Science.gov

Sample records for continental scientific drilling

  1. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  2. Toward establishing an international continental scientific drilling program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, Mark D.; Emmermann, Rolf

    Geologists, geophysicists, and science administrators from over 25 countries gathered in Potsdam, Germany, from August 30 to Septmeber 1, 1993, to review the scientific rationale for establishing an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Such a program is intended to complement the highly successful Ocean Drilling Program and would operate on a similar scale.The meeting was convened under the auspices of the Coordinating Committee for Continental Drilling (CC-4) of the International Lithosphere Program, a joint program of the International Union of Geological Sciences and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The conference was hosted by the recently established GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), a major new Earth science research institution in Potsdam, founded by the German Ministry for Research and Technology.

  3. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have includedmore » a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  4. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  5. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano-tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  6. Continental Scientific Drilling Program: Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program attempts to develop a better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic mechanisms within the continental crust, under the auspices of an interagency group comprising the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Ten years of research and drilling in the Valles caldera of northern New Mexico has provided a new understanding of volcanism and geothermal systems within a large caldera. Situated at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez volcanic lineament, the Valles caldera and Toledo calderas were formed during two massive eruptions 1.1 and 1.5 M a that vented approximately 300 to 400 km{sup 3} of high-silica rhyolitic tephra. The research at the Valles/Toledo caldera has provided more than 3000 m of corehole samples, which are stored in a repository in Grand Junction, Colorado, and are accessible to the public. This research has also helped support theories of mineral deposition within hydrothermal systems-hot water circulating through breccias, leaching elements from the rocks, and later depositing veins of economically valuable materials.

  7. Priorities for a national program of continental drilling for scientific purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The two reports, Continental Drilling and Continental Scientific Drilling Program, form a basis for this report and provide comprehensive discussions of the subject of continental drilling for scientific purposes in a number of research areas. The purpose of this report is to present a specific recommendation of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee on where the first deep hole dedicated to scientific exploration of the continental crust in the United States should be located. The most accessible and feasible hypothesis to test is the one of thin-skinned tectonics; the southern Appalachians, where the thrusting of crystalline rocks of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces over early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks is postulated, represents the best location for this drilling project. This hypothesis is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the evolution of continents. 4 refs.

  8. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  9. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  10. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  11. Mineral resources: research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Many important metals are concentrated in mineral deposits formed by hydrothermal activity driven by heat from subvolcanic intrusions. The report identifies and prioritizes for research drilling specific mineral-deposit systems that are suitably accessible and geometrically complete in the sense that no portion of the deposit has been removed by faulting or erosion. Examples are given of ore types that should be considered in selecting areas of existing drill holes for further study, including porphyry copper systems, precious-metal environments, massive sulfide deposits, Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and sedimentary environments.

  12. Answers from deep inside the Earth; Continental Scientific Drilling at Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russ, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Drilling of a 12,000-foot-deep scientific well has been completed at Cajon Pass in southern California to measure crustal properties, to determine crustal structure, and to better understanding the generation of earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. A joint effort of the National Science Foundation (NFS) and the U.S Geological Survey (USGS), the well was begun in November 1986, and is one of the first projects to be undertaken in the new national Continental Scientific Drilling Program. This program aims to enchance our knowledge of the compostiion, sturcture, dynamics, and evolution of the continental crust and of how these factors affect the origin and distribution of mineral and energy resources and natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. 

  13. Continental Scientific Drilling (CSD): Technology Barriers to Deep Drilling Studies in Thermal Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, George A.; Rowley, John C.

