressure eclogites in Qingling-Dabi metamorphic zone; Indochina block was converged with the South China block in the north Vietnam and the north Thailand. 250-220Ma: Collision and compression of intra-continents in Cathaysian block-- Peraluminous-weak peraluminous granites of the crust-derived type. 220-180 Ma: Relative `till' of magmatic activity 180-165Ma: Intraplate, extension-,and/or rift-related magmatism. Their mantle sources might have been metasomatizeed by OIB-type melts in an intraplate regime--high-Ti symmetric bi-modal basalt-dacite, alkaline basalts, A-type granite, and potash granodiorites; Transformation from Tethys ( EW-trend, liner distribution ) to Paleo-Pacific active margin (NE-trend, Extensive distribution) regime: beginning of transformation: about 160Ma 165-150Ma: The lithosphere extension and underplating of the basalt magma- widespread peraluminous-metaluminous monzogranite-granites, and potash-syenites displied geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic affinities of intraplate, extension-,and /or rift-related magmatism. The lithosphere thinning: end of transformation: about 140 Ma Igneous rocks are all demonstrated the cal-alkaline series features and evolutional tendency of an active continental margin or island arc with enrichment in Rb-Th, Zr-Hf and depletion in Ti, Nb-Ta, Ba, Sr, P, Y during this stage. 145-125Ma: Extension-strike slip, the transformation age from Tethys to Paleo-Pacific regime about high-K calc-alkaline dacite-rhyolite volcano-plutonic belt; 125-105Ma: Extension and thinning of the continental lithosphere-Low-Ti asymmetric bimodal basalt-dacite, rhyolite, shoshonite volcano-plutonic rocks; <100Ma: Breakup of the continent- A-type peralkaline granite and basic veins. As mentioned above, authors proposed a tectonic dynamic model: Collision and compression of intra-continents-plate subduction-asthenosphere mantle plume upwelling related to South Pacific super-mantle plume and two crust growth manners, which has been fully considered the mantle plume influence on the Mesozoic uplift and extension as well as the large-scale magmatism in Southeast China.

  20. TRP channels in lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Franken, J; Uvin, P; De Ridder, D; Voets, T

    2014-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTd) represents a major healthcare problem. Although it is mostly not lethal, associated social disturbance, medical costs, loss of productivity and especially diminished quality of life should not be underestimated. Although more than 15% of people suffer from a form of LUTd to some extent, pathophysiology often remains obscure. In the past 20 years, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have become increasingly important in this field of research. These intriguing ion channels are believed to be the main molecular sensors that generate bladder sensation. Therefore, they are intensely pursued as new drug targets for both curative and symptomatic treatment of different forms of LUTd. TRPV1 was the first of its class to be investigated. Actually, even before this channel was cloned, it had already been targeted in the bladder, with clinical trials of intravesical capsaicin instillations. Several other polymodally gated TRP channels, particularly TRPM8, TRPA1 and TRPV4, also appear to play a prominent role in bladder (patho)physiology. With this review, we provide a brief overview of current knowledge on the role of these TRP channels in LUTd and their potential as molecular targets for treatment. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24895732

  1. Congenital urinary tract obstruction: the long view.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Maldevelopment of the collecting system resulting in urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is the leading identifiable cause of CKD in children. Specific etiologies are unknown; most cases are suspected by discovering hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasonography. Congenital UTO can reduce nephron number and cause bladder dysfunction, which contribute to ongoing injury. Severe UTO can impair kidney growth in utero, and animal models of unilateral ureteral obstruction show that ischemia and oxidative stress cause proximal tubular cell death, with later development of interstitial fibrosis. Congenital obstructive nephropathy, therefore, results from combined developmental and obstructive kidney injury. Because of inadequacy of available biomarkers, criteria for surgical correction of upper tract obstruction are poorly established. Lower tract obstruction requires fetal or immediate postnatal intervention, and the rate of progression of CKD is highly variable. New biomarkers based on proteomics and determination of glomerular number by magnetic resonance imaging should improve future care. Angiotensin inhibitors have not been effective in slowing progression, although avoidance of nephrotoxins and timely treatment of hypertension are important. Because congenital UTO begins in fetal life, smooth transfer of care from perinatologist to pediatric and adult urology and nephrology teams should optimize quality of life and ultimate outcomes for these patients. PMID:26088076

  2. Bladder cancer and urinary Schistosomiasis in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis haematobia is among the most prevalent parasitosis in Angola. The pathology is characterized by serious and irreversible lesions in the urogenital tract induced by chronic infection with the parasite that can eventually lead to squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Considering the frequency and severe morbidity observed, even in younger ages, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and morbidity of S. haematobium infection in Angola. A baseline survey was conducted between November 2007 and February 2008. A randomly sample of 300 inhabitants aged 15 to 75 years old participated in this study. Prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 71.7 % (215/300). Infection was higher in females (56.3 %) but no significant difference was found in prevalence and intensity between gender and age groups. The predominant selfreported symptoms were dysuria (91.2 %), hypogastralgia (88.7 %) and haematuria (87.1%) and these symptoms were strongly associated with S. haematobium infection (p<0.05). Ultrasound and cystoscopy examinations performed in a sub-sample of 29 individuals revealed pathological conditions at the urinary tract in all examined. Considering the high prevalence of S. haematobium infections in Angola and schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer, our results indicate that this population should be targeted for follow up and implementation of measures for treatment and control of schistosomiasis. PMID:26167543

  3. Practical aspects of lifestyle modifications and behavioural interventions in the treatment of overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, J F; Burgio, K L; Newman, D K

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural interventions are effective treatments for overactive bladder (OAB) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). They are in part aimed at improving symptoms with patient education on healthy bladder habits and lifestyle modifications, including the establishment of normal voiding intervals, elimination of bladder irritants from the diet, management of fluid intake, weight control, management of bowel regularity and smoking cessation. Behavioural interventions also include specific training techniques aimed at re-establishing normal voiding intervals and continence. Training techniques include bladder training, which includes a progressive voiding schedule together with relaxation and distraction for urgency suppression, and multicomponent behavioural training, which, in conjunction with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercises, includes PFM contraction to control urgency and increase the interval between voids. Guidelines for the conservative treatment of OAB and UUI have been published by several organisations and the physiological basis and evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural interventions, including lifestyle modifications, in the treatment of OAB and UUI have been described. However, many primary care clinicians may have a limited awareness of the evidence supporting the often straight-forward treatment recommendations and guidance for incorporating behavioural interventions into busy primary care practices, because most of this information has appeared in the specialty literature. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of behavioural interventions for OAB and UUI that can be incorporated with minimal time and effort into the treatment armamentarium of all clinicians that care for patients with bladder problems. Practical supporting materials that will facilitate the use of these interventions in the clinic are included; these can be used to help patients understand lifestyle choices and voiding behaviours that may improve function in patients experiencing OAB symptoms and/or UUI as well as promote healthy bladder behaviours and perhaps even prevent future bladder problems. Interventions for stress urinary incontinence are beyond the scope of this review. PMID:19575724

  4. Evolutionary conservatism and convergence both lead to striking similarity in ecology, morphology and performance across continents in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Daniel S.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Many clades contain ecologically and phenotypically similar species across continents, yet the processes generating this similarity are largely unstudied, leaving fundamental questions unanswered. Is similarity in morphology and performance across assemblages caused by evolutionary convergence or by biogeographic dispersal of evolutionarily conserved ecotypes? Does convergence to new ecological conditions erase evidence of past adaptation? Here, we analyse ecology, morphology and performance in frog assemblages from three continents (Asia, Australia and South America), assessing the importance of dispersal and convergent evolution in explaining similarity across regions. We find three striking results. First, species using the same microhabitat type are highly similar in morphology and performance across both clades and continents. Second, some species on different continents owe their similarity to dispersal and evolutionary conservatism (rather than evolutionary convergence), even over vast temporal and spatial scales. Third, in one case, an ecologically specialized ancestor radiated into diverse ecotypes that have converged with those on other continents, largely erasing traces of past adaptation to their ancestral ecology. Overall, our study highlights the roles of both evolutionary conservatism and convergence in explaining similarity in species traits over large spatial and temporal scales and demonstrates a statistical framework for addressing these questions in other systems. PMID:24174109

  5. [Ileocecal invagination--an unequivocal computer tomography diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Peters, J

