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1

[Continent urinary diversion and calculus].  

PubMed

The continent urinary diversion is the technique usually used to replace the urinary bladder after total cystectomy The formation of calculi in the pouch is a frequent late complication. We have treated successfully with extra corporeal wave shock lithotripsy (ESWL) two patients who have developed calculi in their pouch two years after realisation of an ileal urinary diversion (Indiana pouch). E.S.W.L. is a good and non invasive technique to cure those calculi with no danger for the continence of the pouch. PMID:9497595

Claus, C; Jorion, J I; Libon, E

1997-12-01

2

Achieving urinary continence in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2–3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a

Hsi-Yang Wu

2010-01-01

3

Continent Urinary Diversion: The Children's Hospital Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeContinent urinary diversion has become increasingly important for treating childhood urinary tract pathology that cannot be managed by direct reconstructive techniques. We review our 9-year experience with continent diversion.

Martin Kaefer; Matthew S. Tobin; W. Hardy Hendren; Stuart B. Bauer; Craig A. Peters; Anthony Atala; Arnold H. Colodny; James Mandell; Alan B. Retik

1997-01-01

4

[Catheterizable continence mechanisms for various urinary diversion reservoirs: serosa lined and tapered ileum].  

PubMed

In a retrospective multicenter study of four clinics perioperative complications as well as incontinence and stoma stenosis of serosa-lined tapered ileum as catheterizable continence mechanisms for different urinary diversions were analyzed. Between 2008 and 2012 a total of 40 patients received a continent catheterizablestoma, 15 (37.5%) in combination with continent vesicostomy and closure of the bladder neck due to postoperative incontinence and recurrent stenosis including radical prostatectomy, transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate, bladder neck incision (n=11), neurogenic bladder with reduced capacity and incontinence (n=2), interstitial cystitis (n=1) and recurrent urethral tumor following ileal neobladder (n=1). Of the patients 25 (62.5%) received this continence mechanism in combination with a modified Mainz pouch I, in 19 patients as primary and in 6 patients as secondary efferent segment for trouble shooting. The complications were subdivided according the Clavien classification. In 29 patients information concerning continence and stenosis were obtained, the median follow-up was 25 months (range 1-111 months). In patients with continent vesicostomy (n=11) the incontinence rate was 9.1% (1/11) and the stenosis rate 18.2% (2/11). In 18 patients with an ileocecal pouch, incontinence and stenosis rates were 0% and 11.1% (2/18), respectively. The presented technique is a safe continence mechanism for various catheterizable continent urinary diversions for both primary and secondary indications. PMID:22772493

Anheuser, P; Kranz, J; Rausch, S; Fechner, G; Müller, S C; Braun, M; Steffens, J; Kälble, T

2012-07-01

5

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver...

2010-04-01

6

21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 876.5270 Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver...

2009-04-01

7

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by the application of...

2010-04-01

8

21 CFR 876.5280 - Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5280 Implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted mechanical/hydraulic urinary continence device is a device used to treat urinary incontinence by the application of...

2009-04-01

9

Continent Urinary Diversions in the Exstrophy Complex: Why do they Fail?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeUrinary continence is one of the primary goals in the surgical treatment of the patient with exstrophy. Children with inadequate bladder capacity, noncompliant or neuropathic bladder, or failed bladder neck reconstruction may require creation of a continent urinary reservoir to achieve continence. While initial success rates are excellent, some patients suffer persistent urinary incontinence, severely affecting their quality of life.

DOMINIC FRIMBERGER; YEGAPPAN LAKSHMANAN; JOHN P. GEARHART

2003-01-01

10

Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes

Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

2002-01-01

11

Conversion of an incontinent urinary conduit to a continent urinary reservoir (Miami Pouch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. External urinary or gastrointestinal appliances can impair a patient's quality of life. We report on the feasibility of converting an incontinent colonic urinary diversion to a continent urinary reservoir (Miami Pouch).Case. We describe the case of a 66-year-old white female with a history of stage Ib2 cervical cancer treated by radical abdominal hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy. The patient

Victor Benezra; Nicholas C. Lambrou; Emery M. Salom; Manuel A. Penalver

2004-01-01

12

Evaluation and Management of Parastomal Hernia in Association with Continent Urinary Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe discuss the incidence and diagnosis of parastomal hernias in association with continent urinary reservoirs. We also present a surgical technique appropriate for correction of this complication.

Mohamed Helal; Paul Austin; Evangelos Spyropoulos; Julio Pow-Sang; Lester Persky; Jorge Lockhart

1997-01-01

13

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir: Clinical results in 12 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary diversion via a continent ileal reservoir has been performed in 12 patients. An isolated ileal reservoir was constructed using the technique described for patients with a continent ileostomy. The ureters were implanted into an afferent segment provided with a reflux-preventing nipple valve. There were few operative complications and no operative mortality. Late complications involving malfunction of the nipple valves

N. G. Kock; A. E. Nilson; L. O. Nilsson; L. J. Norlén; B. M. Philipson

2002-01-01

14

A novel technique for endoscopic management of stones in a continent urinary reservoir.  

PubMed

Urinary stones are a well-established complication of lower urinary tract reconstruction in children and can be managed through an open, percutaneous, or transurethral endoscopic approach for their surgical removal. For children with no urethral access, it is not generally advised to pursue an endoscopic approach through a catheterizable channel. In this study, we describe a safe and effective technique for the endoscopic management of stones through a catheterizable channel in a child with a continent urinary reservoir. PMID:24726150

Vasudevan, Vinaya; Strine, Andrew C; Kaefer, Martin

2014-06-01

15

Evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary loss of urine that can influence the quality of life, personal hygiene and social interaction. The types of UI that most affect women are stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence. There are several risk factors that result in specific treatments. We aimed to investigate the evolution of female urinary continence after physical therapy intervention and its associated factors. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 71 participants who were discharged from physiotherapy sector from August 2006 to April 2012 and met the inclusion criteria. Results Among the studied variables, the number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant association. The urinary continence appeared in 43.7% of the cases, and factors, performance of home exercises, and number of sessions showed a significant association. Conclusion The number of sessions and completion of home pelvic floor exercises showed a significant relationship with each other.

2014-01-01

16

Efficacy of Polydimethylsiloxane Injection to the Bladder Neck and Leaking Diverting Stoma for Urinary Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAchieving urinary continence is a major goal in the treatment of patients with bladder exstrophy\\/epispadias, spinal dysraphism and other urological disorders. Endoscopic injection of bulking materials is an evolving, minimally invasive procedure that provides an attractive alternative to open bladder surgery to increase outlet resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of bladder outlet (bladder neck and diverting stoma) polydimethylsiloxane injection (BOMI)

SAREL HALACHMI; WALID FARHAT; PETER METCALFE; DARIUS J. BAGLI; GORDON A. McLORIE; ANTOINE E. KHOURY

2004-01-01

17

Postoperative outcomes after continent versus incontinent urinary diversion at the time of pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare outcomes of patients undergoing continent or incontinent urinary diversion after pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies. Methods Data on patients who underwent pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancies at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1993 and December 2010 were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was used and statistical significance was P < 0.05. Results A total of 133 patients were included in this study. The mean age at exenteration was 47.6 (range, 30–73) years in the continent urinary diversion group and 57.2 (range, 27–86) years in the incontinent urinary diversion group (P < 0.0001). Forty-six patients (34.6%) had continent urinary diversion, and 87 patients (65.4%) had incontinent urinary diversion. The rates of postoperative complications in patients with continent and incontinent urinary diversion, respectively, were as follows: pyelonephritis, 32.6% versus 37.9% (P = 0.58); urinary stone formation, 34.8% versus 2.3% (P < 0.001); renal insufficiency, 4.4% versus 14.9% (P = 0.09); urostomy stricture, 13.0% versus 1.2% (P = 0.007); ureteral (anastomotic) leak, 4.4% versus 6.9% (P = 0.71); ureteral (anastomotic) stricture, 13.0% versus 23% (P = 0.25); fistula formation, 21.7% versus 19.5% (P = 0.82); and reoperation because of complications of urinary diversion, 6.5% versus 2.3% (P = 0.34). Among patients with continent urinary diversion, the incidence of incontinence was 28.3%, and 15.2% had difficulty with self-catheterization. Conclusion There were no differences in postoperative complications between patients with continent and incontinent conduits except that stone formation was more common in patients with continent conduits.

Urh, Anze; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Westin, Shannon; Frumovitz, Michael; Nick, Alpa M.; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana L.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

2014-01-01

18

Early biochemical recurrence, urinary continence and potency outcomes following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to describe recovery of urinary continence and potency and report oncological and functional outcomes using the survival, continence and potency (SCP) system for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Material and methods. From 2009 to 2012, 232 patients underwent RARP. Self-reported continence, erection sufficient for intercourse (ESI) and scores on the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) were registered by questionnaire and physician's interview preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-up, and subsequently on a yearly basis. Continence was defined as 0 pads, and potency as ESI or IIEF-5 greater than 17 with or without the aid of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Oncological success was defined as absence of biochemical failure (BF) [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ?0.2 ng/ml]. The SCP system was used to evaluate combined oncological and functional outcomes. Results. In total, 184 patients were followed for more than 1 year. The 12 month BF-free survival rate was 97.7%. Median time to regain continence was 6.2 months; 12 months postoperatively 79.9% used 0 pads/day. Of patients with preoperative ESI, 77.6% (67.9-86.1) and 34.4% (24.1-47.5) maintained ESI 12 months postoperatively after bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (NS), respectively. NS (p < 0.0001), increasing prostate volume (p = 0.014) and lower age (p < 0.0001) were positively associated with recovery of potency. Using the SCP system and defining potency as ESI, functional and oncological success 12 months after surgery was achieved in 69 out of 135 (51.1%) preoperative continent and potent patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral NS, and did not require adjuvant treatment; when defining potency as IIEF greater than 17, this figure was 45 out of 108 (41.7%). As expected, the proportions were significantly higher for bilateral than for unilateral NS (p ? 0.0014). Conclusion. RARP provides good early BF-free survival, continence and potency recovery rates for patients eligible for NS. PMID:24579803

Berg, Kasper Drimer; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Hvarness, Helle; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Iversen, Peter

2014-08-01

19

Five Year Continence Rates, Satisfaction and Adverse Events of Burch Urethropexy and Fascial Sling Surgery for Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize continence, satisfaction, and adverse events in women at least 5 years after a Burch urethropexy or fascial sling with longitudinal follow-up of randomized clinical trial participants at least 5 years post-operatively. Methods 482 (73.6520 (79.4%) of 655 women participated in a randomized surgical trial comparing efficacy of the Burch and sling treatments enrolled in this long-term observational study. Urinary continence status was assessed yearly for a minimum of five years postoperatively. Continence was defined as no urinary leakage on a three-day voiding diary and no self-reported stress incontinence symptoms AND no stress incontinence surgical retreatment. Results Incontinent participants were more likely to enroll in the follow-up study than continent patients (85.5% vs. 52.2%), regardless of surgical group (p <0.0001). Overall the continence rates were lower in the Burch urethropexy group than in the fascial sling group (p=0.002). The continence rates at five years were 24.1% (95% CI 18.5% to 29.7%) compared to 30.8% (24.7% to 36.9%), respectively. Satisfaction at 5 years was related to continence status and higher in women undergoing a sling (83% vs. 73%, p=0.04). Satisfaction declined over time (P=0.001) and remained higher in the sling group (p=0.03). The two groups had similar adverse event rates (10% Burch vs.9 % sling) and similar numbers of participants with adverse events (23 Burch vs. 22 sling). Conclusions Continence rates in both groups declined substantially over five years, yet most women reported satisfaction with their continence status. Satisfaction was higher in continent women and those who underwent fascial sling, despite the voiding dysfunction associated with this procedure.

Brubaker, L; Richter, H. E.; Norton, P. A.; Albo, M.; Zyczynski, H. M.; Chai, T. C.; Zimmern, P.; Kraus, S.; Sirls, L.; Kusek, J. W.; Stoddard, A.; Tennstedt, S.; Gormley, E. Ann

2013-01-01

20

The importance of catheter size in the achievement of urinary continence in patients undergoing a Young-Dees-Leadbetter procedure.  

PubMed

During the last 8 years 49 patients have undergone urinary tract reconstruction at our institution to manage urinary incontinence. Of these patients 25 underwent a Young-Dees-Leadbetter procedure, of whom 13 boys and 6 girls were available for followup. Average patient age was 12.2 years and mean followup is 30.2 months. Augmentation cystoplasty was required in 14 cases. All 12 patients (100%) undergoing tubularization over an 8F catheter attained diurnal continence, and 92% are completely continent day and night. Furthermore, the 6 patients in whom augment capacities attained were less than the expected volume for age were also completely continent when tubularization was performed over an 8F catheter. We conclude that creation of a narrow (8F) Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck tubularization leads to an increased likelihood of diurnal and nocturnal continence but precludes spontaneous unaided voiding to completion. Furthermore, achievement of urinary continence appears to be less dependent on bladder capacity when it is coupled with a narrow Young-Dees-Leadbetter tubularization. PMID:8022001

Franco, I; Kolligian, M; Reda, E F; Levitt, S B

1994-08-01

21

Impact of Sacral Surface Therapeutic Electrical Stimulation on Early Recovery of Urinary Continence after Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate whether sacral surface therapeutic electrical stimulation (SSTES) initiated during the early postoperative period would be effective towards early recovery of postprostatectomy urinary continence. Methods. A total of 35 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon were enrolled in this study. Twenty early patients began pelvic floor muscle exercise (PME). Fifteen subsequent patients received SSTES postoperatively with no instruction for PME provided. Immediate urinary function just after catheter removal was evaluated with frequency-volume chart and 24-hour pad test. Results. There were no differences between the SSTES and PME groups in maximum voided volume capacity (MVV) and urine loss ratio (ULR) on the first day after removal of urethral catheter. However, on day 3 MVV was significantly larger and ULR was also significantly lower in the SSTES group. Conclusions. SSTES treatment is feasible and appears to be effective for early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

Nakagawa, Haruo; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Namiki, Shunichi; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Saito, Seiichi; Arai, Yoichi

2010-01-01

22

Interventions led by nurse continence advisers in the management of urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The short-term efficacy of combined lifestyle and behavioural interventions led by nurses in the management of urinary incontinence has not been rigorously evaluated by randomized controlled trial. We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled trial to determine whether a model of service delivery that included lifestyle and behavioural interventions led by “nurse continence advisers” in collaboration with a physician with expertise in continence management could reduce urinary incontinence and pad use in an outpatient population. We also aimed to evaluate the impact of this approach on subjects' knowledge about incontinence and their quality of life. Methods We used advertising in the mainstream media, newsletters to family physicians and community information sessions in 1991 to invite volunteers who were 26 years of age or older and suffered from incontinence to participate in a randomized controlled trial. Men and women who met the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to receive either counselling from specialized nurses to manage incontinence using behavioural and lifestyle modification sessions every 4 weeks for 25 weeks or usual care. Symptoms of incontinence and the use of incontinence pads were the primary outcome measures. Results Using sealed envelopes, 421 patients were randomly allocated to the treatment or control groups. On average, patients in the treatment group experienced 2.1 “incontinent events” per 24 hours before treatment and 1.0 incontinent event per 24 hours at the end of the study. Control patients had an average of 2.4 incontinent events per 24 hours before the study and 2.2 incontinent events per 24 hours at the end of the study. The mean decrease in events in the treatment group was 1.2 and in the control group 0.2 (p = 0.001). Pad use declined from a mean of 2.2 per 24 hours before randomization in the treatment group to 1.2 per 24 hours at the end of the study, compared with 2.6 pads per 24 hours in the control group at the start of the study and 2.4 per 24 hours at the end. Pad use per 24 hours decreased on average by 0.9 pads in the treatment group and 0.1 in the control group (p = 0.021). Interpretation Behavioural and lifestyle counselling provided by specialized nurses with training in managing incontinence reduces incontinent events and incontinence pad use.

Borrie, Michael J.; Bawden, Mary; Speechley, Mark; Kloseck, Marita

2002-01-01

23

Two kinds of urinary continence reflexes during abrupt elevation of intravesical pressure in rats.  

PubMed

Urethral closure mechanisms during abrupt elevation of intravesical pressure (P(ves)) were investigated. During sneezing, the middle urethral closing response was observed and it still remained after opening the abdomen. The middle urethral response was almost completely abolished after bilateral transection of somatic nerves innervating the external urethral sphincter and the pelvic floor muscles, while bilateral transection of both pelvic nerves and hypogastric nerves had no effects. Somatic nerve transection resulted in fluid leakage from the urethral orifice during sneezing. Passive increments of P(ves) for 120 seconds by elevating a saline reservoir connected to the bladder also induced the middle urethral closing response in rats with spinal cord transection at T8-T9. The response was totally abolished by cutting pelvic nerves bilaterally, and partially reduced after bilateral transection of pudendal nerves, nerves to pelvic floor muscles or hypogastric nerves. Electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles (ESAM) for 1 second elevated P(ves) in a stimulus-dependent manner in the spinal cord-transected rats, and the P(ves) rise was almost lost when the abdomen was opened. The P(ves) inducing fluid leakage from the urethral orifice was lowered in rats when pelvic nerves or somatic nerves were cut bilaterally, while transection of bilateral hypogastric nerves showed smaller effects. These results indicate that at least two kinds of urinary continence reflexes close the middle urethra during abrupt elevation of P(ves); one reflex observed during sneeze is preprogrammed so as to close the urethra automatically irrespective of bladder afferent activity, and the other reflex is triggered by bladder afferent excitation. During momentary stress events such as sneezing (<0.15 seconds) and ESAM (1 second), the striated muscles mainly contribute to the urethral closure, while during events for a relatively long period like passive P(ves) elevation for 120 seconds, both striated and smooth muscles are involved in the prevention of stress urinary incontinence. PMID:21151773

Kamo, Izumi; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Miyazato, Minoru; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Yoshimura, Naoki

2009-09-01

24

Urethral compensatory mechanisms to maintain urinary continence after pudendal nerve injury in female rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis To investigate the urethral compensatory mechanisms to maintain urinary continence after pudendal nerve injury. Methods In naive, acute pudendal nerve transection (PNT) and 4 weeks after PNT (PNT-4w) female rats, leak point pressures (LPPs) during bladder compression were measured before and after the application of hexamethonium (C6), propranolol and N?nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or terazosin and atropine. Responses to carbachol and phenylephrine of proximal and middle urethral muscle strips from naive and PNT-4w rats were also examined. Results LPPs were significantly decreased in PNT rats but not in PNT-4w rats. LPPs in PNT rats were significantly increased by C6 or L-NAME while LPPs in PNT-4w rats were significantly decreased by C6, or terazosin and atropine. Excitatory responses to carbachol and phenylephrine in the proximal urethral muscle were significantly larger in PNT-4w rats. Conclusions These results suggest that ?1-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor-mediated contractility is upregulated in the proximal urethra 4 weeks after PNT.

Furuta, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Asano, Koji; de Groat, William C.; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

2011-01-01

25

Gritty sensation on catheter: A new clinical sign for self-diagnosis of stone formation in the continent urinary pouch  

PubMed Central

With more experience and better management, the incidence of complications like stone formation after continent urinary diversion is uncommon today. We report a case of large stone bulk in a patient who underwent this surgery 10 years back and who suggested the formation of stones in the pouch herself by sounding them. Proper counseling, regular pouch irrigation and follow-up are essential in any kind of diversion.

Goel, Apul; Goel, Anuj; Dalela, Diwakar; Sankhwar, S. N.

2010-01-01

26

Which placement of the tension-free vaginal tape is more important for urinary continence: midurethral position or bladder neck? Consideration from a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is a well-established surgical procedure for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence.\\u000a Midurethral position was thought not to be necessary to achieve continence. But in our study, a patient with stress urinary\\u000a incontinence was treated with a TVT suburethral sling. The symptoms of stress urinary incontinence still exist after the TVT\\u000a procedure. With physical

Fengmei Wang; Yanfeng Song; Huijuan Huang

2009-01-01

27

Neuroanatomy of the External Urethral Sphincter: Implications for Urinary Continence Preservation During Radical Prostate Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence probably is multifactorial and sphincteric nerve injury could be a contributing cause. Controversy still exists regarding the innervation of the external sphincter, and currently pudendal nerve injury is not believed to be an etiological factor in post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. To understand better the sphincter and its innervation, we undertook an anatomical and histological study of 18 adult

Perinchery Narayan; Badrinath Konety; Khalid Aslam; Sherif Aboseif; Walter Blumenfeld; Emil. Tanagho

1995-01-01

28

Urinary Continence Following Repair of Intermediate and High Urogenital Sinus (UGS) in CAH. Experience with 55 Cases  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate postoperative urinary continence in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with intermediate (IT) and high urogenital sinus (UGS) who underwent a UGS mobilization maneuver. Methods: We called IT to those that although needing an aggressive dissection to get to the vagina, still have enough urethra proximal to the vaginal confluence. Very low variants are excluded from this analysis. Dissection always started in the posterior wall of the UGS with an aggressive separation from the anterior rectal wall. If the wide portion of the vagina was reached dissection stopped and the UGS opened ventrally widening to the introitus. Nineteen patients were treated using this maneuver (Group 1). When more dissection was required the anterior wall of the UGS was dissected and carefully freed from the low retropubic space. Then the UGS was opened either ventrally or dorsally. Thirty three patients required this approach (Group 2). Combined procedures were used in three patients with high UGS (Group 3). Results: Mean age at the time of the repair and length of the UGS were 12.2?years (4?months–18?years) and 3.75?cm (3–8?cm) for G1; 8?years (5?months–17?years) and 6.34?cm (4–12?cm) in G2 and 8.3?years (2–14?years) and 11.5?cm (11–12?cm) in G3. All patients had been regularly followed. Mean age at last follow up was 14.3, 17, and 9.9?years for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All patients continue to void normally and are continent. All patients have two separate visible orifices in the vulva. Only three are sexually active. Conclusion: Urogenital sinus mobilization for vaginoplasty in girls with CAH does not compromise voiding function or urinary continence.

Bailez, Maria Marcela; Cuenca, Estela Susana; Dibenedetto, Victor

2014-01-01

29

Bladder augmentation and continent urinary diversion in boys with posterior urethral valves  

PubMed Central

Posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a condition that leads to characteristic changes in the bladder and upper urinary tract. Dysfunction of the bladder such as a hyperreflective, hypertonic, and small capacity bladder as well as sphincter incompetence and/or myogenic failure should be adequately treated. Poor compliance/small bladder could be treated with anticholinergics, but bladder augmentation will probably be indicated. Although bladder reconstruction with gastrointestinal segments can be associated with multiple complications, including metabolic disorders, calculus formation, mucus production, enteric fistulas, and malignancy formation, enterocystoplasty is still the gold standard. In contrast to a neuropathic or exstrophic bladder, augmentation of the valve bladder allows spontaneous voiding without significant residual urine in the majority of cases, but some require CIC (clean intermittent cathterization). Augmentation cystoplasty is also an efficient approach in those children who will require kidney transplantation in the future.

2011-01-01

30

Complications, Urinary Continence, and Oncologic Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Single-Surgeon Experience for the First 100 Cases  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate initial learning curves of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with regard to complications, urinary continence, and oncologic outcome. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. All 100 patients underwent LRP performed by the same urologist at one institution. Results: Mean operating time (208.4 ± 48.6?min), estimated blood loss (495.8 ± 436.5?mL), allogeneic blood transfusion rate (0%), and intraoperative complications diminished with surgical experience. Positive margin rate varied greatly among pathological stage (positive margin rates: pT2 = 20.5%; pT3 = 63.0%). A trend towards reduction of positive surgical margins in pT2 cases was apparent with increasing experience. Intraoperative and early complications occurred in 2.0% of patients. In all patients, 85.9% used none or no more than one pad per 24?h at 6 months postoperatively. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence was seen in only 2 patients. Conclusions. In the present series of 100 patients, our retrospective evaluation confirms that LRP provides satisfactory results.

Imamoto, Takashi; Goto, Yusuke; Utsumi, Takanobu; Fuse, Miki; Kawamura, Koji; Kamiya, Naoto; Naya, Yukio; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kondo, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

2011-01-01

31

[A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].  

PubMed

The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the sphincteric area and slackening of the levator ani muscles, alone or in association, explain why urethral closure pressure drops. Sometimes this drop is followed by an increase in bladder pressure. PMID:3330102

Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

1987-01-01

32

Ileocecal Valve Lipoma With Refractory Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, with the colon being the most prevalent site. Intestinal lipomas are usually asymptomatic. Tumors >2 cm in diameter may occasionally cause nonspecific symptoms, including change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or rectal bleeding, but with resection the prognosis is excellent. Herein, we describe the case of an elderly male who presented with painless hematochezia. Methods: Both colonoscopy and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed the presence of a mass near the ileocecal valve. Because of continuing bleeding, the patient required laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy to resect the mass. Results: Both gross and microscopic pathology were consistent with lipoma at the ileocecal valve. Conclusion: Previous cases of ileocecal valve lipomas have been reported in the English literature, with the majority presenting as intussusception or volvulus. We present a rare case of an ulcerated ileocecal valve lipoma presenting as lower gastrointestinal bleeding that was treated successfully with laparoscopic resection.

Dultz, Linda A.; Ullery, Brant W.; Sun, Huan Huan; Huston, Tara L.; Eachempati, Soumitra R.; Barie, Philip S.

2009-01-01

33

Enteroenteroanastomosis near adjacent ileocecal valve in infants  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve, which can retain the ileocecal valve in infants. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 48 patients who underwent ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve (group 1) and 34 patients who underwent ileocecal resections and ileotransversanastomosis (group 2). Patients were monitored for the time to flatus, resumption of eating, length of hospital stay after surgery, serum total bile acid, vitamin B12 and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The time to flatus, time until resumption of eating and post-operative length of hospital stay showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Serum total bile acid and vitamin B12 were not significantly different between the two groups at post-operative day 1 and day 3, but were significantly decreased at 1 wk after operation in group 2. None of the patients died or suffered from stomal leak in these two groups. However, the incidence of diarrhea, intestinal infection, disturbance of acid-base balance and water-electrolytes in group 1 was lower than in group 2. CONCLUSION: Ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve is safe and results in fewer complications than ileotransversanastomosis in infants.

Jiang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Qun; Geng, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Huan; Lv, Xiao-Feng; Lu, Chang-Gui; Tang, Wei-Bing

2012-01-01

34

Ileocecal valve imaging on computed tomographic colonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aim of our study was to describe the visualization, normal anatomy, and variations of the ileocecal valve with computed tomographic (CT) colonography to provide information about its optimal imaging. Methods We analyzed data in two- and three-dimensional rendering mode in 71 consecutive patients who underwent routine CT colonoscopy followed by conventional colonoscopy for confirmation of the radiologic findings.

D. Regge; T. M. Gallo; G. Nieddu; G. Galatola; M. Fracchia; E. Neri; P. Vagli; C. Bartolozzi

2005-01-01

35

Continent gastric pouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1985 and June 1995 a total of 12 patients (9 female, 3 male) underwent total reconstruction of the lower urinary tract using gastric tissue. Their mean age was 10 years (range, 5–25 years). Total gastric bladder substitution was performed in seven patients, whereas five other patients had composite continent reservoirs (stomach plus bowel) created. The diagnoses were cloacal

M. C. Carr; M. E. Mitchell

1996-01-01

36

Effect of intermittent urethral catheterization and oxybutynin bladder instillation on urinary continence status and quality of life in a selected group of spinal cord injury patients with neuropathic bladder dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A comparative assessment of (i) urinary continence status, (ii) quality of life, and (iii) sexuality in spinal cord injury patients prior to, and during intermittent catheterization with adjunctive intravesical oxybutynin therapy (Cystin: manufactured by Leiras Oy, Helsinki, Finland).Setting: A hospital, and community-based study of selected adult, male, spinal cord injury patients registered with the Regional Spinal Injuries Centre, Southport.Patients:

S Vaidyananthan; B M Soni; E Brown; P Sett; K R Krishnan; J Bingley; S Markey; S Vaidyanathan

1998-01-01

37

Continents - Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second graders will learn about the seven continents and animals that live in those environments. I have a dream speech Eggleston, Va Welcome to the largest continent, Asia! First, let's see the map of Asia! You will click on this site. Next, while on this site you can answer questions on the worksheet. Then you finish the questions. Finally,close the website by closing the red x in the right hand ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-03-26

38

Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that we can measure the motion of the Earth's continental plates by using sensitive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers from space. If we follow that motion backwards in time, we can predict where the plates came from. The fact that the Eastern "corner" of South America appears to fit exactly into the "corner" of Africa led Alfred Wegener to suggest that the continents drifted. Mineral deposits which are very similar at corresponding places on the two continents lend credence to that view. In this exercise students take a map of the Earth as it might have looked 94 million years ago and measure the average speed of separation of these two continents over time to find out how fast the plates are moving.

39

Ileocecal Intussusception due to a Lipoma in an Adult  

PubMed Central

While intestinal tumors are rare, small intestinal lipomas are even more uncommon benign neoplasms. They are usually asymptomatic, but lipomas larger than 2?cm may become symptomatic due to obstruction, bleeding, or intussusception. In this paper, US and CT findings of a lipoma located in the terminal ileum and causing ileocecal intussusception were discussed. We report a case of small bowel lipoma that became symptomatic due to intermittent obstruction episodes and ileocecal intussuception. If the diagnosis of intestinal lipoma had been made absolutely as in our case, they should be removed surgically in elective conditions.

Bilgin, Mehmet; Toprak, Huseyin; Ahmad, Issam Cheikh; Yardimci, Erkan; Kocakoc, Ercan

2012-01-01

40

Laparoscopy-assisted excision of ileocecal dermoid cyst in an 11-year-old boy.  

PubMed

The ileocecal region is an extremely rare location for a dermoid cyst (DC) in children, and as such, it is not considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the ileocecal region. Herein, the authors present the first childhood case of ileocecal DC, which was treated with laparoscopy-assisted excision. DC should be included in the differential diagnosis for a cystic mass located in the ileocecal region in children. PMID:24382543

K?rl?, Elif Alt?nay; Orhan, Diclehan; O?uz, Berna; Halilo?lu, Mithat; Tanyel, F Cahit; Karnak, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

41

The effects of involving a nurse practitioner in primary care for adult patients with urinary incontinence: The PromoCon study (Promoting Continence)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence affects approximately 5% (800.000) of the Dutch population. Guidelines recommend pelvic floor muscle\\/bladder training for most patients. Unfortunately, general practitioners use this training only incidentally, but prescribe incontinence pads. Over 50% of patients get such pads, costing €160 million each year. Due to ageing of the population a further increase of expenses is expected. Several national reports

Pytha Albers-Heitner; Bary Berghmans; Manuela Joore; Toine Lagro-Janssen; Johan Severens; Fred Nieman; R. A. G. Winkens

2008-01-01

42

Massive stone burden in an ileocecal pouch: A preventable condition?  

PubMed Central

The challenges of transition from the pediatric to the adult setting have been reported. We describe a case of massive stone burden in the ileocecal pouch of a patient lost to follow-up after his transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. Although we successfully managed the patient and retrieved the pouch stones without any complications, several surgical complications may occur in a patient with a history of extensive abdominal surgery and bladder exstrophy. This patient’s late complication might have been prevented with a more efficient transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution.

Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Barrieras, Diego; McCormack, Michael

2014-01-01

43

Massive stone burden in an ileocecal pouch: A preventable condition?  

PubMed

The challenges of transition from the pediatric to the adult setting have been reported. We describe a case of massive stone burden in the ileocecal pouch of a patient lost to follow-up after his transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. Although we successfully managed the patient and retrieved the pouch stones without any complications, several surgical complications may occur in a patient with a history of extensive abdominal surgery and bladder exstrophy. This patient's late complication might have been prevented with a more efficient transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. PMID:24940465

Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Barrieras, Diego; McCormack, Michael

2014-05-01

44

Bladder Exstrophy: Evaluation of Factors Leading to Continence With Spontaneous Voiding After Staged Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe performed a long-term retrospective review of patients with bladder exstrophy to evaluate the results of staged surgical reconstruction in regard to urinary continence, spontaneous voiding and preservation of the upper urinary tract.

H. B. Lottmann; Y. Melin; M. Cendron; P. Lombrail; P. Beze-Beyrie; J. Cendron

1997-01-01

45

Continence and Quality-of-Life Outcomes 6 Months Following an Intensive Pelvic-Floor Muscle Exercise Program for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Trial Comparing Low- and High-Frequency Maintenance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) exercises to reduce female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) over the long term. This study: (1) evaluated continence and quality-of-life outcomes of women 6 months following formalized therapy and (2) determined whether low- and high-frequency maintenance exercise programs were equivalent in sustaining outcomes. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six women with SUI who completed an intensive PFM exercise intervention trial were randomly assigned to perform a maintenance exercise program either 1 or 4 times per week. Urine leaks per week, volume of urine loss, quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire [IIQ] score), PFM strength (Brink score), and prevalence of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) were measured at a 6-month follow-up for comparison with postintervention status. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used to determine differences in outcome status over time and between exercise frequency groups. Results: Twenty-eight women provided follow-up data. Postintervention status was sustained at 6 months for all outcomes (mean [SD] urine leaks per week=1.2±2.1 versus 1.4±3.1; mean [SD] urine loss=0.2±0.5 g versus 0.2±0.8 g; mean [SD] IIQ score=17±20 versus 22±30; mean [SD] Brink score=11±1 versus 11±1; and prevalence of USI=48% versus 35%). Women assigned to perform exercises once or 4 times per week similarly sustained their postintervention status. Discussion and Conclusions: Benefits of an initial intensive intervention program for SUI were sustained over 6 months. However, only 15 of the 28 women provided documentation of their exercise adherence, limiting conclusions regarding the need for continued PFM exercise during follow-up intervals of ?6 months.

Borello-France, Diane F; Downey, Patricia A; Zyczynski, Halina M; Rause, Christine R

2008-01-01

46

Laparoscopic-assisted continent stoma procedures: our new standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To compare standard surgery to laparoscopic-assisted surgery for the creation of continent stomas. Creation of an antegrade continent enema (ACE) and\\/or continent urinary (CU) stoma using the appendix may require a generous midline incision. A laparoscopic-assisted technique to reduce morbidity and improve cosmesis has been described for urologic reconstruction.Methods. Between February 1996 and November 1998, 11 laparoscopic-assisted ACE and\\/or

Jeffrey A Cadeddu; Steven G Docimo

1999-01-01

47

Contractile activity of gastroduodenal and ileocecal zones during stress in rabbits.  

PubMed

Chronic experiments on rabbits showed that stress modeled by immobilization in the supine position induced different motor reactions in the gastroduodenal and ileocecal zones. Stress inhibited contractile activity in the stomach antrum, distal ileum, ileocecal valve area, and proximal colon and stimulated it in the duodenum. In the pyloric portion of the stomach both the inhibitory and potentiating effects of stress were observed. PMID:11713549

Berezina, T P; Ovsyannikov, V I

2001-08-01

48

Occurrence of jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions in a thoroughbred stallion  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old, 600.4 kg stallion horse of German thoroughbred breed was presented at the Tehran University Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, Iran, with a history of weakness of 2–3 days duration. The stallion died of unknown cause on the previous day. Abnormal findings during physical examination included an estimated dehydration of 3% to 5%, dark red oral mucous membranes, elevated heart and respiratory rates, stiffened feces, and absence of intestinal motility on auscultation. Postmortem examination indicated the presence of a jejunojejunal and ileocecal intussusceptions, 46 cm in length; a torsion of jejunum proximal to the intussusceptions was also noted. An ulcerative lesion, 6 cm in diameter, was found on the mucosa of duodenum. Large amounts of sand, coat hair, and hay mantling in bloody discharge were observed in a colonic impaction. It was an acute case that was evident by the involvement of intussusception and ulceration, indicating desquamation of the necrotic epithelial cells with edema and distinct infiltration of neutrophils. Histopathological examination confirmed that the ileum was the intussiscipiens to the jejunum that subsequently passed through into the caecum, and the mesentery probably tore as a result of the intussusception.

Sasani, Farhang; Javanbakht, Javad; Alidadi, Naser; Khaligh, Sahar Ghaffari; Hosseini, Ehsan

2013-01-01

49

Growing Continents Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Watch this animation showing the growth of a continent to help you understand plate tectonics better. Continents can grow by accumulating crustal material along their edges at convergent boundaries. In the animation, a terrane carried by a subducting plate is fused to the edge of a continent. The attachment of terranes such as this contributed to continental growth along the west coast of North America.

2010-01-01

50

Sympathetic innervation of the ileocecal junction in horses.  

PubMed

The distribution and chemical phenotypes of sympathetic and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the equine ileocecal junction (ICJ) were studied by combining retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated. Sympathetic neurons projecting to the ICJ were distributed within the celiac (CG), cranial mesenteric (CranMG), and caudal mesenteric (CaudMG) ganglia, as well as in the last ganglia of the thoracic sympathetic chain and in the splanchnic ganglia. In the CG and CranMG 91 +/- 8% and 93 +/- 12% of the neurons innervating the ICJ expressed TH- and DBH-IR, respectively. In the CaudMG 90 +/- 15% and 94 +/- 5% of ICJ innervating neurons were TH- and DBH-IR, respectively. Sympathetic (TH-IR) fibers innervated the myenteric and submucosal ganglia, ileal blood vessels, and the muscle layers. They were more concentrated at the ICJ level and were also seen encircling myenteric plexus (MP) and submucosal plexus (SMP) descending neurons that were retrogradely labeled from the ICJ. Among the few retrogradely labeled DRG neurons, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-IR nerve cells were observed. Dense networks of CGRP-, nNOS-, and SP-IR varicosities were seen around retrogradely labeled prevertebral ganglia neurons. The CGRP-IR fibers are probably the endings of neurons projecting from the intestine to the prevertebral ganglia. These findings indicate that this crucial region of the intestinal tract is strongly influenced by the sympathetic system and that sensory information of visceral origin influences the sympathetic control of the ICJ. PMID:20737599

Russo, D; Bombardi, C; Grandis, A; Furness, J B; Spadari, A; Bernardini, C; Chiocchetti, R

2010-10-01

51

Neurophysiology of micturition and continence in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micturition and continence involve the coordination of complex neural events between the central and peripheral nervous systems.\\u000a An understanding of these events provides a foundation for the treatment of voiding disorders in women such as stress urinary\\u000a incontinence, urge incontinence and interstitial cystitis. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively review the neuroanatomy,\\u000a enurophysiology and neuropharmacology of micturition and

T. C. Chai; W. D. Steers

1997-01-01

52

Oxycodon (OxyContin ® )  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a OxyContin® (oxycodonhydrochloride) is een semisynthetisch derivaat van thebaïne, een natuurlijke substantie uit opium en een\\u000a volledige agonist met affiniteit voor de ?- en de ?-receptoren.