    1987-01-16

    This report is the proceedings of a workshop. The primary thrust of these discussion was to identify the major key technology barriers to the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Thermal Regimes CSD projects and to set priorities for research and development. The major technological challenge is the high temperature to be encountered at depth. Specific problems derived from this issue were widely recognized among the participants and are reflected in this summary. A major concern for the projected Thermal Regimes CSD boreholes was the technology required for continuous coring, in contrast to that required for drilling without core or spot coring. Current commercial technology bases for these two techniques are quite different. The DOE has successfully fielded projects that used both technologies, i.e, shallow continuous coring (Inyo Domes and Valles Caldera) and deeper drilling with spot cores (Imperial Valley-SSSDP). It was concluded that future scientific objectives may still require both approaches, but continuous coring is the most likely requirement in the near term. (DJE-2005)

  14. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  15. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  16. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  18. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Completion and Preliminary Achievements of Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project- SK-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.

    2009-12-01

    It has been thought that the climate during the Cretaceous time stands for the paradigm of greenhouse climate in the geological history, which has drawn increasing attention of the international community and the theme of series scientific program such as DSDP, ODP and IODP. However knowledge of Cretaceous terrestrial climatic change is often at best fragmentary. A proposal of scientific drilling in the Cretaceous Songliao Basin (42o25’-49o23’N, 119o40’-128o24’E) has been suggested to recover a nearly complete Cretaceous terrestrial sedimentary record, as determined by the basin filling history. During 2006 and 2007 part of the scientific drilling program (SK-1) has been conducted to acquire the core of the middle and upper part of the Cretaceous succession under the support of Daqing oilfield and Ministry of Science and Technology of China. The length of the core is 2485.89m with recovery ratio of 96.46%. Such proposal has been submitted to the ICDP organization and granted in 2009. It has been planed that the next step (SK-2) is to recover the lower and remained middle part of the Cretaceous succession in 2010 and 2011. Up to now, more than 30, 000 samples have been collected and analyzing with preliminary results regarding the interested issues. One of the most important progresses is that we have constructed the stratigraphic framework for the core based mainly on the paleomagnetic analysis. Also we have discovered the orbital cycles in the Cretaceous terrestrial strata which could have potentially affect the paleoclimate. The carbon and oxygen isotope records and other proxies based on the well-preserved osrtacod shell have been required to assess the carbon cycle, paleoclimate change and variation of lake water chemistry during the evolution of this largest terrestrial oil-bearing basin in China. The change in the diversity and abundance of microfossils including ostrocod and algaes has also been analyzed for this aim. Geochemical results (both

  20. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  1. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ∼0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

  2. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  3. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  4. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  5. Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Waters, A.C.

    1980-10-01

    The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.

  6. Valles caldera region, New Mexico, and the emerging continental scientific drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.

    1988-06-10

    Valles caldera is best known in recent years as an excellent example of a resurgent caldera and as the site of a high-temperature geothermal system. However, Valles caldera and the surrounding Jemez Mountains volcanic field possess a rich history of geologic research that dates back to the late 1880s. Through the years, the research focus has changed as different economic and scientific factors have exerted their influence. Early work emphasized mining activity, while modern work has stressed volcanology and, later, geothermal development. Only in the last 5 years has it been possible to view the region as a dynamic, integrated magma-hydrothermal system having a complex evolution lasting more than 13 m.y.

  7. Scientific drilling technologies for hostile environments

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program for Thermal Regimes and the related technologies being developed for geothermal drilling. Plans for penetrating into a molten magma body at temperatures from 800 to 1000{degree}C are also reviewed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  9. Outreach, Diversity, and Education Supported by NSF Facilities LacCore and the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic and environmental change are a powerful hook to engage students and the public with geoscience. Recent lake sediments often feature visual and compositional evidence of anthropogenic changes, which can pique curiosity and serve as a gateway for interest in more remote past changes. Cores provide an integrative, place-based geoscience education/outreach platform: lake dynamics incorporate principles of chemistry, physics, and biology; lake basin formation and sedimentary signals trace back to numerous geoscience subdisciplines. Lakes reflect local changes, and so are inherently place-based and relevant to both rural and urban populations. The esthetics of lakes in the landscape and sediments under the microscope spark the artistic sensibilities of those who do not consider themselves scientists: lakes are readymade for STEAM education. LacCore has exploited the magic of lake sediment cores in its 15 years as an NSF Facility, and now expands to additional environments as the NSF Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office. Part of scaling up is the formalization of major support for the Broader Impacts (BI) activities of Facility users. LacCore/CSDCO now musters its collaborative experiences in site REUs and other undergrad research projects, in-depth training of students, teachers, and faculty, a long list of informal education experiences, and common-good software development, to provide assistance to researchers seeking meaningful broader impacts and educators seeking extra- or co-curricular field and laboratory research experiences for their students. Outreach, diversity, and education support includes dissemination of best practices, as well as coordination, administration, and basic capacity for such activities in collaboration with project PIs and students, through no-cost support, or collaborative proposals or supplements from NSF where necessary for project scale. Community-driven research and broadening participation are central to the