    1985-12-01

    The diagnosis "ileocaecal invagination caused by lipoma" is possible by CT alone. The intraluminal lipoma can be identified via density measurement. The invaginated ileum causes an intraluminal mass caudal to the lipoma. Intussuscipiens and intussusceptum are incompletely separated by a crescent of mesenteric fat. PMID:4075705

  6. Polycarbonate Bottle Use and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Luu, Henry T.; Bassett, Laura S.; Driscoll, Daniel A.; Yuan, Caterina; Chang, Jennifer Y.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Michels, Karin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic. Low-level concentrations of BPA in animals and possibly in humans may cause endocrine disruption. Whether ingestion of food or beverages from polycarbonate containers increases BPA concentrations in humans has not been studied. Objectives We examined the association between use of polycarbonate beverage containers and urinary BPA concentrations in humans. Methods We conducted a nonrandomized intervention of 77 Harvard College students to compare urinary BPA concentrations collected after a washout phase of 1 week to those taken after an intervention week during which most cold beverages were consumed from polycarbonate drinking bottles. Paired t-tests were used to assess the difference in urinary BPA concentrations before and after polycarbonate bottle use. Results The geometric mean urinary BPA concentration at the end of the washout phase was 1.2 ?g/g creatinine, increasing to 2.0 ?g/g creatinine after 1 week of polycarbonate bottle use. Urinary BPA concentrations increased by 69% after use of polycarbonate bottles (p < 0.0001). The association was stronger among participants who reported ? 90% compliance (77% increase; p < 0.0001) than among those reporting < 90% compliance (55% increase; p = 0.03), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusions One week of polycarbonate bottle use increased urinary BPA concentrations by two-thirds. Regular consumption of cold beverages from polycarbonate bottles is associated with a substantial increase in urinary BPA concentrations irrespective of exposure to BPA from other sources. PMID:19750099

  7. Mini–slings – an option in stress urinary incontinence treatment. Case studies

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Micha?; Kli?, Rafa?; Ró?a?ski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a social disease caused by numerous contributing factors such as natural childbirth, obesity, hormonal deficiencies and changes in collagen fibers, to name a few. Currently, mini–slings, among all the surgical treatment methods, have gained significance. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of this method. Material and methods From 2008 to 2012, one hundred sixty women suffering from SUI underwent surgical procedures to implant mini–slings under the middle part of the urethra and 140 (87.5%) of them remained under observation. In 65 cases, Johnson & Johnson's TVT–Secur was used; in 70 cases, BARD's Adjust mini–sling was used; and in 5 cases, AMS Mini–Arc mini–sling was used. The average period of hospitalization was 3 days per admission, operation and discharge day. Results In 82 cases, patients urinated well after the removal of the catheter, and had full urine continence. Fourteen patients showed great improvement, and in four cases temporary urine retention was observed. In two cases vaginal bleeding was observed, yet there was no need for wound revision. Evaluation of the ‘quality of life improvement’ was done using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Conclusions The obtained results allowed the conclusion that the implantation of mini–slings is a low invasive, relatively safe and effective procedure for the treatment of SUI even in cases of recurrence. Almost full recovery was achieved in all the cases of this study. The mini–sling has become an important element in modern urogynecology. PMID:25914841

  8. Urinary Angiotensinogen as a Potential Biomarker of Intrarenal Renin-angiotensin System Activity in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Z; Xu, B; Xu, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) mainly derives from the AGT produced in the proximal tubular cells. Evidence exists that support the correlation between urinary AGT and circulating AGT. Previous studies measured urinary AGT by radioimmunoassay which is not convenient for clinical practice. In this study, we utilized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based method to quantify urinary AGT. We analysed the relationship between urinary AGT and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urinary and plasma renin activity, AGT, Ang II and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay or ELISA in 128 CKD patients. Furthermore, expression levels of intrarenal renin, AGT, Ang II and Ang II receptor were examined by immunohistochemistry staining (IHCS) in 72 CKD patients undergoing renal biopsy. Average urinary AGT was 2.02 ± 0.55 ng/(mg Cr). Hypertension, urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary Type IV collagen (Col IV) positively correlated with urinary AGT. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary sodium and serum AGT negatively correlated with urinary AGT. Multiple regression analysis indicated that low serum AGT, high urinary protein, urinary Ang II and urinary Col IV correlated significantly with high urinary AGT. Moreover, we observed positive correlation between urinary AGT and positive IHCS area of AGT, Ang II and Ang II Type 1 receptor in renal tissue. These data suggest that urinary AGT might be a potential biomarker of intrarenal angiotensin II activity in CKD patients. PMID:25781279

  9. Force Required to Breakup a Continent: Implications on Rifting Localization and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svartman Dias, A. E.; Lavier, L. L.; Hayman, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    The maximum force from ridge push available is about 5 TN/m, lower than that required by 2D and 3D numerical experiments to rift the lithosphere in the absence of magmatic input. We carry out 2D numerical experiments without any magmatic input to study the extensional force necessary to start a rift basin and to breakup a continent. We assume a range of initial temperature structure, crust and mantle initial thicknesses and composition. In a first step, we use velocity boundary conditions (1cm/yr) and we monitor the force necessary to breakup the continent. Results can be classified in two groups according to the amount of force needed to rift through time: (1) The initial force builds up rapidly to 12-20 TN/m within 0.4-1.0 Myr. This is followed by an exponential decrease due to early strain localization and lithospheric weakening. The force is < 5TN/m after 4.4-7.0 Myr of extension. Continental breakup occurs approximately 10 Myr after the onset of extension forming narrow conjugate margins. This group encompasses experiments with initial Tmoho < 650oC and crustal thicknesses ? 35 km, where crust and mantle deformation are coupled from the early stages of rifting. (2) The initial build-up is more discrete, from < 3 TN/m to 4-6.5 TN/m in the first 0.1 Myr, followed by a decrease to a nearly constant value of 3-5 TN/m from 0.4 Myr to 10 Myr, when strain starts localizing. The constant force through time reflects lithosphere strengthening and migration of the deformation. This rift migration forms a wide basin (> 250 km wide) that may evolve to form very asymmetric conjugate margins. Breakup occurs 18 Myr after the onset of rifting or later. This second group corresponds to experiments with initial Tmoho > 650 km and crustal thicknesses ? 35 km. High bending stresses result in upper crust brittle failure and on enhancement of lower crust lateral flow. Interaction between ductile failure in the lower crust and brittle failure in the upper crust controls the migration of the deformation. In a second step, we repeat the same experiments applying a constant extensional force ? 5 TN/m to test whether and how the limited ridge push force naturally available can rift and breakup a continent. We then compare our results to the evolution of aborted rifts and to along strike variations in rifted magins such as the South Atlantic.