A. P. E. Vielvoye-Kerkmeer

53

Female Urinary Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary incontinence is defined by the International Continence Society [1] as the objective demonstration of involuntary loss of urine consequent to bladder and\\/or sphincter dysfunction, and is the cause of social and hygienic problems for both patients and carers. The symptom can correspond to different social and pathophysiological realities. The object of this overview is to offer specialists an update

Philippe Ballanger; Pascal Rischmann

1999-01-01

54

Colonic Metastases from Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Lung Presenting as an Ileocecal Intussusception  

PubMed Central

Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare aggressive type of lung cancer that uncommonly metastasizes to the bowel, leading to bleeding, perforation, obstruction, and rarely intussusception. Serving as a lead point, metastatic lesions in the bowel may precipitate intussusception and require immediate surgical intervention. We present a rare case of colonic metastases from a primary lung malignancy, causing ileocecal intussusception in a 57-year old male.

Rashid, Sadat; Rajan, Dhyan; Jacob, Robin; Dahl, Keith; Prasad, Apsara; Singh, Jaspreet; Siddiqui, Ghulam; Sasthakonar, Venkatesh; Freedman, Lester; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Takeshige, Umeko; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

2011-01-01

55

Multi-detector row CT: spectrum of diseases involving the ileocecal area.  

PubMed

The ileocecal area is a relatively short segment of the gastrointestinal tract but may be affected by pathologic conditions that are either common throughout the gastrointestinal system or exclusive to this area. These conditions include benign and malignant tumors, inflammatory processes (appendicitis, diverticulitis, epiploic appendagitis, Crohn disease), infectious diseases, and miscellaneous conditions (cecal ischemia, typhlitis, cecal volvulus, duplication cyst). The various components of the ileocecal area (cecum, appendix, ileocecal valve, terminal ileum) are close to one another, so that these conditions may involve more than one anatomic structure, thereby creating a diagnostic dilemma. The evaluation of various parameters (eg, stratified enhancement pattern of the thickened bowel wall, degree of thickening, extent and location of bowel wall involvement, degree of fat stranding relative to the degree of wall thickening) and associated findings (lymph nodes, mesenteric stranding, abscess and sinus tracts, fatty proliferation, solid organ abnormalities) will help narrow the differential diagnosis. Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) is considered the best imaging examination for the evaluation of the ileocecal area. Consequently, the radiologist should be familiar with the multi-detector row CT features of the spectrum of diseases affecting this area to help ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:16973770

Hoeffel, Christine; Crema, Michel D; Belkacem, Ahcène; Azizi, Louisa; Lewin, Maité; Arrivé, Lionel; Tubiana, Jean-Michel

2006-01-01

56

The Origin of Continents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theories advanced to explain the origin of continental nuclei have generally failed to explain the first step in continent formation. The authors propose that the localized additions of energy to the earth's crust, which would result from the impact of la...

J. W. Salisbury L. B. Ronca

1966-01-01

57

Synchronous Ileocecal Neuroendocrine Tumor and Carotid Chemodectoma: Diagnosis by 111In Pentetreotide SPECT/CT.  

PubMed

We report a case of carotid chemodectoma diagnosed by In pentetreotide SPECT/CT. A 72-year-old woman with an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor underwent whole-body In pentetreotide scintigraphy for exclusion of distant metastases. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the ileocecal region and intense focal tracer accumulation within the neck. SPECT/CT demonstrated a space-occupying lesion at the carotid bifurcation. Histopathological evaluation revealed carotid chemodectoma. SPECT/CT is a valuable tool for the evaluation and precise anatomical localization of tracer uptake. In addition, other benign or malignant pathologies accumulating In pentetreotide may mimic neuroendocrine tumor metastases and should be considered particularly in unusual localizations. PMID:24097001

Wisotzki, Christian; Jacobsen, Frank; Salamon, Johannes; Derlin, Thorsten

2014-06-01

58

Sudden Unexpected Death Associated with Ileocecal Duplication Cyst and Clinical Review  

PubMed Central

Duplications of the alimentary tract are very rare. A one-month-old female presented with symptoms of anorexia, vomiting and continuous watery diarrhea. The plain abdominal radiograph showed thickened intestinal wall and signs of small bowel obstruction. The fevers, vomiting, and continuous wartery diarrhea persisted despite antibiotics, and worsened. The patient failed to respond to medical managements, 27 hours after admission, the patient died due to multiple organ failures. The autopsy was performed, small bowel obstruction due to an ileocecal duplication cyst (3 × 3 cm) was recognized. The ileocecal duplication cyst was attached to the ileum which was changed edematous and necrotic. This potential diagnosis should be borne in mind for a patient who complains of abdominal symptoms with an unknown cause, and duplication cyst should be recognized as a fatal cause in infant.

Kashiwagi, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nishimata, S.; Kawashima, H.; Takekuma, K.; Hoshika, A.

2010-01-01

59

Migrating biliary stent with final destination at the ileocecal junction causing intestinal obstruction and obstructive biliopathy  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic plastic biliary stent insertion is a minimally invasive, well-established procedure for the management of benign biliary pathology. We report a case of a migrating stent for over two days, which finally got impacted at the ileocecal junction, leading to intestinal obstruction and obstructive biliopathy. Radiological findings depicted the exact site of the dislodged biliary stent and its related complications, both of which were successfully treated in a nonoperative stepwise manner.

Rasalkar, Darshana D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Sonavane, Bhawna

2010-01-01

60

Intermittent adult ileocecal intussusception: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 56-year-old male patient who was admitted to the emergency department with crescendo abdominal pain since 2 weeks. In the past 2 years, similar but less pronounced episodes were present, each time resolving spontaneously after spasmolytic drugs. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an ileocecal intussusception. An attempt for preoperative reduction was partially successful. A colonoscopy was performed and showed a tubulovillous adenomatous polyp with high-grade dysplasia, but subsequent right hemicolectomy revealed an underlying cecal adenocarcinoma. The combination of the low incidence and the non-specific symptoms of ileocecal intussusception in the adult makes this entity difficult to diagnose. In most cases, modern imaging techniques such as CT scan, ultrasound, or MRI make the correct preoperative diagnosis. Especially when colonic involvement is present, suspicion of a malignant lead point (i.e. culprit lesion) is primordial. The therapeutic strategy depends on several variables and asks for a patient-tailored, selective approach mostly involving surgery. Based on this case and a short review of literature, we discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, treatment, and challenges of adult ileocecal intussusception. PMID:24635405

de Clerck, F; Pletinckx, P; Claeys, D; Muysoms, F; Vergucht, V; Burvenich, P; Vanderstraeten, E; Baert, D; Monsaert, E; Rasquin, K; De Cock, G; Van Steenkiste, C

2014-01-01

61

Our Changing Continent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication covers the subject of North American paleogeography: how the continent has changed over geologic time in terms of location, climate, and other geographical factors. Clues for detecting this information include looking at fossils, rocks, and different kinds of maps. The geographic history of North America is traced from the supercontinent Pangea 200 million years ago (Mesozoic Era)through today, with emphasis on the coal, dinosaur, and ice ages.

Schlee, John

62

Urinary Diversion in Bladder Exstrophy and Incontinent Epispadias: 25 Years of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the optimal surgical approach in achieving complete urinary continence with preservation of the upper urinary tract in the exstrophy-epispadias complex we reviewed the records of patients treated at our institution.

Raimund Stein; Margit Fisch; Michael Stockle; Rudolf Hohenfellner

1995-01-01

63

Ileocecal segment transposition does not alter whole gut transit in humans.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: We have recently described a reservoir for rectal replacement after total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma. The ileocecal segment with its intact extrinsic nerve and blood supply is placed between the ascending colon and the anal canal. This reconstruction has been shown to provide good defecation quality and anorectal function. Whether gastric emptying and small as well as large bowel transit are affected by this transposition remains unclear. Our aim was to quantify whole gut transit in such patients and compare it with that of a matched group of controls. METHODS: Gastric emptying rates and small intestinal and colonic transit times were assessed scintigraphically in 12 patients aged 46 to 87 years with ileocecal reservoir reconstruction after total mesorectal excision and compared to a sex-matched group of asymptomatic healthy volunteers of similar age. Gastric emptying rates and small intestinal and colonic transit times were calculated as described previously. Data were compared using Wilcoxon's signed rank test for gastric emptying rates and small bowel transit or by analysis of variance for colonic transit; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Gastric time for half of the meal (T50) was 161 +/- 16 minutes for patients and 201 +/- 22 for the controls. Small bowel transit time was 150 +/- 15 minutes for patients and 177 +/- 22 for the controls. Geometric center at 6 hours was 1.53 +/- 0.13 for patients and 1.27 +/- 0.16 for the controls. Geometric center at 24 hours was 2.96 +/- 0.23 for patients and 2.57 +/- 0.25 for the controls. Data are mean +/- SEM. Summary: Gastric emptying rates and small bowel transit and colonic transit times (expressed as geometric center at 6 and 24 hours) were similar in patients with ileocecal reservoir reconstruction and in a sex- and age-matched group of healthy controls. We conclude that the transposition of an ileocecal segment with intact extrinsic neurovascular supply between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal does not alter whole gut transit, not even in any of the presumably key regions. Images Figure 1.

Degen, L P; von Flue, M O; Collet, A; Hamel, C; Beglinger, C; Harder, F

1997-01-01

64

Is laparoscopic ileocecal resection a safe option for Crohn's disease? Best evidence topic.  

PubMed

A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether laparoscopic ileocecal resection for Crohn's disease is associated with higher morbidity rates in comparison to open surgery. From a total of 123 articles, 11 studies provided the best available evidence on this topic. Five observational studies, two randomized trials, three follow up studies and a meta-analysis were identified. The primary author, date and country of publication, study type, patient group characteristics, relevant outcome parameters and results of these papers were tabulated. Perioperative morbidity was either similar between the laparoscopic and the open group, or favored the laparoscopic approach. Convalescence was consistently reported to be shorter in the laparoscopic treatment arm, at cost of longer duration of surgery. Limited evidence suggests lower incidence of small bowel obstruction and disease recurrence for laparoscopy, although follow up data are of poor quality. It may be concluded that laparoscopic ileocecal resection is a safe alternative approach to open surgery for uncomplicated Crohn's disease, provided laparoscopic expertise is available. PMID:24246171

Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Koch, Oliver O; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank A

2014-01-01

65

Formation of an Archaean continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 30 percent of the earth is covered by continents, but only about 10 small kernels of these continents - known as Archaean cratons - are continental fragments formed before 2.5 Gyr ago. The Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, which formed and stabilized between 3.7 and 2.7 Gyr ago, is one of the oldest reasonably sized examples of these continental

Maarten J. de Wit; Chris Roering; Rodger J. Hart; Richard A. Armstrong; Cornel E. J. de Ronde; Rod W. E. Green; Marian Tredoux; Ellie Peberdy; Roger A. Hart

1992-01-01

66

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:10608494

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1999-01-01

67

Continence for women: evidence-based practice.  

PubMed

Approximately 20% of women ages 25-64 years experience urinary incontinence. The symptoms increase during perimenopause, when 31% of women report that they experience incontinent episodes at least once per month. Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercise are the recommended initial treatment and can be taught effectively in the ambulatory care setting. Bladder training enables women to accommodate greater volumes of urine and extend between-voiding intervals. Pelvic muscle exercise increases muscle strength and reduces unwanted urine leakage. Accumulated research results provide evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses has identified continence for women as the focus of its third research utilization project. This article presents the rationale, evidence base, and educational strategies compiled by the Research Utilization 3 Nurse Scientist Team. Nurses can enable women to incorporate these noninvasive techniques into self-care. PMID:9252885

Sampselle, C M; Burns, P A; Dougherty, M C; Newman, D K; Thomas, K K; Wyman, J F

1997-01-01

68

The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2 g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90 d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12 mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. PMID:23958018

Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M

2013-10-01

69

Coping Strategies by Military Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This descriptive, exploratory study was conducted to investigate how symptom distress associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and barriers to continence affect coping and quality of life (QOL) in military women while in the field environment. Af...

J. A. Criner

2007-01-01

70

Determinants of continence in the bladder exstrophy population: predictors of success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.To delineate factors that may predict eventual urinary continence after bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) in the bladder exstrophy population.Methods.The records of 65 patients who underwent all phases of bladder exstrophy reconstruction at our institution between 1975 and 1997 with greater than 1-year follow-up were reviewed and data analyzed.Results.Fifty patients (77%) are continent day and night and voiding per urethra without

David Y Chan; Robert D Jeffs; John P Gearhart

2001-01-01

71

Ileocecal Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as ileocolic intussusception with appendiceal invagination and acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

Intussusception is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. Although most cases are idiopathic, about 10% of cases have a pathologic lead point. Burkitt's lymphoma is not a common etiology. Burkitt's lymphoma might present primarily as intussusception in children but has rarely been associated with appendicitis. We report a case in which a 10-year-old obese boy who initially presented with acute appendicitis due to ileocolic intussusception with appendiceal invagination. He underwent one-trocar laparoscopy and antibiotic treatment. The symptoms recurred 10 days after discharge. Colonoscopy disclosed ileocecal Burkitt's lymphoma as the pathological lead point. This case emphasizes the importance of the age of the patient and the anatomic location of the intussusception related to possible etiology, and hence the most appropriate surgical procedure. PMID:20610150

Wang, Sheng-Mine; Huang, Fu-Chen; Wu, Chi-Hung; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lee, Shin-Ye; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

2010-06-01

72

Pathological changes caused by Anoplocephala perfoliata in the equine ileocecal junction.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in horses. Previously regarded as a non-pathogenic tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata has been recently associated with equine colic. In this study, pathological changes related to A. perfoliata at the ileocecal junction were investigated in 31 slaughtered horses. Our results showed a significant relationship between parasitic burden and grading of histopathological lesions in both the mucosa and submucosa. Moreover, in infested horses, hypertrophy of the circular muscle layer was determined. Finally, an enteric nervous system (ENS) evaluation showed injury to intestinal nervous elements in horses with moderate to high parasitism. In summary, our results on the ENS support a correlation between colic and A. perfoliata infestion in the horse. PMID:20461456

Pavone, S; Veronesi, F; Piergili Fioretti, D; Mandara, M T

2010-06-01

73

Anatomy and Physiology of Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Webster’s dictionary defines continence as “the ability to retain a bodily discharge voluntarily”. The word has its origins\\u000a from the Latin continere or teuere, which means “to hold”. The anorectum is the caudal end of the gastrointestinal tract, and is responsible for fecal continence\\u000a and defecation. In humans, defecation is a viscero somatic reflex that is often preceded by several

Adil E. Bharucha; Roberta E. Blandon; Peter J. Lunniss; S. Mark Scott

74

Educational strategies to promote urinary continence and improve patient satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incontinence in westernized white women is clearly a common problem at all ages, but especially in the elderly. Incontinence is associated with embarrassment, isolation, depression, frustration and financial hardship. Improving dialogue between patients and physicians will help destigmatize the condition and may improve treatment outcomes. Attention to principles of adult and geriatric education will increase patient satisfaction and increase patient

K. F. Jeter

1992-01-01

75

Care of urinary catheters and drainage systems.  

PubMed

A question about the reuse of drainable urinary catheter night drainage bags in a patient's home promoted the South East Thames continence advisory group to examine the evidence for the management of urinary catheter drainage systems. The objective of this review was to establish if there is evidence available to support clinical practice and provide recommendations to staff and patients to ensure best practice. PMID:17985750

Jones, Sarah; Brooks, Anthony; Foxley, Sue; Dunkin, Judith

76

Augmentation enterocystoplasty for urinary storage dysfunction in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary incontinence resulting from impaired bladder storage abilities, which is unresponsive to conservative treatments, presents a therapeutic challenge. Carefully selected patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, a structurally or anatomically smallcapacity bladder, idiopathic bladder instability, and interstitial cystitis may benefit from augmentation enterocystoplasty. The preoperative evaluation should include a complete assessment of the urinary tract, renal function, and the continence mechanism,

E. F. Becher; G. K. Zhang; A. A. Sidi

1992-01-01

77

Pelvic floor muscle strength and thickness in continent and incontinent nulliparous pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to measure pelvic floor muscle function in continent and incontinent nulliparous pregnant women. The study group consisted of 103 nulliparous pregnant women at 20 weeks of pregnancy. Women reporting urinary incontinence once per week or more during the previous month were classified as incontinent. Function was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure (muscle strength) and increment

Siv Mørkved; Kjell Åsmund Salvesen; Kari Bø; Sturla Eik-Nes

2004-01-01

78

How Thick Are the Continents,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves propagating across northern Eurasia and the western Pacific Ocean have been used to construct a lower bound on z max the maximum depth extent of seismic velocity differences between old continents and old oceans....

A. L. Lerner-Lam T. H. Jordan

1987-01-01

79

Primary colonic melanoma presenting as ileocecal intussusception: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma originating in the colon is an extremely rare disease. Herein, we report a case of primary melanoma of the ascending colon. The patient was a 57-year-old male who was admitted to our hospital for persistent abdominal pain and episodes of bloody stool, nausea and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed lower intestinal intussusception and enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneum. During laparoscopic operation, multiple enlarged lymph nodes were found. Several segments of the proximal small intestine were incarcerated into the distal small intestine, forming an internal hernia and obstruction. The necrotic terminal ileum was invaginated into the ascending cecum. Subsequently, adhesive internal hernia reduction and palliative right hemicolectomy were performed. Pathologic examination of the excised specimen revealed a polypoid mass in the ascending colon. Histological examination showed epithelioid and spindle tumor cells with obvious cytoplasmic melanin deposition. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor cells were positive for S-100, HMB-45 and vimentin, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient history and a thorough postoperative investigation excluded the preexistence or coexistence of a primary lesion elsewhere in the skin, anus or oculus or at other sites. Thus, we consider our case to represent an aggressive primary colon melanoma presenting as ileocecal intussusception and intestinal obstruction.

Li, Wen-Xiang; Wei, Ye; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Ya-Lan; Ren, Li; Zhong, Yun-Shi; Ye, Le-Chi; Zhu, De-Xiang; Niu, Wei-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yu; Xu, Jian-Min

2014-01-01

80

Independent Predictors of Recovery of Continence 3 Months After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To investigate the factors that predict recovery of continence within 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients and Methods The charts of 452 patients who underwent RARP with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Urinary continence was determined using the self-administered validated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire during the routine follow-up visits. Results The overall continence rate 3 months after RARP was 79.9%. In an univariate logistic regression test, age<70 years, higher preoperative Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower biopsy and pathologic Gleason score, shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) were associated with recovery of urinary continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher SHIM score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower body mass index (BMI), and smaller prostate volume were independent factors that predicted return of continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). Conclusions Younger age (<70 years), higher preoperative SHIM score, clinical T1 stage, lower BMI, and smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) independently predicted recovery of continence within 3 months after RARP.

Kim, Jung Jun; Ha, Yun-Sok; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae

2012-01-01

81

Urinary Diversion  

MedlinePLUS

... their health care providers and employers about making adjustments to their job responsibilities. Relationships Patients may worry ... org Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society 15000 Commerce Parkway, Suite C Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 Phone: ...

82

Microbiomes of Unreactive and Pathologically Altered Ileocecal Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs  

PubMed Central

Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs.

Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin

2014-01-01

83

Microbiomes of unreactive and pathologically altered ileocecal lymph nodes of slaughter pigs.  

PubMed

Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

2014-01-01

84

MONTI as continent catheterized stoma using serosal-lined trough "Ghoneim Abolenin" technique in ileocystoplasty  

PubMed Central

It is a great challenge to select and perform continent mechanism in a stoma for urinary reservoir. A new technique by combining MONTI ileal conduit with the serosal lined trough in order to achieve continent catheterizable stoma to the umbilicus as a part of augmentation ileocystoplasty. We applied serosal-lined trough as a continent mechanism with MONTI ileal tube in 12 years smart girl underwent ileocystoplasty for neuropathic bladder due to meylomeningocele in whom continence failed to be achieved by using Mitrofanoff with submucosal tunnel of the bladder as continent mechanism before, also the previous operation included left to right transuretero-ureterostomy, ureterocystoplasty and reimplantation of the right ureter. The patient became completely continent; she was able to do self-catheterization easily through the umbilical stoma using 16-French catheter and was able to wash the mucous easily. The capacity of the augmented bladder was 300ccs. She became independent from her mother and stopped using diapers, anticholinergic and antibiotics. Combining MONTI conduit with serosal-lined extramural valve trough (The Ghoneim technique) is an effective continent technique and gives wider channel for catheterization and washing out the mucous.

Sammour, Mohammed T.; Ajjaj, Abdulbari Bin

2011-01-01

85

[Continent urostomy: sigmoid reservoir and sigmoid hydraulic valve].  

PubMed

We report our experience of continent sigmoidostomy. The technique consisted in urinary diversion with sigmoid pouch and hydraulic valve. Eleven patients underwent this procedure (10 men and 1 women, mean age 48 years, range 20 to 77 years). Indications were bladder tumor in 7 cases, bladder exstrophy in 2 patients, neurogenic bladder in 1 case and 1 bladder with a small capacity secondary to a stricture of traumatic urethra. The pouch was made according to the detubularized model. The sigmoid was opened on its antimesenteric edge, leaving the distal portion of the sigmoid intended to do the sigmoid valve. The posterior edges of the colonic segment opened were alined then secured by a Dexon 3/0 whipping then the anterior adges were secured, as the former after reimplantation of the ureters according to Camey Leduc or Politano Leadbetter's procedure. The post operative follow-up was marked by a fistula of the pouch in one case treated by securing it. All the patients were continent day and night. The purpose of this study was the description of the technique and the results of the continent sigmoïdostomy. PMID:9765769

Benchekroun, A; Lachkar, A; Bouslikhane, N; Nouini, Y; Benslimane, L; Farih, M H; Belahnech, Z; Marzouk, M; Faik, M

1997-01-01

86

Urinary catheters  

MedlinePLUS

... is a tube placed in the body to drain and collect urine from the bladder. ... Urinary catheters are used to drain the bladder. Your health care provider may recommend that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or ...

87

Magnetic Reversals and Moving Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief review of the role of polar reversals in the development of the Theory of Plate Tectonics from the old continental drift concept of Alfred Wegener. It describes the physical difference between the continents and the ocean floor and also the surprising order of the magnetic bands on the ocean floor and how this led to the idea of sea-floor spreading as postulated by Fred Vines and Drummond Matthews in 1962. The author then goes into more detail and gives examples of Plate Tectonics.

Stern, David

88

Urinary Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... the bladder. The sling results in urinary function improvements in about 70% of men after prostatectomy, although ... radiation therapy, only 30% of men showed an improvement, with even fewer men reporting being completely dry ...

89

Urinary Incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

... Failure Prostate Diseases Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Urinary Incontinence Basic Facts & Information ... condition. Updated: March 2012 Posted: March 2012 © 2014 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

90

A Profile of OxyContin Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OxyContin is a controlled-released form of oxycodone indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain. OxyContin diversion and abuse has become a major problem in certain areas of the United States, particularly rural areas and Appalachia. This study undertakes an 18-month retrospective chart review at a private freestanding psychiatric facility to develop a profile of OxyContin addicts seeking treatment.

Lon R. Hays

2004-01-01

91

Ileocecal valve dysfunction in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether patients with a defective ileocecal valve (ICV)/cecal distension reflex have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. METHODS: Using a colonoscope, under conscious sedation, the ICV was intubated and the colonoscope was placed within the terminal ileum (TI). A manometry catheter with 4 pressure channels, spaced 1 cm apart, was passed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope into the TI. The colonoscope was slowly withdrawn from the TI while the manometry catheter was advanced. The catheter was placed across the ICV so that at least one pressure port was within the TI, ICV and the cecum respectively. Pressures were continuously measured during air insufflation into the cecum, under direct endoscopic visualization, in 19 volunteers. Air was insufflated to a maximum of 40 mmHg to prevent barotrauma. All subjects underwent lactulose breath testing one month after the colonoscopy. The results of the breath tests were compared with the results of the pressures within the ICV during air insufflation. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects underwent colonoscopy with measurements of the ICV pressures after intubation of the ICV with a colonoscope. Initial baseline readings showed no statistical difference in the pressures of the TI and ICV, between subjects with positive lactulose breath tests and normal lactulose breath tests. The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher than cecal pressures during air insufflation (49.33 ± 7.99 mmHg vs 16.40 ± 2.14 mmHg, P = 0.0011). The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflations in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests was significantly higher (280.72% ± 43.29% vs 100% ± 0%, P = 0.0006). The average peak ICV pressure during air insufflation into the cecum in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not significantly different than cecal pressures during air insufflation 21.23 ± 3.52 mmHg vs 16.10 ± 3.39 mmHg. The average percentage difference of the area under the pressure curve of the ICV from the cecum during air insufflation was not significantly different 101.08% ± 7.96% vs 100% ± 0%. The total symptom score for subjects with normal lactulose breath tests and subjects with positive lactulose breath tests was not statistically different (13.30 ± 4.09 vs 24.14 ± 6.58). The ICV peak pressures during air insufflations were significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.005). The average percent difference of the area under the pressure curve in the ICV from cecum was significantly higher in subjects with normal lactulose breath tests than in subjects with positive lactulose breath tests (P = 0.0012). Individuals with positive lactulose breath tests demonstrated symptom scores which were significantly higher for the following symptoms: not able to finish normal sized meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite and bloating. CONCLUSION: Compared to normal, subjects with a positive lactulose breath test have a defective ICV cecal distension reflex. These subjects also more commonly have higher symptom scores.

Miller, Larry S; Vegesna, Anil K; Sampath, Aiswerya Madanam; Prabhu, Shital; Kotapati, Sesha Krishna; Makipour, Kian

2012-01-01

92

Continence for women: evaluation of AWHONN's third research utilization project.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based protocol for initial evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence and to design procedures that would facilitate the protocol's implementation into clinical practice. DESIGN: Descriptive report of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) Continence for Women Project. SETTING: Twenty-one public, private, and other women's health sites. Participants: Women in ambulatory care settings (N = 1474) provided demographic statistics. METHODS: The protocol was developed, sites were selected, site coordinator training was provided, data collection was facilitated by project-specific teleforms, and the overall process was evaluated by the science team. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Site representation, patient representation, site coordinator feedback on the training program, and site coordinator experience during project implementation. RESULTS: The process yielded a representative mix of site and patient diversity appropriate for testing of the protocol. Site coordinators felt well-prepared to implement the protocol and experienced increased professional satisfaction because of therapeutic benefits achieved for patients and positive collaboration with physicians. CONCLUSIONS: The Continence for Women Project demonstrated the potential for developing and testing evidence-based protocols for clinical practice when the resources of an organization such as AWHONN and the research community are combined. PMID:10729181

Sampselle; Wyman; Thomas; Newman; Gray; Dougherty; Burns

2000-03-01

93

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 ...Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy catheter. (a) Identification. A continent ileostomy catheter is a flexible...

2009-04-01

95

Urodynamic evaluation of urinary incontinence using a microtransducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using the Millar Microtransducer system urodynamic measurements were made before and 1 year after 100 operations for urinary stress incontinence. Seventy-eight of the 100 patients were completely continent 1 year after surgery. The results were compared to the findings in 44 normal women. The urodynamic data obtained little relation to the clinical findings because of a large scatter around

O. Käch; A. Aeberhard

1984-01-01

96

Pelvic floor exercises for female stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary continence is maintained by passive and active forces at the bladder neck and along the urethra. Pelvic floor exercises can improve these forces, provided there is sufficient muscular awareness, nerve supply and intact muscles. Instructions in the exercises must include a test for correct muscle use. Biofeedback methods seem superior. Patients must attend intensive repeated instruction for 2–3 months

L. Mouritsen

1994-01-01

97

Animal Models of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Urinary incontinence affects 40% of women in the United States and stress urinary incontinence accounts for a large portion of affected patients. As defined by the International Continence Society, stress urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine upon effort, exertion, sneezing or coughing. Since the ultimate success of long-term management for any condition is based on an understanding of its pathophysiology, and because the pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence is incompletely defined, animal models have recently been developed to better understand stress urinary incontinence and develop novel treatment alternatives. Materials and Methods Several animal models for urethral dysfunction have emerged in the last few years, including those based on pathophysiological theories of urethral sphincter dysfunction that were designed to simulate maternal birth trauma. Other models have focused on the creation of a durable model of dysfunction for investigating novel treatments. Results Since animals cannot express intent, these animal models have focused on measuring decreased urethral resistance. The most widely used methods are the sneeze test, the tilt table technique and the leak point pressure test. Newer techniques include abdominal leak point pressure, urethral pressure measurement and retrograde urethral perfusion pressure. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, all methods measure the composite contribution to urethral resistance from smooth and striated muscle, urethral closure and connective tissue, although none measures intent. Conclusions We critically reviewed the different models of stress urinary incontinence and urethral dysfunction as well as the different methods of measuring urethral resistance.

Hijaz, Adonis; Daneshgari, Firouz; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Damaser, Margot S.

2008-01-01

98

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Publications > Our publications > Our publications Publications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a urinary (YOOR-uh-nair-ee) tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection anywhere in the ...

99

Urinary Incontinence: Bladder Training  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Urinary Incontinence | Bladder Training for Urinary Incontinence What is bladder training? Bladder training is a way of learning to manage urinary incontinence. It is generally used ...

100

Using Mitrofanoff's principle and Monti's technique as a surgical option for bladder augmentation with a continent stoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hydronephrosis, reflux and renal failure are serious complications that occur in patients with neurogenic bladder associated with myelomeningocele. When the bladder compliance is lost, it is imperative to carry out surgery aimed at reducing bladder storage pressure. An ileocystoplasty, and for patients not suitable for intermittent catheterization, using the Mitrofanoff principle to form a continent stoma and the subsequent closure of the bladder neck, can be used. We report here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, an association between two previously described techniques (the Mitrofanoff principle and the technique of Monti), that can solve the problem of a short appendix in obese patients. Case presentation A 33-year-old male Caucasian patient with myelomeningocele and neurogenic bladder developed low bladder compliance (4.0 mL/cm H2O) while still maintaining normal renal function. A bladder augmentation (ileocystoplasty) with continent derivation principle (Mitrofanoff) was performed. During surgery, we found that the patient's appendix was too short and was insufficient to reach the skin. We decided to make an association between the Mitrofanoff conduit and the ileal technique of Monti, through which we performed an anastomosis of the distal stump of the appendix to the bladder (with an antireflux valve). Later, the proximal stump of the appendix was anastomosed to an ileal segment of 2.0 cm that was open longitudinally and reconfigured transversally (Monti technique), modeled by a 12-Fr urethral catheter, and finally, the distal stump was sutured at the patient's navel. After the procedure, a suprapubic cystostomy (22 Fr) and a Foley catheter (10 Fr) through the continent conduit were left in place. The patient had recovered well and was discharged on the tenth day after surgery. He remained with the Foley catheter (through the conduit) for 21 days and cystostomy for 30 days. Six months after surgery he was continent with good bladder compliance without reflux and fully adapted to catheterization through the navel. Conclusion The unpublished association between the Mitrofanoff and Monti techniques is feasible and a very useful alternative in urologic cases of derivation continent in which the ileocecal appendix is too short to reach the skin (i.e., in obese patients).

2011-01-01

101

Comparions of Snow Cover on Different Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each continent. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each continent for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each continent, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.

2010-03-14

102

Effect of baseline symptom severity on continence improvement mediated by oxybutynin chloride topical gel  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent placebo-controlled Phase III study, oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) significantly improved urinary continence in patients with overactive bladder. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of incontinence severity on OTG-mediated improvement in continence was evaluated. Methods Change from baseline in the number of incontinence episodes was evaluated in patients with two to three incontinence episodes/day (moderate incontinence) and those with more than three incontinence episodes/day (severe incontinence). Results In patients with moderate (n = 171) and severe (n = 556) incontinence, reduction in incontinence episodes (mean ± standard deviation) was greater (P < 0.01) with OTG (moderate, ?1.7 ± 1.4; severe, ?3.6 ± 3.0) than with placebo (moderate, ?1.2 ± 1.3; severe, ?3.1 ± 3.4). Continence achievement rate with OTG was 48.2% (placebo, 24.4%) among patients with moderate incontinence and 17.8% (placebo, 12.1%) among those with severe incontinence. Conclusion Absolute placebo-adjusted reduction in incontinence episodes with OTG was not affected by baseline incontinence severity. Continence achievement was more likely if symptoms were less severe.

Sand, Peter K; MacDiarmid, Scott A; Thomas, Heather; Caramelli, Kim E; Hoel, Gary

2011-01-01

103

Ambient seismic noise tomography of Australian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Article history: Imaging using information derived from the cross-correlation of the ambient seismic wavefield at different stations has recently become an important tool in seismology. We here present a continent wide study of the Australian crust based on the exploitation of continuous data from extensive portable broad-band deployments across Australia and the permanent stations. Permanent stations play

Erdinc Saygin; Brian L. N. Kennett

2008-01-01

104

OxyContin and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioids are a commonly abused class of drugs. OxyContin® abuse, a long-acting oxycodone derivative, has been increasingly identified as a potent narcotic resulting in drug dependence, overdose and even death. Use during pregnancy may result in withdrawal symptoms in the neonate. However, detection of the drug and its metabolites needs special methods in order to initiate appropriate therapy.

Rakesh Rao; Nirmala S Desai

2002-01-01

105

Understanding Barriers to Continence Care in Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work seeks to identify factors that facilitate or diminish care-providers' propensity to improve continence care in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using focus group methodology in four long-term care institutions in Montreal, QC. Forty-two nurses, nursing assistants, and orderlies caring for…

Tannenbaum, Cara; Labrecque, Danielle; Lepage, Christiane

2005-01-01

106

[Synthetic prosthesis in surgical treatment of females with stress urinary incontinence combined with genital prolapse].  

PubMed

Simultaneous surgical treatment of females with genital prolapse and stress urinary incontinence using Gynecare Prolift, TVT techniques with use of mesh, colpo-urethrosuspension with threads corrected static disorders of the genital organs in 96.7 +/- 3.3% cases, resulted in adequate continence in 93.3 +/- 4.6% operated patients. A 1.5 to 8 month postoperative follow-up registered adequate urination (no residual urine, complete continence) in 93.3 +/- 4.6% patients. PMID:20886728

Nechiporenko, N A; Nechiporenko, A N; Iutsevich, G V

2010-01-01

107

Shaping Bladder and Bowel Continence in Developmentally Retarded Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program to improve bowel and bladder continence with four developmentally retarded preschoolers used a regular schedule and social and liquid reinforcement, verbal reprimand, and correction for accidents. Ss showed improvement in bowel and bladder continence. (Author/CL)

Richmond, Glenn

1983-01-01

108

MidContinent basin: a reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the largest unevaluated basins in the Mid-Continent is the Salina basin in Kansas and its extension into eastern Nebraska. The purpose of this study is to update all older data, reconstruct new maps, and reappraise the potential for further exploration. The last comprehensive publications on the area were in 1948 and 1956. The Salina basin includes 12,700 mi²

1983-01-01

109

Continence advice by telehealth for young people.  

PubMed

Children and young people operate in an advanced technological world where new, exciting opportunities exist for remote interactions. To engage with these service users, we set up a nurse-led telehealth facility that enabled young people with spina bifida to access specialist continence service from home. This article describes efforts to embed this innovation into practice and offer insight to some of the challenges we faced in the process. It offers practical guidance on setting up similar services. PMID:24873107

McAlpine, Caroline; Henderson, Lisa; Levy, Sharon

110

Lack of psychological resilience: an important correlate for urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study evaluated medical conditions, level of physical functioning, and psychological health as correlates of urinary continence\\u000a (UI) for four different age groups of women. Survey questions from the 1996 MIDUS survey were used in three domains of health:\\u000a medical conditions, physical functioning, and psychological health. Mean questionnaire scores or prevalence percentages for\\u000a individual and total medical conditions, physical functioning,

Margaret G. Jamison; Alison C. Weidner; Audrey A. Romero; Cindy L. Amundsen

2007-01-01

111

Comparative Study of Various Forms of Urinary Diversion after Radical Cystectomy in Muscle Invasive Carcinoma Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the three types of urinary diversion namely Ileal Conduit, MAINZ Pouch II and Ileal Neobladder in terms of patient preference, post-operative hospital stay, early and late complications, continence rates, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Method: From January 2003 to October 2007, 30 patients (28 males and 2 females) of muscle invasive carcinoma urinary bladder (mean age 57.7 years) were operated upon by radical cysto- prostatectomy or anterior pelvic exenteration and urinary diversion was performed by Ileal conduit, Mainz pouch II or Ileal neobladder. The patient preference for the type of diversion was determined pre-operatively after discussing all the three types of urinary diversions. Post-operative hospital stay, early and late complications, continence rates, quality of life and patient satisfaction with the type of diversion were evaluated on follow up. Results: 60% of the patient’s preferred Ileal neobladder, 10% preferred Ileal conduit and 10% preferred Mainz pouch II as their 1st choice diversion; 20% left the decision to the operating surgeon. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 15.0 days in Ileal conduit group, 17.8 days in Mainz pouch II group and 19.7 days in Ileal neobladder group. The mean follow up was 27.7 months. Early complications (within 1 month of surgery) were observed in 46.2% of patients in Ileal conduit group, 38.5% in Mainz pouch II group and 50.0% in Ileal neobladder group. Late complications (after 1 month of surgery) were seen in 61.5% of patients in Ileal conduit group, 46.2% in Mainz pouch II group and 50.0% in Ileal neobladder group. In Mainz pouch II group 92.3% of the patients achieved daytime continence and 84.6% achieved night time continence 3 to 6 months after surgery. In Ileal neobladder group, 75.0% patients achieved day time continence and 50.0% achieved night time continence 3 to 6 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction and overall quality of life was described ‘Good’ by majority of patients in Ileal conduit group and ‘Very Good’ by majority of patients in Mainz pouch II group and Ileal neobladder group. Conclusion: There are inherited advantages and disadvantages to each form of urinary diversion and patient selection is important to identify the most appropriate method of diversion for an individual.

Sherwani Afak, Y; Wazir, B S; Hamid, Arif; Wani, M S; Aziz, Rafia

2009-01-01

112

[Infection and urinary lithiasis].  

PubMed

Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

2008-12-01

113

HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY AND URINARY DIVERSION FOR BLADDER CANCER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Continent forms of urinary diversion have become a gold standard of urinary tract reconstruction after radical cystectomy, based mostly on the premise of improved quality of life. It is unclear whether the existing body of literature supports this assumption.