  10. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  11. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  12. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    countries were held under the auspices of International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, during March 21 through 26, 2011 to discuss all aspects of the proposed scientific drilling at Koyna. In addition to a pilot bore hole of about 2.5 km, 4 other bore holes penetrating the basalt cover of about 1 km thickness, are proposed to be drilled to conduct a suite of geophysical and hydro-geological experiments and measurements. Results of these investigations would be complementary to SAFOD experiment being conducted on the plate boundary.

  13. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic

  14. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  15. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  16. Tephrochronology of Lacustrine Ash Layers in Lake Petén Itzá Sediments drilled in the Frame of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP): Implications for Regional Volcanology and Central American Palaeoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Anselmetti, F.; Mueller, A.; Schwalb, A.; Eisele, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate records from lacustrine systems have been established in the last years to improve our understanding of the regional and temporal expression of climate change on the continents, and how it influenced the human evolution. Lake Petén Itzá, located in the center of the climatically sensitive Peninsula Yucatán, is a surficial closed-basin lake located in the lowlands of northern Guatemala drilled by ICDP. The region itself exhibits characteristic climate conditions, making it an ideal region for paleoclimatological and paleoecological studies. A key problem in obtaining a long-lasting climate record is to establish robust chronologies beyond 40 ka since they exceed the range of 14C dating, but tephra layers within these sediments may provide good age-constraints >40 ka. We here use large-magnitude, widespread, Pleistocene to Holocene silicic eruptions from caldera volcanoes in the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA), contributing to the drilled Petén Itzá lake sediments in the form of numerous lacustrine tephras providing time markers to develop a new, extended age model. We established robust and well-constrained correlations between the tephras in Lake Petén Itzá and the deposits at the CAVA source as well as their marine equivalents in the sediments of the Pacific Ocean based on major and trace element glass compositions. We document here 8 well-constraint time markers for the Petén Itza age models, which so far were only based on younger 14C dates and some preliminary, only major-element based, tephra correlations. Additionally ongoing Ar/Ar age dating of the Los Chocoyos eruption will provide a new pinning point froma an important regional marker horizon. In summary we have been able to modify the current age models, extend the paleoclimate and paleoecological record in this neotropical region to ~300 ka, and contribute greatly to the determination of the magnitude (eruptive volumes) and more precise eruption dates of CAVA eruptions.

  17. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  19. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  20. Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

    2014-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to

  1. Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Objectives, Successes, Surprises and Frustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) is a long-running project undertaken with the objective of studying a mantle plume by drilling an extended sequence of lavas from a single Hawaiian volcano. The project originated with a proposal to NSF in late 1986 with the idea of drilling to the Moho under Hilo; the target depth was estimated at 12km, commensurate with the depth reached by the drilling program then being pursued by the USSR and that proposed in the U.S. for the southern Appalachians, and in line with the aspirations of the nascent DOSECC program. Subsequently, due to limitations in funding and reorganization of the drilling program into what later became the NSF Continental Dynamics Program, HSDP was re-scoped with the objective of drilling deeply enough (ca. 4.5km) to recover most of the eruptive history of a single volcano. The project first went to a pilot stage, which resulted in coring to a depth of 1.1km in late 1993. The pilot stage was relatively inexpensive (1M including science) and productive. Funding was then obtained from NSF and ICDP in 1995 (ca. 12M) with the objective of drilling to 4.5km. Drilling was originally planned for a five-year period, in two campaigns. The first campaign, in 1999, resulted in efficient coring to a depth of 3.1km over a period of 6 months; it used about 40 percent of the funds and was also highly productive. Deepening the hole below 3.1km turned out to be both difficult and expensive, although for interesting reasons. To facilitate deeper drilling the hole needed to be reamed to a larger diameter; but when this was done the well unexpectedly started to flow. We now know that there are several deep pressurized aquifers, with varying salt content, but these hydrological phenomena were totally unanticipated. A key finding, also unanticipated, is that cold seawater circulates through the volcanic pile in volumes sufficient to refrigerate the entire section below 700m depth to temperatures about 25 degrees below a