  10. Intraseasonal Variability of ?18O of Precipitation in The Indonesia Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgaman, H. A.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Tanoue, M.; Suwarman, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Mori, S.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Kurita, N.; Syamsudin, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) consists of many islands in a warm pool of sea water and is located between two great oceans—the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, and two major continents—the Asian and Australian continents. This tropical region also influenced by many regional and local climate and weather phenomenon which causes high spatial and temporal rainfall variability. These factors may produce unique variability of isotopic precipitation. The isotopic content (d18O and dD) in precipitation have been known to have important role for reconstructing the atmospheric circulation, hydrological cycle, and paleoclimate. Using daily data from six observation station across the IMC (Bukit tinggi, Jambi, Denpasar, Makasar, Manado, and Palau Island), the variability of ?18O was explored. Observation times for each station were different. Bukit Tinggi (GAW) was from Jan. 2001 - Mar. 2010, Jambi (JMB) was from Apr. 2001 - Dec. 2005, Denpasar (DPS), Makassar (MKS), Manado (MND) were from Nov. 2002 - Mar. 2010, and Palau Island (PLL) was from Dec. 2001 - May 2007. Daily average value of ?18O were -7.57‰, -5.41‰, -3.15‰, -6.12‰, -5.49‰ and -4.26‰ for GAW, JMB, DPS, MKS, MND and PLL respectively. Daily value of ?18O in GAW has the lowest value compare with the other station was because the location of GAW station located at high altitude. High correlation of variability of ?18O and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was observed at western part of the IMC (GAW and JMB), and northern part of the IMC (MKS, MND, and PLL), meanwhile ?18O variability at DPS was less correlated with MJO compare with other stations. Preliminary result from Color Moisture Analysis (CMA) model revealed that precipitable water at GAW and JMB stations was mostly occupied by water vapor evaporated from the Indian Ocean. However, precipitable water at other stations was mostly composed of water vapor evaporated from the Java Sea and the Pacific Ocean. These findings indicate that water vapor evaporated from the Indian Ocean related to the MJO can only reach the Island of Sumatra in the western part of the IMC. Then, Indian Ocean origin was replaced by the water vapor evaporated from the Java Sea and the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Intermediate crust (IC); its construction at continent edges, distinctive epeirogenic behaviour and identification as sedimentary basins within continents: new light on pre-oceanic plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. The plate tectonics paradigm currently posits that the Earth has only two kinds of crust - continental and oceanic - and that the former may be stretched to form sedimentary basins or the latter may be modified by arc or collision until it looks continental. But global analysis of the dynamics of actual plate motions for the past 150 Ma indicates [1 - 3] that continental tectospheres must be immensely thicker and rheologically stiffer than previously thought; almost certainly too thick to be stretched with the forces available. In the extreme case of cratons, these tectospheric keels evidently extend to 600 km or more [2, 3]. This thick-plate behaviour is attributable, not to cooling but to a petrological 'stiffening' effect, associated with a loss of water-weakening of the mineral crystals, which also applies to the hitherto supposedly mobile LVZ below MORs [4, 5]. The corresponding thick-plate version of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) process [6 - 8], replacing the divergent mantle flow model, has a deep, narrow wall-accreting axial crack which not only provides the seismic anisotropy beneath the flanks but also brings two outstanding additional benefits:- (i) why, at medium to fast spreading rates, MOR axes become straight and orthogonally segmented [6], (ii) not being driven by body forces, it can achieve the sudden jumps of axis, spreading-rate and direction widely present in the ocean-floor record. Furthermore, as we will illustrate, the crack walls push themselves apart at depth by a thermodynamic mechanism, so the plates are not being pulled apart. So the presence of this process at a continental edge would not imply the application of extensional force to the margin. Intermediate Crust (IC). In seeking to resolve the paradox that superficially extensional structures are often seen at margins we will first consider how this MOR process would be affected by the heavy concurrent sedimentation to be expected when splitting a mature continent. I reason that, by blocking the hydrothermal cooling widely seen along MOR axes this must inhibit the freezing-in of diagnostic spreading-type magnetic anomalies and would prolong magmagenesis to give a thicker-than-oceanic mafic crust. I have called this Intermediate Crust (IC) [9, 10], to distinguish it from Mature Continental Crust (MCC). Plate separation will continue to generate IC along the margins for as long/far as the sedimentation input is sufficient to have this effect. Transition to the MOR process will then follow. But if, contrary to the general plate tectonics assumption, based on body forces, plate separation ceases after a limited separation (or perhaps several in differing directions), without proceeding to the oceanic condition, the resulting IC areas will be incorporated within the continent [11]. Where does this lead us? With examples drawn from 40 years' study, I will contend that this is indeed the way the Earth has worked and that it offers potential plate kinematic explanation of the origin of the block-and-sedimentary basin layouts abundantly present in the non-craton areas of continents. I will show that in some cases the intricacy of block outlines and the precision with which they can be fitted together in a kinematically consistent manner rules out that this was purely by chance. The evidently meaningful character of those outlines means that they have been drawn by a narrow-crack separative mechanism which reflects that of our new MOR model. To provide a basis for such Plate Kinematic Analysis (PKA) we now link and compare some features of IC-formation at continental edges and of the crust of sedimentary basins. Characteristics of IC and of sedimentary basin crust (SBC). 1. IC basement, with expected seismic Vp around 6km/s, must look deceptively like that assigned to supposedly stretched MCC. 2. For thermodynamic reasons, the hydrous metamorphic content of deep MCC and of deeply subducted UHP slices of it gives them a big thermal epeirogenic sensitivity which IC lacks. Calculation [8, 9] shows that this type of process yields some 12-30 t

  12. Urinary metabolite markers of precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Li, Pin; Zhang, Yongyu; Cui, Lulu; Guo, Zi; Xie, Guoxiang; Su, Mingming; Li, Xin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Weiping; Jia, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of precocious puberty (PP, the appearance of signs of pubertal development at an abnormally early age), is rapidly rising, concurrent with changes of diet, lifestyles, and social environment. The current diagnostic methods are based on a hormone (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test, which is costly, time-consuming, and uncomfortable for patients. The lack of molecular biomarkers to support simple laboratory tests, such as a blood or urine test, has been a long standing bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis and evaluation of PP. Here we report a metabolomic study using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Urine metabolites from 163 individuals were profiled, and the metabolic alterations were analyzed after treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) with triptorelin depot. A panel of biomarkers selected from >70 differentially expressed urinary metabolites by receiver operating characteristic and logistic regression analysis provided excellent predictive power with high sensitivity and specificity for PP. The altered metabolic profile of the PP patients was characterized by three major perturbed metabolic pathways: catecholamine, serotonin metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle, presumably resulting from activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Treatment with triptorelin depot was able to normalize these three altered pathways. Additionally, significant changes in the urine levels of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and 5-hydroxykynurenamine in the CPP group suggest that the development of CPP condition may involve an alteration in symbiotic gut microbial composition. PMID:22027199

  13. Characteristics of Calculi in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Prstojevic, Jelena Kovacevic; Junuzovic, Dzelaludin; Hasanbegovic, Munira; Lepara, Zahid; Selimovic, Mirsad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elimination of stone is determined by size and its localization. Stone from the ureter in 80% of cases can be eliminated spontaneously. If the stone by its characteristics is not spontaneously eliminated, taken are further steps and therapeutic protocols to solve this problem. Material and methods: The study was prospective, open and comparative. It was conducted at the Urology Clinic Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from 2007 to 2013. The study included 404 patients with urinary tract lithiasis treated by ESWL. ESWL treatment is performed on the machine Siemens Model Lithostar Multiline, which has a combined ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic display, large energy density in order to obtain optimum focus (without damaging surrounding tissue) and minimal pain that on rare occasions requires for mild sedation-sedation. Results: From a total of 404 patients included in the study there were 234 (57.92%) male and 170 (42.08%) female patients. The most common type of stone both in female and male patients was calcium type. From a total of 262 calcium stones, 105 of them (40.07%) was present in female patients and 157 (59.92%) in male. Share of infectious type of stone in female patients was 63 (49.60%) and 64 among males (50.39%). Other stones were less abundant in both the gender groups and their total number was only 17. In women their frequency was 2 (13.33%) and 13 among males (86.67%). There was a significant difference in the frequency of different types of stones by gender (?2 = 11.47, p = 0.009). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between the number of treatments and localization of stones in the ureter, as well as a statistically significant correlation between the size of the stone and the localization of calculus in the ureter. PMID:25568625

  14. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.

  15. Urinary Podocyte Microparticles Identify Prealbuminuric Diabetic Glomerular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Dylan; Thibodeau, Jean-Francois; Holterman, Chet E.; Burns, Kevin D.; Touyz, Rhian M.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small (0.1–1.0 µm) vesicles shed from the surface of cells in response to stress. Whether podocytes produce MPs and whether this production reflects glomerular injury are unclear. We examined MP formation in cultured human podocytes (hPODs) and diabetic mice. hPODs were exposed to cyclical stretch, high glucose (HG; 25 mM), angiotensin II, or TGF-?. Urinary podocyte MPs were assessed in three mouse models of diabetic nephropathy: streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, OVE26, and Akita mice. Cyclic stretch and HG increased MP release as assessed by flow cytometry (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, versus controls). Inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) with fasudil blocked HG-induced podocyte MP formation. STZ-treated (8 weeks) mice exhibited increased urinary podocyte MPs compared with age-matched nondiabetic mice. Similarly, 16-week-old OVE26 mice had elevated levels of urinary podocyte MPs compared with wild-type littermates (P<0.01). In 1 week post-STZ–treated and 6- and 12-week-old Akita mice, urinary podocyte MPs increased significantly compared with those MPs in nondiabetic mice, despite normal urinary albumin levels. Our results indicate that podocytes produce MPs that are released into urine. Podocyte-derived MPs are generated by exposure to mechanical stretch and high glucose in vitro and could represent early markers of glomerular injury in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24676640

  16. Reduction in urinary arsenic with bottled-water intervention.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Arun B; McClellen, Hannah; Hysong, Tracy A; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S; Stürup, Stefan; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2006-09-01