MICHAEL P. PORTER; DAVID F. PENSON

2005-01-01

114

Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. A second objective was to determine whether changes in incontinence-related knowledge and new uptake of risk-modifying behaviours explain these improvements. Setting 71 community organisations across the UK. Participants 259 women aged 60?years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions The three active interventions consisted of a single 60?min group workshop on (1) continence education (20 clusters, 64 women); (2) evidence-based self-management (17 clusters, 70 women); or (3) combined continence education and self-management (17 clusters, 61 women). The control intervention was a single 60?min educational group workshop on memory loss, polypharmacy and osteoporosis (17 clusters, 64 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was self-reported improvement in incontinence 3?months postintervention at the level of the individual. The secondary outcome was change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in incontinence-related knowledge and behaviours were also assessed. Results The highest rate of urinary symptom improvement occurred in the combined intervention group (66% vs 11% of the control group, prevalence difference 55%, 95% CI 43% to 67%, intracluster correlation 0). 30% versus 6% of participants reported significant improvement respectively (prevalence difference 23%, 95% CI 10% to 36%, intracluster correlation 0). The number-needed-to-treat was 2 to achieve any improvement in incontinence symptoms, and 5 to attain significant improvement. Compared to controls, participants in the combined intervention reported an adjusted mean 2.05 point (95% CI 0.87 to 3.24) greater improvement on the ICIQ from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Changes in knowledge and self-reported risk-reduction behaviours paralleled rates of improvement in all intervention arms. Conclusions Continence education combined with evidence-based self-management improves symptoms of incontinence among untreated older women. Community organisations represent an untapped vector for delivering effective continence promotion interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT01239836.

Tannenbaum, Cara; Agnew, Rona; Benedetti, Andrea; Thomas, Doneal; van den Heuvel, Eleanor

2013-01-01

115

Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results.

Bakula, Stanislaw

2014-01-01

116

Ambient seismic noise tomography of Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging using information derived from the cross-correlation of the ambient seismic wavefield at different stations has recently become an important tool in seismology. We here present a continent wide study of the Australian crust based on the exploitation of continuous data from extensive portable broad-band deployments across Australia and the permanent stations. Permanent stations play a valuable role in linking the information from different portable deployments. Over 2000 Rayleigh wave components of the Green's functions are extracted from the inter-station cross-correlations and provide a reasonably uniform sampling of the continent. Rayleigh wave group velocities are extracted for the period range from 5 s to 12.5 s. The group dispersion from the various paths are inverted to produce group wavespeed maps based on a 2° × 2° grid using a nonlinear-iterative 2-D tomographic scheme with updating of propagation paths using the fast marching method. The group wavespeed maps display prominent features with lowered wavespeeds. For the shortest periods these features are mostly associated with the regions of thick sedimentary sequences, such as the Amadeus and Officer basins in central Australia. At the longer periods reduced wavespeeds are most likely due to elevated temperatures and link well to estimates of crustal heat flow. The major cratonic blocks show faster group wavespeeds, and the Archaean cratons of Western Australia are particularly fast with some indication of internal structure linked to terrane boundaries. The transition from the Precambrian core of the continent, in the centre and west, to the Phanerozoic fold belts in the east is not marked by any single well-defined anomaly in the crust, even though distinctive contrasts have been mapped in the mantle lithosphere from surface wave tomography.

Saygin, Erdinc; Kennett, Brian L. N.

2010-01-01

117

QUALITY OF CARE IN BLADDER CANCER: TRENDS IN URINARY DIVERSION FOLLOWING RADICAL CYSTECTOMY  

PubMed Central

Objective Quality-of-care indicators have not yet been defined for patients with bladder cancer. Nonetheless, certain aspects of bladder cancer care can be evaluated to quantify the quality of care delivered. We sought to determine trends in continent urinary diversion to evaluate the adoption of this more optimal reconstruction. Methods Subjects who underwent radical cystectomy for a primary diagnosis of bladder cancer were identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified covariates independently associated with utilization of continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy using multivariate logistic regression modeling. We then examined trends in diversion type based on patient and hospital characteristics and examined the impact of hospital volume on use of continent reconstruction. Results Our weighted sample included 5,075 subjects (14.3%) who underwent continent urinary diversion and 30,295 subjects (85.7%) who underwent an ileal conduit. Independent correlates of continent diversion included younger age, male gender, having private insurance, and undergoing surgery at an urban teaching hospital. Hospitals performing continent diversions on more than 40% of their cystectomies had a yearly cystectomy volume of 0.8 surgeries. Subjects treated at high-volume hospitals trended toward lower rates of comorbid conditions. Conclusions We identified substantial disparities in continent diversion which, based on yearly trends, are unlikely to improve in the near future. Continent reconstructions are not the exclusive domain of high-volume cystectomy centers. Yet efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on technique dissemination and better definition of the quality-of-life detriments incurred by cystectomy patients.

Gore, John L.; Litwin, Mark S.

2009-01-01

118

Bladder, bowel and bones—skeletal changes after intestinal urinary diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired bone metabolism following urinary diversion through intestinal segments has always been a controversial subject of unclear clinical relevance. Whereas the perpetuated pathophysiological considerations seem conclusive in theory, the role of acidosis and malabsorption is less clear in animal experimentation and, even more so, in the clinical reality of modern continent diversion. In hardly any of the available contemporary case

Alexander Roosen; Elmar W. Gerharz; Stefan Roth; Christopher R. J. Woodhouse

2004-01-01

119

An adult female epispadias without exstrophy was presented with urinary incontinence: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 39-year-old woman with three children presented with primary severe urinary incontinence. Epispadias without exstrophy was determined in physical examination. The single-stage procedure including vulvoplasty and modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck repair was performed to obtain sufficient cosmetic outcome and continence. Excellent functional and cosmetic results were obtained.

Ercan Yeni; Dogan Unal; Ayhan Verit; OmerFaruk Karatas

2004-01-01

120

A "Stratospheric Drain" over the Maritime Continent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is presented from operational rawinsonde data surrounding the maritime continent that the net mass flux near the tropopause is downward over this region, contrary to the behavior of current numerical models. The air is descending year-round, despite mean upward motion below and above the descending layer. This sinking implies the existence of a significant energy-removing process, which is argued to be the injection of cold air by overshooting convective clouds. The mass, energy, and horizontal momentum budgets are examined in reaching these conclusions. The implied cooling effect of convective overshoots can be simulated with a simple, parcel-sorting convective mixing model. The findings contradict the common view that the mean flow enters the stratosphere in this strongly-convecting region, and have important implications for transport of water vapor and other gases into the stratosphere.

Sherwood, Steve

1999-01-01

121

Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

2008-11-01

122

Influence of perineal prostatectomy on anal continence  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Perineal prostatectomy has been proposed as a less invasive and safe procedure, but the risk of anal incontinence has been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of perineal access on anal continence mechanisms after perineal prostatectomy. METHODS: From August 2008 to May 2009, twenty three patients underwent perineal prostatectomy. These patients were evaluated before surgery and eight months postoperatively using the Cleveland Clinic Anal Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score, and anorectal manometry. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 65 (range, 54-72) years, and the mean prostate weight was 34.5 (range, 24-54) grams. Gleason scores ranged from 6-7, and the mean Cleveland Clinic Anal Incontinence Score (mean±standard deviation) values were 0.9±1.9 and 0.7±1.2 (p>0.05) before and after surgery, respectively. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score did not change significantly after surgery. The mean values for anal manometric parameters before and after surgery were, respectively: Resting Pressures of 64±23 mmHg and 65±17 mmHg (p?=?0.763), Maximum Squeezing Pressures of 130±41 mmHg and 117±40 mmHg (p?=?0.259), High Pressure Zones of 3.0±0.9 cm and 2.7±0.8 cm (p?=?0.398), Rectal Sensory Thresholds of 76±25 ml and 71±35 ml (p?=?0.539), Maximum Tolerated Rectal Volumes of 157±48 ml and 156±56 ml (p?=?0.836), and Sphincter Asymmetry Indexes 22.4±9% and 14.4±5% (p?=?0.003). CONCLUSION: There was a significant decrease in the sphincter symmetry index after perineal prostatectomy. With the exception of the sphincter asymmetry index, perineal prostatectomy did not affect anal continence parameters.

Guilger, Nadia Ricci; Jorge, Jose Marcio Neves; Costa, Renato Prado; Salla, Fernando Cesar; Teixeira, Magaly Gemio; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

2011-01-01

123

The Effects of Undergarment Type on the Urinary Continence of Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing trend toward later toilet training of typically developing children. This trend is a problem for caregivers and professionals who work with young children, because it is associated with a number of costs and health risks in child-care settings. Results of a recent study (Tarbox, Williams, & Friman, 2004) suggest that wearing…

Simon, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.

2006-01-01

124

OxyContin: Prescription Drug Abuse. CSAT Advisory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

125

Are adults content or continent after repair for high anal atresia? A long-term follow-up study in patients 18 years of age and older.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the current state of fecal and urinary continence in an extensive group of adults after operative correction for high anorectal malformations and how they cope with their incontinence. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Normal fecal continence is hardly to be expected after correction for high anorectal malformation; despite this, it is commonly accepted that for most patients fecal continence improves with growing age and that most adult patients have no problems. Until now, however, few long-term follow-up studies in small groups of adults have been performed to assess continence after operative repair for high anorectal malformation. METHODS: Fifty-eight adult patients (median age, 26.0 years; range, 18.1 to 56.9 years) with an operatively corrected high anorectal malformation were evaluated by questionnaire with respect to their current state of fecal and urinary continence and mode of control of defecation. RESULTS: Seven patients have a permanent ileostoma or colostoma. Of the 51 patients with anal defecation, 61% control defecation by themselves, whereas 35% control defecation by using enemas or bowel irrigations, and 4% do not have any control at all. Besides medical therapy, 65% take dietary measures to influence defecation. According to existing scoring methods, 41% reached good and 49% fair control of defecation, whereas only 10% had poor control. Current control of defecation was reached from a median age of 15.0 years (range, 5 to 31 years). CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the authors can say that after correction for high anorectal malformation nobody reached normal fecal continence. Most patients with anal defecation reached good and fair control of defecation, however. Of all 58 patients, 84% are satisfied with their level of cleanliness.

Hassink, E A; Rieu, P N; Severijnen, R S; vd Staak, F H; Festen, C

1993-01-01

126

Neurogenic urinary retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article on neurogenic urinary retention is divided into three main sections. The first covers the neuroanatomy of the bladder and urethral sphincters, developing the peripheral innervation as well as the spinal cord organization and the cortical and subcortical brain control of micturition. The second discusses the main central and peripheral neurological lesions and diseases causing urinary retention. The

A. G. Herbaut

1993-01-01

127

Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of urinary incontinence (UI) involves an overactive detrusor (DOA) or an incompetent urethral sphincter. Therefore, the three most common types of UI are stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge urinary incontinence (UUI), or a combination of stress and urge known as mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). Pharmacotherapy represents a recognized option for the treatment of different types of UI. A literature search of Medline publications on pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence until 2008 was performed. Relevant data from recently published literature were included. Anticholinergics are the cornerstone of UUI treatment, whereas serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors represent an option for SUI treatment. A significant percentage of patients with UI, mainly those with UUI and MUI, can be treated successfully with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19002644

Athanasopoulos, Anastasios; Perimenis, Petros

2009-04-01

128

Dynamic topography over the Antarctic continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of dynamic topography in Antarctica remains in an infancy stage compared to other continents. We assess the space-time variability in dynamic topography in Antarctica by analysing grids of global dynamic topography from present-day to 80 Ma based on the tomographic model S40RTS. Our model reveals that the Gamburtsev Province and Dronning Maud Land, two of the major nucleation sites for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) were ~500 m higher 60 Ma ago. The increased elevation may have facilitated ephemeral ice cap development in the early Cenozoic. Between ca 25 and 50 Ma the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin was ca 200 m higher than today and a major increase in regional elevation (>600 m) occurred over the last 20-15 Ma over the northern and southern Victoria Land in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The most prominent signal is observed over the Ross Sea Rift (RSR) where predicted Neogene dynamic topography exceeds 1,000 m. The flow of warm mantle from the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) may have driven these dynamic topography effects over the TAM and RSR. However, we found that these effects are comparatively less significant over the Marie Byrd Land Dome and the interior of the WARS. If these contrasting dynamic topography effects are included, then the predicted elevations of the Ross Sea Embayment ca 20 Ma ago are more similar to the interior of the WARS, with significant implications for the early development of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

Anderson, L.; Ferraccioli, F.; Eagles, G.; Steinberger, B. M.; Ritsema, J. E.

2012-12-01

129

Icy Continent Mapped from Space with RADARSAT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, scientists released images from the first high-resolution radar map of Antarctica. Taken over a period of eighteen days in 1997 by a NASA-launched Canadian satellite called RADARSAT, the images have revealed a number of amazing features never seen before. The most important of these is a complex network of ice streams, huge rivers of ice that move ice and snow from the continent's interior to the sea, some moving up to 3,000 feet and one system that sends up to 19 cubic miles of ice to the sea each year. Another hidden feature imaged by RADARSAT was Lake Vostok, a massive fresh water lake laying two miles beneath the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. This site, hosted by NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio, offers a fascinating and often beautiful virtual tour of Antarctica, divided into fifteen stops, featuring images of varying resolution and QuickTime movies. Users can also read the official press release and learn more about the RADARSAT mission with provided links. For further resources on RADARSAT and Antarctica, see the October 27, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering.

130

Pelvic floor exercise for urinary incontinence: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults and conservative management is recommended as the first-line treatment. Physical therapies, particularly pelvic floor muscle exercise, are the mainstay of such conservative management. The purpose of this review is to summarise current literature and describe trends in the use of pelvic floor muscle exercise in the management of urinary incontinence in women. Our review confirms that pelvic floor muscle exercise is particularly beneficial in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence in females. Studies have shown up to 70% improvement in symptoms of stress incontinence following appropriately performed pelvic floor exercise. This improvement is evident across all age groups. There is evidence that women perform better with exercise regimes supervised by specialist physiotherapists or continence nurses, as opposed to unsupervised or leaflet-based care. There is evidence for the widespread recommendation that pelvic floor muscle exercise helps women with all types of urinary incontinence. However, the treatment is most beneficial in women with stress urinary incontinence alone, and who participate in a supervised pelvic floor muscle training programme for at least three months. PMID:20828949

Price, Natalia; Dawood, Rehana; Jackson, Simon R

2010-12-01

131

Dynamics of the North American continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces that cause deformation of western North America have been debated for decades. Recent studies, primarily based on analysis of crustal stresses in the western United States, have suggested that the deformation of the region is mainly controlled by gravitational potential energy (GPE) variations and boundary loads, with basal tractions due to mantle flow playing a relatively minor role. We address these issues by modelling the deviatoric stress field over western North America from a 3-D finite element mantle circulation model with lateral viscosity variations. Our approach takes into account the contribution from both topography and shallow lithosphere structure (GPE) as well as that from deeper mantle flow in one single model, as opposed to separate lithosphere and circulation models, as has been done so far. In addition to predicting the deviatoric stresses we also jointly fit the constraints of geoid, dynamic topography and plate motion both globally and over North America, in order to ensure that the forces that arise in our models are dynamically consistent. We examine the sensitivity of the dynamic models to different lateral viscosity variations. We find that circulation models that include upper mantle slabs yield a better fit to observed plate velocities. Our results indicate that a model of GPE variations coupled with mantle convection gives the best fit to the observational constraints. We argue that although GPE variations control a large part of the deformation of the western United States, deeper mantle tractions also play a significant role. The average deviatoric stress magnitudes in the western United States range 30-40 MPa. The cratonic region exhibits higher coupling to mantle flow than the rest of the continent. We find that a relatively strong San Andreas fault gives a better fit to the observational constraints, especially that of plate velocity in western North America.

Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, E. D.

2013-05-01

132

Dynamics of the North American continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forces that cause deformation of western North America have been debated for decades. Recent studies, primarily based on analysis of crustal stresses in the western United States, have suggested that the deformation of the region is mainly controlled by gravitational potential energy (GPE) variations and boundary loads, with basal tractions due to mantle flow playing a relatively minor role. We address these issues by modelling the deviatoric stress field over western North America from a 3-D finite element mantle circulation model with lateral viscosity variations. Our approach takes into account the contribution from both topography and shallow lithosphere structure (GPE) as well as that from deeper mantle flow in one single model, as opposed to separate lithosphere and circulation models, as has been done so far. In addition to predicting the deviatoric stresses we also jointly fit the constraints of geoid, dynamic topography and plate motion both globally and over North America, in order to ensure that the forces that arise in our models are dynamically consistent. We examine the sensitivity of the dynamic models to different lateral viscosity variations. We find that circulation models that include upper mantle slabs yield a better fit to observed plate velocities. Our results indicate that a model of GPE variations coupled with mantle convection gives the best fit to the observational constraints. We argue that although GPE variations control a large part of the deformation of the western United States, deeper mantle tractions also play a significant role. The average deviatoric stress magnitudes in the western United States range 30-40 MPa. The cratonic region exhibits higher coupling to mantle flow than the rest of the continent. We find that a relatively strong San Andreas fault gives a better fit to the observational constraints, especially that of plate velocity in western North America.

Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, E. D.

2013-08-01

133

Sources of human urinary epinephrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of human urinary epinephrine. The kidney is a likely source for some urinary epinephrine (E) since adrenalectomized animals and humans continue to excrete urinary E and the human kidney contains E synthesizing enzymes. We studied subjects during an intravenous infusion of 3H-E to determine the fraction of urinary E derived from the kidney. Eight normal subjects (CON) and 5

Michael G Ziegler; Myo Aung; Brian Kennedy

1997-01-01

134

Tulane experience with management of urinary incontinence after placement of an artificial urinary sphincter.  

PubMed

Persistent urinary incontinence following placement of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) presents a challenging diagnostic problem. This report reviews 30 cases (27 males and 3 females) involving urinary incontinence following AUS placement. The mean age of the patients was 64.4 years (range, 10-79 years). Physical examination demonstrated evidence or suspicion of infection or erosion in 7 patients, and subsequent cystoscopic examination revealed erosion caused by the cuff in 6 of these 7 cases. The remaining 23 patients were evaluated by videofluorourodynamics (VFUD) to ascertain the cause of incontinence. VFUD demonstrated detrusor instability in 9 patients (39%), low detrusor compliance in 3 patients (13%), and poor detrusor contractility in 1 patient (4.4%). Bladder-outlet obstruction was diagnosed in 2 patients (8.8%)-1 with bladder-neck contracture and 1 with ureteral stricture. Altogether, 2 (8.8%) cases of tissue atrophy were diagnosed with low urethral closing pressure at the cuff. In all, 1 patient (4.4%) was diagnosed as having a vesicovaginal fistula, 1 (4.4%) had a tubing kink, and 4 (17%) had leaking devices diagnosed during VFUD by cycling of the device. Of the 23 patients, 21 (91%) demonstrably improve or became fully continent after appropriate treatment had been initiated. A review of this study suggests that the majority of incontinent patients after AUS implantation can be managed successfully, provided that a systematic diagnostic approach is followed and appropriate treatment is initiated. PMID:7881472

Ghoniem, G M; Lapeyrolerie, J; Sood, O P; Thomas, R

1994-01-01

135

Seismicity of the Himalaya and the northeast India, and nature of continent-continent collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalaya together with the Arakan-Yoma forms a well defined arc to the north and east of the Indian Peninsula. The seismicity along the Himalayan arc is attributable mostly to the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates, and along the eastern margin to the subduction of the Indian plate underneath the Arakan-Yoma. Along the Himalayan arc several thrusts (including the Main Boundary Thrust, the Main Central Thrust) and transverse lineaments appear to be active. Analysis of focal mechanisms reveals that although thrust movements are predominant along the Himalayan arc, normal and strike-slip faulting is also taking place along some of the transverse lineaments. Underneath the Arakan-Yoma/Burmese plains, strike-slip faulting is also active in addition to the thrusting. Orientation of P axes for all thrust solutions changes sharply from predominantly east-west along the Burmese arc to N?S and NE-SW along the Himalayan arc. Models of plate underthrusting along the Himalayan front based on seismicity are presented. It is suggested that the effects of continent-continent collision are recorded over a very large area including China, Hindukush, N Pamir and S Tien Shan.

Verma, R. K.

136

Urinary Tract Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

137

Urinary tract infection - children  

MedlinePLUS

UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Young children with UTIs may have a fever, poor appetite, vomiting, or no symptoms at all. Most urinary tract ...

138

Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

1984-01-01

139

Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

140

Massive OxyContin ingestion refractory to naloxone therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OxyContin (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled release) is a long-acting preparation of oxycodone that is used as an opioid analgesic to treat chronic pain conditions. We report a patient who ingested a massive quantity of OxyContin and had altered mental status, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and hypoventilation that proved refractory to naloxone administration. She required mechanical ventilation for 3 days before recovering completely.

Aaron B. Schneir; Tyler F. Vadeboncoeur; Steven R. Offerman; James D. Barry; Binh T. Ly; Saralyn R. Williams; Richard F. Clark

2002-01-01

141

[Conservative management of postoperative urinary incontinence in men].  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence in men most commonly occurs after radical prostatectomy. Of these patients, 3-23% remain incontinent a year after prostatectomy. Data on conservative therapy for postoperative incontinence is contradictory. Nonetheless, conservative treatment strategies must generally be attempted before any operative technique. Early pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback therapy and duloxetine seem to have a positive effect on continence. Further randomised controlled studies are necessary to accurately assess other conservative therapeutic options such as extracorporeal magnetic innervation and electrical stimulation therapy. PMID:20376652

Nyarangi-Dix, J N; Schultz-Lampel, D; Hohenfellner, U; Huber, J; Hatiboglu, G; Djakovic, N; Haferkamp, A; Hohenfellner, M

2010-04-01

142

A Short Bowel (Small Intestine = 40 cm), No Ileocecal Valve, and Colonic Inertia Patient Works Well with Oral Intake Alone without Parenteral Nutrition  

PubMed Central

We present a 50-year-old male who suffered from ischemic bowel disease, having undergone massive resection of small intestine and ileocecal valve. He had to cope with 40?cm proximal jejunum and 70?cm distal colon remaining. In the postoperative period parenteral nutrition (PN) was used immediately for nutrition support and electrolyte imbalance correction. We gave him home PN as regular recommendation for the short bowel status after discharge from hospital. This patient has tolerated regular oral intake 2 months later and did not develop significant short bowel syndrome. There were several episodes of venous access infection which troubled this patient and admitted him for treatment during home PN. Therefore, we changed home PN to cyclic tapering pattern. The patient could maintain his nutrition and hydration with oral intake alone after tapering home PN 15 months later. He has survived more than one year without PN support and still maintained 80% ideal body weight with average albumin of 3.5 ± 0.2?mg/dL. Although patient was hospitalized every two months to supplement nutrients, however, this has greatly improved the quality of life.

Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Lan

2014-01-01

143

Bacterial-Dependent Up-Regulation of Intestinal Bile Acid Binding Protein and Transport is FXR-Mediated Following Ileo-Cecal Resection  

PubMed Central

Background Bile acid reclamation following ileo-cecal resection (ICR) may prevent colonic mucosa from chronic injury. In this study, we hypothesized that in a murine model of ICR the remnant colon would upregulate the cellular machinery necessary for BA reclamation and would do so in an FXR- and bacteria-dependent manner. Methods Conventional (WT), conventional FXR knockout (FXR null) and germ free (GF) mice were randomized to undergo either ICR or sham operation. The ascending colon was harvested for histology & immunohistochemistry and changes in bile acid homeostatic gene expression determined by RT-PCR 7d following surgery. Results Following ICR WT mice showed significant increases in the expression of genes regulating bile acid transport including IBABP, Asbt, Ost? and FGF 15. Increased expression of IBABP and Asbt was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Induction of bile acid transport genes was absent or attenuated in FXR null and GF mice. Conclusion Bacterial dependent up regulation of IBABP is FXR mediated in the colon following ICR. Mice lacking microbiota (GF) or FXR are unable to increase the expression of IBABP or FGF 15.

Dekaney, Christopher M.; von Allmen, Douglas C.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Rigby, Rachael J.; Lund, P. Kay; Henning, Susan J.; Helmrath, Michael A.

2008-01-01

144

Knowledge and understanding of urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate family physicians’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and understanding of urinary incontinence (UI), as well as their perceptions of barriers to continence care, as a foundation for designing interventions to improve service provision for those in northern Alberta who suffer from UI. Design Descriptive survey using a standardized instrument. The survey instrument was completed either by telephone interview or on paper copy faxed back to the researchers, depending on participant preference. Setting Northern Alberta. Participants Random sample of family physicians (N = 158). Main outcome measures Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward UI, UI management practices, and barriers to providing UI care. Results Survey response rate was 10.6% (158 of 1488); 84.2% (133 of 158) of respondents practised in urban settings, 44.9% (71 of 158) had been in practice for fewer than 15 years, 24.1% (38 of 158) reported having no training in UI management since graduation, and 53.8% (85 of 158) reported that they proactively discussed UI with their patients. Overall, 70.0% of respondents felt fairly confident in managing UI. Most family physicians referred patients for specialist care, with few referrals to community services. Respondents thought that continence services were scarce, with long waiting times, and that such services were generally overstretched; they believed that although high-quality continence care was a personal priority, it was not a priority focus for their practice partnerships or networks. In terms of the highest ranked areas for improvement in UI management, increased awareness and understanding among physicians (ranked first by 28.5% of respondents), followed by dedicated incontinence clinics or nurses for referral (17.7%) and improving patient awareness and understanding (12.0%). Conclusion There continues to be considerable variation in knowledge about UI management and a relative overreliance on specialist care, despite well recognized difficulties in gaining access to services. Respondents believed that increased awareness among patients and health care providers coupled with greater access to continence services were key factors in improving care delivery.

Nguyen, Katherina; Hunter, Kathleen F.; Wagg, Adrian

2013-01-01

145

Indications, contraindications, and complications of mesh in the surgical treatment of urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

The most commonly performed surgeries for stress urinary incontinence are full-length mesh midurethral slings. This chapter will review the indications, contraindications, and complications related to the use of these mesh midurethral slings. Unlike transvaginal mesh for prolapse, complications related to mesh midurethral slings are low and less than the complication rates with previous traditional continence surgeries. Given their safety profile and efficacy, full-length mesh midurethral slings have been rapidly adopted and remain the current standard of care for stress urinary incontinence surgical treatment. PMID:23563871

Kirby, Anna C; Nager, Charles W

2013-06-01

146

[Postpartum urinary retention].  

PubMed

Postpartum urinary retention is an uncommon event that occurs in 0.7 to 0.9% of vaginal deliveries. An ignorance of this situation can lead to delayed diagnosis worsening the prognosis and to inadequate treatments. This complication is defined as the absence of spontaneous micturition within 6hours of vaginal delivery with a bladder volume above 400mL. The etiology depends on multiple factors. Because of physiological changes during pregnancy, the bladder is hypotonic with an increased post-void residual volume. The occurrence of a perineal neuropathy during delivery may cause a urinary retention. Risk factors are primiparity, prolonged labour, instrumental delivery and perineal lacerations. Treatment consists on clean intermittent catheterization and recovery occurs generally in 72hours. Persistent urinary retention is the principal short-term complication and should be treated by clean intermittent self-catheterization. Long-term consequences are poorly reported in the literature. PMID:21193140

Bouhours, A C; Bigot, P; Orsat, M; Hoarau, N; Descamps, P; Fournié, A; Azzouzi, A-R

2011-01-01

147

Adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion  

PubMed Central

The use of bowel segments in urinary diversions has been associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. This report describes three cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion. In the first case, a 73-year-old woman developed moderately-differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in her Indiana pouch 10.5 years after cystectomy. The second case involved a 77-year-old man with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in his Indiana pouch 9 years after radical cystoprostatectomy and en bloc urethrectomy. The third case involved a 38-year-old man with moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in his ileal conduit 33 years after the creation of the conduit. These cases highlight the diagnostic signs of adenocarcinoma arising in urinary diversions and emphasize the importance of lifelong surveillance in these patients.

Jian, Peter Yicum; Godoy, Guilherme; Coburn, Michael; Lynch, Garrett; Ro, Jae Y.; Zhai, Qihui "Jim"; Nishino, Michiya; Lerner, Seth P.

2012-01-01

148

Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Dmochowski RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological ... Update of AUA guideline on the surgical managementof female stress urinary incontinence. J Urol . 2010;183:1906-1914. ...

149

Imaging of the Urinary Tract  

MedlinePLUS

... general medical history and urinary tract symptoms. Conventional Radiology X-ray machines have been used to diagnose ... to use. Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); ...

150

Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ... EB, Kobashi KC. Minimally invasive treatment of stress urinary incontinence and vaginal prolapse. Urol Clin North Am . 2007; ...

151

Is anterior genital tract trauma associated with complaints of postpartum urinary incontinence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated whether anterior genital trauma is associated with urinary incontinence after vaginal birth. A prospective cohort\\u000a of midwifery patients consented to mapping of trauma at birth and assessment of continence postpartum. Trauma was categorized\\u000a into intact, anterior (periuretheral, clitoral, labial), perineal or both. Incontinence was defined as a positive response\\u000a to the question, “Since the birth of your baby,

Rebecca G. Rogers; Lawrence M. Leeman; Sallie Kleyboecker; Mary Pukite; Regina Manocchio; Leah L. Albers

2007-01-01

152

Postoperative urinary retention.  

PubMed

Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention. PMID:19825487

Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

2009-09-01

153

Urinary albumin in space missions.  

PubMed

Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity). PMID:15002544

Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

2002-07-01

154

Mean Elevation of Continents and Survival of Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental mean elevation is controlled by tectonic uplift (including all solid earth processes and volcanic activities) and erosion, so is the mean thickness of continents. Assuming that a continent is large enough so that various tectonic processes can be averaged to behave similarly, the balance between uplift and erosion results in a steady state mean elevation that increases with the area of a continent (Zhang, 2005). The model fits the mean elevation of continents well, but many islands depart from the curve of mean elevation versus land area. Here I explore the elevation and survival of the islands. An island is small so that one cannot assume it would display average character in terms of tectonic processes. Oceanic islands are there largely because of recent volcanic activities leading to an uplift rate much higher than the average uplift rate. On the other hand, once such special conditions fade away, islands are eroded rapidly. Based on the modeling of Zhang (2005), the half-erosion time to erode an island is roughly proportional to the square root of the land area of the island. Hence, scaling from the half-erosion time of the largest continent (about 100 Myr, Harrison, 1994), the half-erosion time for islands once tectonic activity stops can be estimated. For example, the half-erosion time for Hawaii Island is estimated to be 1.3 Myr, roughly consistent with the rate of disappearing of older Hawaiian Islands. The half-erosion time is 0.16 Myr for the present-day Easter Island, and 10 Myr for Madagascar once uplift stops. In view of the short erosion time scale, the islands are present and survive because of special tectonics, such as volcanic activities, recent separation from continents, etc. References: C.G.A. Harrison (1994) Geol. Rundsch. 83, 431-447. Y. Zhang (2005) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237, 524-531.

Zhang, Y.

2009-12-01

155

Massive OxyContin ingestion refractory to naloxone therapy.  

PubMed

OxyContin (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled release) is a long-acting preparation of oxycodone that is used as an opioid analgesic to treat chronic pain conditions. We report a patient who ingested a massive quantity of OxyContin and had altered mental status, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and hypoventilation that proved refractory to naloxone administration. She required mechanical ventilation for 3 days before recovering completely. The severity and length of poisoning was likely related both to the quantity and formulation of the oxycodone ingested. PMID:12239500

Schneir, Aaron B; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Offerman, Steven R; Barry, James D; Ly, Binh T; Williams, Saralyn R; Clark, Richard F

2002-10-01

156

Urinary mucopolysaccharides in acheiropodia.  

PubMed

Urinary mucopolysaccharides from three patients with acheiropodia were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by agar gel electrophoresis coupled with enzymatic degradation. Although no abnormal pattern was characterized, eventual metabolic dysfunction detected only in bone/cartilage tissues could not be ruled out. PMID:906767

Mourão, P A; Toledo, S P; Dietrich, C P

1977-01-01

157

[Urinary catheter biofilm infections].  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

Holá, V; R?zicka, F

2008-04-01

158

Discovery of Urinary Biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A myriad of proteins and peptides can be identified in normal human urine. These are derived from a variety of sources including glomerular filtration of blood plasma, cell sloughing, apoptosis, proteolytic cleavage of cell sur- face glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, and se- cretion of exosomes by epithelial cells. Mass spectrome- try-based approaches to urinary protein and peptide profiling can, in principle, reveal

Trairak Pisitkun; Rose Johnstone; Mark A. Knepper

2006-01-01

159

Prevalence of urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of urinary incontinence was investigated by determining the number of incontinent patients under the care of various health and social service agencies in two London boroughs and by a postal survey of the 22 430 people aged 5 years and over on the practice lists of 12 general practitioners in different parts of the country. The prevalence of

T M Thomas; K R Plymat; J Blannin; T W Meade

1980-01-01

160

Urinary antimony in infancy  

PubMed Central

Accepted 6 January 1997? OBJECTIVE—To determine whether antimony may be detected in the urine during infancy and early childhood and its association with passive exposure to tobacco smoke, as assessed by urinary cotinine.?DESIGN—Analysis of spare aliquots of urine collected from infants participating in studies of respiratory function and passive smoking. Urinary antimony was assayed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy in 201 urine specimens collected at different ages throughout the first two years of life from 122 term and 26 preterm infants. Urinary cotinine was measured using gas liquid chromatography.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Urinary antimony concentrations.?RESULTS—Absolute antimony concentrations varied widely between infants, being below the laboratory detection limit of 0.02 µg/l in 7% of samples, below 0.5 µg/l in 90.5%, and above the reference value of 1 µg/l reported for non-occupationally exposed UK populations in 4%. Creatinine standardised antimony values were unrelated to postnatal age or urinary cotinine concentrations and were highest in urine collected from preterm infants within 24 hours of birth (geometric mean (95% confidence interval): 2.3 ng/mg (1.5 to 3.4)).?CONCLUSION—Although antimony is present at very low concentrations in urine during infancy and early childhood, the relevance to health is uncertain. The higher levels found in preterm infants may reflect prematurity or fetal assimilation of antimony. Tobacco is unlikely to be an important source of environmental exposure to antimony during infancy and early childhood.??

Dezateux, C.; Delves, H; Stocks, J.; Wade, A.; Pilgrim, L.; Costeloe, K.