  2. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  3. Hydrocarbon shows in the scientific ocean drilling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.J. ); Emeis, K.C. )

    1990-05-01

    For more than 20 yr, two major programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), have been coring the deep oceans for scientific purposes. For technological as well as financial reasons, drilling was and is performed without a riser. Precruise preparation, therefore, is aimed at preventing an accidental hydrocarbon discovery. During the course of drilling, at the more than 700 locations studied to date, numerous black shales of various ages were encountered. Many of these represent thermally immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Although these organic-rich rocks (up to 34 wt.% total organic carbon) by themselves did not pose a safety problem, hydrocarbon shows were detected on no less than ten legs. These shows represent heavy (C{sub 15+}), thermally generated hydrocarbons. Commonly, these shows can be attributed to migration through a porous and permeable network into the penetrated section. In these situations, migration commonly occurs over distances on the order of several tens of miles from a more mature, structurally deeper section (e.g., Challenger Knoll, DSDP Site 2). There are, however, instances where there is strong geochemical evidence for in-situ hydrocarbon generation. In-situ hydrocarbon generation appears to be the result of anomalous thermal conditions associated with high heat flow, igneous and/or hydrothermal activity (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, ODP Site 652). Such conditions are more commonly associated with young marginal basins. The distribution of these shows provides valuable information on the long-term exploratory potential of the deep oceans and continental margins.

  4. Scientific Drilling in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Juerg; Kelemen, Peter; Teagle, Damon; Coggon, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle that was thrusted onto the Arabian continent ~100 million years ago and subsequently tilted and eroded, is an excellent field laboratory to explore rock forming processes that occurred near the surface down to 20 km depth in the Earth's interior. The exposure of these rocks to surface conditions provides a large reservoir of chemical potential energy that drives rapid reactions, heat generation, expansion and cracking. The Oman Drilling Project will address long-standing questions regarding mantle melting, melt transport and crystallization of lavas at ocean spreading ridges to form ocean crust, determine the nature and extent of chemical interactions between the oceans and newly formed oceanic crust, improve our understanding of CO2 and H2O uptake via weathering to form hydrated minerals and carbonates including reaction-driven cracking mechanisms as well as explore serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystem. With funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), U.S. NSF, NASA, IODP, Sloan Foundation and Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft in place, we will address these objectives via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid and microbiological sampling, and hydrological measurements in a series of newly drilled boreholes. Preliminary surveys showed that active low-T alteration of upper mantle rocks is an ongoing process. Dissolved hydrogen and methane concentrations in fluid samples collected in existing boreholes are up to 1.3 and 8 mmol/l, respectively [1]. Regarding the physical, chemical and biological processes related to near surface alteration of mantle rocks, a multi-borehole test site will be established in the southern massif of the Samail ophiolite. This test site will facilitate in-situ studies of water-rock-microbe interactions. Technical details and potential opportunities will be discussed.