    The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean total arsenic (microg/L) in tap-water was 20.3+/-3.7 in Ajo and 4.0+/-2.3 in Tucson. Baseline urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/L) was significantly higher among the Ajo subjects (n=40, 29.1+/-20.4) than among the Tucson subjects (n=32, 11.0+/-12.0, p<0.001), as was creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/g) (35.5+/-25.2 vs 13.2+/-9.3, p<0.001). Baseline concentrations of arsenic (microg/g) in toenails were also higher among the Ajo subjects (0.51+/-0.72) than among the Tucson subjects (0.17+/-0.21) (p<0.001). After the intervention, the mean urinary total inorganic arsenic in Ajo (n=36) dropped by 21%, from 29.4+/-21.1 to 23.2+/-23.2 (p=0.026). The creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic and toenail arsenic levels did not differ significantly with the intervention. Provision of arsenic-free bottled water resulted in a modest reduction in urinary total inorganic arsenic. PMID:17366771

  17. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ? 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  18. Control of urinary bladder function with devices: successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Robert A; Prochazka, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    The management of urinary tract dysfunction is crucial for the health and well-being of people with spinal cord injury. Devices, specifically catheters, play an important role in the daily regime of bladder management for most people with spinal cord injury. However, the high incidence of complications associated with the use of catheters, and the fact that the spinal segments involved in lower urinary tract control remain intact in most cord-injured people, continue to motivate research into devices that could harness the nervous system to provide greater control over lower urinary tract function. Mechanical devices discussed in this review include catheters, artificial urethral sphincters, urethral stents and intraurethral pumps. Additionally, many attempts to restore control of the lower urinary tract with electrical stimulation have been made. Stimulation sites have included: inside the bladder, bladder wall, thigh, pelvic floor, dorsal penile nerve, pelvic nerve, tibial nerve, sacral roots, sacral nerves and spinal cord. Catheters and sacral root stimulators are two techniques whose efficacy is well established. Some approaches have proven less successful and others are still in the development stage. Modifications to sacral root stimulation including posterior root stimulation, anodal blockade and high-frequency blockade as well as new techniques including intraspinal microstimulation, urethral afferent stimulation and injectable microstimulators are also discussed. No single device has yet restored the control and function of the lower urinary tract to the pre-injury state, but new techniques are bringing this possibility closer to reality. PMID:16198700

  19. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  20. The peopling of the African continent and the diaspora into the new world

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    Africa is the birthplace of anatomically modern humans, and is the geographic origin of human migration across the globe within the last 100,000 years. The history of African populations has consisted of a number of demographic events that have influenced patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation across the continent. With the increasing amount of genomic data and corresponding developments in computational methods, researchers are able to explore long-standing evolutionary questions, expanding our understanding of human history within and outside of Africa. This review will summarize some of the recent findings regarding African demographic history, including the African Diaspora, and will briefly explore their implications for disease susceptibility in populations of African descent. PMID:25461616

  1. Addressing Climate Model Bias Over Continents: Role of Orogenic Organized Propagating Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrieff, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate models commonly feature severe warm and dry bias over continents. We address this issue for the United States warm season via high-resolution simulations, continental-scale radar observations, and dynamical analogs. The bias is argued to stem from the absence in climate models of orogenic propagating convective systems that provide over 50% of warm-season rainfall because: i) convective parameterizations fail to represent key dynamical processes; ii) climate model spatial resolution does not permit explicit organized convection. Particularly important are mesoscale downdrafts (Earth's natural air-conditioners) that, on regional scales, bring air of lower thermodynamic energy above the boundary layer to the land surface. On a broader note, organized convection is central to the water-cycle, diurnal-cycle, energy and momentum fluxes, hydrology, and albedo, all of which affect the distribution and variability of surface temperature and moisture.

  2. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Numerous low temperature thermochronology studies have defined regional cooling episodes which imply removal of several km of section over areas of several 104 km2. The origin of such events has long been the subject of debate, while their reality has sometimes been questioned because of the lack of a viable mechanism. Kilometre-scale denudation at rifted margins has traditionally been interpreted as related to rifting and breakup, magnified by the flexural response to denudation of the uplifted rift flanks. But it is now clear that at many margins the post-breakup history is more complex, with km-scale uplift and erosion commonly post-dating breakup by 10s of Myr and often affecting regions many 100s of kilometres inland of the margins (Green et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2014). Numerous examples around the world of km-scale exhumation affecting regions distant from continental margins, including cratonic regions traditionally regarded as stable over Phanerozoic time (e.g. Ault et al., 2009; Flowers & Kelley, 2011), cannot be explained by margin-related mechanisms. It has also become clear that periods of exhumation are separated by episodes of burial, defining a series of positive and negative vertical movements. Previous studies have defined a broad synchroneity of Early, Middle and Late Cenozoic exhumation events in regions from Alaska to Greenland, Norway and Svalbard (Green and Duddy, 2010). New results from SE Australia define a series of exhumation episodes ranging in time from Carboniferous to Cenozoic which are broadly synchronous with similar events previously defined in Brazil and South Africa (Green et al. 2013). While estimates of the timing of exhumation in different areas are subject to some uncertainty, data across three southern hemisphere continents show a broad synchronicity in similar fashion to the northern hemisphere examples cited above. Dynamic topography has been invoked as a possible mechanism for producing uplift, the effects of which might be magnified by the isostatic response to denudation, but until recently the vertical motions expected from this mechanism were thought to be restricted to 100s of metres while expected timescales of 100s of Myr are not consistent with observations. Braun et al. (2014) showed that movement of plates over areas of areas of mantle upwelling could produce much more rapid uplift and also much larger-scale vertical movements, but the predicted diachroneity of uplift across southern Africa differs from the apparent synchroneity across three continents described here. The processes described by Braun et al. are also specific to one location and one event. Japsen et al. (2012) suggested that broadly synchronous exhumation events on divergent continents resulted from lateral resistance to plate motion driven by forces transmitted in the asthenosphere, while Colli et al. (2014) proposed that dynamic topography caused by pressure-driven mantle flow could produce synchronous uplift (and erosion) in separate continents. Such processes appear to offer more viable mechanisms for producing broadly synchronous episodes of kilometre-scale exhumation and intervening burial in regions separated by large distances. Further geodynamic modelling is needed to develop and test likely mechanisms.

  3. Assessing Microseismicity of the Northern Mid-Continent Rift Zone and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, D.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.; van der Lee, S.; Jurdy, D. M.; Stein, S. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    SPREE is a flexible array (FA) deployment associated with the EarthScope project with the aim of better understanding the Mid-Continent Rift Zone (MCRZ). We have used data from SPREE FA and TA stations to detect and locate small earthquakes in the vicinity of the northwestern arm of the Mid-Continent Rift Zone, covering Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Iowa, Michigan, and Ontario. This region, now stable craton, is a failed Precambrian rift marked by low levels of recorded seismicity, perhaps resulting in part from a historic dearth of stations deployed in the region. We assessed this possibility by taking advantage of the densest array that has been deployed in the region. Processing has allowed for regional stress constraints and a means of distinguishing earthquakes from mine blasts, and a quantitative method to differentiate natural earthquakes from mine blasting events, frequent here. After automated event identification, a manual review confirmed 14 earthquakes and several hundred blasting events with magnitudes ranging from M1 - M3. Observed seismicity is in reasonable agreement with available historical data. We use these earthquakes in conjunction with historical catalogs to estimate regional recurrence intervals for events of greater magnitudes. While initial earthquake/blast discrimination was done manually, the ratio of Rayleigh to P-wave amplitude appears to be a reliable discriminant for distinguishing between earthquakes and mine blasting in this region in a systematic way, with earthquakes displaying a systematically depressed ratio. Additionally, P-wave first-motion data and S/P amplitude ratios from natural events constrain focal mechanisms and regional stresses. These methods indicate roughly WSW-ENE compression, consistent with other determinations and absolute plate motion. The majority of events detected lie some distance from the actual rift; we thus conclude current seismicity bears no preferred association with the MCR.