1997-01-01

161

Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

162

Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3-D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50°C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the <span class="hlt">continent</span> is within +10°C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50°C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2-D and 3-D simulation models with rigid nondeformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and without self-consistent plate tectonics is not confirmed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, Masaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T23A1219T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heat flow distribution in Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> and its adjacent areas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a compilation of 6980 heat flow measurements, we produce a new heat flow map for the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> and its adjacent areas. We develop an objective and integrated method to interpolate the heat flow data, taking into account both the uniformity within geological units and coherency of regional heat flow. The geologic units are outlined based on Zhang et al.'s (2003) active tectonic block model. Our heat flow model is presented in two formats: a contour map and a heat flow dataset with values on a 1° × 1° grid in the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> and its adjacent areas, reflecting detailed variations at some regions. Also provided is a resolution map which helps understand the reliability of the heat flow model. Our results reveal that: (a) Heat flows in the east part of the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> are relatively higher than those in the west part except that in the Tibetan plateau area. (b) Heat flows in the Ordos and North China blocks are around 60 mW/m2, and are 50 ~ 55 mW/m2 in South China except in the continental marginal sea regions. (c) Heat flow is the lowest in the Junggar basin, only 35 ~ 45 mW/m2, and is45 ~ 55 mW/m2 in the Tarim basin. The results of this study provide an important dataset for studies on thermal and rehological structures of the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> and its adjacent areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tao, W.; Shen, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/v023/i024/96GL03471/96GL03471.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving Bouguer anomalies in <span class="hlt">continents</span>—A new approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nature of anomalies present in free air gravity and their corresponding anomalies in Bouguer gravity over <span class="hlt">continents</span> are analysed in light of isostatic compensation of topographic masses. These anomalies are classified into regional, residual and local and criteria are evolved to identify them. The regional anomaly corresponds to regional topography that is compensated. The local anomaly is related to local</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. V. Subba Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55467723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolving Bouguer anomalies in <span class="hlt">continents</span>-A new approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nature of anomalies present in free air gravity and their corresponding anomalies in Bouguer gravity over <span class="hlt">continents</span> are analyzed in light of isostatic compensation of topographic masses. These anomalies are classified into regional, residual and local and criteria are evolved to identify them. The regional anomaly corresponds to regional topography that is compensated. The local anomaly is related to local</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. V. Subba Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD707515"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Wave Velocities and Earth Structure on The African <span class="hlt">Continent</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phase and group velocities of seismic surface waves were determined for the African <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Rayleigh wave phase velocities range from approximately 3.90 to 4.20 km/sec in the period range of 30.0 to 63.0 sec. Group velocities of fundamental mode Love a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Gumper P. W. Pomeroy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32105124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple adenomatous polyps arising in a <span class="hlt">continent</span> reservoir ileostomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a 29-year-old man who presented with leakage from a <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy after proctocolectomy, endoscopic evaluation of the reservoir revealed extensive adenomatous polyposis. The polyps were not present at the time of revision of the reservoir 4 years earlier. Because it was not possible to fashion an adequate nipple valve in the presence of so many polyps and the concern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Stryker; J. A. Carney; R. R. Dozois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f74m1259l48xp232.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transanal ultrasound and anorectal physiology findings affecting <span class="hlt">continence</span> after sphincteroplasty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate endosonographic and physiologic determinants of fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> after sphincteroplasty. METHODS: Sixteen female patients with severe fecal incontinence were treated with overlapping sphincteroplasty. Mean postoperative follow-up was 12 (range, 3–48) months. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative transanal endosonography and anal manometry. Bilateral pudendal nerve terminal motor latency determinations were performed in each patient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles A. Ternent; Maniamparampil Shashidharan; Garnet J. Blatchford; Mark A. Christensen; Alan G. Thorson; Stephen M. Sentovich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0711143105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulating <span class="hlt">continent</span> growth and composition by chemical weathering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Continents</span> ride high above the ocean floor because they are underlain by thick, low-density, Si-rich, and Mg-poor crust. However, the parental magmas of <span class="hlt">continents</span> were basaltic, which means they must have lost Mg relative to Si during their maturation into <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Igneous differentiation followed by lower crustal delamination and chemical weathering followed by subduction recycling are possible solutions, but the relative magnitudes of each process have never been quantitatively constrained because of the lack of appropriate data. Here, we show that the relative contributions of these processes can be obtained by simultaneous examination of Mg and Li (an analog for Mg) on the regional and global scales in arcs, delaminated lower crust, and river waters. At least 20% of Mg is lost from <span class="hlt">continents</span> by weathering, which translates into >20% of continental mass lost by weathering (40% by delamination). Chemical weathering leaves behind a more Si-rich and Mg-poor crust, which is less dense and hence decreases the probability of crustal recycling by subduction. Net continental growth is thus modulated by chemical weathering and likely influenced by secular changes in weathering mechanisms. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, C. -T. A.; Morton, D. M.; Little, M. G.; Kistler, R.; Horodyskyj, U. N.; Leeman, W. P.; Agranier, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u28448036367p634.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuroanatomy of the striated muscular anal <span class="hlt">continence</span> mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The striated pelvic floor musculature and the striated muscle of the external anal sphincter contribute to anal <span class="hlt">continence</span> by effecting, respectively, the rectoanal angulation of the bowel and an anal high pressure zone. The muscular anatomy of the pelvic floor is generally understood, but the neuroanatomy remains controversial. The authors dissected three male cadavers and traced the sacral nerves from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klaus E. Matzel; Richard A. Schmidt; Emil A. Tanagho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30792883"> <span id="translatedtitle">PERFORATION OF MALONE ANTEGRADE <span class="hlt">CONTINENCE</span> ENEMA: DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose:Severe bowel dysfunction often accompanies neurogenic bladder, and Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (MACE) procedures can lead to improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, complications such as catheter false passage with subsequent intraperitoneal instillation of irrigation can lead to significant morbidity. We present our experience with the diagnosis and management of this condition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WILLIAM DeFOOR; EUGENE MINEVICH; PRAMOD REDDY; ALBAHA BARQAWI; DAVID KITCHENS; CURTIS SHELDON; MARTIN KOYLE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58909597"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> and Crime in Eastern Kentucky</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past ten years, rural Kentucky (and rural pockets of nearby states) witnessed the emergence of a new pharmaceutical drug of abuse. The powerful oxycodone, Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, first manufactured in 1996 and designed for timerelease pain relief, found aready population in rural hamlets and mountain communities. Intended for patients in pain associated with terminal disease, it became a drug of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth D. Tunnell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD634825"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Darwin Rise and the Origin of the <span class="hlt">Continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Darwin Rise across the Pacific may be the remnant of a recently subsided but ancient oceanic ridge created by the upwelling of the single-cell convection which, according to Hills and Jeffreys, had swept together the primeval <span class="hlt">continent</span> and opened up t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Orowan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23917361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paraganglioma of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paraganglioma of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is extremely rare. In this report of a young man, hypertensive crisis and ventricular arrhythmia was provoked during cystoscopic evaluation of a bladder mass. A diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was considered following detection of high serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catecholamine levels. A preoperative meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan was, however, negative. The bladder mass was surgically removed following initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Pathological confirmation of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was established. During a serial follow-up, serum and urine catecholamine levels were persistently elevated. This was explained by abnormalities on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan, which were considered to represent a metastatic malignant neuroendocrine tumour. The patient is on palliative chemotherapy for malignant paraganglioma. This case highlights variable presentation of pheochromocytoma, importance of having a high index of clinical suspicion for early recognition and prompt management and serious adverse consequence of a delayed diagnosis. PMID:23917361</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malik, Azhar Ali; Afandi, Bachar; Jamil, Gohar; Akhter, Syed M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/83/3/1007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Iodide Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assessment of iodine deficiency and monitoring of iodine supple- mentation programs demand rapid, simple, and cost-effective meth- ods for the determination of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> iodide concentrations. We pro- pose a semiquantitative rapid test, based on the iodide-catalyzed oxidation of 3,39,5,59-tetramethylbenzidine by peracetic acid\\/H2O2 ,t o yield colored products. The color of the chemical reaction is compared with color categories of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Rendl; D. BIER; T. GROH; C. REINERS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22460386"> <span id="translatedtitle">The management of adolescents with neurogenic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract and bowel dysfunction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction arrive into adolescence with reasonably managed lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract function only to experience bladder and kidney function deterioration after puberty. The aim of this article is to identify issues that contribute to adverse changes in bladder and renal function during adolescence and to highlight strategies to preserve <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract integrity, social <span class="hlt">continence</span>, patient autonomy, and independence. Surveillance of bladder function requires patient attendance at review appointments and compliance with treatment plans. While encouraging independence and treatment compliance the clinician also needs to consider altered mental concentrating ability and fine motor skills of these patients. A keen eye for imminent loss of patient compliance to treatment protocol should be the mainstay of each encounter during puberty and adolescence. Annual surveillance of adolescent neurogenic bladder patients facilitates early identification of risk factors for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract deterioration. Investigations include renal and bladder ultrasonography, urodynamic study when indicated, substantiated by videocystometry when anatomical status dictates. Serum creatinine should be measured and renal scintigraphy performed when upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dilation, renal scarring, or atrophy are suspected. Optimal management of adolescents with neurologic disease of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract included strategies to reduce elevated detrusor pressure, maintain bladder compliance, and maximize dryness. Antimuscarinic medications, botulinum toxin A, and surgical procedures are enhanced by bowel management regimens and regular nurse or urotherapist patient contact. Caring for the patient as a whole requires discussion of sexuality, fertility status, and behaviors that increase the risk of progressive <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract damage. PMID:22460386</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Kort, L M O; Bower, W F; Swithinbank, L V; Marschall-Kehrel, D; de Jong, T P V M; Bauer, S B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874306"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi and infection].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Infection <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete clearance of the stone must be achieved by primary surgical procedure and residual fragments should be extensively treated. In the case of persistent infection, conservative measures, such as acidification and urease inhibitors or citrate administration, should be adopted to minimize its effect on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> saturation with respect to struvite. PMID:24874306</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trinchieri, Alberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2670Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mantle temperature under drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> during the supercontinent cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the <span class="hlt">continent</span> is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a combination of introversion and extroversion processes. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2D and 3D simulation models with rigid nondeformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> is not confirmed. The small-scale thermal heterogeneity is dominated in deep mantle convection during the supercontinent cycle, although the large-scale, active upwelling plumes intermittently originate under drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> and/or the supercontinent. Results suggest that active subducting cold plates along continental margins generate thermal heterogeneity with short-wavelength structures, which is consistent with the thermal heterogeneity in the present-day mantle convection inferred from seismic tomography models. References: [1] Yoshida, M. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable <span class="hlt">continents</span> during the supercontinent cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013, in press. [2] Yoshida, M. and M. Santosh, Mantle convection modeling of supercontinent cycle: Introversion, extroversion, or combination?, 2013, submitted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshida, Masaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1383M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydration of the lithospheric mantle by the descending plate in a <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collisional setting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When <span class="hlt">continents</span> collide, can the orogenic crust be thickened by the process of wholesale underthrusting of the descending plate (Zhou & Murphy, 2005)? Actually, thick lithospheric plates collide after complete subduction of the oceanic plate in between. Thus, the role of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate must be considered to answer this question. As the descending plate, especially its former near-surface region, significantly dehydrates, the hydration of this mantle portion was studied. For this reason, pressure (P) - temperature (T) and T- H2O pseudosections were calculated for an average mantle composition using the computer software PERPLEX (Connolly, 2005). These pseudosections were contoured by isopleths for volumes of amphibole, chlorite, and serpentine. It can be easily recognized from the produced graphs that considerable amounts of amphibole and chlorite can result from addition of some water to the dry ultrabasite. In the P-range 8 to 15 kbar, a maximum of nearly 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite forms when only 1.5 wt.% H2O is added at temperatures up to 700°C. This amount of chlorite continuously disappears with rising temperatures up to 800°C and somewhat more. In the given P-range, serpentine forms only below 600°C and H2O contents >2 wt.% added. For example, at 550°C and 5 wt.% H2O hydrous phases amount to about 35 vol.% serpentine, 10 vol.% of each chlorite and amphibole and very little biotite in the studied ultrabasite. As the hydration of the lithospheric mantle below the upper plate would change its rheological properties, the following geodynamic scenario is conceivable: The tip of the descending continental plate hydrates this mantle portion and weakens it. This allows the buoyant tip of this plate to penetrate the lithospheric mantle close to the interface of mantle and overlying crust. As the dehydration of the penetrating continental crust continues by heating, the hydration and weakening of the mantle is also ongoing to cause a significant penetration and, thus, a wholesale thrusting of the descending plate under the other continental plate, eventually with a thin hydrated mantle region in between. For example, pelitic rocks, common in the upper portion of continental crust, can release about 2.5 wt.% H2O between 450 to 650°C at 10-15 kbar (e.g. Massonne et al., 2013). A pile of 3 km of such rocks extending over 300 km perpendicular to the initial orogenic front could supply so much water to produce a 500 m thick weak zone in the mantle with about 20 vol.% amphibole and 10 vol.% chlorite over 3000 km. The termination of the underthrust process can be caused by heating of the frontal portion of the underthrust plate to 650°C and more, which is then not anymore capable to hydrate the lithospheric mantle. Connolly, J.A.D., 2005. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 236, 524-541. Massonne, H.-J. et al., 2013. Lithos 156-159, 171-185. Zhou, H.-W. & Murphy, M.A., 2005. J. Asian Earth Sci. 25, 445-457</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Massonne, Hans-Joachim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Antarctica&pg=7&id=EJ529985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continents</span> on the Move or "Where in the World Did Antarctica Come From?"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents an activity in which students trace the movement of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> over the past 600 million years to help them understand how the <span class="hlt">continents</span>' size and position have changed over time. Includes map puzzle pieces. (MKR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CSTA Journal, 1995</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610589W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Ocean Boundary of the South China Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Ocean Boundary of the South China Sea Ling Wan Bochu Yao Huodai Zhang Bin Han (Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, Guangzhou, China, 510760) The determination of the <span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Ocean Boundary (COB) of the South China Sea (SCS) is a key issue related to fully understanding the rifted continental margins and evolutionof the SCS. But the COB of the SCS is highly variable in different ways by different researcher. In this paper, we investigate the boundary between the continental and oceanic crust of this basin mainly relied on the multiple-channel seismic profiles constrained by free air gravity anomaly and magnetic anomaly. Based on the synthesied gephysical interpretation the COB of the SCS is relocated. Furthermore, the COB patterns of the SCS are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wan, Ling; Yao, Bochu; Zhang, Huodai; Han, Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AREPS..31..213D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Madagascar: Heads It's a <span class="hlt">Continent</span>, Tails It's an Island</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a <span class="hlt">continent</span>; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger <span class="hlt">continents</span>, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Wit, Maarten J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.2909Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented and in the focus of this paper. Specifically, we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive extremes (i.e., statistically unusual increases in carbon uptake rates) and negative extremes (i.e., statistically unusual decreases in carbon uptake rates) on each <span class="hlt">continent</span> can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power-law distributed with exponents that vary little across <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Moreover, we show that on all <span class="hlt">continents</span> and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role for the overall impact of GPP extremes compared to the durations or maximal GPP. An analysis of possible causes across <span class="hlt">continents</span> indicates that most negative extremes in GPP can be attributed clearly to water scarcity, whereas extreme temperatures play a secondary role. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we also identify fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zscheischler, J.; Reichstein, M.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Mahecha, M. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59732617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Rectus Abdominis Muscle Sphincter for Stomal <span class="hlt">Continence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some life-saving surgeries result in the necessity to establish permanent intestinal stomas; this outcome has an undeniable physical and emotional effect on the patient's life. Although patients with permanent stomas reasonably adjust, complications that include peristomal skin irritation, pouching system dysfunction, social inhibition, depression, and sexual dysfunction also have been reported. \\u000aThe quest for intestinal stomal <span class="hlt">continence</span> has resulted in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. J. M. Bardoel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7132865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> natural gas reservoirs and plays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bebout, D.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://georoc.mpch-mainz.gwdg.de/georoc/Start.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle">GEOROC: Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maintained by the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, the Geochemistry of Rocks of the Oceans and <span class="hlt">Continents</span> database (GEOROC) contains about 70,000 sample analyses. These include whole rock, mineral, and inclusion data from seven tectonic settings such as convergent margins, oceanic plateaus, and ocean islands. The database can be queried by several criteria including a handy precompiled file compilation, which can be downloaded for further examination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.1869Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP) as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake) and negative extremes (decrease in uptake) on each <span class="hlt">continent</span> can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Moreover, we show that on all <span class="hlt">continents</span> and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across <span class="hlt">continents</span> most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zscheischler, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Harmeling, S.; Rammig, A.; Tomelleri, E.; Reichstein, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T41B2584M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Residual topography and lithospheric structure of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antarctica has been the subject of considerable interest in the past few years, following the International Polar Year. The structure of its crust at a continental scale is however still known with large uncertainty. A new Moho depth map for the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span> has been recently assembled (AntMoho), merging copious information from geophysical and geological studies selected from the literature. A large volume of old and new data has been analyzed: mostly seismic experiments, as well as receiver functions and geological studies, ranging from DSS profiles acquired by Soviet Union field experiments, to recent seismic receiver function studies. AntMoho has a reference lateral resolution of 1 degree. We compare this new model to other available for the whole <span class="hlt">continent</span> (Bassin et al., 2000; Block et al., 2009) and study the possible geodynamic consequences calculating the residual topography. Residual topography is obtained by removing the isostatic contribution of the crust from the observed topography. Long-wavelength residual topography is interpreted as dynamic response to large scale mantle convection and density contrasts. Our calculations show that significantly different inferences on lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics may result from the variance in Moho depth recorded in the different models. A better knowledge of Moho depth and, more generally, crustal structure for Antarctica at a <span class="hlt">continent</span> scale is a goal with likely consequences for better understanding of the complex dynamic processes acting at a regional scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molinari, I.; Baranov, A.; Danesi, S.; Morelli, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=6&display=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minimally Invasive Management of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Minimally Invasive Management of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is a very ... muscle cannot contract effectively. What is minimally invasive management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence? Some of the causes of ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ees.lanl.gov/staff/benp/downloads/Phillips2009a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">True polar wander in mantle convection models with multiple, mobile <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geologic record supports numerous instances during which <span class="hlt">continents</span> apparently moved at speeds significantly faster than any of today's tectonic plates. While the time dependence of convective driving forces likely explains some such observations, rapid motions of large <span class="hlt">continents</span> in particular are often attributed to true polar wander (TPW). In order to gauge the potential for connections between <span class="hlt">continents</span>, mantle</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benjamin R. Phillips; Hans-Peter Bunge; Katrin Schaber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Staff+AND+turnover&id=EJ882965"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Do People Make <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Care Happen? An Analysis of Organizational Culture in Two Nursing Homes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Although nursing homes (NHs) are criticized for offering poor quality <span class="hlt">continence</span> care, little is known about the organizational processes that underlie this care. This study investigated the influence of organizational culture on <span class="hlt">continence</span> care practices in two NHs. Design and Methods: This ethnographic study explored <span class="hlt">continence</span> care…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyons, Stacie Salsbury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30416353"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Malone Antegrade <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Enema for Neurogenic and Structural Fecal Incontinence and Constipation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a <span class="hlt">continent</span> catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total <span class="hlt">continence</span> 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin A. Koyle; Devonna M. Kaji; Manuel Duque; Jodi Wild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29047495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stagnant loop syndrome in patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy (intra-abdominal ileal reservoir)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intestinal absorption and bacteriology of the ileal contents were compared in seven patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy and seven patients with conventional ileostomy. The absorption of vitamin B12 was reduced in five patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> ileostomy and subnormal in two patients with conventional ileostomy. Steatorrhoea was present in four patients with <span class="hlt">continent</span> and one patient with conventional ileostomy. Increased concentrations of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H Schjonsby; J F Halvorsen; T Hofstad; N Hovdenak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22476800"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence after orthotopic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Orthotopic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion (OUD) is performed in almost half of all radical cystectomies. This review presents an overview of the incidence, pathophysiology, and management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI) after OUD. Daytime and nighttime UI are reported in up to 15% and 45% of cases after OUD, respectively. UI after OUD is more frequent in women. Stress incontinence is the most common reason for daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> leakage, while an absent vesicourethral reflex with reduced external sphincter muscle tone is associated with nighttime UI. Conservative management has limited therapeutic value in UI after OUD. Surgical approaches include adjustable and nonadjustable slings as well as the ProACT® system in mild stress UI. Implantation of the artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter system AMS 800® is the standard treatment for stress UI after OUD. Very limited data exist regarding results after implantation of newer artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter systems such as the FlowSecure® and the Zephyr® ZSI 375 after OUD. PMID:22476800</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soave, A; Dahlem, R; Rink, M; Ahyai, S; Fisch, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49626780"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Diseases of Reptiles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article will provide an overview of diseases that affect the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system of reptiles. Although this information does not offer a comprehensive review of these disease conditions, more in-depth disease descriptions can be found in the articles and books listed in the references. After a brief summary of the normal gross appearance of the reptile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system, the article</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drury R. Reavill; Robert E. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of spinal serotonergic pathways in sneeze-induced urethral <span class="hlt">continence</span> reflex in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To clarify the role of spinal serotonergic mechanisms in preventing stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we investigated the effect of intrathecal (it) application of 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT(2B/2C) agonist), and fluoxetine (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) using a rat model that can examine the neurally evoked <span class="hlt">continence</span> reflex during sneezing. Amplitudes of urethral pressure responses during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the midurethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal female adult rats and rats with SUI induced by vaginal distention (VD). In normal rats, 8-OH-DPAT decreased A-URS by 48.9%, whereas mCPP increased A-URS by 33.6%. However, A-URS was not changed after fluoxetine. 8-OH-DPAT, mCPP, or fluoxetine did not alter UBP. The effect of 8-OH-DPAT and mCPP was antagonized by WAY-100635 (it), a selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist, and RS-102221 (it), a selective 5-HT(2C) antagonist, respectively. Fluoxetine in the presence of WAY-100635 did not change either A-URS or UBP, but fluoxetine in the presence of RS-102221 decreased A-URS. In VD rats, S-LPP was decreased by 14.6 cmH2O after 8-OH-DPAT, whereas it was increased by 12.8 cmH2O after mCPP. However, S-LPP was not changed after fluoxetine. These results indicate that activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors enhances the active urethral closure reflex during sneezing at the spinal level, whereas 5-HT(1A) inhibits it and that no apparent changes in the sneeze-induced <span class="hlt">continence</span> reflex after fluoxetine treatment are due to coactivation of excitatory 5-HT(2C) receptors and inhibitory 5-HT receptors other than the 5-HT(1A) subtype. Thus, activation of excitatory 5-HT receptor subtypes such as 5-HT(2C) could be effective for the treatment of SUI. PMID:19640898</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miyazato, Minoru; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Kamo, Izumi; Kitta, Takeya; Chancellor, Michael B; Sugaya, Kimio; Arai, Yoichi; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11560644"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of clinical guidelines for female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence: a comparative analysis of organizational structures and service delivery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study was to explore and compare the development of <span class="hlt">continence</span> services in two contrasting trusts. The first was a community trust which had initiated a top-down purchaser-led <span class="hlt">continence</span> service. The second was a combined acute and community trust which had introduced a bottom-up, organic <span class="hlt">continence</span> service based on staff development. The research used a qualitative, interpretative design. Evidence-based guidelines for female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (FUI) were analysed and key organizational features elicited. These were used to frame and analyse 20 semi-structured interviews with a range of community-based professionals who provided a service to women suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. The interviews identified practitioner knowledge and awareness of the evidence pertaining to the management and treatment of FUI and also the features of the organizational structure of service provision in their locality which facilitated or constrained the implementation of evidence-based treatment in this area. The findings suggest that evidence-based guidelines were more closely adhered to in practice, in the trust using organic approaches to service development. Top-down, purchaser led approaches were more prescriptive and circumscribed the scope of professional practice. This adversely affected access to services for women suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Organic approaches to service development produce more flexible, responsive services. It is difficult, however, to integrate this approach with strategic planning as the flexibility required maybe incompatible with managerial responsibilities for defining roles and organizational functions. PMID:11560644</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knight, Ruth; Procter, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA277943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Urea Nitrogen for Predicting Total <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Nitrogen in Thermally Injured Patients. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimations of total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen from measured <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen are commonly used in calculating nitrogen balance. Recently published studies suggest the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen/total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen relationship is in constant and total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Milner W. G. Cioffi A. D. Mason W. F. McManus B. A. Pruitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8995750"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of human <span class="hlt">urinary</span> epinephrine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kidney is a likely source for some <span class="hlt">urinary</span> epinephrine (E) since adrenalectomized animals and humans continue to excrete <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E and the human kidney contains E synthesizing enzymes. We studied subjects during an intravenous infusion of 3H-E to determine the fraction of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E derived from the kidney. Eight normal subjects (CON) and 5 older, heavier hypertensives (OHH) ate a light breakfast along with ascorbic acid supplementation and had intravenous and arterial lines placed. They received an infusion of 3H-E and had an oral water load. During the final hour of 3H-E infusion, urine and arterial blood samples were collected for 3H-E and E levels. After the 3H-E infusion was abruptly discontinued, arterial blood samples were collected to measure 3H-E kinetics. The total body clearance of 3H-E was about 2,500 ml/min from plasma and clearance of 3H-E to urine was about 170 ml/min. CON had plasma E levels of 43 +/- 4 pg/ml. Their predicted rate of clearance of E from plasma to urine of 7,471 +/- 865 pg/min was less than (P = 0.018) the actual <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E excretion of 15,037 +/- 2,625 pg/min. Thus, 43 +/- 9% of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E in CON was apparently derived from renal sources and not filtered from blood. Among OHH 85 +/- 4% of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E was derived from the kidney, significantly (P < 0.01) different from CON. The OHH also produced much more <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E than predicted from plasma 3H-E clearance into urine (P = 0.03). A major fraction of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E is not filtered from the blood stream but is apparently derived from kidney. A small fraction of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E may be derived from E stored in nerve endings along with norepinephrine, but this probably represents less than 2% of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E. Renal cleavage of E sulfate into E may be another potential source of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E. Some, and perhaps most, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E not filtered from the bloodstream is derived from renal N-methylation of norepinephrine as the human kidney has two enzymes capable of converting norepinephrine to E. In conclusion, a major portion of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> E is derived from the kidney and not filtered from the bloodstream. This is an important factor in the interpretation of urine E levels. Renal E could alter renal blood flow, electrolyte reabsorption, and renin release prior to excretion into urine. PMID:8995750</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ziegler, M G; Aung, M; Kennedy, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43H..04V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations in Tectonic Styles of Arc-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ancient arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collisions are commonly informally described as hard or soft, although the differences between these two are rarely defined. We define a hard collision where the overriding arc (including infant arcs preserved in obducted ophiolites) has been significantly thickened in proximity to the suture zone due to internal deformation. Upper plate deformation involved progressive underthrusting and thickening of parts of the arc-forearc terrane, presumably as a result of progressive widening of the subduction channel into the hangingwall. The Late Cretaceous Kohistan arc collision with Eurasia or India is an example of a hard collision. A more ancient example of a well-studied arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision is the Early-Middle Ordovician, (Taconic) collision between the Laurentian Humber margin and the Notre Dame arc in the Northern Appalachians. The collision was hard where the arc was built on continental crust (Dashwoods), because parts of both the ophiolitic forearc basement (Baie Verte oceanic tract) and the leading edge of the arc block were locally intensely deformed and metamorphosed with conditions ranging from high pressure greenschist to amphibolite and/or granulite facies conditions. However, where the Notre Dame arc transgresses from a continental to an oceanic substrate, the style of collision appears to change from hard to soft and more resembles the relatively soft Late Cretaceous collision between the infant arc preserved in the Semail ophiolite and the Arabian continental margin. Subsequent Ordovician-Silurian collisions involving arc blocks in the Appalachians are generally soft or show a more intermediate character between hard and soft such as the China-Luzon arc collision in central Taiwan. Here most of the forearc block appears to have been deformed and subducted, whereas the arc itself remained relatively undeformed. Other orogens (e.g. Canadian Cordillera) may show a similar variation in style of arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collisions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Staal, C.; Zagorevski, A.; Castonguay, S.; Massonne, H.; McNicoll, V.; Willner, A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820014753&hterms=continent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcontinent"> <span id="translatedtitle">MAGSAT and aeromagnetic data in the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problems were encountered in deriving a proper reference field to be subtracted from the aeromagnetic data obtained from Project MAGNET. Field models tried thus far do not seem to eliminate properly the main field. The MAGSAT data in the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> for the period November 1 to December 22, 1979 are being compiled and compared with MAGNET data. Efforts are being made to eliminate the orbital bias errors. A computer program was developed and successfully tested which computes a topographic profile of the Curie depth isotherm which fits best to the observed vector or scalar field magnetic data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecologists have long sought to understand the factors controlling the structure of savanna vegetation. Using data from 2154 sites in savannas across Africa, Australia, and South America, we found that increasing moisture availability drives increases in fire and tree basal area, whereas fire reduces tree basal area. However, among <span class="hlt">continents</span>, the magnitude of these effects varied substantially, so that a single model cannot adequately represent savanna woody biomass across these regions. Historical and environmental differences drive the regional variation in the functional relationships between woody vegetation, fire, and climate. These same differences will determine the regional responses of vegetation to future climates, with implications for global carbon stocks. PMID:24482480</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehmann, Caroline E R; Anderson, T Michael; Sankaran, Mahesh; Higgins, Steven I; Archibald, Sally; Hoffmann, William A; Hanan, Niall P; Williams, Richard J; Fensham, Roderick J; Felfili, Jeanine; Hutley, Lindsay B; Ratnam, Jayashree; San Jose, Jose; Montes, Ruben; Franklin, Don; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Ryan, Casey M; Durigan, Giselda; Hiernaux, Pierre; Haidar, Ricardo; Bowman, David M J S; Bond, William J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/?page_id=474?&passid=11"> <span id="translatedtitle">MY NASA DATA: Comparison of Snow Cover on Different <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this data activity, students create maps of the snow cover of each <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and determine the average global snow cover. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16298166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in women, and one in four of these women will develop a recurrence. Various risk factors predispose women of different age groups to recurrence. These factors include sexual intercourse, use of contraception, antimicrobials, oestrogen, genetics, and the distance of the urethra from the anus. Of the different pathogens, Escherichia coli is the organism most commonly isolated. A variety of treatment options has been proposed, including long-term or post-intercourse prophylaxis and patient-initiated therapy. Oestrogen and cranberry juice have also been used as prophylactic treatment adjuncts. At present, other therapeutic and preventive modalities are being investigated, including the development of vaccines to treat those most severely affected. PMID:16298166</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franco, Anna Virginia M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24792715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of patients' skin, environmental surfaces, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters as sources for transmission of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pathogens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In hospitalized patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection or asymptomatic bacteriuria, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pathogens frequently contaminate skin, high-touch environmental surfaces, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters. Contamination is more common in patients with a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter in place and with gram-positive pathogens. Patients' skin and environmental surfaces may provide an important source for transmission of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pathogens. PMID:24792715</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linder, Kathleen A; Hecker, Michelle T; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Musuuza, Jackson S; Sethi, Ajay K; Donskey, Curtis J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and <span class="hlt">continents</span> are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six <span class="hlt">continents</span> with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT........62W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The transport of osmium from the <span class="hlt">continents</span> to the oceans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the transport of osmium from the <span class="hlt">continents</span> to the oceans is critical in expanding and refining the utility of osmium isotopes in the Cenozoic paleooceanographic curve as a tracer of past plate tectonic activity and Earth weathering history1. Before we can project into the past, however, we need to comprehend the modern distribution and transport processes of osmium in the surficial environment. This approach will lead us to a modern mass balance for osmium and an accurate estimate of its oceanic residence time. Sample analyses of aerosols, soils, rivers and estuaries constrain the sources and modes of transport of osmium. Restriction of a less radiogenic anthropogenic signal close to pollution sources requires that estuaries act as at least temporary traps for osmium.2 Measurement of aerosols in New Haven, Connecticut indicates that local fluxes of atmospheric osmium may be high, but analogy with 210Pb indicates that the global atmospheric flux of more radiogenic osmium from the <span class="hlt">continents</span> to the oceans are minor compared to the riverine flux.3 Evidence obtained from the leaching of rapid accumulation rate, reducing sediments of Santa Barbara Basin over the last glacial-interglacial period indicates that seawater osmium was less radiogenic during the last glacial, requires that the residence time of osmium in seawater is ˜10 ka4. 1Pegram et al (1992). 2Williams et al (1997). 3Williams and Turekian (1998), Williams and Turekian (2002, in press). 4Williams and Turekian (1997).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, Gwyneth Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Archean komatiite volcanism controlled by the evolution of early <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The generation and evolution of Earth's continental crust has played a fundamental role in the development of the planet. Its formation modified the composition of the mantle, contributed to the establishment of the atmosphere, and led to the creation of ecological niches important for early life. Here we show that in the Archean, the formation and stabilization of <span class="hlt">continents</span> also controlled the location, geochemistry, and volcanology of the hottest preserved lavas on Earth: komatiites. These magmas typically represent 50-30% partial melting of the mantle and subsequently record important information on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Archean-Proterozoic Earth. As a result, it is vital to constrain and understand the processes that govern their localization and emplacement. Here, we combined Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb geochronology to map the four-dimensional evolution of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and reveal the progressive development of an Archean microcontinent. Our results show that in the early Earth, relatively small crustal blocks, analogous to modern microplates, progressively amalgamated to form larger continental masses, and eventually the first cratons. This cratonization process drove the hottest and most voluminous komatiite eruptions to the edge of established continental blocks. The dynamic evolution of the early <span class="hlt">continents</span> thus directly influenced the addition of deep mantle material to the Archean crust, oceans, and atmosphere, while also providing a fundamental control on the distribution of major magmatic ore deposits. PMID:24958873</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mole, David R; Fiorentini, Marco L; Thebaud, Nicolas; Cassidy, Kevin F; McCuaig, T Campbell; Kirkland, Christopher L; Romano, Sandra S; Doublier, Michael P; Belousova, Elena A; Barnes, Stephen J; Miller, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2897N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent formation of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on early Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our study we want to understand how Earth evolved with time and examine the initiation of plate tectonics and the possible formation of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on Earth. Plate tectonics and <span class="hlt">continents</span> seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life [1], and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, atmospheric temperature), and may also depend on the biosphere. Earth is the only terrestrial planet (i.e. with a rocky mantle and iron core) in the solar system where long-term plate tectonics evolved. Knowing the factors that have a strong influence on the occurrence of plate tectonics allows for prognoses about plate tectonics on terrestrial exoplanets that have been detected in the past decade, and about the likelihood of these planets to harbour Earth-like life. For this purpose, planetary interior and surface processes are coupled via 'particles' as computational tracers in the 3D code GAIA [2,3]. These particles are dispersed in the mantle and crust of the modelled planet and can track the relevant rock properties (e.g. density or water content) over time. During the thermal evolution of the planet, the particles are advected due to mantle convection and along melt paths towards the surface and help to gain information about the thermo-chemical system. This way basaltic crust that is subducted into the silicate mantle is traced in our model. It is treated differently than mantle silicates when re-molten, such that granitic (felsic) crust is produced (similar to the evolution of continental crust on early Earth [4]), which is stored in the particle properties. We apply a pseudo-plastic rheology and use small friction coefficients (since an increased reference viscosity is used in our model). We obtain initiation of plate tectonics and self-consistent formation of pre-<span class="hlt">continents</span> after a few Myr up to several Gyr - depending on the initial conditions and applied rheology. Furthermore, our first results indicate that <span class="hlt">continents</span> can stabilize plate tectonics, analogous to the results obtained by [5]. The model will be further developed to treat hydration and dehydration of oceanic crust as well as subduction of carbonates to allow for a self-consistent 3D model of early Earth including a direct link between interior and atmosphere via both outgassing [6] and regassing. References [1] Ward, P.D. and Brownlee, D. (2000), Rare Earth, Springer. [2] Hüttig, C. and Stemmer, K. (2008), PEPI, 171(1-4):137-146. [3] Plesa, A.-C., Tosi, N. and Hüttig, C. (2013), in: Integrated Information and Computing Systems for Natural, Spatial, and Social Sciences, IGI Global, 302-323. [4] Arndt, N.T. and Nisbet, E.G. (2012), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40:521-549. [5] Rolf, T. and Tackley, P.J. (2011), GRL, 38:L18301. [6] Noack, L., Breuer, D. and Spohn, T. (2012), Icarus, 217(2):484-498.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB85240208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technologies for Managing <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The case study describes the problem of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and its costs to the medical care system and society as a whole. Effectiveness of alternative approaches to the management of this major health problem are outlined, with particular emphasis on ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ouslander R. Kane S. Vollmer M. Menezes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1473013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacotherapy for Stress <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this review article is to highlight new pharmacotherapies on the horizon for the treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Although behavioral and surgical therapies are currently the mainstay of treatment for this condition, we are hopeful that pharmacotherapy will one day take center stage of the various treatment options. Currently, there are no medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. However, exciting clinical data are becoming available about an oral medication for the treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence that appears to be clinically safe and efficacious. In addition to discussing medications currently under development, this article also discusses pharmacologic targets that could be suitable future targets to treat stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cannon, Tracy W; Chancellor, Michael B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15968447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phaeochromocytoma of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occurrence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder paragangliomas is rare. A 12-year-old Chinese girl who presented with history of blurring of vision was found to have grade IV hypertensive retinopathy. Investigations revealed a phaeochromocytoma on the posterior wall of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. A partial cystectomy with right ureter reimplantation was undertaken and her hypertension was promptly controlled. The diagnosis and management of this rare tumour is discussed. PMID:15968447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naqiyah, I; Rohaizak, M; Meah, F A; Nazri, M J; Sundram, M; Amram, A R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® as Currency: Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® Use and Increased Social Capital among Rural Appalachian Drug Users</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n=503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants’ drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of sociodemographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonas, Adam B.; Young, April M.; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2858859"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of Surgical Treatment for Female Stress <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence: Era of Mid-Urethral Slings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the integral theory, tension-free placement of a mid-urethral sling (MUS) for female stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) has gained substantial popularity owing to the ease of the procedure and its effectiveness. Published series with long-term follow-up show <span class="hlt">continence</span> rates after the MUS procedure ranging from 70% to 80%. Complication rates after MUS procedures are usually low. This review aimed to describe the historical change and the current use of the MUS. We discuss the efficacy and complications of various MUS procedures and the current strategies for managing failed slings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Ha Na</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESS...18..193T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of different evaporation estimates over the African <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaporation is a key process in the water cycle with implications ranging, inter alia, from water management to weather forecast and climate change assessments. The estimation of continental evaporation fluxes is complex and typically relies on continental-scale hydrological models or land-surface models. However, it appears that most global or continental-scale hydrological models underestimate evaporative fluxes in some regions of Africa, and as a result overestimate stream flow. Other studies suggest that land-surface models may overestimate evaporative fluxes. In this study, we computed actual evaporation for the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> using a continental version of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which is based on a water balance approach. Results are compared with other independently computed evaporation products: the evaporation results from the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim and ERA-Land (both based on the energy balance approach), the MOD16 evaporation product, and the GLEAM product. Three other alternative versions of the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model were also considered. This resulted in eight products of actual evaporation, which were compared in distinct regions of the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> spanning different climatic regimes. Annual totals, spatial patterns and seasonality were studied and compared through visual inspection and statistical methods. The comparison shows that the representation of irrigation areas has an insignificant contribution to the actual evaporation at a continental scale with a 0.5° spatial resolution when averaged over the defined regions. The choice of meteorological forcing data has a larger effect on the evaporation results, especially in the case of the precipitation input as different precipitation input resulted in significantly different evaporation in some of the studied regions. ERA-Interim evaporation is generally the highest of the selected products followed by ERA-Land evaporation. In some regions, the satellite-based products (GLEAM and MOD16) show a different seasonal behaviour compared to the other products. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the suitability and the differences between products in each climatic region. Through an improved understanding of the causes of differences between these products and their uncertainty, this study provides information to improve the quality of evaporation products for the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> and, consequently, leads to improved water resources assessments at regional scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trambauer, P.; Dutra, E.; Maskey, S.; Werner, M.; Pappenberger, F.