  4. Hierarchical Genetic Analysis of German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) Populations from within Buildings to across Continents

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

  5. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Chown, Steven L; Huiskes, Ad H L; Gremmen, Niek J M; Lee, Jennifer E; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

    2012-03-27

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007-2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Naki?enovi? N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (?33,054) are higher than those of scientists (?7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes. PMID:22393003

  6. Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-03-01

    The gravity anomaly field over the whole Earth obtained by the GOCE satellite is a revolutionary tool to reveal geologic information on a continental scale for the large areas where conventional gravity measurements have yet to be made. It is, however, necessary to isolate the near-surface geologic signal from the contributions of thickness variations in the crust and lithosphere and the isostatic compensation of surface relief. Here Africa is studied with particular emphasis on selected geological features which are expected to appear as density inhomogeneities. These include cratons and fold belts in the Precambrian basement, the overlying sedimentary basins and magmatism, as well as the continental margins. Regression analysis between gravity and topography shows coefficients that are consistently positive for the free air gravity anomaly and negative for the Bouguer gravity anomaly. The error and scatter on the regression are smallest in oceanic areas, where it is a possible tool for identifying changes in crustal type. The regression analysis allows the large gradient in the Bouguer anomaly signal across continental margins to be removed. After subtracting the predicted effect of known topography from the original Bouguer anomaly field, the residual field shows a continent-wide pattern of anomalies that could be attributed to regional geological structures. A few of these are highlighted, such as those representing Karoo magmatism, the Kibalian foldbelt, the Zimbabwe Craton, the Cameroon and Tibesti volcanic deposits, the Benue Trough and the Luangwa Rift. A reconstruction of the pre-break up position of Africa and South America (the plates forming West Gondwana) is made for the residual GOCE gravity field. The reconstruction allows the positive and negative anomalies to be compared across the continental fragments, and so helps identify common geologic units that extend across both the now-separate continents.

  7. Peatlands, methane cycling and hyperthermals on the East Antarctic continent in the early Eocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, J. A.; Toney, J. L.; Seki, O.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Inglis, G.; Pancost, R. D.; Bijl, P.; Bohaty, S. M.; Schouten, S.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Brinkhuis, H.; Roehl, U.; Jamieson, S.

    2012-12-01

    The high temperature, high pCO2 world of the early Eocene (ca.55 to 49 Ma) greenhouse may be an analogue for the future response of the biosphere and global carbon cycle, if anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2 forcing continues unabated. Here we present an early Eocene record inferring that orbital-scale changes in peatland extent and methanogenesis in coastal wetlands on Antarctica played an important role in the carbon cycle of this greenhouse world. Terrestrial biomarkers were analyzed from IODP Expedition 318 - Site U1356A, situated along the Wilkes Land margin of East Antarctica. The bacterial-derived, C31 (17??,21??) homohopane within a relatively immature hopane assemblage from Site U1356A, suggests that wetland environments were present on the Antarctica continent in the early Eocene. The timing of the fluctuations in the concentrations and the molecular structure - the ??/(??+??) ratio - indicate that the extent of these wetlands fluctuated in response to external, orbital forcing. The compound-specific carbon isotope values (?13C) of hopanes are consistently 5 to 10 permil lower than those of the higher plant n-alkanes, which suggests that the bacterial precursor organisms were likely a mixture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs. The longer term trends and apparently orbitally-paced hyperthermals observed in the biomarker measurements (including compound specific ?13C and ?D) are consistent with changes in the TEXH86 sea-surface temperature proxy and suggest an important link between regional temperatures, the hydrological cycle and methanogenesis in wetlands on the early Eocene, Antarctic continent. For confirmation we are comparing the biomarker data with model outputs and additional palynological analyses. As well as exploring new biomarker data from other early Eocene sites to determine if the orbitally-driven expansion of peatlands along the Wilkes Land margin, East Antarctica applies to wider Eocene coastal environments, or if the peatland dynamics were specific to the Antarctic, Wilkes Land margin.

  8. Continent-wide risk assessment for the establishment of nonindigenous species in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L.; Huiskes, Ad H. L.; Gremmen, Niek J. M.; Lee, Jennifer E.; Terauds, Aleks; Crosbie, Kim; Frenot, Yves; Hughes, Kevin A.; Imura, Satoshi; Kiefer, Kate; Lebouvier, Marc; Raymond, Ben; Tsujimoto, Megumu; Ware, Chris; Van de Vijver, Bart; Bergstrom, Dana Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Invasive alien species are among the primary causes of biodiversity change globally, with the risks thereof broadly understood for most regions of the world. They are similarly thought to be among the most significant conservation threats to Antarctica, especially as climate change proceeds in the region. However, no comprehensive, continent-wide evaluation of the risks to Antarctica posed by such species has been undertaken. Here we do so by sampling, identifying, and mapping the vascular plant propagules carried by all categories of visitors to Antarctica during the International Polar Year's first season (2007–2008) and assessing propagule establishment likelihood based on their identity and origins and on spatial variation in Antarctica's climate. For an evaluation of the situation in 2100, we use modeled climates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios Scenario A1B [Naki?enovi? N, Swart R, eds (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK)]. Visitors carrying seeds average 9.5 seeds per person, although as vectors, scientists carry greater propagule loads than tourists. Annual tourist numbers (?33,054) are higher than those of scientists (?7,085), thus tempering these differences in propagule load. Alien species establishment is currently most likely for the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Recent founder populations of several alien species in this area corroborate these findings. With climate change, risks will grow in the Antarctic Peninsula, Ross Sea, and East Antarctic coastal regions. Our evidence-based assessment demonstrates which parts of Antarctica are at growing risk from alien species that may become invasive and provides the means to mitigate this threat now and into the future as the continent's climate changes. PMID:22393003

  9. Seismic investigation of an ocean-continent transition zone in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Qiu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhan, W.; Sun, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Rifted continental margins and basins are mainly formed by the lithospheric extension. Thined lithosphere of passive continental margins results in decompression melt of magma and created oceanic crust and thined ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone. Two refraction profiles used ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the broad continental shelf and three multi-channel seismic reflection lines in the northern South China Sea, acquired by the ship "Shiyan 2" of the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010, are processed and interpreted in this study. Seismic reflection lines cut through the Dongsha rise, Zhu-1 and Zhu-2 depression within a Tertiary basin, Pear River Mouth basin (called as Zhujiangkou basin). These tectonic features are clear imaged in the seismic reflection records. Numerous normal faults, cutted through the basement and related to the stretch of the northern South China Sea margin, are imaged and interpreted. Reflection characteristics of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) zone are summaried and outlined. The COT zone is mainly divided into the northern syn-rift subsidence zone, central volcano or buried volcano uplift zone and tilt faulted block near the South Chia Sea basin. Compared to the previous seismic reflection data and refraction velocity models, the segmentation range of the OCT zone is outlined, from width of about 225 km in the northeastern South China Sea , of 160 km in the central to of 110 km in the north-central South China Sea. Based on the epicenter distribution of sporadic and large than 6 magnitude earthquakes, it suggests the OCT zone in the northern South China Sea at present is still an active seismic zone.

  10. Urinary considerations for adult patients with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    Veenboer, Paul W; de Kort, Laetitia M O; Chrzan, Rafal J; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of newborns with spinal dysraphism is diminishing worldwide, although survival of individuals with this condition into adulthood continues to improve. The number of adults with spinal dysraphism will, therefore, increase in the coming years, which will pose new challenges in patient management. Urological manifestations of spinal dysraphism can include increased risks of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, urinary calculi, sexual dysfunction, end-stage renal disease and iatrogenic metabolic disturbances; however, the severity and incidence of these symptoms varies substantially between patients. Owing to the presence of multiple comorbidities, treatment and follow-up protocols often have to be adapted to best suit the needs of specific patients. Authors describe bladder and kidney function and long-term complications of treatments initiated in childhood, as well as the potential for improvements in quality of life through better follow-up schedules and future developments. PMID:25963964

  11. Comparative trials of antimonial drugs in urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.

    1968-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic trials in urinary schistosomiasis are described and discussed. Their design and conduct were based on recommended statistical techniques, now generally accepted as the most appropriate approach to the assessment of antischistosomal drugs. Randomization produced comparable host groups in whom multiple parasitic infection and radiological urinary tract damage were common. Treatment was with one of three antimonial compounds given at equivalent metallic dosage daily. Antimony sodium tartrate (AST) and antimony dimercaptosuccinate (TWSb) were equally efficient curatively but both produced many side-effects. Sodium antimonylgluconate (TSAG) was four-fifths as effective but tolerance was superior. Estimations of urinary antimony excretion showed that tissue retention of the metal was related to cure-rates and side-effects. It was concluded that none of the drugs were suitable for mass chemotherapy. More new non-toxic schistosomicides are urgently needed and for their assessment, the setting-up of multicentre trials, following international agreement on technical methods, is suggested. PMID:5302298

  12. Offering patients a choice of urinary catheter drainage system.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Linda

    The aim of this article is to promote understanding of the benefits, assessment process and suitability of catheter valves, as a form of urinary drainage for patients. A literature review on the benefits of catheter valves provides the opportunity for an in-depth discussion that compares and contrasts different urinary drainage systems. On the evidence of the literature review, all patients require a holistic assessment which considers a number of factors, and provides the nurse with the essential objective data to ascertain the suitability of the catheter valve. These data can be transferred into an easy step-by-step algorithm to help guide the nurse in making the decision, with the patient, on the most appropriate urinary catheter drainage system. PMID:20966861

  13. The human urinary exosome as a potential metabolic effector cargo.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Ravera, Silvia; Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Bartolucci, Martina; Calzia, Daniela; Lavarello, Chiara; Inglese, Elvira; Petretto, Andrea; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Panfoli, Isabella

    2015-08-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles, derived from the endocytic pathway, released by most cell types and found in many body fluids, including urine. A variety of exosomal functions have been reported, including transfer of RNA, cell communication, control of apoptosis and protein lifespan. Exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells can rescue bioenergetics of injured cells. Here the urinary exosome proteome, non-urinary exosome proteome and urinome are compared. A consistent number of identified proteins cluster to metabolic functions. Cytoscape software analysis based on biological processes gene ontology database shows that metabolic pathways such as aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation have a high probability (p ? 0.05) of being expressed and therefore functional. A metabolic function appears to be associated with human urinary exosomes, whose relevance experimental studies can assess. PMID:26186710

  14. 78 FR 40149 - Scientific Information Request on Chronic Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Quality Scientific Information Request on Chronic Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare...AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request for scientific information...urinary retention (CUR) treatment, which is currently...

  15. URINARY MUTAGENICITY: A BIOMARKER OF GENOTOXIC EXPOSURES VIA AIR, WATER, AND DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 30 years, ~100 studies have evaluated human urine for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay. Urinary mutagenicity has been shown to correlate well with other biomarkers, including DNA and hemoglobin adducts, urinary metabolites, and chr...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify proteins or albumin in urine. Identification of urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) is used in the diagnosis and...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify proteins or albumin in urine. Identification of urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) is used in the diagnosis and...

  18. Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians ... Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians.” ...

  19. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Taking Control: Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5- ... it. Page 0 Page 2 What is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on ...

  20. Non-Surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Research for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about what option may be best for you. Understanding Your Condition What is urinary incontinence? Urinary incontinence ... improve or completely end their incontinence with treatment. Understanding Your Choices How is UI treated? There are ...

  1. Urinary Cyclophilin A as a New Marker for Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Su, Chien-Wei; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Fu, Chia-Po; Liu, Chin-San; Hsieh, Mingli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease. Albuminuria is the most commonly used marker to predict onset of diabetic nephropathy (DN) without enough sensitivity and specificity to detect early DN. This is the first study to identify urinary cyclophilin A (CypA) as a new biomarker for early DN. We recruited DM outpatients and healthy control subjects from January 2014 to December 2014. In this cross-sectional study, patients’ urine samples were collected to determine the expression of urinary CypA. We also treated mesangial (MES-13) and tubular (HK-2) cells with glucose or free radicals to observe the expression of secreted CypA in Western blot analysis. A total of 100 DN patients and 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled. All variables were matched. In univariate analysis, the concentration of urinary CypA correlated well with the progression of renal function. A significant increase in urinary CypA was noted in stage 2 DN and persisted in later stages. We could diagnose stage 2 DN using urinary CypA with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 72.7%. The area under curve was up to 0.85, indicating a good discriminatory power. In cellular models, MES-13 and HK-2 cells can both release CypA. Urinary CypA is a good biomarker for early DN detection in humans and it can be released from either mesangial or tubular cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms still need further clarification in cellular and animal studies. PMID:26496315

  2. Tumor-Specific Urinary MMP Fingerprinting: Identification of High Molecular Weight Urinary MMP Species

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Roopali; Louis, Gwendolyn; Loughlin, Kevin R.; Wiederschain, Dmitri; Kilroy, Susan M.; Lamb, Carolyn C.; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that MMP-2, MMP-9 and the complex MMP-9/NGAL can be detected in urine of patients with a variety of cancers including prostate and bladder carcinoma. In addition, we also detected several unidentified urinary gelatinase activities with molecular weights >125kDa. The objective of the current study was to identify these high molecular weight (HMW) species, determine their potential as predictors of disease status and ask whether a tumor-specific pattern existed based on urinary MMP (uMMP) analysis. Experimental Design Chromatography, zymography and mass spectrometry was used to identify HMW gelatinase species of ?140, 190 and >220kDa in urine of cancer patients. To determine whether a tumor-specific pattern of appearance existed among the MMPs detected, we analyzed the urine of 189 patients with prostate or bladder cancer and controls. Results The ?140, >220kDa and ?190 HMW gelatinase species were identified as MMP-9/TIMP-1 complex, MMP-9 dimer and ADAMTS-7 respectively. The frequency of detection of any MMP species was significantly higher in urine from prostate and bladder cancer groups than controls. MMP-9 dimer and MMP-9 were independent predictors for distinguishing between patients with prostate or bladder cancer (P<0.001 for each) by multivariable analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to identify a tumor-specific uMMP fingerprint that may noninvasively facilitate identification of cancer presence and type. This information may be of diagnostic and prognostic value in the detection and/or clinical monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic efficacy in patients with bladder or prostate cancer. PMID:18927302

  3. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  4. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein change in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Jin; Wang, Du-Juan; Deng, Ren-Tang; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Mei-Lian; Jang, You-Ming; Wen, Shu; Yang, Hong-Ling; Huang, Xian-zhang

    2015-09-01

    We compared urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) among non-pregnant and pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Higher urinary L-FABP was found in pregnant with and without GDM, and considerably higher urinary L-FABP was found in the GDM group compared with the non-GDM group. Hyperglycemia and anemia were related with high urinary L-FABP expression. PMID:26254248

  5. Pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Cox, Roni Michelle; Richards, Kyle; Akki, Ashwin; Gokden, Neriman; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Krausz, Thomas; McKenney, Jesse K; Steinberg, Gary D

    2014-09-01

    The pseudoangiosarcomatous pattern has been described mostly in cutaneous and some visceral squamous cell carcinomas and is unique for its striking morphologic resemblance to angiosarcoma. Herein, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 7 pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas that occurred in the urinary bladder. The patients included 6 men and 1 woman ranging in age from 47 to 87 years (median 70 y). The pseudoangiosarcomatous morphology was observed in 7 urothelial carcinomas including 3 with squamous differentiation and comprised 35% to 85% of the invasive tumor. Histologically, the pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinomas were characterized by tumor cell discohesion and lysis that created pseudolumina formations surrounded by attached residual tumor cells. Detached degenerating tumor cells variably admixed with inflammatory cells were common in the false lumina. Partly intact urothelial carcinoma nests contained irregular or cleft-like spaces and disintegrating tumor cells with stretched intercellular bridges. The tumor was commonly associated with a dense collagenous matrix, often surrounding the lytic nests. Similar tumor cell discohesion and breakdown were observed in 3 tumors with foci of squamous cell differentiation, distinguished by the presence of dyskeratosis and keratin formation. All 7 tumors contained other nonpseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma components such as conventional urothelial carcinoma (5), squamous differentiation (4), sarcomatoid spindle cell carcinoma (2), small cell carcinoma (1), micropapillary carcinoma (1), and glandular differentiation (1). The pseudoangiosarcomatous urothelial carcinomas were all (7/7) diffusely CK7 positive, most (6/7) were GATA3 positive, and none (0/7) expressed vascular-associated markers. There was no evidence to suggest that apoptosis (by TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining) or loss of the adhesion molecules CD138 and e-cadherin were possible causes for the tumor cell discohesion and breakdown. All 7 tumors were high stage at cystectomy and included 1 pT3a, 2 pT3b, and 4 pT4a tumors, and 3 had pelvic lymph node involvement. Follow-up data available in 6 cases revealed a poor outcome with an overall median survival of 8.5 months. In conclusion, we present an unusual morphology of bladder carcinoma that has a striking resemblance to a malignant vasoformative tumor. Our series showed that bladder pseudoangiosarcomatous carcinoma morphology is associated with a higher tumor stage at cystectomy, commonly admixed with other aggressive carcinoma variant morphologies, and portend a poorer outcome. Knowledge of this pattern is also important to avoid misdiagnosis, particularly in limited tissue samples. PMID:25133708