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Uhlenbrook, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57742279"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Exploratory Study of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Use Among Individuals with Substance Use Disorders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study surveyed 422 individuals being treated in a substance abuse treatment program that offers various levels of care in order to learn about Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® use among this population. Focus areas included exposure and use of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, how this medication was obtained, reasons for initial use, and whether users of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> were drug naive or experienced users of opiate or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael S. Levy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4098662"> <span id="translatedtitle">The antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zbar, Andrew P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1187974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on <span class="hlt">continents</span> and islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ?11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ?10,500 yr BP in South America, and ?4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on <span class="hlt">continents</span> or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22925452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vaginal delivery following single incision sling (TVT-Secur) for female stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, surgical treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence has become minimally invasive owing to the introduction of the transobturator route first and then single incision devices for positioning of mid-urethral slings. Although a number of case reports in the literature describe pregnancies successfully terminated both by vaginal delivery and cesarean section following mid-urethral sling positioning, there is still no definitive consensus on which is the preferred mode of delivery in these patients. We report a case of spontaneous vaginal delivery at term in a 41-year-old multiparous woman two years after the positioning of a single incision sling (TVT-Secur). The patient remained <span class="hlt">continent</span> throughout the gestation and in the following 24?months. This case seems to further support the concept that sling procedures for stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence do not represent an absolute contraindication to spontaneous vaginal delivery, although the preferred mode of delivery must be assessed on an individual basis. PMID:22925452</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Di Carlo, Costantino; Formisano, Carmen; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T31E..01L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clustered and transient earthquake sequences in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes result from sudden release of strain energy on faults. On plate boundary faults, strain energy is constantly accumulating from steady and relatively rapid relative plate motion, so large earthquakes continue to occur so long as motion continues on the boundary. In contrast, such steady accumulation of stain energy does not occur on faults in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span>, because the far-field tectonic loading is not steadily distributed between faults, and because stress perturbations from complex fault interactions and other stress triggers can be significant relative to the slow tectonic stressing. Consequently, mid-continental earthquakes are often temporally clustered and transient, and spatially migrating. This behavior is well illustrated by large earthquakes in North China in the past two millennia, during which no single large earthquakes repeated on the same fault segments, but moment release between large fault systems was complementary. Slow tectonic loading in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span> also causes long aftershock sequences. We show that the recent small earthquakes in the Tangshan region of North China are aftershocks of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.5), rather than indicators of a new phase of seismic activity in North China, as many fear. Understanding the transient behavior of mid-continental earthquakes has important implications for assessing earthquake hazards. The sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in central US, which includes a cluster of M~7 events in 1811-1812 and perhaps a few similar ones in the past millennium, is likely a transient process, releasing previously accumulated elastic strain on recently activated faults. If so, this earthquake sequence will eventually end. Using simple analysis and numerical modeling, we show that the large NMSZ earthquakes may be ending now or in the near future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.; Luo, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img 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href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424057"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers of Oxidative Status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas <span class="hlt">urinary</span> 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Il'yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4114799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catheter associated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2214234"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approach to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in women. Diagnosis and management by family physicians.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE; To outline an approach to diagnosis and management of the types of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence seen by family physicians. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Recommendations for diagnosis are based on consensus guidelines. Treatment recommendations are based on level I and II evidence. Guidelines for referral are based on the authors' opinions and experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Diagnoses of stress, urge, or mixed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence are easily established in family physicians' offices by history and gynecologic examination and sometimes a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stress test. There is little need for formal diagnostic testing. Management by family physicians (without need for specialist referral) includes lifestyle modification, pelvic floor muscle strengthening, bladder retraining, and pharmacotherapy with muscarinic receptor antagonists. Patients with pelvic organ prolapse might require specialist referral for consideration of pessaries or surgery, but family physicians can provide follow-up care. Women with more complex problems, such as severe prolapse or failed <span class="hlt">continence</span> surgery, require referral. CONCLUSION: <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is a common condition in women. In most cases, it can be diagnosed and managed effectively by family physicians.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Neil, Barbara; Gilmour, Donna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1075..155W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infrared Spectral Studies of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Stones Resected from <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stone resected from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder of a patient hailing from Kollam district of Kerala, India is characterized by using analytical techniques like powder XRD, EDAX and FTIR spectroscopy. The EDAX spectrum of the sample shows the presence of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the sample under investigation. Most of the XRD peaks can be indexed to that of uric acid with monoclinic structure. The most intense band in the IR spectrum is observed at 1122 cm-1 and is due to C-C stretching vibrations. The XRD and FTIR investigations suggest that the major constituent of the present sample is uric acid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, E. V.; Bushiril, M. Junaid; Vaidyan, V. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1508366"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drug-Induced <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Calculi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7277B"> <span id="translatedtitle">GOCE observations for Mineral exploration in Africa and across <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gravity anomaly field over the whole Earth obtained by the GOCE satellite is a revolutionary tool to reveal geologic information on a continental scale for the large areas where conventional gravity measurements have yet to be made (e.g. Alvarez et al., 2012). It is, however, necessary to isolate the near-surface geologic signal from the contributions of thickness variations in the crust and lithosphere and the isostatic compensation of surface relief (e.g. Mariani et al., 2013) . Here Africa is studied with particular emphasis on selected geological features which are expected to appear as density inhomogeneities. These include cratons and fold belts in the Precambrian basement, the overlying sedimentary basins and magmatism, as well as the continental margins. Regression analysis between gravity and topography shows coefficients that are consistently positive for the free air gravity anomaly and negative for the Bouguer gravity anomaly (Braitenberg et al., 2013; 2014). The error and scatter on the regression is smallest in oceanic areas, where it is a possible tool for identifying changes in crustal type. The regression analysis allows the large gradient in the Bouguer anomaly signal across continental margins to be removed. After subtracting the predicted effect of known topography from the original Bouguer anomaly field, the residual field shows a <span class="hlt">continent</span>-wide pattern of anomalies that can be attributed to regional geological structures. A few of these are highlighted, such as those representing Karoo magmatism, the Kibalian foldbelt, the Zimbabwe Craton, the Cameroon and Tibesti volcanic deposits, the Benue Trough and the Luangwa Rift. A reconstruction of the pre-break up position of Africa, South and North America is made for the residual GOCE gravity field obtaining today's gravity field of the plates forming West Gondwana. The reconstruction allows the positive and negative anomalies to be compared across the continental fragments, and so helps identify common geologic units that extend across both the now-separate <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Tracing the geologic units is important for mineral exploration, which is demonstrated with the analysis of correlations of the gravity signal with selected classes of mineral occurrences, for instance those associated to Greenstone belts. Alvarez, O., Gimenez M., Braitenberg C., Folguera, A. (2012) GOCE Satellite derived Gravity and Gravity gradient corrected for topographic effect in the South Central Andes Region. Geophysical Journal International, 190, 941-959, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05556.x Braitenberg C., Mariani P., De Min A. (2013) The European Alps and nearby orogenic belts sensed by GOCE, Boll. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, doi:10.4430/bgta0105 Braitenberg C. (2014) Exploration of tectonic structures with GOCE in Africa and across-<span class="hlt">continents</span>, J.of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (in Review). Mariani P., Braitenberg C., Ussami N. (2013). Explaining the thick crust in Parana' basin, Brazil, with satellite GOCE-gravity observations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 45, 209-223, doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2013.03.008.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braitenberg, Carla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410806F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Aeromagnetic Anomaly views of the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antarctica is a keystone within the Gondwana and Rodinia supercontinents. However, despite intense geological research along the coastal fringes of Antarctica, the interior of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> remains one of the most poorly understood regions on Earth. Aeromagnetic investigations are a useful tool to help disclose the structure and the evolution of <span class="hlt">continents</span> from the Precambrian to the Cenozoic and Antarctica is no exception. Here I review a variety of aeromagnetic studies in East and West Antarctica performed since the completion of the first generation ADMAP -Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project- in 2001. In western Dronning Maud, in East Antarctica, aeromagnetic data help delineate the extent of the Jurassic Jutulstraumen subglacial rift that is flanked by remnants of a Grenvillian-age (ca 1.1. Ga) igneous province and magmatic arc. Different magnetic signatures appear to characterize the Coats Land block but reconnaissance surveys are insufficient to fully delineate the extent and significance of the Coats Land block, a possible tectonic tracer of Laurentia within Rodinia (Loewy et al., 2011). Further in the interior of East Antarctica, a mosaic of distinct and hitherto largely unknown Precambrian provinces has recently been revealed by combining aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data with models of crustal thickness constrained by gravity modeling and seismology (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major collisional suture may lie between the Archean Ruker Province and an inferred Proterozoic Gamburtsev Province but the age of final assembly of central East Antarctica remains uncertain and controversial. I favour a Grenville-age collisional event (linked to Rodinia assembly) or possibly older Paleoproteroic collision, followed by intraplate reactivation, as opposed to Neoproterozoic or Early Cambrian collision linked to East-West Gondwana assembly (Boger, 2011). New aerogeophysical surveys over Prince Elizabeth and Queen Mary Land could test this hypothesis further and contribute towards understanding the role that the inherited Precambrian architecture exerted on the location and development of the East Antarctic Rift System, which was active both before and during Gondwana break-up. Over Wilkes Land, aeromagnetic data offer tantalizing new glimpses into the extent of Precambrian basement provinces that have been extensively studied in formerly adjacent Australia. An over 1,900 km long magnetic low is traced from a new magnetic anomaly compilation along the margin of the Archean-Proterozoic Mawson <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and is interpreted as delineating part of a Neoproterozoic rift system that heralded Rodinia break-up. Aeromagnetic data are also helping in deciphering Phanerozoic crustal growth along the paleo-Pacific active margin of Gondwana. In northern Victoria Land aeromagnetic anomaly interpretation, coupled with geochemical and structural observations is clarifying the architecture and evolution of Cambro-Ordovician terranes that were affected by the Ross Orogen. In the Antarctic Peninsula aeromagnetic and aerogravity data suggest the existence of several distinct arc provinces that may have docked against the Gondwana margin during the Cretaceous age Palmer Land event. Aeromagnetic interpretation over the West Antarctic ice sheet provides new insights into the extent of Cenozoic magmatism and rift basins within the West Antarctic Rift System and into the inland extent of the Jurassic Weddell Sea Rift</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferraccioli, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://seer.cancer.gov/tools/mphrules/training_ppt/Urinary_MPHpresentations_10182006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MP/H Rules Presentation - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Renal Pelvis, Ureter, Bladder and Other <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> 2 Equivalent Terms, Definitions, Tables and Illustrations 3 Introduction • Change in groupings – Previous: Kidney, ureter, renal pelvis • Bladder, ureter, renal pelvis – Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract – Lined by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000188.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence - what to ask your doctor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">You have <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. This means that you are not able to keep urine from leaking from your urethra, the tube that ... urine out of your body from your bladder. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence may occur as you get older. It can ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007377.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30767863"> <span id="translatedtitle">ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE BLADDER IN CLASSIC EXSTROPHY: CORRELATION WITH DEVELOPMENT OF <span class="hlt">CONTINENCE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PurposeSuccessful initial surgical management of bladder exstrophy does not always lead to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. We evaluated the ultrastructure of the exstrophic bladder using electron microscopy (EM) at various stages of reconstruction to determine whether morphology could correlate with the potential for <span class="hlt">continence</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">RANJIV MATHEWS; JOHN A. GOSLING; JOHN P. GEARHART</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40445939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geotectonic evolution of late Cenozoic arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision in Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The island of Taiwan is an active orogen formed by the collision between the Luzon arc and the Asian <span class="hlt">continent</span>. The kinematic progression of the arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision can be reconstructed by superimposing the restored paleopositions of Luzon arc upon the precollisional Asian continental margin. The geological history of the collision can be interpreted from the rock records of the mountain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Teng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/dem039v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differences in mRNA and protein expression of small proteoglycans in vaginal wall tissue from women with and without stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: To investigate changes in mRNA and protein levels of biglycan (BGN), decorin (DCN) and fibromodulin (FMOD) in vaginal wall tissue from women with stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) compared to menstrual-cycle matched <span class="hlt">continent</span> women. Methods: We determined mRNA expressions of BGN, DCN and FMOD by quantitative real-time PCR. They were localized in vaginal wall tissue by immunohistochemistry. We performed western</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Wen; Y. Y. Zhao; S. Li; M. L. Polan; B. H. Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3702217"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> markers for bladder cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Zachary L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24511301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder shape affect <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate in men with lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder shape which may potentially change with advancing age, increased waist circumference, pelvic ischemia, and loosening of the urachus on bladder emptying and UFR. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 76 men. The patients were divided into two groups according to bladder shapes in MRI scan (cone and spheric shapes). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IPSS, Qmax, Qave, and waist circumference. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between mean peak <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate measured with UFM and mean flow rate calculated using the CP. There was a significant difference between mean <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rates calculated with CP of cone and sphere bladder shapes. The change in the bladder shape might be a possible factor for LUTS in men and LUTS may be improved if modifiable factors including increased waist circumference and loosening of the urachus are corrected. PMID:24511301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ate?çi, Yusuf Ziya; Aydo?du, Özgü; Karaköse, Ayhan; Pekedis, Mahmut; Karal, Ömer; ?entürk, Utku</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3910387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder Shape Affect <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Flow Rate in Men with Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Symptoms?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder shape which may potentially change with advancing age, increased waist circumference, pelvic ischemia, and loosening of the urachus on bladder emptying and UFR. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 76 men. The patients were divided into two groups according to bladder shapes in MRI scan (cone and spheric shapes). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IPSS, Qmax, Qave, and waist circumference. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between mean peak <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate measured with UFM and mean flow rate calculated using the CP. There was a significant difference between mean <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rates calculated with CP of cone and sphere bladder shapes. The change in the bladder shape might be a possible factor for LUTS in men and LUTS may be improved if modifiable factors including increased waist circumference and loosening of the urachus are corrected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Atesci, Yusuf Ziya; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Karal, Omer; Senturk, Utku</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6132104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> rift beneath Lake Superior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1.1 Ga Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> rift system extends from Kansas through the Lake Superior region and into southern Michigan. The rift is filled with thick sequences of basalt and clastic sedimentary rocks, which are now mostly buried beneath Paleozoic rocks. Rocks of the rift system are exposed only in the Lake Superior region and comprise the Keweenawan supergroup. Seismic reflection surveys by GLIMPCE in 1986 imaged much of the deep structure of the rift beneath the lake in detail. Reflection profiles reveal a deep asymmetrical central graben whose existence and magnitude was not previously documented. Volcanic and sedimentary rocks, in places greater than 30 km thick, fill the central graben, which is bounded by normal growth faults. Thinner volcanic and sedimentary units lie on broad flanks of the rift outside of the graben. Near the rift axis, the pre-rift crust is thinned to about one-fourth of its original thickness, apparently by low-angle extensional faulting and ductile stretching or distributed shear. The sense of asymmetry of the central graben changes along the trend of the rift, documenting the segmented nature of the structure and suggesting the existence of accommodation zones between the segments. The location of the accommodation zones is inferred from abrupt disruptions in the Bouguer gravity anomaly associated with the rift. Late uplift of the central graben transposed graben-bounding normal faults into high-angle reverse faults with throws of 5 km or more.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cannon, W.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21756280"> <span id="translatedtitle">TVT-Secur mini-sling for stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence: a review of outcomes at 12 months.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">• Synthetic mid-urethral slings (MUSs) are considered the first choice surgical procedure for stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Recent publications have raised concerns about the efficacy of third generation single-incision mini-slings. The present paper is a systematic review of studies reporting 12-month outcomes after the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) procedure. • Pubmed/Medline online databases, abstracts from recent International <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Society and International Urogynecological Association annual scientific meetings and the Clinicaltrials.gov and Controlled-trials.com online trial registries were searched for English-language articles containing the terms 'TVT-Secur', 'TVT Secur' or 'mini-sling'. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective cure rates at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included peri-operative (vaginal perforation, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection [UTI]) and postoperative (mesh exposure, de novo overactive bladder (OAB), dyspareunia and return to theatre) complication rates. • Among 1178 women undergoing the TVT-S procedure, from 10 studies, both objective and subjective cure rate at 12 months was 76%, with objective cure significantly higher in women undergoing the 'U-type' approach. Vaginal perforation was a complication in 1.5% of cases, with a 2.4% incidence of mesh exposure in the first year. The incidence of de novo OAB symptoms was 10%. Rates of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention (2.3%), UTI (4.4%), dyspareunia (1%) and return to theatre for complications (0.8%) were low. In the first year after a TVT-S procedure 5% of women required repeat <span class="hlt">continence</span> surgery. • Longer-term studies and randomized comparisons with more established MUSs are required before TVT-S should be routinely used in the surgical treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. PMID:21756280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, Colin A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE84780300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radioimmunoassay of Human <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Kallikrein.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a human <span class="hlt">urinary</span> kallikrein, purified by means of Trasylol sepharose, it has been possible to develop a radioimmunoassay of kallikrein capable of detecting the substance down to a concentration of 0.5 ng/ml. The specific activity of the tracer labell...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Goering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3463212"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers in Obstructive Nephropathy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Background and objectives Obstructive nephropathy is a leading cause of CKD in children. The assessment of severity of renal impairment and the prediction of which children will progress to renal failure are, however, challenging. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements This case-control study measured the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of candidate biomarkers in 27 prevalent case-patients with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) and 20 age-matched controls, correlated their <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration with GFR, and analyzed receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and regression analyses to assess their performance as tests for low GFR. Results The median <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio was higher in children with PUV (45 g/mol; range, 5–361 g/mol) than in controls (7 g/mol; range, 3–43 g/mol) (P<0.01) and correlated inversely with renal function (r = ?0.44; P<0.05). In whole urine, excretion of aquaporin-2 was significantly decreased, whereas that of TGF? and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) was significantly increased. Whole-urine TGF? excretion correlated inversely with GFR (r = ?0.53; P<0.05). As tests for low GFR, whole-urine TGF?, L1CAM, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio performed best, with areas under the ROC curves of 0.788, 0.795, and 0.814, respectively. By linear regression analysis, whole-urine TGF?, L1CAM, and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein-to-creatinine ratio were associated with low GFR in the case-patients. Conclusions Candidate biomarkers of obstructive nephropathy can be readily measured in whole urine and in urine exosomes. In boys with PUV, these biomarkers correlate with GFR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trnka, Peter; Ivanova, Larissa; Hiatt, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35156850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlates of extramedical use of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> ® versus other analgesic opioids among the US general population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundThere has been substantial public and media attention regarding extramedical use of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>®, but few studies focus on the characteristics of extramedical Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® users and whether they differ from extramedical other opioid users.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvia S. Martins; Carla L. Storr; Hong Zhu; Howard D. Chilcoat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......456H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric magnetic field modelling of the African <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New magnetic satellite missions in low-earth orbit are providing increasingly accurate maps of the lithospheric magnetic field. These maps can be used to infer the geological structure of regions hidden by Phanerozoic cover, taking into account our knowledge of crustal structure from surface geology and seismic methods. A GIS based modelling technique has been developed to model the various geological units of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> using the UNESCO geological map of the world, supported by background geological information from various sources. Geological units of each region are assigned a susceptibility value based on laboratory values of the constituent rock types. Then, using the 3SMAC seismic crustal structure, a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) model is computed at each point of the region. Starting with this VIS model, the total field anomaly is computed at an altitude of 400 km and compared with the MF2 lithospheric magnetic field model derived from CHAMP data. The modelling results of the Precambrian units of the West African cratons agree well with MF2. The anomaly in the Central African cratonic region also correlates well, although part of it is unaccounted for as yet. Furthermore, the anomalies over the Tanzanian craton and surrounding region agree very well. Most of the regions around the South African cratons are hidden by Phanerozoic cover, yet the results above the Kaapvaal craton and the southern Zimbabwe craton around the Limpopo belt show good correspondence with the observed anomaly map. The results also suggest a probable extension of the Precambrian units below the sediments of younger age. In general, the lower crust is likely to be more mafic than presumed in our current understanding of Central Africa. Deviations in the magnitude of the anomalies in some regions are likely to be due to incomplete seismic information in those regions. Thus, the thickness of crustal layers derived from magnetic anomalies for these locations may help to constrain future geophysical models in the less explored regions of Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hemant, K.; Maus, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2372605"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drifting <span class="hlt">continents</span> and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that <span class="hlt">continents</span> on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, A G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U21B..10W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica and IGY: New Frontiers in "A <span class="hlt">Continent</span> for Science"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antarctica was established as a laboratory for cooperative international science during the last IGY, and remains an unparalleled model of successful international research. The scientific foundations established in the IGY have led to significant advances in understanding processes in the solid earth, the atmosphere, the oceans, the cryosphere and the global climate system. It is increasingly clear that deciphering the feedbacks and interactions between these spheres is required to comprehend the earth system as a whole, hence understanding the unique Antarctic geodynamic environment is imperative. Yet, in many respects, Antarctica remains an unexplored frontier of the earth system. The Antarctic geoscience community has begun planning a new era of earth science exploration projected to reach fruition at the time of the IGY golden jubilee (see: http://www.geology.ohio-state.edu/agg-group/). International cooperation will be organized through SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). An `Antarctic Geophysical Decade' will include experiments at unprecedented scales across the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, enabled by new technologies. Coordinated airborne and marine geophysical surveys, drilling (offshore and through the ice sheet to bedrock), deployment of GPS and seismic arrays, topical geological studies, and modeling studies, integrated with the wealth of new and upcoming satellite-derived data, will allow us to make the next leaps forward in understanding questions such as: 1) how changing ice mass loads influence lithospheric stress/strain regimes; 2) how glacial isostatic adjustment and the tectono-thermal structure of the lithosphere control modern ice sheet dynamics; 3) inception, growth and fluctuations of Antarctic ice sheets and interhemispheric a/synchroneity; 4) climate sensitivity to forcing factors such as continental-scale paleogeography, volcanism, erosion/sedimentation; 5) the origin and evolution of subglacial lakes and their life forms; and 6) the mode and tempo of supercontinent assembly and dispersal, and relations to global climate change and biotic evolution through earth history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, T.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Deconto, R.; Finn, C.; Harwood, D.; Leventer, A.; Ritzwoller, M.; Tulaczyk, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2004100863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in Missouri. A Policy Brief Exploring Patterns of Abuse. Prevention, Treatment and Interdiction Strategies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this policy brief is to describe what is currently known about Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, report available national and local data on Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> abuse, and present ideas for effective prevention and treatment of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> abuse in Missouri. Some of the comm...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Harris J. Q. Hodges C. A. Snively</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2351173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in women in general practice: observational study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE--To examine what is attainable when treating <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in women in general practice. DESIGN--Observational study with 12 months' follow up. Interview and clinical examination before, during, and after treatment of women seeking help for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in general practice. SETTING--General practice in the rural district of Rissa, Norway. SUBJECTS--105 women aged 20 or more with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with pelvic floor exercises, electrostimulation, oestrogen, anticholinergic drugs, bladder training, and protective pads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Subjective and objective measures of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence; number of patients referred to a specialist. RESULTS--After 12 months' follow up 70% (69/99) of the women were cured or much better; the mean score on a 100 mm visual analogue scale decreased from 37 to 20 mm; and the proportion of women who were greatly bothered by their incontinence decreased by 62%. 20% (20/98) of women became <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and the percentage of women with severe incontinence decreased from 64% (63/99) to 28% (27/98). Mean leakage per 24 hours measured by a pad test decreased from 28 g at the start of treatment to 13 g after 12 months. The number of light weight pads or sanitary towels decreased from 1.6 to 0.6 a day. In all, 17/105 (16%) patients were referred to a specialist. CONCLUSIONS--<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence in women can be effectively managed in general practice with fairly simple treatment. Most women will be satisfied with the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seim, A.; Sivertsen, B.; Eriksen, B. C.; Hunskaar, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3326341"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate ? 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ? 8 and ? 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, <span class="hlt">continence</span>, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23823973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Major odorants released as <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volatiles by <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinent patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, volatile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13I..05O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent-continent</span> collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique <span class="hlt">continent-continent</span> collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps is larger than needed to support surface topography, and is offset from its topographic high, consistent with dynamic thickening of the Pacific crust by the mantle thickening. Teleseismic shear wave splitting is evidence of a wide zone of distributed strain for the mantle portion of the plate boundary. The collective set of results from the South Island projects have led to a number of subsequent studies by various teams, based on follow-up questions, expanded observational expertise, and international collaborative alliances with in particular the New Zealand science community. These studies include a search for the full width of Pacific/Australian distributed mantle strain using marine OBS studies, the transition from strike-slip to plate boundary subduction to the north, the search and discovery of seismic tremor on the Alpine fault, and high resolution geophysical characterization of Alpine fault seismogenesis. The success of geophysically imaging a narrow island using both marine sides led different SIGHT scientists to carry out expanded efforts to study North Island subduction and separately Taiwan mountain building. These efforts benefited and were largely motivated from multi-disciplinary, multi-national collaborations as typically supported by the NSF Continental Dynamics program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regenerative medicine based applications to combat stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI), as an isolated symptom, is not a life threatening condition. However, the fear of unexpected urine leakage contributes to a significant decline in quality of life parameters for afflicted patients. Compared to other forms of incontinence, SUI cannot be easily treated with pharmacotherapy since it is inherently an anatomic problem. Treatment options include the use of bio-injectable materials to enhance closing pressures, and the placement of slings to bolster fascial support to the urethra. However, histologic findings of degeneration in the incontinent urethral sphincter invite the use of tissues engineering strategies to regenerate structures that aid in promoting <span class="hlt">continence</span>. In this review, we will assess the role of stem cells in restoring multiple anatomic and physiological aspects of the sphincter. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells and CD34(+) cells have shown great promise to differentiate into muscular and vascular components, respectively. Evidence supporting the use of cytokines and growth factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin-like growth factor further enhance the viability and direction of differentiation. Bridging the benefits of stem cells and growth factors involves the use of synthetic scaffolds like poly (1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) thin films. POC scaffolds are synthetic, elastomeric polymers that serve as substrates for cell growth, and upon degradation, release growth factors to the microenvironment in a controlled, predictable fashion. The combination of cellular, cytokine and scaffold elements aims to address the pathologic deficits to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, with a goal to improve patient symptoms and overall quality of life. PMID:24179600</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24978084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacological treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an overview of the current pharmacological treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI) in women, according to the latest evidence available. After a brief description of the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract receptors and mediators (detrusor, bladder neck, and urethra), the potential sites of pharmacological manipulation in the treatment of UI are discussed. Each class of drug used to treat UI has been evaluated, taking into account published rate of effectiveness, different doses, and way of administration. The prevalence of the most common adverse effects and overall compliance had also been pointed out, with cost evaluation after 1 month of treatment for each class of drug. Moreover, we describe those newer agents whose efficacy and safety need to be further investigated. We stress the importance of a better understanding of the causes and pathophysiology of UI to ensure newer and safer treatments for such a debilitating condition. PMID:24978084</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cipullo, Lucio M A; Zullo, Fulvio; Cosimato, Cosimo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Troisi, Jacopo; Guida, Maurizio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760040833&hterms=enzyme+hydrolysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denzyme%2Bhydrolysis"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies on human <span class="hlt">urinary</span> arylamidases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human <span class="hlt">urinary</span> protein was found to contain enzymes that hydrolyze leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl-beta-naphthylamides. The kinetic constants of these enzymes were determined and their chemical properties studied. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of the various naphthylamides were also determined. Glycyl-prolyl-arylaminade was inhibited by Co(2+) and Mn(2+), while two other arylamidases were slightly activated by Co(2+). p-Chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate and puromycin significantly inhibited leucyl and alanyl arylamidases. The mean values for 24-hour <span class="hlt">urinary</span> output for leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl arylamidases in normal human male subjects were 4.32, 9.97, and 2.2 units, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raina, P. N.; Ellis, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1521195"> <span id="translatedtitle">MODERN USE OF <span class="hlt">URINARY</span> ANTISEPTICS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is not necessary to resort to complete study in most cases of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection. However, if the lesion is chronic or recurrent, associated with mixed organisms, complicated by lower tract involvement, accompanied by low total renal function, with or without abnormalities in a kidney-ureter-bladder x-ray film or in an intravenous urogram, then complete retrograde study should be carried out. A Gram stain will substitute for culture in most simple <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections and a trial of the agent of choice will act as a test of bacterial sensitivity. If the infection persists, however, more adequate bacteriologic studies are required. For good chemotherapeutic practice, it is important to: (1) Withhold the drug until it has been determined that obstruction, stone or other such lesion is not present; (2) watch for side effects and toxicity; and (3) give the best drug in large enough dosage for an adequate period of time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hinman, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1952-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3520R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Localisation of edge driven convection beneath the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mantle plumes are frequently invoked to explain the widespread occurrence of intraplate volcanism. However, many volcanic provinces do not conform to this paradigm and, hence, alternative explanations are required for a number of hotspots around the world. To date, these include: (i) lithospheric cracking; (ii) ductile removal of lithosphere via gravitational instability; (iii) glacial rebound; (iv) slab tear; (v) shear induced melting of the asthenosphere; and (vi) edge driven convection (EDC). In the latter case, a variety of studies have shown that a step change, or sharp transition in depth to the base of the lithosphere, drives a small-scale thermally induced convective instability, which can result in dynamic melting of upwelling mantle. However, intraplate volcanic centres in the vicinity of lithospheric steps (e.g. between continental shield regions and young lithosphere) only manifest at isolated locations, and show little tendency to elongate parallel to the lithospheric step, which might be expected for such a phenomenon. The Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia is the most recent example of intraplate volcanism on the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span>, with the last eruption dated at approximately 4.5 ka. It comprises over 700 eruption points with an east-west distribution, which is roughly perpendicular to current plate motion. The basaltic plains are generally less than 60 m thick, implying a low eruption volume, whilst topographic response is of the order of 100 m. Evidence for the mantle source of the NVP has so far been equivocal, but a general consensus is emerging that an underlying mantle plume is unlikely. In this study, we present new 3-D teleseismic tomography results, which suggest that the source of the NVP is confined to the upper mantle. Motivated by these results, we use a new and detailed lithospheric thickness model of southeast Australia to examine the influence of out-of-plane variations in thickness on EDC, via geodynamical models. The main lithospheric step occurs to the north of the NVP, but strong variations are evident in the third dimension. Our results show that significant localisation and amplification of mantle upwelling occurs almost directly beneath the NVP, as a result of the out-of plane effects. Moreover, the inclusion of current plate motion in the calculations adds a shear component to the flow, which: (i) further localises the edge-driven cell to the uppermost mantle; and (ii) has the effect of subduing EDC along lithospheric steps that lie approximately parallel to plate motion. These results have significant implications for the study of intraplate volcanism in various parts of the world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rawlinson, Nicholas; Davies, Rhodri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP41C0812C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> Drainage Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental changes to the total discharge of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers. While it is unclear if the Teays River ever flowed into the St. Lawrence drainage or developed as a westward-flowing tributary to the buried Mahomet valley in Illinois, both the ancestral Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers originated as headwaters of the St. Lawrence basin before being rerouted as part of the Mississippi basin. The areas formerly drained by the Pittsburgh and Wyalusing Rivers comprise ~8% of the modern Mississippi River basin, and modern discharge from those areas represent ~14% of the mean annual discharge of the Mississippi River. The transfer of this drainage area and discharge to the Mississippi basin is mirrored by an equivalent loss from the St. Lawrence system during the Quaternary as a direct result of glacially-driven drainage system reorganization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30993257"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Mutagens and Lifestyle Factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background.Lifestyle determines the amount of exposure to environmental carcinogens\\/mutagens. We examined the relationship between various lifestyle factors and the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> level of mutagens, which reflects both exposure dose and metabolism of these carcinogens\\/mutagens.Methods.Twenty-four-hour urine specimens obtained from 69 males were subjected to blue rayon extraction, after which the elutions were fractionated by carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography. The mutagens were measured</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kanae Mure; Tatsuya Takeshita; Toru Takeuchi; Kanehisa Morimoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29535573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heavy elements in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence and role of heavy metals in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals\\u000a in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements\\u000a were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones.\\u000a The other</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Bazin; P. Chevallier; G. Matzen; P. Jungers; M. Daudon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA494825"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Continent</span> at a Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Special Bibliography Series, Number 107, '<span class="hlt">Continent</span> at the Crossroads: Prosperity, Justice, and Security in South America,' was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K. Scott in support of the 49th annual Academy ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. K. Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB97197826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Worldwide Transportation Directory: Statistical Contacts and Transportation Profiles by <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and Country (1997 Edition).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Directory was created to assist transportation data users, policy makers, planners, researchers, information specialists and others in locating statistical contacts and transportation profile in different countries. It lists, by <span class="hlt">continent</span>, 1,925 conta...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. S. Eversole M. A. Rossetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2004102936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prescription Drugs: Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amid heightened awareness that many patients with cancer and other chronic diseases suffer from undertreated pain, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Purdue Pharma's controlled-release pain reliever Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in 1995. Sales grew rapidly, and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neurogenic lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The two roles of the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract are storage of urine and emptying at appropriate times. Optimal and coordinated activity of the bladder and urethra is subject to complex neural control which involves all levels of the nervous system, from cortex to peripheral nerve. This explains the high prevalence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> disturbances in neurological disease. Information obtained from history taking and supplemented by use of a bladder diary forms the cornerstone of evaluation. Ultrasonography is used to assess the degree of incomplete bladder emptying, and for assessing the upper tracts. Urodynamic tests, with or without simultaneous fluoroscopic monitoring, assess detrusor and bladder outlet function and give fundamental information about detrusor pressure and thus the risk of upper tract damage. Impaired emptying is most often managed by clean-intermittent self-catheterization, which should be initiated if the postvoid residual urine exceeds one-third of bladder capacity or is greater than 100mL, or rarely if spontaneous voiding is dangerous due to high detrusor pressure. Storage symptoms are most often managed using antimuscarinic medications. Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A is emerging as an effective treatment for managing detrusor overactivity. Understanding of the underlying mechanism of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction is crucial for effective management. PMID:23312642</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panicker, Jalesh N; De Sèze, Marianne; Fowler, Clare J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20127204"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> biomarkers in lupus nephritis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis. PMID:20127204</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene; Putterman, Chaim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2917506"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the form of severe lupus nephritis is associated with a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Conventional laboratory biomarkers in current use have not been very successful in anticipating disease flares, predicting renal histology, or decreasing unwanted outcomes. Since early treatment is associated with improved clinical results, it is thus essential to identify new biomarkers with substantial predictive power to reduce the serious sequelae of this difficult to control lupus manifestation. Indeed, considerable efforts and progress have been made over the last few years in the search for novel biomarkers. Since <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers are more easily obtainable with much less risk to the patient than repeat renal biopsies, and these may more accurately discern between renal disease and other organ manifestations than their serum counterparts, there has been tremendous interest in studying new candidate urine biomarkers. Below, we review several promising <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers under investigation, including total proteinuria and microalbuminuria, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> proteomic signatures, and the individual inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CXCL16, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reyes-Thomas, Joyce; Blanco, Irene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30917709"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema for the treatment of neurogenic constipation and fecal incontinence after spinal cord injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To describe the effects of an antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema stoma formed in a paraplegic man with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence.Design: Case report.Setting: Spinal cord injury unit, Veterans Affairs hospital.Participants: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with T12 paraplegia.Intervention: Surgical formation of antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema stoma.Main Outcome Measures: Time of bowel program care, ease of fecal elimination, safety of procedure.Results:</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire C. Yang; Steven A. Stiens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k404725463218j2l.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> and a Regulation Deficiency of the Pharmaceutical Industry: Rethinking State-Corporate Crime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On May 10, 2007, three executives of the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma pled guilty in federal court to misleading doctors\\u000a and patients about the risk of addiction and potential for abuse of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>. Additionally, Purdue Pharma paid over $600\\u000a million in fines and other payments to the United States government and the Commonwealth of Virginia. The drug Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> was\\u000a first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. Hayden Griffin; Bryan Lee Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3417204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Muscle-Derived Cells for Treatment of Iatrogenic Sphincter Damage and <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Men</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of injection of autologous muscle-derived cells into the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter for treatment of postprostatectomy <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in men and to characterize the injected cells prior to transplantation. Methods. 222 male patients with stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and sphincter damage after uroloical procedures were treated with transurethral injection of autologous muscle-derived cells. The transplanted cells were investigated after cultivation and prior to application by immunocytochemistry using different markers of myogenic differentiation. Feasibility and functionality assessment was achieved with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Results. Follow-up was at least 12 months. Of the 222 treated patients, 120 responded to therapy of whom 26 patients (12%) were <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and 94 patients (42%) showed improvement. In 102 (46%) patients, the therapy was ineffective. Clinical improvement was observed on average 4.7 months after transplantation and continued in all improved patients. The cells injected into the sphincter were at least ~50% of myogenic origin and representative for early stages of muscle cell differentiation. Conclusions. Transurethral injection of muscle-derived cells into the damaged urethral sphincter of male patients is a safe procedure. Transplanted cells represent different phases of myogenic differentiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerullis, H.; Eimer, C.; Georgas, E.; Homburger, M.; El-Baz, A. G.; Wishahi, M.; Boros, M.; Ecke, T. H.; Otto, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24903352"> <span id="translatedtitle">Botulinum Toxin A's Expanding Role in the Management of Pediatric Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Dysfunction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Botulinum toxin A's (Onabotulinum toxin A - OnabotA) utility in the pediatric population is evolving, and is currently being used in the treatment of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction, both in children with neuropathic compromise, and non-neuropathic overactive bladders. The results of having OnabotA injected directly into the bladder wall cystoscopically are: a more compliant bladder with reduced bladder pressure, avoiding renal compromise and upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract deterioration; increased bladder capacity; and the ability for children to reach an improved degree of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> through a minimally invasive approach. A growing body of research in patients with either neuropathic bladders or overactive bladders (OAB), have shown excellent results when looking at urodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction and improvement in symptomatology. One of the main indications for the use of OnabotA in children with neuropathic bladders is to delay or avoid the need for augmentation cystoplasty. By achieving the aforementioned results, some children can delay or avoid this more invasive and permanent procedure. Prospective studies are needed to answer questions regarding optimal dosage and frequency, ideal patient selection criteria and assessment of long-term outcomes and complications. PMID:24903352</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassouna, Tarek; Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20569800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction in childhood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract syndrome is common in children. Incontinence, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, and constipation are commonly associated with this syndrome. Examining the clinical history of the afflicted patient plays a major role in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract disorder. Along with pharmacologic treatment, pelvic floor muscle retraining, biofeedback therapy, and adaptation of a healthy lifestyle are advocated for rapid recovery of patients. PMID:20569800</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ballek, Nathaniel K; McKenna, Patrick H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47908696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonurolithic Causes of Upper <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Obstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renal colic caused by urolithiasis is the most common cause of upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction that prompts patients to visit\\u000a to an acute care facility. Patient care providers must be aware of other less-common urological causes of upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract\\u000a obstruction presenting similar to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones. Although few of the clinical entities discussed in this section are true\\u000a “urological emergencies,”</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roger K. Low</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3370320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cranberries and lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection prevention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7610522"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Orthotopic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder replacement in the woman. Initial clinical experiences].