  6. Associations Between Urinary Symptoms and Sexual Health in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Cara

    2015-11-01

    Fifty percent of sexually active older men and women complain of 1 or more sexual problems. Sexual dysfunction involves a complex interplay of partner factors, relationship factors, individual factors, concomitant mental health disorders, life stressors, medical comorbidity, and medication intake. Although lower urinary tract symptoms are associated with decreased sexual activity, it is unclear whether the relationship is causal or influenced by shared risk factors, or the presence of overall poor health and function. Taking a complete sexual history in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms is the first step toward detection and possible treatment. PMID:26476117

  7. Increased urinary riboflavin excretion resulting from boric acid ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J; Huang, Y P; McConnell, R J; Rivlin, R S

    1978-07-01

    The urinary excretion of riboflavin (vitamin B2) was determined in 14 patients, both children and adults, after the ingestion of boric acid. These patients reported to the New York City Poison Control Center during a 2 1/2 year period. Riboflavin was determined by a modification of a previously described method which is based upon competitive protein binding. Boric acid ingestion was associated with greatly increased urinary riboflavin excretion in approximately two thirds of the patients. Most of the riboflavin appeared to be excreted within the first 24 hr after ingestion of boric acid. These data provide evidence of a previously unrecognized hazard of boric acid ingestion in patients. PMID:659962

  8. Bacteruria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Detweiler, Keri; Mayers, Daniel; Fletcher, Sophie G

    2015-11-01

    Both urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) are common problems among elderly adults and represent a significant health care burden. Despite their frequency, differentiating between ASB and true UTI remains controversial among health care providers. Several challenges exist in the evaluation of urinary symptoms in the elderly patient. Symptoms of UTI are variable; problems are encountered in the collection, testing, and interpretation of urine specimens; and results of urinalysis are often misinterpreted and mishandled. Multiple studies have shown no morbidity or mortality benefit to antibiotic therapy in either community or long-term care facility residents with ASB. PMID:26475952

  9. Clinical Background of Patients with Sperm in Their Urinary Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Eiji; Kabeya, Yusuke; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Kato, Kiyoe; Ohashi, Masakazu; Nakamura, So; Oya, Mototsugu; Shimada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The detection rate and associated factors of at least one sperm in urinary sediment is not well-known in real clinical practice. Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical features associated with the presence of sperm in urinary sediment in a large number of samples. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital. We identified 5,005 males who were aged ?20 years in whom urinary sedimentation had been performed at least twice between May 2011 and June 2012. The sperm group included patients in whom at least one urinary sediment test performed under a microscope had detected at least one sperm. We evaluated the associations between the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment and clinical parameters such as various diseases and the use of particular oral medicines. Main Outcomes In total, 1.6% (339/20,937) of urinary sediment samples contained at least one sperm. The sperm group consisted of 282 subjects (5.6%), and the no-sperm group included 4,723 subjects (94.3%). Results Multivariate analysis demonstrated that younger age (<65) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32–2.21), the total number of examinations (?4) (OR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.11–1.92), diabetes (OR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.31–2.25), a history of pelvic surgery for colon cancer (OR: 4.89, 95%CI: 2.38–10.02), alpha-1 blocker use (OR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.16–2.08), a history of trans-urethral resection of the prostate (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.46–5.13), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (OR: 2.12, 95%CI: 1.07–4.19) were independent predictors of the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment. Conclusion There is considerable overlap between the factors associated with the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment and those that are strongly associated with ejaculatory disorders. PMID:26359862

  10. Nonsurgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success. PMID:26476110

  11. Fungus ball in the urinary tract: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Praz, Valentin; Burruni, Rodolfo; Meid, Florian; Wisard, Marc; Jichlinski, Patrice; Tawadros, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A fungal mass in the urinary tract (fungus ball), mainly occurring in compromised patients, is a rare and dangerous complication of candiduria. We report 2 cases of fungus ball associated with hydronephrosis and sepsis. As reported in the literature, we treated the first patient by prompt relief of obstruction by nephrostomy and local and systemic antifungal agent. The second patient failed to respond to this treatment due to a distal ureteral stenosis and required open surgery with fungus ball removal and ureteral reimplantation. Despite a large success in urinary tract drainage with antifungal treatments, some cases need a modified approach due to anatomical modification. PMID:24554976

  12. Herpes zoster induced acute urinary retention in the immunocompetent female

    PubMed Central

    Biddlestone, John; Suraparaju, Lokesh; Shah, Nimish

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of acute urinary retention complicated by constipation secondary to a unilateral herpes zoster reactivation in the S2-4 dermatomes of an immunocompetent female. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical examination, negative cystoscopy and positive viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes zoster virus. The patient was commenced on a course of oral acyclovir, the bowel symptoms resolved, and the patient was discharged with a urinary catheter in situ for an outpatient trial without catheter for 2 weeks to be followed by a course of intermittent self catheterisation pending resolution of symptoms. PMID:21686803

  13. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  17. Control of urinary bladder function with devices: successes and failures Robert A. Gaunt and Arthur Prochazka

    E-print Network

    Prochazka, Arthur

    ). While management of lower urinary tract dysfunction with devices, primarily catheters, has reduced1 Control of urinary bladder function with devices: successes and failures Robert A. Gaunt, 507 HMRC, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2, Canada Abstract: The management of urinary tract dysfunction

  18. Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) J (Leontopithecus rosalia) over a period of 3 or more months, and urinary oestrogen con- centrations were determined was the predominant urinary oestrogen excreted by female lion tamarins. Enzyme hydrolysis with Helix pomatia \\g

  19. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1550... Systems § 862.1550 Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used...

  4. The Dynamics of Organic Matter Cycling on the Continents and in the Oceans T.I. Eglinton

    E-print Network

    Einat, Aharonov

    The Dynamics of Organic Matter Cycling on the Continents and in the Oceans T.I. Eglinton Geological.eglinton@erdw.ethz.ch The burial of organic carbon produced by the terrestrial and marine biosphere in ocean sediments represents discharge to the marine environment, and on the fate of both marine and terrestrial organic matter within

  5. An Assessment of Stressor Extent and Biological Condition in the North American Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the North American mid-continent great rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio). We estimated the extent of each river in most- (MDC) or least-disturbed condition (LDC) based on multiple biological response indicators: fi sh and macroinvertebrate, trophic stat...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 3 Table 3 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  7. We needed to measure nutrient concentrations in a contin-uous stream of seawater delivered to a shipboard laboratory

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    91 We needed to measure nutrient concentrations in a contin- uous stream of seawater delivered abundant of the nutrients thought to limit phytoplankton growth in many parts of the oceans. The availability of micronutrients, such as iron, and the presence of grazers in the planktonic community may also

  8. Taking the pulse of a continent: Expanding site-based research infrastructure for regional- to continental-scale ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the most dramatic and surprising effects of global change on ecological systems will occur across large spatial extents, from regions to continents. Multiple ecosystem types will be impacted across a range of interacting spatial and temporal scales. The ability of ecologists to understand an...

  9. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open vegetation burning is the largest contributor to the total amount of emissions, followed by biofuel and human waste burnings. Spatial distribution of open vegetation burning showed extensive emissions in Southern and Central Africa, Amazon of South America, and Southeast Asia with high probability of fire occurrences. Human waste burning presented high emissions in India, Central Africa, and Mexico. Biofuel burning emissions also recorded that large amounts were released from India, Central Africa and Mexico. Our estimates for all trace gases and aerosols emissions from open biomass burning combined with estimates of those from biofuel burning are in the range of the estimates constrained by chemical transport models andand other bottom-up methods. Our high resolution CO2 emission estimates will contribute to regional top-down CO2 flux estimates using data from current satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2 and future satellites such as TanSat, GOSAT-2, and Carbonsat.