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ileum neobladder after cystectomy is mainly reserved for male patients. Female patients are normally excluded from this kind of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion for fear of incontinence following orthotopic bladder substitution. In addition as in the male, the question of urethral recurrence of urothelial carcinoma is still not settled. We report on seven cases of successful orthotopic bladder reconstruction in females by means of an ileum neobladder according to Hautmann with follow up of up to 4.5 years. One of these patients had a complicated bladder-vaginal fistula and almost complete loss of bladder function because of a shrunken bladder after radiation therapy for a cervical carcinoma and the other six had undergone radical cystectomy because of bladder carcinoma. The ileum neobladder is anastomosed with the preserved urethral stump. The original method of ileum neobladder is extended by a colposuspension plasty according to Marshall-Marchetti, which is the means of achieving <span class="hlt">continence</span>. The first results are encouraging and open further possibilities for bladder reconstruction in the female. PMID:7610522</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becht, E; Alloussi, S; Ziegler, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nafc.org/bladder-bowel-health/types-of-incontinence/urge-incontinence/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urgency <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence/Overactive Bladder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the toilet more often? You may have overactive bladder. Overactive bladder may leave you feeling embarrassed and like you ... your physician about diagnosis and treatment options. Overactive bladder (OAB): The International <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Society (ICS) defines overactive ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS23E..06C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition of the Pearl River margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rifted continental margins form by lithospheric extension and break-up. The <span class="hlt">continent</span> to ocean transition (COT) architecture depends on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes, and thus, to study the COT variability of different systems is key to understand rifting. We use MCS data and magnetic lineations across the Pearl River margin (PRM) of South China Sea to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The structure of the PRM presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. We reprocessed about 2250 km of MCS data along 4 regional, crustal-scale lines and found that 3 of them possibly display the COT. The time-migrated seismic sections show differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, in the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections, that we interpret to represent clear continental and oceanic domains. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope passing abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. Comparatively the oceanic crust has a highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. The PRM shows arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin displays abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a change in the tectonic structure from NE to SW. On the two NE-most lines, crustal thinning and break-up occur over 20-40 km wide segments. To the SW, continental extension occurred over a comparatively broader ~100-110 km segment of tilted fault-block structure. We interpret, that this 3D structural variability and the narrow COT was caused by the lateral NE to the SW propagation of a spreading center. In the NE, early spreading center propagation during ongoing rifting stopped continental stretching, causing an abrupt break-up and a narrow COT to seafloor spreading. Later arrival of spreading center propagated to the SW, resulted in a comparatively broader segment with fault-block structures of extended continental crust. However, the COT to clear oceanic crust is narrow. Spreading center propagation in the basin is however not a simple phenomena and ridge jumps and abrupt cessation of spreading contributed to form narrow COT that laterally change to highly thinned continental crust segments. We suggest that the tectonic architecture of continental extension and the abrupt COT along the PRM have been controlled by 3D oceanic spreading center propagation to a degree larger than by the local lithospheric structure during rifting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cameselle, A. L.; Ranero, C. R.; Franke, D.; Barckhausen, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15892508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discreet products for women with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is estimated that 10 million women in the UK suffer with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (Hunskarr et al, 2004). Many women consider bladder weakness to be an inevitable consequence of childbirth or the menopause. Haslam (2004) reported on a telephone survey that examined whether women were aware of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, their attitude to it and the impact it had on their daily lives. In the UK, 505 women were interviewed, 206 of whom responded positively to a question about symptoms of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, giving a prevalence rate of 41 per cent. There is also evidence that most patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence do not present to their doctors PMID:15892508</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Debra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2280894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections in Female Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections, there is a higher incidence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract abnormalities. The author presents a plan of management for various clinical problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, S. Elmer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jama.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/JAMA/929800/jpg140008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">JAMA Patient Page: <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections in Older Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> System <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections in Older Women <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections (UTIs)are common, especially in older women. Your ... your body through the urethra. What Is a UTI? Having a UTI means that germs (bacteria) in ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18480175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of duloxetine, a norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on sneeze-induced urethral <span class="hlt">continence</span> reflex in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effect of duloxetine, a norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, on the neurally evoked urethral <span class="hlt">continence</span> reflex induced by sneezing in rats. To clarify the role of noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in preventing stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we examined the effect of duloxetine followed by intrathecal (it) methiothepin maleate (5-HT receptor and alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or terazosin or idazoxan (selective alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively). Amplitude of urethral pressure responses during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the midurethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal adult female rats and rats with SUI induced by vaginal distension (VD). In normal and VD rats, intravenous application of duloxetine (1 mg/kg) increased A-URS by 35% and 34% and UBP by 21% and 34%, respectively. Sneezing-induced fluid leakage from the urethral orifice was observed in VD rats but not in normal rats. S-LPP was increased from 39.1 to 92.2 cmH2O by intravenous duloxetine in incontinent VD rats. Duloxetine-mediated enhancement of A-URS was inhibited by terazosin but not methiothepin maleate (it). In addition, simultaneous intrathecal application of methiothepin and terazosin induced a reduction in A-URS during sneezing, which was not increased by intravenous duloxetine. However, the reduced A-URS after intrathecal application of methiothepin and terazosin returned to the control level when duloxetine (iv) was applied after intrathecal idazoxan administration. These results indicate that duloxetine can prevent SUI by facilitating noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in the spinal cord to enhance the sneeze-induced active urethral closure mechanism. PMID:18480175</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miyazato, Minoru; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Kamo, Izumi; Chancellor, Michael B; Sugaya, Kimio; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835803"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rare <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder tumour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3713151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Actinomycosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Actinomycosis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder is a rare anaerobic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces isrealii. Initial diagnosis is often difficult and this disease is easily misdiagnosed as a urothelial or urachal tumour. The definitive diagnosis is usually made postoperatively via tissue pathology. We discuss a case of a 54-year-old male with a smoking history and a 2.5-week history of gross hematuria. Ultrasound, computed tomography and cystoscopy revealed a large inflammatory mass adherent to the right, anterior bladder wall, suggesting malignancy. Transurethral resection and histological pathology subsequently confirmed inflammatory urothelium and gram-positive bacteria consistent with actinomyces species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Chun; Al-Essawi, Turki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2875701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approach to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if symptoms are prolonged, then a seven day course of antibiotics should be given. Selected group of patients benefits from low-dose prophylactic therapy. Upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection may need in-patient treatment. Treatment of acute prostatitis is 30-day therapy of appropriate antibiotics and for chronic bacterial prostatitis a low dose therapy for 6-12 months may be required. It should be noted that no attempt should be made to eradicate infection unless foreign bodies such as stones and catheters are removed and correctable urological abnormalities are taken care of. Treatment under such circumstances can result only in the emergence of resistant organisms and complicate therapy further.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15812946"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence: new pharmacologic therapies].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several classes of drugs have been investigated for their efficacy in treating overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI). Surgery and behavioral therapies are currently the mainstay of treating SUI. However, results are also being made available about a new oral medication, Duloxetine, which appears to be clinically safe and effective for the treatment of SUI. On the other hand, a new muscarinic receptor antagonist, Solifenacin, has been shown in clinical trials to be clinically effective, safe and well tolerated for treating OAB. PMID:15812946</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robles García, J E; Zudaire Bergera, J J; Rosell Costa, D; Berián Polo, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35039454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of resistance to N-[5-[ N-(3, 4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)- N-methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZD1694), a folate-based thymidylate synthase inhibitor, in the HCT8 human <span class="hlt">ileocecal</span> adenocarcinoma cell line</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">N-[5-[N-(3,4-Dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)-N-methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZD1694) is a folate-based thymidylate synthase (TS; EC 2.1.1.45) inhibitor. Metabolism to higher chain length polyglutamates is essential for its optimal cytotoxic effect. A ZD1694-resistant (300-fold) human <span class="hlt">ileocecal</span> carcinoma cell line (HCT-8\\/DW2) was developed, and its mechanism of resistance was evaluated. TS activities in situ and TS protein levels in the HCT-8 parental line and HCT-8\\/DW2 were similar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kun Lu; Ming-Biao Yin; John J. McGuire; Enzo Bonmassar; Youcef M. Rustum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec862-1340.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1340 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Identification. A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system...intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in urine). <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) measurements...and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2009-title21-vol8-sec862-1340.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1340 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Identification. A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) test system...intended to measure glucosuria (glucose in urine). <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> glucose (nonquantitative) measurements...and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000393.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in children - aftercare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Symptoms of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days. ... If diagnosed with a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI), your child will take antibiotic medicines by mouth at home. These may come as pills, capsules, or a liquid. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=75173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">URINARY</span> MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract We investigated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urine&pg=3&id=EJ866150"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griebling, Tomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015609"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term follow-up on the effects of sigmoid- rectal pouch for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical effects of sigmoidrectal pouch for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients, including 40 males and 5 females, underwent sigmoid-rectal pouch procedure. The patients aged from 38 to 70 years with a mean age of 59 years. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 months to 19 years with an average of 6 years. Postoperative <span class="hlt">continence</span> and voiding were analyzed, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> reservoir pressure was measured and the complications of upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract were determined. The index of quality of life (QoL) in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was used to evaluate the degree of satisfaction to urinate. Results: Forty patients had slight incontinence in the early postoperative stage and could control urination well 30 days postoperatively. The volume of pouch was 270-600 mL with an average of 375 mL. The basic pressure during filling period was 6-20 cmH2O with an average 15 cmH2O, the maximum filling pressure was 15-30 cmH2O with an average 26 cmH2O. The compliance of sigmoid-rectal pouch was fine with an average of 30 (range 18-40) mL/ cmH2O. There were no severe complications such as hyperchloremic acidosis or retrograde pyelonephritis. Six patients had slight hydronephrosis. The index of QoL were 0-2 in 20 patients, 3 in five patients and 4 in two patients. Conclusion: The sigmoid-rectal pouch operation was simple and acceptable by surgeons and patients. It may be an ideal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, especially for patients on whom urethrectomy should be done.  PMID:25015609</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Bin; Yan, Jing-Min; Li, Jian-Ye; Guo, He-Qing; Hong, Quan; Yao, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Gao-Biao; Pan, Guang-Xin; Li, Xian-Chu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggested for early postoperative and mild incontinence. For surgical treatment the artificial <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter is still labeled the gold standard despite the introduction of several more minimally invasive treatments. However, as yet there is no consensus on the optimal timing and best modality for managing these men. Well designed, centrally funded clinical trials are required to establish which treatment modality to offer and when in the broad spectrum of male incontinence. This review focuses mainly on the management of post-prostatectomy incontinence since the management of other types varies little from the modalities of treatment in women.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/50-minute-lessons-sorted-by-grade/?page_id=474?&passid=11"> <span id="translatedtitle">MY NASA DATA Contributed Lesson 3: Comparisons of Snow Cover on Different <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to estimate percentage of snow cover for each <span class="hlt">continent</span>. The data used in this lesson come from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). ISCCP computes fractional snow and ice coverage by scanning the Earth using visible, infrared and microwave imagery. Using the LAS, students will create maps of the snow cover of each <span class="hlt">continent</span> for a particular date. They will then compare the graphical image with the text file for that map. From that information they will estimate the percentage of snow cover for each <span class="hlt">continent</span>, and determine the average global snow cover for the selected date. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes. It also includes an Excel file to help with the calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scearce, Deann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA54A..10H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Model Case Study of Convectively Generated Waves in the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and Northern Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and northern Australia is a complex region incorporating a myriad small and large islands, narrow peninsulas, inner seas, and surrounding oceanic and continental areas . As a consequence of its location and unique geography the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span>-north Australia is extremely convectively active, and has been referred to as the boiler-box of the atmosphere. Deep convection generates a broad spectrum of waves that can propagate to high altitudes and attain wave breaking amplitudes. The enhancement of eddy diffusivity in the summer is thought to be linked to increased convective activity. We present a case study of convectively-generated waves over the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> as simulated by a regional model. The characteristics of the waves and sources on time scales ranging from hourly to the diurnal and on spatial scales ranging from ~10-500 km are presented. The implications of this case study for our understanding of eddy diffusivity on shorter time and spatial scales is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassiotis, A.; Kane, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoRL..28.2707G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on Earth cooling: Thermal blanketing and depletion in radioactive elements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimate of mantle heat flow under continental shields are very low, indicating a strong insulating effect of <span class="hlt">continents</span> on mantle heat loss. This effect is investigated with a simple approach: <span class="hlt">continents</span> are introduced in an Earth cooling model as perfect thermal insulators. Continental growth rate has then a strong influence on mantle cooling. Various continental growth models are tested and are used to compute the mantle depletion in radioactive elements as a function of continental crust extraction. Results show that the thermal blanketing effect of <span class="hlt">continents</span> strongly affects mantle cooling, and that mantle depletion must be taken into account in order not to overestimate mantle heat loss. In order to obtain correct oceanic heat flow for present time, continental growth must begin at least 3 Gy ago and steady-state for continental area must be reached for at least 1.5 Gy in our cooling model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigné, Cécile; Labrosse, Stéphane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen excretion by lactating dairy cattle in northwestern Europe and North America: a meta-analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A meta-analysis was conducted on the effect of dietary and animal factors on the excretion of total <span class="hlt">urinary</span> nitrogen (UN) and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urea nitrogen (UUN) in lactating dairy cattle in North America (NA) and northwestern Europe (EU). Mean treatment data were used from 47 trials carried out in NA and EU. Mixed model analysis was used with experiment included as a random effect and all other factors, consisting of dietary and animal characteristics, included as fixed effects. Fixed factors were nested within <span class="hlt">continent</span> (EU or NA). A distinction was made between <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretions based on either urine spot samples or calculated assuming a zero N balance, and excretions that were determined by total collection of urine only. Moreover, with the subset of data based on total collection of urine, a new data set was created by calculating <span class="hlt">urinary</span> N excretion assuming a zero N balance. Comparison with the original subset of data allowed for examining the effect of such an assumption on the relationship established between milk urea N (MUN) concentration and UN. Of all single dietary and animal factors evaluated to predict N excretion in urine, MUN and dietary crude protein (CP) concentration were by far the best predictors. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> N excretion was best predicted by the combination of MUN, CP, and dry matter intake, whereas UUN was best predicted by the combination of MUN and CP. All other factors did not improve or only marginally improved the prediction of UN or UUN. The relationship between UN and MUN differed between NA and EU, with higher estimated regression coefficients for MUN for the NA data set. Precision of UN and UUN prediction improved substantially when only UN or UUN data based on total collection of urine were used. The relationship between UN and MUN for the NA data set, but not for the EU data set, was substantially altered when UN was calculated assuming a zero N balance instead of being based on the total collection of urine. According to results of the present meta-analysis, UN and UUN are best predicted by the combination of MUN and CP and that, in regard to precision and accuracy, prediction equations for UN and UUN should be derived from the total collection of urine. PMID:23664347</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; van Duinkerken, G; Hendriks, W H; Bannink, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....3151A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indicators of climate change for the African <span class="hlt">continent</span> derived from radiosondes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we study the interannual variability of different parameters calculated from radiosonde data in the African <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Data used in the analysis were a subset of the National Climatic Data Center Upper Air Digital Files of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) (CARDS). This work show the climatic trends in the studied region during the period and from 1973 to 1998). Results show that radiosonde stations were useful for this analysis in the African <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Main oscillations and the relationship with the Northern Annular Mode and El Niño-Southern Oscillation were also studied.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Añel, J. A.; Gimeno, L.; Tesouro, M.; de La Torre, L.; Nieto, R.; Ribera, P.; García, R.; Hernández, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3425248"> <span id="translatedtitle">Different biochemical composition of connective tissue in <span class="hlt">continent</span> and stress incontinent women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The collagen content in biopsies from skin and ligamentum rotundum of 7 women with a long history of stress incontinence was compared with that of <span class="hlt">continent</span> controls. The collagen was extracted with 0.5 M acetic acid, followed by digestion with pepsin and quantitated as hydroxyproline. The skin of stress incontinent women contained 40% less collagen than that of <span class="hlt">continent</span> women. The findings for ligamentum rotundum were similar. These results suggest a deteriorated connective tissue in stress-incontinent women and cast new light on the etiology of the disease. PMID:3425248</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ulmsten, U; Ekman, G; Giertz, G; Malmström, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does the New Formulation of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® Deter Misuse? A Qualitative Analysis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand changing illicit drug use patterns in rural Appalachia since a new formulation of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® was released with the goal of deterring diversion and misuse. Participants (n = 25) from a longitudinal study of rural drug users (N = 192) were approached to participate in semistructured qualitative interviews between April and June 2011. The primary finding is that the majority of participants switched from using the original formulation Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> to immediate-release oxycodone. We discuss the implications and limitations of these findings. PMID:24354546</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buer, Lesly-Marie; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24703159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical efficacy of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> in the treatment of cancer pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective  To evaluate the analgesic efficacy as well as adverse effects of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer\\u000a pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> was administered at an initial dose of 10 mg every 12 h and titrated upwards according to the extent of pain relief.\\u000a The analgesic effect, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale as well as adverse effects were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaomei Li; Duanqi Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9258784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiologic findings in acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction, a common disease in daily practice, often requires performance of emergency intravenous urography (IVU). However, the spectrum of urographic abnormalities seen with acute obstruction has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study was to explore the IVU findings in patients with acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction. Records of 380 patients who underwent IVU in our hospital during a 6-mo period were reviewed for IVU evidence of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction. Of the 380 patients, 53 (14%; 39 men, 14 women; average age = 43 yr) had acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction. All obstructions except one were located in the lower one-third of the ureter. The causes of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> obstruction included ureteral stones in 34 (64%), ureteral edema or lucent stones in 16 (30%), neoplasms in 2 (4%), and inflammatory disease in 1 (2%). Abnormal radiologic findings were hydroureter in 46, nephropyelographic delay in 36, hydronephrosis in 35, interureteric ridge edema in 11, persistent dense nephrogram in 6, urine extravasation in 5, vicarious excretion in 1, striation in 1, and stricture in 1. Radiographic results were normal in one patient. The most common clinical indications of acute ureteral obstruction are flank pain and hematuria, and calculi are the major cause. In one-third of patients, radiopaque calculi are not detectable with IVU during acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction. A careful and thorough evaluation of the IVU should be performed in patients with clinical indications of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> obstruction. PMID:9258784</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, M Y; Zagoria, R J; Dyer, R B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3769118"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Bladder Cancer in Yemen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907613"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection in children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Up to 11.3% of girls and 3.6% of boys will have had a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) by the age of 16 years, and recurrence of infection is common. Vesicoureteric reflux is identified in up to 40% of children being investigated for a first UTI, and is a risk factor for, but weak predictor of, renal parenchymal defects. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection in children? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 25 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (short initial intravenous antibiotics, long initial intravenous antibiotics, initial oral antibiotics, single-dose or single-day courses of oral antibiotics, short courses of oral antibiotics, long courses of oral antibiotics, immediate empirical antibiotics, delayed antibiotics, prolonged delay of antibiotics, prophylactic antibiotics); immunotherapy; surgical correction of minor functional abnormalities; and surgical correction of moderate to severe vesicoureteric reflux.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2962255"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence and Weight Change During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Cohort Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to increased <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI) during and after pregnancy, but scientific support is lacking. The effect of weight loss on UI postpartum is unclear. From 1999 to 2006, investigators in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study recruited pregnant women during pregnancy. This study was based on 12,679 primiparous women who were <span class="hlt">continent</span> before pregnancy. Data were obtained from questionnaires answered at weeks 15 and 30 of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. Weight gain greater than the 50th percentile during weeks 0–15 of pregnancy was weakly associated with higher incidence of UI at week 30 compared with weight gain less than or equal to the 50th percentile. Weight gain greater than the 50th percentile during pregnancy was not associated with increased prevalence of UI 6 months postpartum. For each kilogram of weight loss from delivery to 6 months postpartum among women who were incontinent during pregnancy, the relative risk for UI decreased 2.1% (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 0.99). Weight gain during pregnancy does not seem to be a risk factor for increased incidence or prevalence of UI during pregnancy or postpartum. However, weight loss postpartum may be important for avoiding incontinence and regaining <span class="hlt">continence</span> 6 months postpartum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Hunskaar, Steinar; Bo, Kari; Rortveit, Guri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29168552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract calculi with ureteroscopic techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives. To evaluate our experience in treating 155 patients with upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract calculi ureteroscopically. The treatment of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calculi has remained the most frequent application of ureteroscopy. Miniaturization of semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes has permitted easier access to calculi throughout the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract.Methods. Ureteroscopic stone treatment was attempted in 155 patients with upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract calculi between November 1995</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehab R. Tawfiek; Demetrius H. Bagley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mk4kj00n16527658.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survived <span class="hlt">ileocecal</span> blowout from compressed air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Industrial accidents with compressed air entering the gastro-intestinal tract often run fatally. The pressures usually over-exceed\\u000a those used by medical applications such as colonoscopy and lead to vast injuries of the intestines with high mortality. The\\u000a case described in this report is of a 26-year-old man who was harmed by compressed air that entered through the anus. He survived\\u000a because</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marco Weber; Frank Kolbus; Jan Dressler; Rüdiger Lessig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22857837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Issues in febrile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infections are common occurrences in the pediatric age group and are a cause of significant morbidity and expense. The understanding of the consequences and sequelae of febrile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections led to revision of standard protocols initiated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) in 1999. A less invasive protocol of radiologic evaluation has been the major outcome of the revised AAP guidelines. Emphasis on prevention of recurrent febrile <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections has also led to therapeutic programs that are centered less around the use of prophylactic antibiotics than has previously been the practice. PMID:22857837</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koyle, Martin A; Shifrin, Donald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25039338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effective management in male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effective assessment is key to the effective management of male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. Identification of the specific type of incontinence being experienced by the patient will inform the treatment plan, and the holistic needs of the patient need to be considered before making a decision in this regard. This article describes the different types of male lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms and gives recommendations for managing and treating each specific type. It will also consider potential issues surrounding treatment of male <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, such as communication issues from the perspective of the health-care professional and the patient themselves, before giving containment strategies and methods. PMID:25039338</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fawcett, Julie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31412202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does posterior sagittal anorectoplasty in patients with high imperforate anus provide superior fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) has become the primary surgical procedure for patients with high imperforate anus. Very few careful long-term follow-up studies have established the superiority of the PSARP procedure over other surgical repair techniques. The authors' goal was to evaluate the operation and to identify the factors associated with improved <span class="hlt">continence</span>. The medical records, operative reports, and radiographs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David P Bliss; David Tapper; Judy M Anderson; Robert T Schaller; Edwin I Hatch; Alan Morgan; Dale G Hall; Robert S Sawin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750050339&hterms=continent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcontinent"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52505139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Holocene Varve Lithology, Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span>, USA: Implications for Paleoclimatic Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large network of small, deep glacial lakes make the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> United States an excellent location for regional, high-resolution paleoclimatic study. Further, exceptionally small and deep lakes are often annually laminated (varved), enabling strict chronologic control. Previous work in Elk Lake and Deep Lake, Minnesota, demonstrates that varve lithology and thickness are sensitive indicators of climatic change. This study aims</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Wittkop; K. Kelts</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32885987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Age and Sex on Anal Sphincters: Manometric Evaluation of Anorectal <span class="hlt">Continence</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the exact nature of anorectal <span class="hlt">continence</span>, a manometric evaluation was performed in 88 healthy test persons with a two-balloon catheter. The pressure in the anal canal (Pac) and the rectal ampulla at rest (Par), the maximum squeeze pressure (Pac max) and pressure rise in the anal canal after dilatation of the rectal ampulla (?PAC) were evaluated separately for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Poos; J. Frank; R. Bittner; H. G. Beger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Antarctica&pg=3&id=EJ554629"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lost <span class="hlt">Continents</span>? Children's Understanding of the Location and Orientation of the Earth's Land Masses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents the results of an experiment that asked 53 middle school children to identify <span class="hlt">continent</span> shapes and to arrange them to form a map of the world. Australia, Europe, and Asia were the most recognized. Misidentified and misaligned most consistently were Africa and Antarctica. Discusses possible reasons and teachers' responses. (MJP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiegand, Patrick; Stiell, Bernadette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51285350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the Characteristics of TLE Producing Convective Systems in Different <span class="hlt">Continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transient Luminous Events are optical effects of lightning induced electric fields in the upper atmosphere. They were serendipitously discovered in 1989 by low-light video recordings of sprites above thunderstorms over the US. Since 1993 airborne and ground based campaigns to perform TLE observations have been carried out in several countries in all five <span class="hlt">continents</span>. Space shuttle and, more recently, satellite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. S. Tavares; R. R. Azambuja; S. Soula; C. A. Morales Rodriguez; R. P. Rocha; J. Santiago</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42768879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the Ocean and <span class="hlt">Continents</span>: A Unified Theory of the Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time period from the formation of the Earth (4.5 Ga) to the establishment of plate tectonics at the beginning of the Proterozoic (2.5 Ga) remains largely hidden and unknown. During this time period, the ocean, atmosphere, and <span class="hlt">continents</span> formed, and the geochemical and physical processes that allowed the development and evolution of life were established. Our knowledge of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Deming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54613602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of the Ocean and <span class="hlt">Continents</span>: Towards a Unified Theory of the Earth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time period from the formation of the Earth (4.5 Ga) to the establishment of plate tectonics at the beginning of the Proterozoic (2.5 Ga) remains largely hidden and unknown. During this time period, the ocean, atmosphere, and <span class="hlt">continents</span> formed, and the geochemical and physical processes that allowed the development and evolution of life were established. Our knowledge of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Deming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4599608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aimed to estimate for the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span> the overall biomass productivity, water balance, and nutrient exports from the soil. We used a steady-state model which describes the uptake of carbon by plants, limited by the available energy, water and nutrients, and the cycling of carbon and nutrients within the soil. The model solves steady-state equations of the balances of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KIRBY Mac; RAUPACH Mike; BARRETT Damian; BRIGGS Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=250318"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (USA) great rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=medical+AND+directories&pg=2&id=ED031328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Streams.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The information in this directory is designed to promote continuity in family planning services for migrant families in mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> streams. It provides professional personnel with a new tool to help meet the distinctive needs of individual migrants. Names, addresses, schedules, methods, and fee information of service agencies (health…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60231166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Importance of shelf to trough black phosphatic shales in Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pennsylvanian black shales containing radiolarian-rich phosphatic nodules, such as are now accumulating on outer shelves and upper slopes of modern tropical seas, are widespread throughout much of Kansas, Oklahoma, and other Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> states. Conodonts, inarticulate brachiopods, conularids, fish teeth, and radiolarians constitute the main biota of these black shales. Such shales characterize about half the 60 or more known Pennsylvanian</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3655276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent rainfall fluctuations in Africa and their relationship to past conditions over the <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the rainfall conditions which have prevailed over Africa during the last two decades. Throughout this period rainfall has been abnormally low over most of the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. These conditions are compared and contrasted with those which previously prevailed during historical and geologic times. A trend towards increasing aridity since about 1970 has been neither continuous nor apparent in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon E. Nicholson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54887466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase Spread Alloys: Searching for new materials using <span class="hlt">continously</span> varying stoichiometries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most new materials with interesting new physical properties (e.g. high Tc superconductivity, colossal-magnetoresistance, etc.) are very complex and consist of several different elements. This makes it inherently difficult to discover such new materials, and thus there have been several searching schemes investigated lately. We have developed a technique which uses phase spread alloys, which are thin films with a <span class="hlt">continously</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivan K. Schuller; A. Hoffmann; D. C. Vier; S. Schultz; B. Knigge; D. Lederman; D. Mendoza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=laboratory+AND+accreditation&pg=7&id=ED327366"> <span id="translatedtitle">Profiles on Rural Education in the Seven State Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Region.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on interviews with State Education Department personnel, this report presents information regarding the status of rural education in the seven-state region (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) served by the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Regional Laboratory. Of the 2,400 school districts in this region, 93 percent…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Missouri Univ., Columbia. Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40845947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crustal volumes of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Schubert; D. Sandwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw/paper/2006_Oikos_114_P479.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A statistical approach to estimate soil ciliate diversity and distribution based on data from five <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A total of 359 soil samples collected from five <span class="hlt">continents</span> (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and South America) were investigated for the presence\\/absence of soil ciliate species. Merging records by species identity, we have compiled a master data list (species by sample matrix). In the list, a total of 964 soil ciliate species (644 described and 320 undescribed) are recorded. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne Chao; P. C. Li; S. Agatha; W. Foissner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41053482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apparent polar wandering for the Atlantic-bordering <span class="hlt">continents</span>: Late Carboniferous to Eocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a compilation of reliable paleomagnetic pole positions from five continental plates (North America, Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, and South America) for ten time intervals ranging from Late Carboniferous to Eocene. Only well-dated results obtained by demagnetization techniques have been used. Paleomagnetic poles are plotted with respect to the paleo-positions of the <span class="hlt">continents</span>, as reconstructed from correlations of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. van der Voo; R. B. French</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ees.lanl.gov/staff/benp/downloads/Coltice2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global warming of the mantle beneath <span class="hlt">continents</span> back to the Archaean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o Throughout its history, the Earth has experienced global magmatic events that correlate with the formation of supercontinents. This suggests that the distribution of <span class="hlt">continents</span> at the Earth's surface is fundamental in regulating mantle temperature. Nevertheless, most large igneous provinces (LIPs) are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolas Coltice; Hervé Bertrand; Patrice Rey; Fred Jourdan; Benjamin R. Phillips; Yanick Ricard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41300604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global warming of the mantle beneath <span class="hlt">continents</span> back to the Archaean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout its history, the Earth has experienced global magmatic events that correlate with the formation of supercontinents. This suggests that the distribution of <span class="hlt">continents</span> at the Earth's surface is fundamental in regulating mantle temperature. Nevertheless, most large igneous provinces (LIPs) are explained in terms of the interaction of a hot plume with the lithosphere, even though some do not show</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolas Coltice; Hervé Bertrand; Patrice Rey; Fred Jourdan; Benjamin R. Phillips; Yanick Ricard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/13/5/1394.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends in male:female ratio among newborn infants in 29 countries from five <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have analysed trends in male:female ratios among newborns between 1950 and 1990 in 29 countries from five <span class="hlt">continents</span>. The numbers of liveborn males and females over the period 1950-1994 were derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) database. Countries for which reliable data were available included 20 major European countries (excluding the former Soviet Union, Albania and a few</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabio Parazzini; Carlo La Vecchia; Fabio Levi; Silvia Franceschi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016518"> <span id="translatedtitle">A northern Cordilleran ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transect: Sitka Sound, Alaska, to Atlin Lake, British Columbia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 155 km wide, 310 km long Sitka Sound - Atlin Lake <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transect includes almost all the geologic, geophysical, and geotectonic elements of the Canadian Cordillera. It crosses the Chugach, Wrangellia, Alexander, Stikine, and Cache Creek terranes, the Gravina and Laberge overlap assemblages, intrusive and metamorphic belts, and neotectonic faults that bound major blocks. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brew, D. A.; Karl, S. M.; Barnes, D. F.; Jachens, R. C.; Ford, A. B.; Horner, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=199743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> Great Rivers (USA)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rotational inertia of <span class="hlt">continents</span>: A proposed link between polar wandering and plate tectonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mechanism is proposed whereby displacement between <span class="hlt">continents</span> and the earth's pole of rotation (polar wandering) gives rise to latitudinal transport of continental plates (continental drift) because of their relatively greater rotational inertia. When extended to short-term polar wobble, the hypothesis predicts an energy change nearly equivalent to the seismic energy rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, M. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Villages+AND+India&pg=2&id=EJ947747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Educational Visions from Two <span class="hlt">Continents</span>: What Tagore Adds to the Deweyan Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this global village, it is relevant to look at two educational visionaries from two <span class="hlt">continents</span>, John Dewey and Rabindranath Tagore. Dewey observed that the modern individual was depersonalized by the industrial and commercial culture. He, thus, envisioned a new individual who would find fulfillment in maximum individuality within maximum…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samuel, Francis A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23097864"> <span id="translatedtitle">[What to do with a normal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> strip in case of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms?].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients very often consult for lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms, that do not necessarily equate to common cystitis. When <span class="hlt">urinary</span> leucocytes and nitrites are absent, the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> strip has a very good negative predictive value and makes the diagnosis of a lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection very unlikely. One then has to search for other diagnoses and to clarify the nature of the symptoms, irritating or obstructive ones, their duration and to correlate them to the patient's age and gender. In sexually active young patients, infectious diseases predominate, such as uretritis or vaginitis, while, with age, the prevalence of dysfunction of vesical emptying, benign prostatic hyperplasia or atrophic vaginitis increase. PMID:23097864</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sabeh, N; Gambirasio, I Kaelin; Caviezel, A; Delémont, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Escitalopram-associated acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New-onset <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention can typically be explained by the use of the routine normally suspected medications (e.g., anticholinergics, antihistamines). However, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are not typically presumed as the cause of acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention (AUR). The following case describes the introduction of escitalopram in a patient and the subsequent development of AUR. Medical causes of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention had been ruled out, and ipratropium was initially suspected to be the cause of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> difficulties and was discontinued. However, the retention persisted four days after suspending the ipratropium. Normal micturition resumed only after stopping the escitalopram without further need for catheterization. Escitalopram may cause rare cases of AUR and may often times be overlooked possibly because of the paucity of reporting. PMID:24129221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trombetta, Dominick; Garrett, Kathleen; Harrison, Marissa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2002105097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biofeedback and <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Older Women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prevalence, cost, and treatment outcomes associated with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI) provide compelling reasons to study novel treatments. The primary aims of this 1-year pilot study were to: (1) Assess our ability to recruit participants to participate...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Dugan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7058160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention: causes and treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention often is secondary to obstruction of the bladder or distal genitourinary system, which may be induced by any of a number of medical or surgical conditions. Treatment varies according to the cause. PMID:7058160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ochsner, M G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850000359&hterms=prosthetics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dprosthetics"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Prosthesis for <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Report describes development and marketing of prosthetic sphincter for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> control. With prosthetic device, patients void bladder every 3 to 4 hours. Periodic voiding keeps bladder muscles exercised and healthy and avoids bladder infections and kidney damage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tenney, J. B.; Rabinowitz, R.; Tomkiewicz, Z.; Harrison, H. N.; Rogers, D. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4040464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuropeptides in Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract (LUT) Function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including <span class="hlt">urinary</span> urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2004103324"> <span id="translatedtitle">State of the Science on <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite widely disseminated guidelines for <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UI), it remains underreported and underdiagnosed. To raise awareness about UI and to develop a nursing agenda for research and clinical practice an invitational symposium for nurse researche...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. H. Palmer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770852"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Surgical Procedure Is the Most Important Factor Affecting <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Recovery after Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose We analyzed factors associated with early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Among 467 patients treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer between 2007 and 2012, 249 patients who underwent a preoperative urodynamic study were enrolled. The patients' age, prostate volume, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, pathologic stage, and preoperative urodynamic parameters were recorded. The preoperative membranous and prostatic urethral length on magnetic resonance image, nerve sparing technique, and type of surgical procedure (extrafascial and intrafascial) were analyzed. Patients were considered to have early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> when they needed no pad in 3 months or less after surgery. Results Ninety-two patients were in the early recovery group and 157 were in the late recovery group. The membranous urethral lengths were 12.06±2.56 and 11.81±2.87 mm, and prostatic urethral lengths were 36.39±6.15 and 37.45±7.55 mm in each group, respectively. The membranous-posterior urethral length ratios were 0.25±0.06 and 0.24±0.06, and prostatic-posterior urethral length ratios were 0.75±0.06 and 0.76±0.06, respectively. In and of themselves, the membranous and prostatic urethral lengths were not associated with recovery duration however, the membranous-total and prostatic-total urethral length ratios were related (p=0.024 and 0.024, respectively). None of the urodynamic parameters correlated with <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery time. In the multivariate analysis, the type of surgical procedure (odds ratio [OR], 7.032; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.660 to 18.590; p<0.001) and membranous urethral length (OR, 0.845; 95% CI, 0.766 to 0.931; p=0.001) were significantly related to early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Conclusions The current intrafascial surgical procedure is the most important factor affecting early recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Seungsoo; Yoon, Chang Jin; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jeong Zoo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24934526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract sterility maintenance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physiologically, urine and the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. PMID:24934526</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okr?g?a, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/1/128.