  10. Shallow anatomy of a continent-ocean transition zone in the northern South China Sea from multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junjiang; Qiu, Xuelin; Kopp, Heidrun; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Zongxun; Ruan, Aiguo; Sun, Jinlong; Wei, Xiaodong

    2012-07-01

    The Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea is reflected in diverse tectonic processes including continental rifting, seafloor spreading, subduction, terrane collision and strike-slip fault movement. A continent-ocean transition zone in the northern South China Sea caused by the lithospheric extension when the continent underwent break-up, rifting and later seafloor spreading, is clearly imaged in the multi-channel seismic data presented in this study. The morphological units of the continent-ocean transition zone are the rift-depression, the volcanic zone and tilted fault blocks. The volcanic zone represents a highest extension zone within the continent-ocean transition zone and is mainly distributed in the southern slope uplift zone along the northern passive margin of the South China Sea. The large listric-normal faults bounding the Dongsha Rise and Baiyun Sag are evidenced in the seismic image. The passive margin in the northern South China Sea underwent the wide-rift to narrow-rift process in the transition zone as inferred from the relation between the surface heat flow and initial rifted crustal thickness. The continent-ocean transition zone in the continental margin of the South China Sea is consistent with high heat flow zone (average 90 mW.m- 2) observed in the previous heat flow measurements and at ODP Site 1148, and is manifested in a sharp change of the P-wave velocity. The rifted margin of the South China Sea is a non-typical magma poor passive margin or an intermediary form between the Iberian-type non-volcanic and the Greenland-type volcanic margin compared to the world's typical passive margins.

  11. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 5, PAGES 677-680, MARCH 1,2000 A Stratospheric "Drain over the Maritime Continent

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Steven

    over the Maritime Continent Steven C. Sherwood Universities Space ResearchAssociation, Seabrook occursoverstrongly-convecting regions. Closing the energy budget in the sinking regions requiresan energy sink; one Indonesiaor the "maritime continent." The argument is basedon the observationthat temperatures there match

  12. Suicidal behaviour across the African continent: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is a major cause of premature mortality worldwide, but data on its epidemiology in Africa, the world’s second most populous continent, are limited. Methods We systematically reviewed published literature on suicidal behaviour in African countries. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, African Index Medicus, Eastern Mediterranean Index Medicus and African Journals OnLine and carried out citation searches of key articles. We crudely estimated the incidence of suicide and suicide attempts in Africa based on country-specific data and compared these with published estimates. We also describe common features of suicide and suicide attempts across the studies, including information related to age, sex, methods used and risk factors. Results Regional or national suicide incidence data were available for less than one third (16/53) of African countries containing approximately 60% of Africa’s population; suicide attempt data were available for <20% of countries (7/53). Crude estimates suggest there are over 34,000 (inter-quartile range 13,141 to 63,757) suicides per year in Africa, with an overall incidence rate of 3.2 per 100,000 population. The recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimate of 49,558 deaths is somewhat higher, but falls within the inter-quartile range of our estimate. Suicide rates in men are typically at least three times higher than in women. The most frequently used methods of suicide are hanging and pesticide poisoning. Reported risk factors are similar for suicide and suicide attempts and include interpersonal difficulties, mental and physical health problems, socioeconomic problems and drug and alcohol use/abuse. Qualitative studies are needed to identify additional culturally relevant risk factors and to understand how risk factors may be connected to suicidal behaviour in different socio-cultural contexts. Conclusions Our estimate is somewhat lower than GBD, but still clearly indicates suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem in Africa. More regional studies, in both urban and rural areas, are needed to more accurately estimate the burden of suicidal behaviour across the continent. Qualitative studies are required in addition to quantitative studies. PMID:24927746

  13. Moho depth variations beneath China continent from deep seismic sounding profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Jiwen; Zhang, Zhongjie; Zhang, Yongqian; Pi, Jiaolong; Deng, Yangfan; Zhang, Xiankang; Wang, Chunyong; Gao, Rui; Liu, Cai

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of Moho depth and crustal structure are required to study and explore the deep process and coupling response of the formation of mountains, basins, rocks and disasters. In the past half century, the geophysicists in China have completed more than 130 seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles with a total length of 60000km and 11 global geosciences transections (GGT) in China. In this study, we aim to make a systematic research into the Moho depth and crustal structure in China based on the data of velocity models of the crust and upper mantle derived from these more than 130 wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in the last 50 years in China and the surrounding areas. With advanced interpolation technique, we obtain Moho map and average P-wave velocity model, and then make the study on the variations in Moho depth and crustal structure in different tectonics in the East Asia. According to our research results, the resultant Moho depth ranges within 10 and 80 km, and is featured with the deepest Moho discontinuity of about 70-85km beneath Tibetan plateau formed by ongoing continent-continent collision; and relatively constant 30-35 km beneath the eastern North China craton enduring destruction of Lithosphere destruction. Also, we analyzed the average crustal thickness of the consolidated crust beneath the three cratons in China, which is characterized by a gradual thickening from east to west with the values of 29~47 km beneath North-China craton (east), 30~56 km beneath Yangtze craton (south) and 42~59 km beneath Tarim craton (west). In addition, there are three major fold tectonic units in the continental domain and the adjacent oceanic areas, namely the Tethyan-Himalayan zone (south and west), the Paleo-Asian zone (northwest and northeast) and the Circum-Pacific zone (east), which in turn are subdivided into 15 orogenic zones. The Moho depth in these 15 orogenic zones is quite different, too.

  14. Zonal scales of Madden-Julian Oscillation in model experiments with and without continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, Arindam; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-04-01

    The low-frequency eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) impacts weather and climate around the globe. MJO has zonal wavenumber 1-5, but the reason why these characteristic spatial scales arise are not clearly understood. We use the aquaplanet version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-5), with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISO), including MJO. In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m/s. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), is absent when the model was forced by July SST. This shows the importance of the meridional gradient of SST on generation of MJO in this model. For further investigation of the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEW), we conduct experiments with idealized symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. Our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles are necessary for a stronger MJO-like mode. In contrast to many other aquaplanet studies, a significant finding is the existence of westward propagating 30-120 day Rossby waves with zonal wavenumber 1 to 3, and meridional wavenumber 1, 3 and 5. However, in all the aquaplanet simulations, the MJO variance occurs at zonal wavenumber one. To understand the role of land-sea distribution on zonal wavenumber of MJO, we perform a third set of experiments by introducing continents with realistic orography in the model. These experiments show a much more realistic MJO-like mode with higher zonal wavenumber, in the presence of broad meridional SST profiles. Moreover, the variance of westward propagating low frequency Rossby waves is considerably enhanced in the presence of continents.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1377 Section 862.1377 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1377...

  16. Identification of Urinary Peptide Biomarkers Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Iain B.; Husi, Holger; Klein, Julie; Dakna, Mohammed; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception cohort study with 30 healthy controls and identified 292 potential rheumatoid arthritis-specific peptides. Amongst them, 39 were used to create a classifier model using support vector machine algorithms. Specific peptidic fragments were differentially excreted between groups; fragments of protein S100-A9 and gelsolin were less abundant in rheumatoid arthritis while fragments of uromodulin, complement C3 and fibrinogen were all increasingly excreted. The model generated was subsequently tested in an independent test-set of 31 samples. The classifier demonstrated a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93% in diagnosing the condition, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93 (p<0.0001). These preliminary results suggest that urinary biomarkers could be useful in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are currently being undertaken in larger cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other athridities to assess the potential of the urinary peptide based classifier in the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25144639

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Autism and urinary exogenous neuropeptides: development

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Autism and urinary exogenous neuropeptides: development of an on-line SPE, and deltorphin 2 in urine. The method is based on on-line SPE extraction of the neuropeptides from urine, column for the occur- rence of neuropeptides. The target neuropeptides were not detected above the detection limit

  18. 21 CFR 862.1377 - Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary homocystine (nonquantitative) test system. 862.1377 Section 862.1377 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. Host-pathogen interactions in urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nielubowicz, Greta R; Mobley, Harry L T

    2010-08-01

    The urinary tract is a common site of bacterial infections; nearly half of all women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. These infections are classified based on the condition of the host. Uncomplicated infections affect otherwise healthy individuals and are most commonly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, whereas complicated infections affect patients with underlying difficulties, such as a urinary tract abnormality or catheterization, and are commonly caused by species such as Proteus mirabilis. Virulence and fitness factors produced by both pathogens include fimbriae, toxins, flagella, iron acquisition systems, and proteins that function in immune evasion. Additional factors that contribute to infection include the formation of intracellular bacterial communities by E. coli and the production of urease by P. mirabilis, which can result in urinary stone formation. Innate immune responses are induced or mediated by pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and neutrophils. The adaptive immune response to UTI is less well understood. Host factors TLR4 and CXCR1 are implicated in disease outcome and susceptibility, respectively. Low levels of TLR4 are associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria while low levels of CXCR1 are associated with increased incidence of acute pyelonephritis. Current research is focused on the identification of additional virulence factors and therapeutic or prophylactic targets that might be used in the generation of vaccines against both uropathogens. PMID:20647992

  20. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...