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Concentrating Defect in Experimental Hemochromatosis1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentrating capacity in experimental hemochromatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into iron (Fe)-loaded (injected sc with 1.2 g elemental iron\\/kg body weight as iron dextran) and pair-fed control groups. The <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentrating ability was studied after 10 months of iron loading. At basal condition, urine osmolality (Uosm) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the Fe- loaded</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. J. Zhou; N. D. Vaziri; D. Pandian; Z. Q. Wang; M. Mazowiecki; S. Y. Liao; F. Oveisi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2684238"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> diversion after cystectomy: An Indian perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for muscle-invasive carcinoma bladder. Various methods have been described for the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion. In the last 150 years <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion has evolved from cutaneous ureterostomy to the orthotopic neobladder. Especially during the last 20 years, much advancement has been made. We hereby have reviewed the current approaches being used at different centers in India. We have also analyzed the evolution of diversion from conduit to the orthotopic substitution at our center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Deepak; Raghunath, S. K.; Khanna, Samir; Kumar, Prem; Rawal, Sudhir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33236634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk factors in internal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system malformations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk factors were studied in 370 children with internal <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system (IUS) anomalies, coming from 105,374 consecutive births of known outcome. The incidence of IUS malformations was 3.51 per 1,000 births. Diagnosis was performed prenatally in 54.4% of patients. Two hundred and fifty-two patients had isolated IUS anomalies; 118 (31.8%) of the children had at least one non-<span class="hlt">urinary</span> malformation. Fifty-five</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Stoll; Y. Alembik; M. P. Roth; B. Dott; P. Sauvage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17492279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heavy elements in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence and role of heavy metals in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones. The other heavy metals were Fe, Cu, Rb, Pb and Se. Zn and Sr were virtually confined to calcium-containing stones, whereas only trace amounts were found in uric acid or cystine stones. Among calcium stones, Zn and Sr were more abundant in calcium phosphate than in calcium oxalate stones and, in the latter, in weddellite than in whewellite stones. Fe, Cu and Rb were much less abundant and also found mainly in calcium stones. Pb was significantly less abundant than in previous studies, thus suggesting a rarefaction of Pb in the environment, and appreciable amounts of Se were found only in cystine stones. In conclusion, the preponderance of Zn and Sr, both bivalent ions, in calcium-containing stones suggests a substitution process of calcium by metal ions with similar charge and radius rather than a contribution of the metals to stone formation. Further studies are needed to examine the relationships between urine concentration in calcium or other solutes and the amount of Zn and Sr in calcium stones. PMID:17492279</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bazin, D; Chevallier, P; Matzen, G; Jungers, P; Daudon, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3921730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of mixed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Mixed <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (MUI) is a prevalent condition and imposes a significant impact on a woman's quality of life. Treatment is often challenging, as a single modality may be inadequate for alleviating both the urge and stress component. Materials and methods A MEDLINE search was conducted regarding English-language literature pertaining to the pathophysiology, diagnosis of, and treatment for MUI. Non-English language articles were considered if they could be translated into English using GOOGLE translator. Results The identification of an ideal single treatment has also been made more challenging by the poor characterization of the pathophysiology of MUI. Behavioral and lifestyle modification, as well as pelvic floor muscle therapy, should be considered first-line options for all women with MUI. Treatment of the urge component with anti-muscarinics is effective; however the stress component is likely to persist after therapy. Anti-incontinence surgery may have a positive impact on both the stress and urge components of MUI, with emerging evidence suggesting that transobturator MUS may be associated with lower rates of de novo and persistent urge component compared to other procedures. The presence of concomitant, preoperative detrusor overactivity has not been consistently associated with postoperative outcomes. Conclusions The optimum treatment of MUI may often require multiple treatment modalities. While surgery may have a positive impact on both the urge and stress component, its implementation should be approached with caution and patients should be carefully selected. Detailed informed consent in women with MUI cannot be overstated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomelsky, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7752385"> <span id="translatedtitle">A heterotopic autoinnervated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> neosphincter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty-six female adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical denervation of a gracilis muscle to study the possibility of developing an autologous neosphincter innervated by the pudendal nerve. The study was conducted in 2 phases. In both Phase I and Phase II, the study group had the motor nerve to the gracilis, a branch of the obturator nerve and the pudendal nerve coapted in the perineum. The control group was left denervated. In Phase I, all muscle flaps were wrapped around the urogenital sinus. In Phase II, the muscle flaps were returned to their anatomic location. With bulbocavernosus reflex testing, 89% of the reinnervated group and 60% of the denervated group from Phase I and 86% of the reinnervated group and none of the denervated group from Phase II had a contractile response in the muscle flap. In Phase II, histologic examination of the gracilis muscle was suggestive of an early change in muscle myofiber physiology from fast twitch to slow twitch in the reinnervated group only. In the rabbit, a transplanted vascularized muscle flap, cross-innervated by the pudendal nerve has a reproducible response to bulbocavernosus reflex testing. This suggests that a transplanted muscle might be able to assume some of the characteristics of the voluntary <span class="hlt">urinary</span> sphincter. The rabbit is a useful model in which to investigate the potential of the heterotopic neosphincter. PMID:7752385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vukovich, J G; McKenna, P H; Grice, G P; Docimo, S G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1751487"> <span id="translatedtitle">?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder, urethra and prostate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have systematically reviewed the presence, functional responses and regulation of ?1-, ?2- and ?-adrenoceptors in the bladder, urethra and prostate, with special emphasis on human tissues and receptor subtypes. ?1-Adrenoceptors are only poorly expressed and play a limited functional role in the detrusor. ?1-Adrenoceptors, particularly their ?1A-subtype, show a more pronounced expression and promote contraction of the bladder neck, urethra and prostate to enhance bladder outlet resistance, particularly in elderly men with enlarged prostates. ?1-Adrenoceptor agonists are important in the treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but their beneficial effects may involve receptors within and outside the prostate. ?2-Adrenoceptors, mainly their ?2A-subtype, are expressed in bladder, urethra and prostate. They mediate pre-junctional inhibition of neurotransmitter release and also a weak contractile effect in the urethra of some species, but not humans. Their overall post-junctional function in the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract remains largely unclear. ?-Adrenoceptors mediate relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder, urethra and prostate. The available tools have limited the unequivocal identification of receptor subtypes at the protein and functional levels, but it appears that the ?3- and ?2-subtypes are important in the human bladder and urethra, respectively. ?3-Adrenoceptor agonists are promising drug candidates for the treatment of the overactive bladder. We propose that the overall function of adrenoceptors in the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract is to promote <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Further elucidation of the functional roles of their subtypes will help a better understanding of voiding dysfunction and its treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel, Martin C; Vrydag, Wim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elemental distribution analysis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> crystals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various crystals are seen in human urine. Some of them, particularly calcium oxalate dihydrate, are seen normally. Pathological crystals indicate crystal formation initiating <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stones. Unfortunately, many of the relevant crystals are not recognized in light microscopic analysis of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> deposit performed in most of the clinical laboratories. Many crystals are not clearly identifiable under the ordinary light microscopy. The objective of the present study was to perform scanning electron microscopic (SEM) assessment of various <span class="hlt">urinary</span> deposits and confirm the identity by elemental distribution analysis (EDAX). 50 samples of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> deposits were collected from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> stone clinic. Deposits containing significant crystalluria (more than 10 per HPF) were collected under liquid paraffin in special containers and taken up for SEM studies. The deposited crystals were retrieved with appropriate Pasteur pipettes, and placed on micropore filter paper discs. The fluid was absorbed by thicker layers of filter paper underneath and discs were fixed to brass studs. They were then gold sputtered to 100 A and examined under SEM (Jeol JSM 35C microscope). When crystals were seen, their morphology was recorded by taking photographs at different angles. At appropriate magnification, EDAX probe was pointed to the crystals under study and the wave patterns analyzed. Components of the crystals were recognized by utilizing the data. All the samples analyzed contained significant number of crystals. All samples contained more than one type of crystal. The commonest crystals encountered included calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite 22%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite 32%), uric acid (10%), calcium phosphates, namely, apatite (4%), brushite (6%), struvite (6%) and octocalcium phosphate (2%). The morphological appearances of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> crystals described were correlated with the wavelengths obtained through elemental distribution analysis. Various <span class="hlt">urinary</span> crystals that are not reported under light microscopy could be recognized by SEM-EDAX combination. EDAX is a significant tool for recognizing unknown crystals not identified by ordinary light microscopy or SEM alone. PMID:19536530</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19441868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cranberry and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) refers to the presence of clinical signs and symptoms arising from the genitourinary tract plus the presence of one or more micro-organisms in the urine exceeding a threshold value for significance (ranges from 102 to 103 colony-forming units/mL). Infections are localized to the bladder (cystitis), renal parenchyma (pyelonephritis) or prostate (acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis). Single UTI episodes are very common, especially in adult women where there is a 50-fold predominance compared with adult men. In addition, recurrent UTIs are also common, occurring in up to one-third of women after first-episode UTIs. Recurrences requiring intervention are usually defined as two or more episodes over 6 months or three or more episodes over 1 year (this definition applies only to young women with acute uncomplicated UTIs). A cornerstone of prevention of UTI recurrence has been the use of low-dose once-daily or post-coital antimicrobials; however, much interest has surrounded non-antimicrobial-based approaches undergoing investigation such as use of probiotics, vaccines, oligosaccharide inhibitors of bacterial adherence and colonization, and bacterial interference with immunoreactive extracts of Escherichia coli. Local (intravaginal) estrogen therapy has had mixed results to date. Cranberry products in a variety of formulations have also undergone extensive evaluation over several decades in the management of UTIs. At present, there is no evidence that cranberry can be used to treat UTIs. Hence, the focus has been on its use as a preventative strategy. Cranberry has been effective in vitro and in vivo in animals for the prevention of UTI. Cranberry appears to work by inhibiting the adhesion of type I and P-fimbriated uropathogens (e.g. uropathogenic E. coli) to the uroepithelium, thus impairing colonization and subsequent infection. The isolation of the component(s) of cranberry with this activity has been a daunting task, considering the hundreds of compounds found in the fruit and its juice derivatives. Reasonable evidence suggests that the anthocyanidin/proanthocyanidin moieties are potent antiadhesion compounds. However, problems still exist with standardization of cranberry products, which makes it extremely difficult to compare products or extrapolate results. Unfortunately, most clinical trials have had design deficiencies and none have evaluated specific key cranberry-derived compounds considered likely to be active moieties (e.g. proanthocyanidins). In general, the preventive efficacy of cranberry has been variable and modest at best. Meta-analyses have established that recurrence rates over 1 year are reduced approximately 35% in young to middle-aged women. The efficacy of cranberry in other groups (i.e. elderly, paediatric patients, those with neurogenic bladder, those with chronic indwelling <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters) is questionable. Withdrawal rates have been quite high (up to 55%), suggesting that these products may not be acceptable over long periods. Adverse events include gastrointestinal intolerance, weight gain (due to the excessive calorie load) and drug-cranberry interactions (due to the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism). The findings of the Cochrane Collaboration support the potential use of cranberry products in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, in light of the heterogeneity of clinical study designs and the lack of consensus regarding the dosage regimen and formulation to use, cranberry products cannot be recommended for the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs at this time. PMID:19441868</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guay, David R P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Sci...335...73B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Exhumation History of <span class="hlt">Continents</span> over Billion-Year Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth’s history can provide insight into the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the <span class="hlt">continents</span> themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blackburn, Terrence J.; Bowring, Samuel A.; Perron, J. Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H.; Dudas, Francis O.; Barnhart, Katherine R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031874&hterms=continent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontinent"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship of multispectral satellite data to land surface evaporation from the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on NOAA-9 AVHRR and Nimbus-7 SMMR satellite data, satellite indices of vegetation from the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span> are calculated for the period of May 1986 to April 1987. Visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) reflectances and the normalized difference (ND) vegetation index are calculated from the AVHRR sensor. The microwave polarization difference (PD) is also calculated as the difference between the vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures at 37 GHz. ND, PD, VIS, and NIR indices were plotted against rainfall and water balance estimates of evaporation. It is concluded that direct satellite monitoring of annual evaporation across the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span> using PD or VIS satellite indices of vegetation biomass appears possible for areas with evaporation less than 600 mm/y and that use of the ND relationship at continental scale may underpredict monthly evaporation of forests relative to agriculture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, R. C. G.; Choudhury, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6951961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Image of the Moho across the <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition, US east coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strong wide-angle reflections from the Moho were recorded by ocean-bottom seismic instruments during the 1988 Carolina Trough multichannel seismic experiment, in an area where the Moho is difficult to detect with vertical-incidence seismic data. Prestack depth migration of these reflections has enabled the construction of a seismic image of the Moho across the <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition of a sedimented passive margin. The Moho rises across the margin at a slope of 10{degree}-12{degree}, from a depth of about 33 km beneath the continental shelf to 20 km beneath the outer rise. This zone of crustal thinning defines a distinct, 60-70-km-wide <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition zone. The authors interpret the Moho in the Carolina Trough as a Jurassic feature, formed by magmatic intrusion and underplating during the rifting of Pangea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holbrook, W.S.; Purdy, G.M. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)); Reiter, E.C.; Toksoez, M.N. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5490S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Was the Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Rift part of a successful seafloor-spreading episode?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ~1.1 Ga Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Rift (MCR), the 3000-km long largely-buried feature causing the largest gravity and magnetic anomaly within the North American craton, is traditionally considered a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension. We propose instead that the MCR formed as part of the rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian northeast South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established. A cusp in Laurentia's apparent polar wander path near the onset of MCR volcanism, recorded by the MCR's volcanic rocks, likely reflects the rifting. This scenario is suggested by analogy with younger rifts elsewhere and consistent with the geometry and timing of Precambrian rifting events including the MCR's extension to southwest Alabama along the East <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Gravity High, southern Appalachian rocks having Amazonian affinities, and recent interpretation of large igneous provinces in Amazonia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stein, Carol; Stein, Seth; Merino, Miguel; Keller, G. Randy; Flesch, Lucy; Jurdy, Donna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917997"> <span id="translatedtitle">24-Hour <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Calcium in Primary Hyperparathyroidism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To establish whether <span class="hlt">urinary</span> and serum calcium levels are correlated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and to evaluate related factors including serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D, age, gender and renal function. Design Retrospective review on patients undergoing a parathyroidectomy for PHPT from 2000– 2008. Data collected included: age, sex, preoperative serum calcium (ionized and total), creatinine, PTH, postoperative ionized calcium, vitamin D, and 24-hour urine calcium and creatinine. Data were evaluated by standard descriptive statistics. Results Of the 214 patients evaluated, preoperative 24-hour <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium was available for 150 patients (70%). 24-hour urine calcium levels did not correlate significantly with preoperative total serum or ionized calcium, PTH, vitamin D, or postoperative serum ionized calcium. There were significant correlations (P < 0.0001) of 24-hour <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium with age, serum creatinine, and urine creatinine. Secondary analysis grouped subjects by <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium level greater or less than 400 mg/24 hours. Age and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> creatinine were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy, there was little correlation between preoperative 24-hour urine calcium and preoperative serum calcium, PTH, or vitamin D levels. 24-hour urine calcium levels were correlated with renal function and age, but these correlations are likely to occur in the general population and are not specific to this disease group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, Carrie E.; Berg, Richard L.; Urquhart, Andrew C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3918693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Serum and <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> NGAL in Septic Newborns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system) values. We conclude that increased serum and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suchojad, Anna; Majcherczyk, Malgorzata; Jadamus-Niebroj, Danuta; Owsianka-Podlesny, Teresa; Brzozowska, Aniceta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract development and disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Congenital Anomalies of the Lower <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract obstruction, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18460874"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> concentration defects and mechanisms underlying nephronophthisis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cystic kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the commonest genetic cause of end-stage renal failure in young people and children. Histologically the disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy with corticomedullary cyst development and disruption of the tubular basement membrane. Affected children present with polydipsia and polyuria, secondary to a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration defect, before these structural changes develop. Recently, molecular genetic advances have identified several genes mutated in NPHP, providing novel insights into its pathophysiology for the first time in decades. Here we review the normal physiological mechanisms of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration and explain, in the context of recent discoveries, the possible mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration defects in patients with NPHP. The pattern of a ciliary and adherens junction subcellular localization of nephrocystin proteins is discussed. Recent animal models of cystic kidney disease and treatment with vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists are reviewed and a hypothesis regarding <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration defects in NPHP is proposed. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying NPHP and other cystic kidney diseases will provide the rationale for therapeutic interventions in this disease. Early <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration defects provide both a clue to clinical diagnosis of NPHP and potential therapeutic targets for pharmacological treatment of this condition. PMID:18460874</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnan, Rajesh; Eley, Lorraine; Sayer, John A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48951668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity modeling of the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition along the South Atlantic margins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gravity, magnetic, and seismic data have been used to examine changes in crustal structure of conjugate portions of the South Atlantic volcanic margins south of the Walvis Ridge-Rio Grande Rise hot spot tracks. We have constructed 18 seismically constrained crustal-scale gravity models of the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition: 12 across the African margin and 6 across the South American margin. We attribute</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diana Dragoi-Stavar; Stuart Hall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3862290"> <span id="translatedtitle">The borehole temperature record of climate warming in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> of North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground-surface temperature (GST) histories, determined from a carefully selected set of twenty-nine borehole temperature profiles, show a warming trend over the last century that increases systematically with latitude in the mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> of North America. Except one site in north Texas, the borehole locations lie within a 500 × 1000 km transect that extends from the Kansas-Nebraska border into southern Manitoba.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. D. Gosnold; P. E. Todhunter; W. Schmidt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S21C..01L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault Interaction and Earthquake Migration in Mid-<span class="hlt">Continents</span>: Insights from Numerical Modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historic records in North China and other mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span> show large earthquakes migrating among widespread fault systems. Mechanical coupling of these faults is indicated by complimentary seismic moment release on these faults. In a conceptual model (Liu et al., 2011, Lithosphere), the long-distance fault interaction and earthquake migration are explained as the consequences of regional stress readjustment among a system of intraplate faults that collectively accommodates tectonic loading at the plate boundaries. In such a system, failure of one fault (a large earthquake) can cause stress shifting on all other faults. Here we report preliminary results of numerical investigations of such long-distance fault interaction in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span>. In a set of elastic models, we have a model crust with internal faults loaded from the boundaries, and calculate the stress distribution on the faults when the system reaches equilibrium. We compare the results with those of a new model that has one or more of the faults weakened (ruptured). The results show that failure of one fault can cause up to a few MPa of stress changes on other faults over a large distance; the magnitude of the stress change and the radius of the impacted area are much greater than those of the static Coulomb stress changes associated with dislocation on the fault plane. In time-dependent viscoelasto-plastic models, we found that variations of seismicity on one fault can significantly affect the loading rates on other faults that share the same tectonic loading. Similar fault interactions are also found in complex plate boundary fault systems, such as between the San Andreas Fault and the San Jacinto Fault in southern California. The spatially migrating earthquakes resulting from the long-distance fault interactions in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span> can cause different spatial patterns of seismicity when observed through different time-windows. These results have important implications for assessing earthquake hazards in mid-<span class="hlt">continents</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, M.; Lu, Y.; Chen, L.; Luo, G.; Wang, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44965134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and paleoecology of algae from Missourian (Upper Pennsylvanian) cyclic sequences, Mid<span class="hlt">Continent</span>, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study are fourfold: (1) document the basinal to inner shelf and vertical distribution of marine algae from Missourian transgressive-regressive depositional sequences of the U.S. Mid-<span class="hlt">Continent</span>: (2) integrate observed taphonomic and petrographic properties with the distribution patterns to produce empirically derived paleoecologic interpretations of these algae; (3) propose an algal-carbonate facies model for Upper Pennsylvanian depositional sequences;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5206433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Churchill's soft-underbelly approach onto the European <span class="hlt">continent</span> - a missed opportunity. Study project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper analyzes Winston Churchill's World War II proposal to enter the <span class="hlt">continent</span> of Europe via the Balkans, the soft-underbelly. It considers the failure of the United States to have a national policy or grand strategy in place upon which to weigh such proposals. The American, British, and Russian perspectives are then reviewed, conclusion drawn, and suggestions made for a future strategy in Europe.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawton, J.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-05-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v085/iB11/JB085iB11p06443/JB085iB11p06443.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of African Gravity and its implication for the breakup of the <span class="hlt">continents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To obtain a more quantitative interpretation of the 'great negative Bougues anomaly' over Africa a study is made of all the gravity data for the whole of the African <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Histograms from 1°×1° means are presented for heights, free air, and Bouguer anomalies. The modal values are found to be 400 m, +70 +\\/-55.1 gu (gravity unit; equal to 0.1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Brown; R. W. Girdler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60732913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of northern mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> petroleum. Quarterly report, July 1September 20, 1996</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Project will develop a prototype for a digital and hard-copy atlas of petroleum fields and reservoirs in the northern Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> region. A limited number of reservoirs in Kansas are to be included in the prototype project,but the goal is to expand beyond the prototype atlas to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, Nebraska, south dakota, North Dakota,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. C. Gerhard; T. R. Carr; W. L. Watney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13A0199Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moisture Variability over the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> During the Coordinated MJO Field Campaign in 2011-12</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A field campaign whose purpose was to collect in-situ observations to advance our knowledge of MJO initiation process was conducted in and around the tropical Indian Ocean from October 2011 through January 2012 as an intensive observing period (IOP). This campaign consisted of several projects including CINDY2011, DYNAMO, AMIE, LASP, and HARIMAU2011. During the IOP, three MJO events developed over the Indian Ocean. One of specific features of these events was the short interval of its occurrence (25-35 days). In particular, convection associated with the second MJO event, which occurred in late November, stagnated over the maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span> and then abruptly the third event was identified over the eastern Indian Ocean in late December. Since high resolution radiosonde sounding data at 15 sites are available over the maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span> in addition to the main intensive observation array over the central Indian Ocean, we examined moisture variability to view any relationship to the convective activity over the maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span>. At present, we confirmed below. (1) Five sites south of 5S showed very dry condition in October, and they started to moisten from November. This tendency prevailed from west to east. (2) Basically, while the sites west of 115E showed moisture convergence/divergence in the lower/upper troposphere, this pattern terminated with the interval of several days. On the other hand, eastern sites (east of 120E) showed gradual moistening from October to November, then strong convergence/divergence can be found in the lower/upper troposphere and continued during December - January. These different features between the western and eastern part of maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span> will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoneyama, K.; Katsumata, M.; Yasunaga, K.; Yokoi, S.; Kubota, H.; Mori, S.; Hamada, J.; Hayati, N.; Juswanto, A.; Syamsudin, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32559850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of Intraperitoneal Cefotaxime Treatment of Peritonitis in Patients on <span class="hlt">Continous</span> Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal cefotaxime as the sole therapy in patients on <span class="hlt">continous</span> ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with peritonitis have been examined. The mean plasma concentrations achieved following 1 h of peritoneal instillation of 500 mg of cefotaximine were 5.0 ± 1.6 ?g ml-1. The average plasma concentration over 24 h was 6.9 ± 0.4 ?g ml-1 and was no different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Petersen; R. D. M. Stewart; G. R. D. Catto; N. Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/0m352g2283764285.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary crustal deformation of the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> and tectonic block model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We obtain the preliminary result of crustal deformation velocity field for the Chinese <span class="hlt">continent</span> by analyzing GPS data from\\u000a the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China (CMONOC), particularly the data from the regional networks of CMONOC observed\\u000a in 1999 and 2001. We delineate 9 technically active blocks and 2 broadly distributed deformation zones out of a dense GPS\\u000a velocity field,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Min Wang; Zhengkang Shen; Zhijun Niu; Zusheng Zhang; Hanrong Sun; Weijun Gan; Qi Wang; Qun Ren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5630C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Ocean-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> transition determination in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Continent</span>-Ocean boundary [COB] is the linkage between a well defined oceanic crust and a thinned continental crust that experimented in the past extensional stresses and finally rifted. As it has been pointed out by several authors, this transitional area is important because it contains evidence concerning the break up of the <span class="hlt">Continents</span> and the onset of seafloor spreading. During the last decade the nature of the Ocean-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> transition [OCT] off western Iberia has attracted the attention of several groups. The development of seismic projects (refraction and reflection) as well as other geophysical studies, shows the importance of this subject. The western iberian Atlantic margin as well as its conjugated counterpart, is classified as a non-volcanic rifted margin. It is characterized by a highly limited igneous activity. These types of margins use to have a nearly 130 km wide ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition area that encompass the most external continental blocks and the first seafloor magnetic anomalies. Although previous works realized in several areas off west Iberia (the Iberia Abyssal Plain, the Tagus Abyssal Plain and the Galicia Bank) have determined the OCT, this problem has never been achieved at the Gulf of Cádiz. During 2000, a marine geophysical cruise has been developed [TASYO-2000]. It was carried out from April to May, using as scientific platform the R/V "Hespérides". This campaign was divided in two parts. In the first one, it was acquired geomagnetism, earth gravity field data, and multibeam bathymetry. During the second part of TASYO campaign, it was described a zig-zag like trackline pattern that penetrates into the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, collecting not only the three above mentioned disciplines but also, multichannel seismic data. This cruise, as well as other data sources (mainly a compilation of historical magnetic data) have provided new information concerning this subject. In this Communication results are presented and discusses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catalan, M.; Medialdea, T.; Vazquez, J. T.; Carbo, A.; Muñoz, A.; Somoza, L.; Vegas, R.; Maestro, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53056376"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deeply Exhumed Roots of an Eocene Arc-<span class="hlt">Continent</span> Collision Zone, Sredinniy Range, Kamchatka</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Olyutorsky arc-<span class="hlt">continent</span> collision is marked by the Vatyna Thrust, a regionally extensive suture zone, across which Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Olyutorsky island arc and retro-arc basinal rocks are juxtaposed against the continentally derived Late Cretaceous to Eocene Ukelayat flysch. Geologic relationships in northern Kamchatka and Southern Koryakia are relatively straightforward, and here, the timing of arc obduction is tightly constrained to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. K. Hourigan; A. V. Soloviev; M. T. Brandon; J. I. Garver; T. N. Palechek; J. Stevenson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513912D"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the determination of the carbon balance of <span class="hlt">continents</span> (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The carbon balance of regions, the size of <span class="hlt">continents</span>, can be determined, albeit with significant uncertainty, by combining several bottom up and top down methods. The bottom up methods use eddy covariance techniques, biometric inventory measurements and modeling, while the top down methods use atmospheric observations and inverse models. There has been considerable progress in the last few years in determining these balances through more or less standard protocols, as highlighted for instance by studies of the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECAPP) project of the Global Carbon Project. Important areas where uncertainty creeps in are the scaling of point measurements in the bottom up methods, the sparseness of the observation network and the role of model and other errors in the inversion methods. Typically these balances hold for periods of several years. They therefore do not resolve the impact of anomalies in weather and climate directly. The role of management in these balances also differs for different <span class="hlt">continents</span>. For instance in Europe management plays a strong role in the carbon balance, whereas for the Russian <span class="hlt">continent</span> this is less important. Management in the European carbon balance may potentially override climatically driven variability. In contrast, for Russia, the importance of the role of forest is paramount, but there the vulnerability of the Arctic regions and permafrost is a key uncertainty for future behaviour. I hope to show the importance of these different aspects of the terrestrial carbon balance by comparing the two <span class="hlt">continents</span>, and also discuss the significant uncertainty we still face in determining the carbon budgets of large areas. I will argue that we need to get a clearer picture of the role of management in these budgets, but also of the time variability of the budgets to be able to determine the impact of anomalous weather and the vulnerability in a future climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dolman, Albertus J. Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58909613"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> Epidemic and Crime Panic in Rural Kentucky</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the late 1990s in the United States, rural Kentucky (and rural pockets of nearby states) witnessed the emergence of a new pharmaceutical drug of abuse. The powerful oxycodone Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, first manufactured in 1996 and designed for time-release pain relief, found a ready population in rural hamlets and mountain communities. Intended for patients in pain associated with terminal disease, it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenneth D. Tunnell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23200816"> <span id="translatedtitle">Redi award lecture: clinical studies of snake-bite in four tropical <span class="hlt">continents</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research is discussed in the areas of venomous snake taxonomy, epidemiology, species diagnosis, defining the clinical phenotype of human envenoming, pathophysiological mechanisms of envenoming, clinical testing of antivenoms and prevention of snake-bite through community education. This work was carried out over the past 40 years in many countries in four tropical <span class="hlt">continents</span>. The help and friendship of a large number of collaborators is gratefully acknowledged. PMID:23200816</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warrell, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical usefulness of the transobturator sub-urethral tape in the treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in female patients with spinal cord lesion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives To evaluate the clinical usefulness of transobturator sub-urethral tapes for the treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in women with spinal cord injury. Method and subjects Chart review for all female patients with spinal cord injury who underwent implantation of a transobturator sub-urethral tape for treatment of stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence at our institution. Results Nine women, median age 45.1 years, received a sub-urethral transobturator tape in the period November 2007 to September 2010. Four patients had paraplegia and five had tetraplegia. Seven women performed intermittent catheterization. At follow up, three of the nine patients were either cured or vastly improved. One major late complication (urethral erosion) occurred. Five of the six patients without treatment success underwent second-line treatment (artificial sphincter or <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion). Conclusion In our case series, implantation of transobturator sub-urethral tapes in women with stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency and a low leak point pressure led to unfavorable results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pannek, Juergen; Bartel, Peter; Gocking, Konrad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1875S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The sensitivity of the tropical circulation and Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> precipitation to climate model resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dependence of the annual mean tropical precipitation on horizontal resolution is investigated in the atmospheric version of the Hadley Centre General Environment Model. Reducing the grid spacing from about 350 km to about 110 km improves the precipitation distribution in most of the tropics. In particular, characteristic dry biases over South and Southeast Asia including the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> as well as wet biases over the western tropical oceans are reduced. The annual-mean precipitation bias is reduced by about one third over the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and the neighbouring ocean basins associated with it via the Walker circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that much of the improvement with resolution in the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> region is due to the specification of better resolved surface boundary conditions (land fraction, soil and vegetation parameters) at the higher resolution. It is shown that in particular the formulation of the coastal tiling scheme may cause resolution sensitivity of the mean simulated climate. The improvement in the tropical mean precipitation in this region is not primarily associated with the better representation of orography at the higher resolution, nor with changes in the eddy transport of moisture. Sizeable sensitivity to changes in the surface fields may be one of the reasons for the large variation of the mean tropical precipitation distribution seen across climate models. R. Schiemann et al. (2013), Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1997-0</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Strachan, Jane; Vidale, Pier Luigi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RaSc...46.5019S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistics of total electron content depletions observed over the South American <span class="hlt">continent</span> for the year 2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents for the first time regional plots of total electron content (TEC) depletions derived from GPS observations over the South American <span class="hlt">continent</span> with a coverage of over 45° longitude (i.e., 35°W to 80°W). We introduce a new numerical algorithm that has been developed to automatically detect TEC bite-outs that are produced by the transit of equatorial plasma bubbles. This algorithm was applied to TEC values measured by the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) and by receivers that belong to 3 other networks that exist in South America. The general characteristics of the TEC depletions are provided along with their temporal length, local time distribution and depletion depth. The regional day-to-day and seasonal variability of the TEC depletions are also presented for 2008, a year of low solar activity. The regional day-to-day variability of TEC depletions is highly dynamic, but their seasonal distributions follow the longitudinal characteristics of plasma bubbles presented by other authors. During the equinoxes, TEC depletions are mainly observed on the west coast of South America, and during the December solstice they mostly occur on the east side of the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. However, in all seasons, we observe days when depletions extend all over the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. We place these new results in the context of theories of plasma bubble seeding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seemala, G. K.; Valladares, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1352524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiologic aspects of <span class="hlt">continence</span> after colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and endorectal ileo-anal anastomosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the physiology of <span class="hlt">continence</span> in 12 patients at least four months after colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and endorectal ileo-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis. The mean fecal output (+/-SEM) was 598 +/- 60 gm, passed as 12 +/- 4 movements/24 hr, of which 4 +/- 1 were passed at night. The patients were generally <span class="hlt">continent</span> during the day and could distinguish gas from stool, but 11 of 12 leaked stools at night. Anal sphincter resting pressures (71 +/- 8 cm H2O) and squeeze pressures (171 +/- 15 cm H2O) of patients were similar to those of ten healthy controls (P greater than 0.05), although the rectal inhibitory reflex was absent in the patients. After operation, the distal bowel had a pressure-volume curve of greater slope (0.15 +/- 0.05 ml/cm H2O) than it had in controls (0.07 +/- 0.01 ml/cm H2O, P less than 0.05) and a lesser maximum capacity (patients, 248 +/- 31 ml; controls, 406 +/- 26 ml; P less than 0.05). The greater the capacity of the neorectum, the fewer was the number of bowel movements/day (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). We concluded that the operation preserved the anal sphincter, although it decreased the capacity and compliance of the distal bowel and impaired <span class="hlt">continence</span>. Images Fig. 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heppell, J; Kelly, K A; Phillips, S F; Beart, R W; Telander, R L; Perrault, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.2455S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The sensitivity of the tropical circulation and Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> precipitation to climate model resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dependence of the annual mean tropical precipitation on horizontal resolution is investigated in the atmospheric version of the Hadley Centre General Environment Model. Reducing the grid spacing from about 350 km to about 110 km improves the precipitation distribution in most of the tropics. In particular, characteristic dry biases over South and Southeast Asia including the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> as well as wet biases over the western tropical oceans are reduced. The annual-mean precipitation bias is reduced by about one third over the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> and the neighbouring ocean basins associated with it via the Walker circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that much of the improvement with resolution in the Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> region is due to the specification of better resolved surface boundary conditions (land fraction, soil and vegetation parameters) at the higher resolution. It is shown that in particular the formulation of the coastal tiling scheme may cause resolution sensitivity of the mean simulated climate. The improvement in the tropical mean precipitation in this region is not primarily associated with the better representation of orography at the higher resolution, nor with changes in the eddy transport of moisture. Sizeable sensitivity to changes in the surface fields may be one of the reasons for the large variation of the mean tropical precipitation distribution seen across climate models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiemann, R.; Demory, M.-E.; Mizielinski, M. S.; Roberts, M. J.; Shaffrey, L. C.; Strachan, J.; Vidale, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..182Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variability of Rainfall Over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Based on Trmm pr Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporal and spatial distribution of near surface rain and three types of rainfall namely shallow rain, convective rain, and stratiform rain over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> (90E-150E, 15S-15N) was investigated using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar in a 10-years dataset (1998-2007). This research also using least square method to confirm distribution of annual and semiannual oscillation of rainfall over Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span> (IMC). Climatology rainfall of shallow, stratiform, and convective have agreement to seasonal variability of rainfall over IMC that influenced by monsoon which was rainfall became increased from November to April and reached peak value in January. Conversely, rainfall decreased from May to October and reached lowest value in July. The distribution of shallow rain showed the unique seasonal rainfall for local region namely Sulawesi, Maluku, and closely region. Seasonal of shallow rain in those regions approve to local type of rainfall which was reach peak value in July and August. This rainfall type was opposite to equator rainfall and monsoon rainfall in the most of IMC regions which are dry season occured in the same period. Shallow rain may contributed to local rainfall type over IMC. It might be drived by increasing low level moisture and strongly of subsidence flow in boundary layer which is also influenced by enhancement of Sea Surface Temperature in Malacca Strait at the same period. Keyword: Indonesia Maritime <span class="hlt">Continent</span>, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Seasonal Vari-ability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yulihastin, Erma; Kodama, Yasu-Masa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21491677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal <span class="hlt">Continence</span> in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal <span class="hlt">continence</span> deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: hans.geinitz@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, Monika [Sektion Psychoonkologie, Klinik fuer Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Pehl, Christian [Medizinische Klinik, Kreiskrankenhaus Vilsbiburg, Vilsbiburg (Germany); Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Busch, Raymonde [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7974883"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new theory of micturition and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> <span class="hlt">continence</span> based on histomorphological studies. 5. The musculus ejaculatorius: a newly described structure responsible for seminal emission and ejaculation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theories of seminal emission and ejaculation based on morphology especially of the dorsal longitudinal urethral muscle system are found very infrequently in the literature. Our own examinations carried out on serial sections of the whole distal urethral complex taken from 50 male and 15 female autopsy preparations prove that the dorsal longitudinal urethral muscle system represents an independent smooth muscle. In the female, the muscle system runs outside the sphincter system. In the male, it is the direct continuation of the musculature of the ejaculatory ducts and its expansion is generally restricted to the urethra below the colliculus seminalis. Within the urethra the urethral crest is protruded. Differences in the degree of the formation of the muscle in various age groups will be described. For this newly described muscle structure, we suggest the term musculus ejaculatorius as, due to purely anatomic reasons, an involvement in the process of ejaculation seems to be conclusive. A theory of seminal emission and ejaculation is given as a mass action of the musculature of the bladder neck. PMID:7974883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dorschner, W; Stolzenburg, J U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18448585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium regulation by <span class="hlt">urinary</span> magnesium and pH.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> magnesium and pH are known to modulate <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium excretion, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unknown. In this study, the data from 17 clinical trials in which <span class="hlt">urinary</span> magnesium and pH were pharmacologically manipulated were analyzed, and it was found that the change in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium excretion is directly proportional to the change in magnesium excretion and inversely proportional to the change in urine pH; a regression equation was generated to relate these variables (R(2) = 0.58). For further exploration of these relationships, intravenous calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or vehicle was administered to rats. Magnesium infusion significantly increased <span class="hlt">urinary</span> calcium excretion (normalized to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> creatinine), but calcium infusion did not affect magnesium excretion. Parathyroidectomy did not prevent this magnesium-induced hypercalciuria. The effect of magnesium loading on calciuria was still observed after treatment with furosemide, which disrupts calcium and magnesium absorption in the thick ascending limb, suggesting that the effect may be mediated by the distal nephron. The calcium channel TRPV5, normally present in the distal tubule, was expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Calcium uptake by TRPV5 was directly inhibited by magnesium and low pH. In summary, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">urinary</span> magnesium directly inhibits renal calcium absorption, which can be negated by high luminal pH, and that this regulation likely takes place in the distal tubule. PMID:18448585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonny, Olivier; Rubin, Adam; Huang, Chou-Long; Frawley, William H; Pak, Charles Y C; Moe, Orson W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4026575"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of Internet Forums to Evaluate Reactions to the Introduction of Reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> to Deter Abuse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Reformulating opioid analgesics to deter abuse is one approach toward improving their benefit-risk balance. To assess sentiment and attempts to defeat these products among difficult-to-reach populations of prescription drug abusers, evaluation of posts on Internet forums regarding reformulated products may be useful. A reformulated version of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> (extended-release oxycodone) with physicochemical properties to deter abuse presented an opportunity to evaluate posts about the reformulation in online discussions. Objective The objective of this study was to use messages on Internet forums to evaluate reactions to the introduction of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> and to identify methods aimed to defeat the abuse-deterrent properties of the product. Methods Posts collected from 7 forums between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2013 were evaluated before and after the introduction of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> on August 9, 2010. A quantitative evaluation of discussion levels across the study period and a qualitative coding of post content for Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> and 2 comparators for the 26 month period before and after Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> reformulation were conducted. Product endorsement was estimated for each product before and after reformulation as the ratio of endorsing-to-discouraging posts (ERo). Post-to-preintroduction period changes in ERos (ie, ratio of ERos) for each product were also calculated. Additionally, post content related to recipes for defeating reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> were evaluated from August 9, 2010 through September 2013. Results Over the study period, 45,936 posts related to Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, 18,685 to Vicodin (hydrocodone), and 23,863 to Dilaudid (hydromorphone) were identified. The proportion of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>-related posts fluctuated between 6.35 and 8.25 posts per 1000 posts before the reformulation, increased to 10.76 in Q3 2010 when reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> was introduced, and decreased from 9.14 in Q4 2010 to 3.46 in Q3 2013 in the period following the reformulation. The sentiment profile for Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> changed following reformulation; the post-to-preintroduction change in the ERo indicated reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> was discouraged significantly more than the original formulation (ratio of ERos=0.43, P<.001). A total of 37 recipes for circumventing the abuse-deterrent characteristics of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> were observed; 32 were deemed feasible (ie, able to abuse). The frequency of posts reporting abuse of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> via these recipes was low and decreased over time. Among the 5677 posts mentioning reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>, 825 posts discussed recipes and 498 reported abuse of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> by such recipes (41 reported injecting and 128 reported snorting). Conclusions After introduction of physicochemical properties to deter abuse, changes in discussion of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> on forums occurred reflected by a reduction in discussion levels and endorsing content. Despite discussion of recipes, there is a relatively small proportion of reported abuse of reformulated Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> via recipes, particularly by injecting or snorting routes. Analysis of Internet discussion is a valuable tool for monitoring the impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coplan, Paul M; Black, Ryan A; Weber, Sarah E; Chilcoat, Howard D; Butler, Stephen F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15666710"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Cranberry juice and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain two compounds with anti-adherence properties, which prevent fimbriated E. coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. Approximately a dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. However, these trials have a number of apparent limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and have employed different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15666710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cranberry juice and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cranberries have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infections (UTIs). Cranberries contain 2 compounds with antiadherence properties that prevent fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells in the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. Approximately 1 dozen clinical trials have been performed testing the effects of cranberries on the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. However, these trials suffer from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the trials have used a wide variety of cranberry products, such as cranberry juice concentrate, cranberry juice cocktail, and cranberry capsules, and they have used different dosing regimens. Further research is required to clarify unanswered questions regarding the role of cranberries in protecting against UTI in general and in women with anatomical abnormalities in particular. PMID:15156480</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raz, R; Chazan, B; Dan, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24580995"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosis and management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ectopia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ectopic ureters are the most common cause of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in young dogs but should be considered as a differential in any incontinent dog for which the history is not known. Ectopic ureters can be diagnosed with excretory urography, fluoroscopic urethrography or ureterography, abdominal ultrasonography, cystoscopy, helical computed tomography, or a combination of these diagnostic procedures. Other congenital abnormalities can also occur in dogs with ectopic ureters, including renal agenesis or dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and/or hydroureter and vestibulovaginal anomalies; therefore, the entire <span class="hlt">urinary</span> system must be evaluated with ultrasonography if cystoscopy is the only other diagnostic tool used before surgery. Novel surgical techniques and adjunctive medical management have improved the prognosis for dogs with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ectopia. PMID:24580995</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davidson, Autumn P; Westropp, Jodi L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080904"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence in children with special needs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nocturnal enuresis, daytime <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptoms and faecal incontinence are more common in children with special needs than in typically developing children. Children with intellectual disability, which can be attributed to a range of causes, are particularly affected. Indeed, the epidemiological and clinical studies conducted to date show clear associations that children with special needs have higher rates of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> (and faecal) incontinence than children without development, physical or cognitive impairments. For example, low intelligence quotient (IQ)-associated physical disability and conditions such as Fragile X and Rett syndromes increase the risk for incontinence, which can persist into adulthood if left untreated. Although the association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and incontinence has been shown in many studies, further research is needed on other specific disorders, such as autism. As many children are not receiving adequate care, specific multimodal treatments based on rigorous assessment of the incontinence, underlying condition and associated comorbid disorders should be actively offered. PMID:24080904</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Gontard, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6746960"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> thromboxane B2 in man: influence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate and tubular transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow rate on TxB excretion, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> volume. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased <span class="hlt">urinary</span> uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4450M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The African <span class="hlt">continent</span> is made of seismically active structures with active deformation in between main substratum shields considered as stable continental interiors. Seismically active regions are primarily located along rift zones, thrust and fold mountain belts, transform faults and volcanic fields. The active tectonic structures generated large and destructive earthquakes in the past with significant damage and economic losses in Africa. Although some regions of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> show a low-level of seismic activity, several large earthquakes (with M > 7) have occurred in the past. The presence of major active faults that generate destructive earthquakes is among the most important geological and geophysical hazards for the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. National and International scientific projects dealing with the seismic hazards assessment are increasing in seismically active regions in Africa. The UNESCO-SIDA/IGCP (Project 601 http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/~igcp601/) support the preparation and implementation of the "Seismotectonic Map of Africa". Therefore, new seismotectonic data with the regional analysis of earthquake hazards became necessary as a basis for a mitigation of the earthquake damage. A database in historical and instrumental seismicity, active tectonics, stress tensor distribution, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, active deformation, earthquake geodesy (GPS) and gravity, crustal structure studies, magnetic and structural segmentation, volcanic fields, collision tectonics and rifting processes is prepared to constrain the geodynamic evolution of the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Taking into account the geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, we define six seismotectonic provinces that characterize the crustal deformation. With the previously identified Somalia tectonic block, the seismotectonic and geophysical framework of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> reveal the existence of the Cameroon volcanic line, the South African tectonic block with transform faulting and Cape folding system, the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meghraoui, Mustapha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec862-1377.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 862.1377 - <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> homocystine (nonquantitative) test system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...A <span class="hlt">urinary</span> homocystine (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify homocystine (an analogue of the amino acid cystine) in urine. The identification of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> homocystine is used in the diagnosis and treatment of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/doctor/urineIn.shtml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Infections Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: With each of the bladder or <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract ... you use (for example, a diaphragm, spermicide)? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30464306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention after transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose<span class="hlt">Urinary</span> retention occurs in 5%–36% of patients with prostate cancer after implantation of radioactive seeds for brachytherapy. We used transperineal biopsy as a model to determine the influence of needle trauma on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven J Buskirk; David M Pinkstaff; Steven P Petrou; Michael J Wehle; Gregory A Broderick; Paul R Young; Stephen D Weigand; Peter C O'Brien; Todd C Igel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=62173"> <span id="translatedtitle">MX-INDUCED <span class="hlt">URINARY</span> BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MX-INDUCED <span class="hlt">URINARY</span> BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18990947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder cystitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24916327"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of failed stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence surgery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increasing volume of surgery being performed for the treatment of female stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI), especially with the widespread use of midurethral slings (MUS), recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is becoming an increasingly common condition. Various preoperative and intraoperative factors have been associated with failed SUI surgery. Treatment options for failed SUI surgery include conservative management and/or surgical management, which include pubovaginal sling, MUS, retropubic suspension, periurethral bulking agents, and artificial sphincters. The choice of treatment option will depend on the etiology of the patient's failure, patient comorbidities, and patient preference. PMID:24916327</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacLachlan, Lara S; Rovner, Eric S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7041394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adherence of bacteria to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adherence of 3H-labelled gram-negative bacilli to different <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheter materials was studied using an in vitro method. Adherence was found to be significantly less to siliconized rubber than to pure latex or teflon coated rubber. Adherence was altered by variations in incubation pH, time, and bacterial concentration; however, incubation temperature did not affect results. Adherence of bacteria to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract catheters may be part of the pathogenesis of certain catheter-related infections. However, in the absence of controlled clinical studies the significance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:7041394</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sugarman, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7478419"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction in pregnancy: a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has long been observed that pregnancy may influence the development and course of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract disorders. The physiological and anatomical changes inherent in normal pregnancy and the changing hormonal environment are generally assumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract symptomatology. The purpose of this review is to examine the reported effect(s) of pregnancy on the lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract and to evaluate the possible role of pregnancy and delivery in lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract dysfunction. PMID:7478419</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikhail, M S; Anyaegbunam, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33108031"> <span id="translatedtitle">MR Urography in the Diagnosis of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Tract Obstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of MR urography in depicting the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract. Methods: 33 patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract abnormalities were additionally evaluated with MR urography. 25 had dilated upper <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tracts because of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> obstruction and 8 had normal tracts. MR urography was performed with a 1,5T magnet using a heavy T2w sequence (3D-IR-TSE) in the coronal plane. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Louca; K. Liberopoulos; A. Fidas; Z. Nikolakopoulou; M. Lykourinas; K. Strigaris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=213276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> (North America) Great Rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-<span class="hlt">continent</span> North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29192656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of impaired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanism of impaired <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis. To define the role of medullary damage and the influence of solute load and blood pressure (BP) in impairing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration, patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by histological and functional studies. In 59 biopsy specimens, the degree of medullary fibrosis was correlated inversely with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> specific gravity and was significantly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giuseppe Conte; Antonio Dal Canton; Giorgio Fuiano; Maurizio Terribile; Massimo Sabbatini; Mario Balletta; Pasquale Stanziale; Vittorio E Andreucci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32066082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Ileal Conduit and Transureteroureterostomy with Ureterocutaneostomy <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Diversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: We compare the postoperative early and late complications of patients who had undergone ileal conduit (IC) <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion and transureteroureterostomy (TUU) with ureterocutaneostomy (UC) <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion during the same interval and by the same surgeons. Materials and Methods: Between 1992 and 2004, we performed TUU with UC <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion in 27 men and 7 women (group I) and ileal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mete Kilciler; Selahattin Bedir; Fikret Erdemir; Nazif Zeybek; Koray Erten; Yasar Ozgok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16810498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antenatal MR diagnosis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or <span class="hlt">urinary</span> in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. PMID:16810498</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29183498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unconventional bacteria in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract disease: Ureaplasma urealyticum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unconventional bacteria in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract disease: Ureaplasma urealyticum. Bladder-aspirate urine samples (N = 428) were cultured for the presence of fastidious microorganisms. These samples were obtained from 190 patients with <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract disease or symptoms suggesting infection of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract in whom standard bacteriologie investigation had failed to indicate bacterial infection. Ureaplasma urealyticum was recovered alone or in association</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas F Birch; Kenneth F Fairley; Robin E Pavillard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30295322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends in Abuse of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® and Other Opioid Analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® (Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, Conn) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 as a sustained-release preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>® abuse surfaced. In response, Purdue Pharma L.P. sponsored the development of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theodore J. Cicero; James A. Inciardi; Alvaro Muñoz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24780555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myeloma progression and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> gammaglobulin affect the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C to diagnose acute kidney injury in multiple myeloma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> cystatin C has been suggested as a useful biomarker for diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Multiple myeloma is often complicated by AKI. Therefore, we investigated whether the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C was available for diagnosis of AKI in multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: This study included 39 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or multiple myeloma. We reviewed the medical records retrospectively and investigated whether <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ?-globulin and myeloma progression had effects on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C excretion. Results: Spearman's correlation analysis showed that serum ?2-microglobulin and serum cystatin C had a significant positive correlation with the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C excretion (r = 0.513, p = 0.001, r = 0.659, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = 0.585, p = 0.002, r = 0.711, p < 0.001). The GFRcr also had a significant negative correlation with the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C excretion (r = -0.582, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = -0.474, p = 0.002). In addition, the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ?-globulin had a significant positive correlation with the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C excretion (r = 0.678, p < 0.001) and FEcystatinC (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> ?-globulin was the most significant factor to influence <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C excretion in multiple regression test. Conclusion: These results indicate that <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ?-globulin and myeloma progression can increase the fractional and total excretion of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C. Therefore, it is believed that the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C can be affected by <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ?-globulin and myeloma progression in the diagnosis of AKI in multiple myeloma. In addition, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> ?-globulin is believed to be the most significant factor to influence on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> cystatin C. PMID:24780555</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jae Seok; Yang, Jae Won; Park, Hyeoncheol; Kim, Young Sub; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Jong In; Han, Byoung Geun; Choi, Seung Ok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Normal lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract assessment in women: I. Uroflowmetry and post-void residual, pad tests, and bladder diaries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aims to provide reference ranges of normal variability in urodynamic parameters through literature review of normal urodynamic values in the literature. Data were obtained through MEDLINE from articles published between January 1956 and February 2011, International <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Society meeting abstracts and standardization reports. Search terms included urodynamics, bladder diary, uroflowmetry, frequency volume charts, pad tests, normal control, and normal volunteer. Normal values varied widely in the literature. However, with the help of clinical data, it was possible to define "normality" ranges for most of the different parameters. Urodynamic evaluation of lower <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract (LUT) function is not a physiological test. However, it is still the best available tool to assess LUT function. Even if normality in urodynamics can be defined, tests must always be interpreted against patient characteristics, complaints, and symptoms. PMID:21935667</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al Afraa, Tala; Mahfouz, Wally; Campeau, Lysanne; Corcos, Jacques</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49311654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decrease in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> creatinine in acute kidney injury influences diagnostic value of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarker-to-creatinine ratio in rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has revealed several useful <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers of renal dysfunction such as acute kidney injury (AKI). For adequate evaluation of altered <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarkers, it is necessary to consider the influence of varied urine flow rate (UFR). Calculation of the excretion rate of a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> biomarker (UFR-correction) is the gold standard for the correction of UFR variation. An alternative method</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yutaka Tonomura; Takeki Uehara; Emi Yamamoto; Mikinori Torii; Mitsunobu Matsubara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6905430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally related diseases of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nephrotoxicity from exposure to therapeutic agents and chemicals in the environment and workplace results in a broad spectrum of clinical renal disease that may mimic disorders from other causes. Nephrotoxic agents may, in fact, be responsible for some fraction of renal disease of undetermined etiology. Specific diagnosis and treatment by removal from exposure to the toxic agent is more likely in the early phase of the disorder. Measurement and characterization of proteinuria provides the most sensitive and reliable method of early detection. Increased <span class="hlt">urinary</span> excretion of serum proteins with molecular weight in excess of 50,000, such as albumin and transferrin, is an early indicator of glomerular injury. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria (beta 2-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein) and enzymuria, particularly excretion of NAG, are sensitive indicators of renal tubular cell injury. Tests that reflect hypersensitivity reactions are often indicative of immunologically mediated nephrotoxicity but are not specific for the kidney. Cancers of the kidney and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder appear to be increasing and are most common among the socially active and affluent. Susceptibility of the <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract to toxicity and carcinogenicity reflect contact of excreted toxins with the epithelial cells of nephrons and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> bladder. 45 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35283714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biofilm in complicated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the clinical efficacy of oral treatment with ciprofloxacin (CPFX) alone and combined with clarithromycin (CAM) in patients with complicated <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection with or without an indwelling catheter. Patients were randomly allocated to 600 mg CPFX (CPFX group) or to 600 mg CPFX plus 600 mg CAM (combination group) for 14 days. Evaluation was done on day 14</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T Tsukamoto; M Matsukawa; M Sano; S Takahashi; H Hotta; N Itoh; T Hirose; Y Kumamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/reprint/42/3/397.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved fluorometric quantification of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> xanthurenic acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurement of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> xanthurenic acid (XA) has been used clinically to study a variety of disorders caused by vitamin B6 deficiency. To obviate some cumbersome steps of current methods for measuring XA in human urine, we have developed a simple fluorometric method. We apply the urine sample to a solid-phase extraction column con- taining triniethylaminopropyl group bound to silica, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MINSHU Liu; GONG-REN WANG; TSAN-ZON Lw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29173946"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> catheter sterilization with microwave oven</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies were conducted utilizing a home microwave oven to sterilize catheters commonly used for intermittent self-catherization. Red rubber <span class="hlt">urinary</span> catheters were inoculated with common clinical uropathogens and were placed in sealed brown paper bags or Ziploc plastic freezer bags and microwaved at full power for various timed intervals. Differences were noted in killing time for some strains or species of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. J. Lian; R. B. Bracken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v728484nk4624236.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> screening for disorders of heteroglycan metabolism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The results of 10 years experience in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> screening for disorders of heteroglycan metabolism are presented. Over 5,000 urines were analysed of which 216 were positive for excess mucopolysacchariduria. The enzymatic diagnosis was achieved in 159 mucopolysaccharidoses of which Type III Sanfilippo was the commonest (86 cases), followed by Type II Hunter (31 cases) and Type I Hurler (21</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. Sewell; J. Spranger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19900845"> <span id="translatedtitle">The medical management of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine; it affects millions of people worldwide, causing significant detrimental effects on their quality of life. Direct expenses, such as containment products, long-term drug prescriptions and surgery, complemented by indirect costs, such as reduced employment productivity, result in overall expenditure running to billions of dollars. Stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (SUI) occurs on physical exertion, and results from weakness of the bladder outlet. Urgency <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence (UUI) results from inability to resist a sudden compelling desire to pass urine, arising as a consequence of bladder dysfunction. Clinical evaluation clarifies the underlying mechanisms and excludes diseases causing similar symptoms. Urodynamic studies to measure bladder and abdominal pressures and deduce the bladder and outlet function are undertaken when invasive treatments are being considered or when the nature of the incontinence is not entirely clear. Initial management of SUI involves pelvic floor muscle exercise training; if insufficient symptom improvement results, surgical measures are needed. UUI treatment commences with advice on suitable fluid intake and measures to improve ability to defer voiding, followed by antimuscarinic drugs. Refractory UUI is a difficult problem, currently managed with a range of surgical interventions, including bladder injections of botulinum-A neurotoxin, augmentation cystoplasty and nerve stimulation methods. New treatment options are needed, because of the risk of impeding voiding function, resulting in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention. Persistent leakage is controlled with containment products, such as pads, or collection devices, such as catheters. PMID:19900845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaban, Ahmed; Drake, Marcus J; Hashim, Hashim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18318095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Migrated IUCD resulting in increased <span class="hlt">urinary</span> frequency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Missing Intrauterine contraceptive devices can migrate to various regions intra-abdominally. Plain radiography usually confirms that the devise is still within the abdominal cavity, while other specific studies may define its relationship with the organ imaged. This is a case of a Migrated IUCD resulting in <span class="hlt">urinary</span> symptoms. PMID:18318095</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olowoyeye, O A; Tijani, K T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jualpes.net/14%20JUA%20PRE%20REQUIS/PREREQUIS%20JPM/revue%20parkinson.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> dysfunction, primarily in the form of detrusor overactivity, is highly prevalent amongst individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). There has been increasing realisation of the importance of this and other non-motor features of the condition. The presentation of, pathophysiology behind and management options for bladder dysfunction in IPD are discussed. Crown Copyright 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helen Blackett; Richard Walker; Brian Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32067748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Lithiasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urine is a complex balanced solution containing dissociated and non-dissociated solutes. Any variation in urine saturation grade (number of crystals dissolved in a volume of urine), <span class="hlt">urinary</span> pH and the concentration of crystallization inhibitors can break the normal existing balance and lead to urolithiasis. In the present article we analyze the principal mechanisms (absorptive, renal, resorptive) of hypercalciuria. It will</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Vella; M. Karydi; G. Coraci; R. Oriti; D. Melloni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3295111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Infection with Bifidobacterium scardovii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bifidobacterium species are difficult to identify and may be underreported or not recovered by many laboratories because of their slow growth. We emphasize the importance of the Gram stain in urine samples and the addition of enriched media and enhanced atmosphere over time for urine cultures with pyuria. This is the first report of a Bifidobacterium scardovii recurrent <span class="hlt">urinary</span> infection in an elderly woman.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cittadini, Roxana M.; Almuzara, Marisa N.; Feinsilberg, Alejandro; Famiglietti, Angela M.; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32362991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insecticide <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Metabolites in Nonoccupationally Exposed Populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The wide use of insecticides in agricultural and residential settings has resulted in environmental contamination, leading to increased concern about exposure of the population and possible chronic effects on health. This review summarizes the studies that have measured <span class="hlt">urinary</span> metabolites to assess exposure of nonoccupationally exposed population to nonpersistent insecticides, organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, and pyrethroids. Electronic search yielded 36 different</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Bouvier; N. Seta; A. Vigouroux-Villard; O. Blanchard; I. Momas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l73k60l872046737.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> retention in females: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> retention is a common urological problem with many possible etiologies. Prior treatments attempted to decrease urethral resistance, but current neurourologic investigation has shown that this is rarely needed. Intermittent catheterization, along with diagnosing appropriate etiologic factors is the best management. If the workup reveals no organic etiology, psychological investigation may be needed because many of the patients have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. S. Wheeler; J. S. Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30697663"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved method to measure <span class="hlt">urinary</span> alkoxyacetic acids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure <span class="hlt">urinary</span> alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. S. Shih; J. S. Chou; C. Y. Chen; T. J. Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60886545"> <span id="translatedtitle">SUGGESTED <span class="hlt">URINARY</span> TOLERANCE LEVELS FOR ENRICHED URANIUM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The animal experimentation basis for estimates of permissible levels of ; airborne, soluble, and insoluble natural uranium is briefly reviewed. It ; suggested that permissibie air and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> levels for enriched uranium be set at ; values equivalent to those for natural uranium in terms of disintegrations per ; minute per unit volume. An attempt is made to calculate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hursh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1957-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558715"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Female <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence: implications in the adolescence].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Involuntary urine leakage or <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence is frequent among elderly women, adult women, even among adolescent women. Adolescence is a time characterised by the importance of physical and emotional development, self-esteem being one of the key aspects to adolescent wellbeing. The main purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in a sample of female adolescents and the psychological consequences thereof The sample was comprised by a group of 154 adolescents aged 13 to 18 from a charter school. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information about possible urine leakage and a pilot test was run in order to verify its accuracy Results show that 94.2% of participants suffer from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence occasionally. Another significant finding reveals that 27% of case reports had suffered from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection (UTI) and participants felt upset about it. Results suggest the need to foster an effective health education among adolescents so they acquire a series of good practices that will ensure them a better quality of life during adulthood. PMID:22558715</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aran Catalán, Rosa M; Sanchis Cordellat, Francisco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41287698"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Team Approach to Managing <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> incontinence (UI) affects at least 50% of long-term care residents. With most care being delivered by nursing assistants, a need exists to educate and include these team members when implementing a UI management program. This article describes a pilot program instituted at Tacoma Lutheran Home using a team approach. In addition to the benefits the residents received, 27% of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carol Taft</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urinary+AND+incontinence&id=EJ822305"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence. The author also…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griebling, Tomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31850695"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Concentration Defects and Mechanisms Underlying Nephronophthisis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cystic kidney disease nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the commonest genetic cause of end-stage renal failure in young people and children. Histologically the disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy with corticomedullary cyst development and disruption of the tubular basement membrane. Affected children present with polydipsia and polyuria, secondary to a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> concentration defect, before these structural changes develop. Recently,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajesh Krishnan; Lorraine Eley; John A. Sayer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j712324073211166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of Upper <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Lithiasis in Patients Who Have Undergone <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Diversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients undergoing <span class="hlt">urinary</span> diversion are at high risk for developing stone disease due to the metabolic and structural features\\u000a intrinsic to the creation of a <span class="hlt">urinary</span> reservoir. The utilization of shockwave lithotripsy as well as antegrade and retrograde\\u000a endoscopic techniques in appropriately selected patients affords a relatively safe and effective means of stone removal. This\\u000a review focuses on the etiology</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gina M. Badalato; Janice A. Santos Cortes; Mantu Gupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24807489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of pain from <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pain response to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection is largely uncharacterized, but the symptomatic response to <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection contrasts with the lack of pain response among individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Quantifying pelvic pain in a murine <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection model, uropathogenic Escerichia?coli induces transient pelvic pain, whereas an asymptomatic bacteriuria E.?coli isolate causes no pain, thus recapitulating the spectrum of clinical responses to intravesical E.?coli. These differential pain responses are not correlated with bladder colonization or inflammation, but instead are intrinsic to E.?coli lipopolysaccharide and dependent on the lipopolysaccharide receptor, TLR4. Epidemiological data suggest a link between interstitial cystitis and a history of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection, so it was evaluated whether repetitive uropathogenic E.?coli instillation would result in chronic pain through central sensitization. Although repeated infection with wild type uropathogenic E.?coli results in only transient episodes of acute pain, a uropathogenic E.?coli mutant lacking O-antigen causes chronic, post-<span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection pelvic pain. Similarly, a K-12 E.?coli strain lacking O-antigen induces chronic pain that persisted long after bacterial clearance, and expressing O-antigen nullified the pain phenotype. Spinal cords isolated from mice with post-<span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection chronic pain showed deficits in short-term depression consistent with central sensitization. Deleting O-antigen gene complex from a uropathogenic E.?coli strain and subsequent heterologous expression of O-antigen gene clusters shows that a single bacterial isolate can exhibit pain phenotypes ranging from a null phenotype, an acute pain phenotype, to a chronic pain phenotype. Post-<span class="hlt">urinary</span> tract infection chronic pain is also associated with voiding dysfunction and anxious/depressive behavior. These effects are also mediated by TRPV1 at the level of pain establishment and CCR2 at the level of pain maintenance. Together, these findings show that transient infection with E.?coli might result in chronic visceral pain with the hallmarks of neuropathic pain. This pattern of behaviors mimics the spectrum of interstitial cystitis symptoms, thus supporting the possibility of an infectious etiology of interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosen, John M; Klumpp, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3165907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> monoamine assay sales under the "spot baseline <span class="hlt">urinary</span> neurotransmitter testing marketing model"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spot baseline <span class="hlt">urinary</span> monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline <span class="hlt">urinary</span> monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, <span class="hlt">urinary</span> monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline <span class="hlt">urinary</span> neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling <span class="hlt">urinary</span> monoamine assays under the spot baseline <span class="hlt">urinary</span> neurotransmitter testing marketing model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">urinary</span> PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and <span class="hlt">urinary</span> creatinine) on <span class="hlt">urinary</span> PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter <span class="hlt">urinary</span> PAH levels. We conclude that <span class="hlt">urinary</span> PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276?µg/m(3). PMID:24754404</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A42A..08K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane over the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span> - INTEX-NA, Summer 2004</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During July and August of 2004, the INTEX-NA mission was flown over the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> as a part of the integrated ICARTT campaign. Its primary focus was to examine the intercontinental transport and transformation of chemically and radiatively important trace gases and aerosols across the region. As a part of the mission, methane (CH4) was sampled using both canisters and a fast response tunable diode laser, the DACOM instrument. Agreement between the two techniques was excellent. Sources of methane are both natural (wetlands, wildfires) and anthropogenically controlled (landfills, ruminants, petroleum production and use, coal mining). Although natural biogenic emissions would be expected to be near seasonal maximums, the majority of North American wetlands are located in Canada and Alaska, and were difficult to isolate during the mission. Overall distributions were well correlated with C2Cl4, a tracer of industrial and urban activity, and reflect the widespread impact of anthropogenic emissions. As expected for a gas with surface continental sources, variability was greatest in the near-surface atmosphere and decreased with increasing altitude and distance from the <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Summer convective activity over the region resulted in elevated concentrations measured at altitudes above 6 km. Enhanced levels with distinctive trace gas signatures were observed for a variety of sources, including petroleum mining and distribution, coal mining, Canadian wildfires, and aged Asian plumes advected across the Pacific. Several flights during the mission were flown along the U.S. east coast to sample air masses transported off the <span class="hlt">continent</span> to the Atlantic. In the near-surface over the ocean, clean boundary layer air with mixing ratios comparable to background CMDL levels at this time were encountered. At altitudes above about 4 km, CH4 was enhanced by roughly 20-50 ppb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karen, B.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, N.; Sachse, G.; Slate, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRB..116.1402B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crustal breakup and <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transition at South Atlantic conjugate margins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismic reflection and refraction profiles, and potential field data, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modeling and plate reconstructions are used to study the evolution of the central and south segments of the South Atlantic conjugate margins. The central segment is characterized by a hyperextended <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transitional domain that shows evidence of rotated fault blocks and a detachment surface active during rifting. A polyphase rifting evolution mode, associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere, is substantiated for the central segment that is not a "magma-poor" end-member. Increase of volcanic activity during the late stages of rifting may have "interrupted" the extensional system implying a failed exhumation phase that was replaced instead by continental breakup and emplacement of fully igneous crust. The <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transitional domain along the "magma-dominated" south segment is characterized by a large volume of flood basalts and high-velocity/high-density lower crust. The northern province of the south segment is characterized by symmetrical seaward-dipping reflections and symmetrical <span class="hlt">continent</span>-ocean transitional domain. The influence of the Tristan da Cunha plume on this province is very likely. The central province of the south segment is characterized by along-strike tectonomagmatic asymmetry, which can be caused by the initial continental stretching and accompanying magmatism rather than by the subsequent seafloor spreading. The Tristan da Cunha plume on the central province may have influenced the volume of magmatism but did not necessarily alter the process of rifted margin formation, implying that the central province of the south segment may have much in common with "magma-poor" margins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blaich, Olav A.; Faleide, Jan Inge; Tsikalas, Filippos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S34A..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Emerging Legacy of USArray: New Views of the Architecture of the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the decade that preceded the new millennium, seismologists on several <span class="hlt">continents</span> dared to think big: envisioning, designing, and then building seismic arrays of unprecedented quality, resolution, and scale. In the US, their vision became USArray: thousands of broadband seismometers spanning the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, professionally deployed, superbly maintained, with data ready in realtime quite literally at one's fingertips. For many young (and not so young) seismologists the building of USArray, particularly the Transportable Array, marks the crucial event of their scientific careers. An important part of the legacy of USArray will be an improved understanding of the architecture of the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> - one of its seminal motivations. A more dimly perceived motivation, but perhaps more important aspect of its legacy, will be its impact on the discipline of seismology. The impacts are profound and broad, but I will speak only about one small area: the transformation of array-based surface wave seismology. Innovations stimulated by USArray include the creation of ambient noise tomography, the reformulation of the tomographic inverse problem in terms of local differential filters applied to observed travel time and amplitude fields, the extrication of subtle signals that reveal robust and independent information about anisotropy in the crust and mantle, and the joint interpretation with other kinds of geophysical data. Interpreting the results of these innovations in a Bayesian framework helps to define another legacy of USArray, the replacement of single models with statistical distributions of model variables that can be assimilated by researchers in other fields or by seismologists in the future. As we transition to considering the scientific legacy of USArray, it is important to remember Beno Gutenberg's faith in the power of data to resolve scientific dispute. As he stated in the next to last sentence of his remarkable book Physics of the Earth's Interior: "THE DATA MUST BE GREATLY AMPLIFIED AND STRENGTHENED" (Gutenberg's emphasis). Upcoming generations of seismologists will be well served to heed Gutenberg's advice and follow the example of the designers of USArray.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ritzwoller, M. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3531636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Results for <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Recovery after Intrafascial Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose We present our initial experience and surgical outcomes for the most recent refinement of bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (nsELRP). Materials and Methods Among 62 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, 50 patients underwent intrafascial nsELRP by a single surgeon at Pusan National University Hospital from November 2011 to April 2012. As part of the intrafascial technique, the dissection plane is directly on the prostatic capsule to preserve most of the periprostatic fascia containing small vessels and nerves, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle, and puboprostatic ligament. Postoperative <span class="hlt">continence</span> recovery was established by daily consumption of pads. Follow-up was done at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. Results The patients' mean age was 66.5±6.2 years. The mean operation time and mean blood loss were 149.3±28.1 minutes and 155.4±168.1 ml, respectively. The mean hospitalization time and mean catheterization time were 6.3±5.1 days and 5.5±4.7 days, respectively. Two weeks after the operation, a total of 14 patients (28.0%) were pad-free but the other incontinent patient group used on average 2.3 pads per day. After 6 weeks, 35 patients (70.0%) achieved pad-free status and 7 patients (14.0%) required more than 2 pads per day. At 3 months after surgery, a total of 31 patients were available for follow-up, and 26 patients (83.9%) were pad-free. Conclusions Compared with conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy, the intrafascial nsELRP procedure enables the preservation of periprostatic structures that are essential to the recovery of surgical structures related to <span class="hlt">continence</span>. As a result, early postoperative <span class="hlt">continence</span> can be achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Young Hoon; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Chung, Moon Kee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568456"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship Between Dietary Phytoestrogens and Development of <span class="hlt">Urinary</span> Incontinence in Midlife Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Because exogenous estrogen treatment has been associated with a higher risk of <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence, our objective was to evaluate the longitudinal relationships of dietary phytoestrogen intakes (isoflavones, coumestans and lignans) and the development of incontinence in midlife women transitioning through menopause. Methods The Study of Women’s health Across the Nation (SWAN) Phytoestrogen Study was developed within SWAN, a community-based, multisite, multi-racial/ethnic, prospective cohort study. SWAN interviewers administered a food consumption assessment at baseline and at follow-up visits 5 and 9. The SWAN Phytoestrogen study created a phytonutrient data base that allowed estimation of usual daily intakes of four isoflavones, four lignans and coumestrol. On an annual self-administered questionnaire, participants reported on frequency and type of incontinence. We used discrete proportional hazards models to evaluate whether estimated daily intake of each phytoestrogen class at the visit previous to the first report of incontinence was associated with the development of monthly or more incontinence compared to remaining <span class="hlt">continent</span>. Results We found no association or patterns of association between developing any, stress or urge incontinence and the reported daily dietary intake of isoflavones, coumestrol, and lignans in the visit previous to the onset of incontinence. Conclusions The results of this longitudinal study provide important information to better understand estrogen-like substances on the <span class="hlt">continence</span> mechanism in midlife women. Our study shows that neither high nor low dietary intakes of isoflavones, coumestrol and lignans prevent stress or urge incontinence. Future studies should evaluate whether serum levels of phytoestrogens or their metabolites impact incontinence symptoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waetjen, L. Elaine; Leung, Katherine; Crawford, Sybil L.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Gold, Ellen B.; Greendale, Gail A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21A2382L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric Structure of the North American <span class="hlt">Continent</span> Imaged With Earthscope USArray and Global Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The deployment of the Earthscope USArray during the last decade has produced an unprecedentedly dense sampling of the central part of the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> (within the United States) with broadband seismic data. Regional tomography is now mapping the deep structure of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> in great detail, in particular beneath the western US where the USArray deployment began. At the scale of the entire <span class="hlt">continent</span>, however, the resolution of seismic imaging remains uneven, with much poorer coverage away from the footprint of the array than beneath it. Important questions regarding the deep structure, lateral extent and evolution of the North American Craton, most of it not covered by USArray, thus remain difficult to answer. We present a new model of the upper mantle beneath the entire North America computed by inversion of multimode waveform fits of 3/4 of a million vertical-component, broadband seismograms. Of these, almost 230 thousand are from the Transportable Array component of USArray, several tens of thousands from other USArray-affiliated stations, and the rest from global networks and other arrays. Automated multimode waveform inversion was used to extract accurate structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with highly complementary USArray and global-network sub-sets within it, produces improved resolution for a variety of features in North American upper mantle, compared to other available models. The internal structure and boundaries of the North American Craton are resolved in more detail than previously. Sharp northern boundaries of the cratonic lithosphere are observed to closely follow the coastline, with North America's and Greenland's lithospheric roots clearly separated. The boundary of the craton in western Canada closely follows the Rocky Mountain Front, whereas in eastern North America, where multiple episodes of continental rifting are superimposed, the boundary largely coincides with the western extent of the Appalachian orogenic front. Within the <span class="hlt">continent</span>, relatively low-velocity lithosphere is found beneath the failed Mid-Continental Rift. High velocities at depth between the Great Bear Arc and Beaufort Sea provide convincing new evidence for the enigmatic, recently proposed ``MacKenzie Craton'', not exposed anywhere at the surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890005190&hterms=continent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontinent"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trace gas measurements from whole air samples collected over the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Whole air samples collected aboard the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) were analyzed in a field laboratory set up at Punta Arenas, Chile, in August and September, 1987. Mixing ratios obtained from gas chromatographic analyses of these samples are presented for N2O, CFCl3, CFCl2, C2F3Cl3, CH3CCl3, CH4, and CO. Variations in the mixing ratios of these gases along the individual flight paths of the aircraft are used as tracers to indicate the history of air masses over and near the Antarctic <span class="hlt">continent</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heidt, L. E.; Vedder, J. F.; Pollock, Walter H.; Henry, Bruce E.; Lueb, Richard A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056321&hterms=continent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontinent"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity domains and assembly of the North American <span class="hlt">continent</span> by collisional tectonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gravity trend map of North America, based on a horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient map produced from gravity data for Canada and the conterminous United States, is presented and used to define a continental mosaic of gravity trend domains akin to structural domains. Contrasting trend characteristics at gravity domain boundaries support the concept of outward growth of the <span class="hlt">continent</span> primarily by accretionary tectonics. Gravity patterns, however, indicate a different style of tectonics dominated in the development of now-buried Proterozoic orogenic belts in the south-central United States, supporting a view that these belts formed along the leading edge of a southward-migrating Proterozoic continental margin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612936M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lithospheric strength across the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main objective of this work is to investigate the relation between the strength of the lithosphere and the observed pattern of seismicity across the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition in the NW margin of the Iberian Peninsula. The seismicity is diffuse in this intraplate area, far from the seismically active margin of the plate: the Eurasia-African plate boundary, where convergence occurs at a rate of 4-5mm/year. The earthquake epicentres are mainly limited to an E-W trending zone (onshore seismicity is more abundant than offshore), and most earthquakes occur at depths less than 30 km, however, offshore depths are up to 150 km). Moreover, one of the problems to unravel in this area is that the seismotectonic interpretations of the anomalous seismicity in the NW peninsular are contradictory. The temperature and strength profiles have been modelled in three domains along the non-volcanic rifted West Iberian Margin: 1) the oceanic lithosphere of the Iberian Abyssal Plain, 2) the oceanic lithosphere near the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition of the Galicia Bank, and 3) the continental lithosphere of the NW Iberian Massif. The average bathymetry and topography have been used to fit the thermal structures of the three types of lithospheres, given that the heat flow and heat production values show a varied range. The geotherms, together with the brittle and ductile rheological laws, have been used to calculate the strength envelopes in different stress regimes (compression, shear and tensile). The continental lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is located at 123 km and several brittle-ductile transitions appear in the crust and the mantle. However, the oceanic lithospheres are thinner (110 km near the Galicia Bank and 87 km in the Iberian Abbysal Plain) and more simple (brittle behaviour in the crust and upper mantle). The earthquake distribution is best explained by lithospheres with dry compositions and shear or tensile stress regimes. These results are similar can be compared to those of the Gulf of Cadiz oceanic-continental transition near the Eurasia-African plate boundary (Neves and Neves, 2009), and they contribute to complete the knowledge about seismicity and lithospheric strength in the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition of the Iberian Peninsula. References Neves M.C., Neves, R.G.M., 2009. Flexure and seismicity across the ocean-<span class="hlt">continent</span> transition in the Gulf of Cadiz. Journal of Geodynamics, 47, 119-129.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martín-Velázquez, Silvia; Martín-González, Fidel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2622774"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Promotion and Marketing of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span>: Commercial Triumph, Public Health Tragedy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I focus on issues surrounding the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs and their regulatory oversight. Compared with noncontrolled drugs, controlled drugs, with their potential for abuse and diversion, pose different public health risks when they are overpromoted and highly prescribed. An in-depth analysis of the promotion and marketing of Oxy<span class="hlt">Contin</span> illustrates some of the associated issues. Modifications of the promotion and marketing of controlled drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and an enhanced capacity of the Food and Drug Administration to regulate and monitor such promotion can have a positive impact on the public health.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21791795"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of the Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (MACE) in the management of myelodeysplatic patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myelodysplasia is a congenital neural tube defect commonly affecting bladder and bowel function. Management of fecal incontinence is paramount to achieve patient independence and self-confidence. When conservative measures fail alternative invasive methods can be successfully applied. The Malone antegrade <span class="hlt">continence</span> enema (MACE) was introduced in the late 1980's to treat spina bifida patients with fecal incontinence refractory to conservative management. Since its introduction, multiple successful variations have been described and its role has expanded. Indeed, the MACE has revolutionized the care of myelodysplastic patients, their bowel function, and ultimately their self image. PMID:21791795</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zamilpa, Ismael; Koyle, Martin A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4060426"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of <span class="hlt">Continence</span> Function following Simulated Birth Trauma Involves Repair of Muscle and Nerves in the Urethra in the Female Mouse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The natural history and the mechanisms behind the alteration of vaginal distension (VD) in a mouse model are not clear. Objective We examined the temporal sequelae of VD and pudendal nerve transection (PNT) on leak-point pressure (LPP) and the muscular and nerve components of the urethra in mice. Design, setting, and participants Seventy-two virgin female C57BL/6 mice were equally distributed into three groups. The VD group underwent VD for 1 h. The PNT group received bilateral PNT. A control group underwent sham VD. Intervention Each group was divided into four subgroups of six mice for measurement of LPP at 0, 4, 10, and 20 d after VD or PNT. Measurements LPP was measured. Morphology and neurofilament-immunoreactive nerve of the urethra were assessed. Results and limitations LPP was decreased at 0, 4, and 10 d but not at 20 d after VD. Decreased LPP persisted to 20 d in the PNT group. The external urethral striated muscle appeared wavy and disrupted in three mice at 0 d, in two mice at 4 d, in one mouse at 10 d, and in one mouse in 20 d after VD. The density of neurofilament-immunoreactive nerve in the urethra was reduced at 4 and 10 d after VD, but not at 20 d, and at 4, 10, and 20 d after PNT compared with the corresponding values of the sham VD group. The limitation of this animal model is that the pelvic floor structure of the mouse is different from that of female humans. Therefore, results of this study should be carefully applied to human subjects. Conclusions VD causes reversible stress <span class="hlt">urinary</span> incontinence in female mice. Recovery of <span class="hlt">continence</span> function following VD is associated with repair of the external urethral sphincter and reinnervation of the urethra. This mouse model will be useful for mechanistic investigation and targeting of therapeutic intervention by taking advantage of genetic manipulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Yi-Hao; Liu, Guiming; Li, Mei; Xiao, Nan; Daneshgari, Firouz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJCli..21.1021B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span> thunderstorms under varying meteorological conditions over the Tiwi Islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of tropical island thunderstorms in the maritime <span class="hlt">continent</span> were investigated over the Tiwi Islands to the north of the Australian <span class="hlt">continent</span>. A satellite cloud climatology was developed to examine these island thunderstorms, locally known as Hectors. During the pre-monsoon period of 1990 and 1991 Hectors were observed on 70% of days. These Hectors were observed to occur under two distinct environmental flow regimes. Under easterly flow, development occurred on the western end of the island and conversely under westerly flow, development occurred to the east. Hectors were also observed to have three distinct modes of development (Hector, suppressed and late developing) and one mode of non-development (non-Hector). Satellite cloud climatologies were developed and mean atmospheric characteristics were determined for each of these development modes. Hectors developed under conditions of moderate convective available potential energy, moderate shear and high moisture availability. Sub-cloud layer winds were also thought to contribute to the structure of the storm. Non-Hector and suppressed Hector days usually occurred after a previous convective disturbance such as a monsoon low or squall line and had typically low convective available potential energy and high values of convective inhibition. Conditions for late developing Hectors appeared to be conducive for thunderstorm development with high convective available potential energy and low values of convective inhibition. However, early initiation was suppressed by high shear conditions. Development in the late developing mode could be more intense than in other modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beringer, Jason; Tapper, Nigel J.; Keenan, Tom D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a>