  5. Open Core Data: Semantic driven data access and distribution for terrestrial and marine scientific drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is a science-driven, innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring projects across all Earth sciences. It is designed to make make scientific drilling data semantically discoverable, persistent, citable, and approachable to maximize their utility to present and future geoscience researchers. Scientific drilling and coring is crucial for the advancement of the Earth Sciences, unlocking new frontiers in the geologic record. Open Core Data will utilize and link existing data systems, services, and expertise of the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) data facility, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (OL). Open Core Data will leverage efforts currently taking place under the EarthCube GeoLink Building Block and other previous efforts in Linked Open Data around ocean drilling data coordinated by OL. The OCD architecture for data distribution blends Linked Data Platform approaches with web services and schema.org use. OCD will further enable integration and tool development by assigning and using vocabularies, provenance, and unique IDs (DOIs, IGSN, URIs) in scientific drilling resources. A significant focus of this effort is to enable large scale automated access to the data by domain specific communities such as MagIC and Neotoma. Providing them a process to integrate the facility data into their data models, workflows and tools. This aspect will encompass methods to maintain awareness of authority information enabling users to trace data back to the originating facility. Initial work on OCD is taking place under a supplemental awarded to IEDA. This talk gives an overview of that work to date and planned future directions for the distribution of scientific drilling data by this effort.

  6. Scientific drilling to study the roots of active hydrothermal systems related to young magmatic intrusions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.

    1983-03-01

    At present, hydrothermal-magma processes can be studied only inferentially, using observations on hot springs and volcanic rocks, data from shallow- and intermediate-depth drill holes, analogies with exhumed fossil systems, and extrapolation of laboratory investigations. The Thermal Regimes Panel of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee in a draft report concludes that an understanding of active hydrothermal-magma systems requires drill-hole investigations of deeper and hotter levels than have been drilled and studied to date. The Panel groups hydrothermal-magma systems in the United States into five classes: (1) dominantly andesitic centers, (2) spreading ridges, (3) basaltic fields, (4) evolved basaltic centers, and (5) silicic caldera complexes. Application of eight scientific criteria and three social criteria leads to the conclusion that silicic caldera complexes should be the first target of a focused drilling program to investigate the hydrothermal-magma interface at depths of 5 to 7 km. Primary targets are the three young, silicic caldera systems in the western conterminous United States: Yellowstone (Wyoming), Valles (New Mexico), and Long Valley (California). Scientific drilling of these active hydrothermal-magma systems complements scientific drilling proposed for fossil systems such as Creede (Colorado). In addition, the roots of the Salton Sea geothermal system (California) present an opportunity for add-on deep drilling and scientific experiments to supplement geothermal drilling by industry in this active spreading-ridge environment.

  7. Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

  8. First riser drilling in Scientific Ocean Drilling history, Observatory drilling and casing in the Nankai Trough (IODP Exp 319)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toczko, S.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Expedition 319 (“Riser and Riserless Observatory-1”, NanTroSEIZE Stage 2) was the first time in IODP history that scientific riser operations were conducted. As part of this groundbreaking advance in scientific drilling, other technologies and sampling methods were also introduced: scientific mud-gas monitoring, drilling cuttings collection and analysis, MDT, and VSP (walk-away and zero-offset). Although the goals and achievements for Expedition 319 were modest, we will describe the operational portions of these technologies, and also discuss the potential and benefits of future riser drilling operations. JAMSTEC’s Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX), the Japanese Implementing Organization and operator of the riser drillship Chikyu, this year performed the inaugural riser drilling expedition for IODP, as part of NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, Expedition 319, “Riser and Riserless Observatories”. Riser drilling is a typical method of drilling in industry, since it helps prevent loss of petroleum while drilling at sea, and also allows for deeper drilling depths, when compared with the usual non-riser drilling. The system aboard Chikyu is an industrial design riser system, which has just completed drilling operations in the Kumano Basin, drilling and casing a riser hole, Hole C0009A, to 1607.3 mBSF in water 2054 m BSL deep. The riser drilling system maintains a connection between the riser pipe suspended from the drillship to the sea floor blowout preventer (BOP), which makes a seal between the riser pipe and well head, and below to the cased intervals of the borehole below the seafloor. This allows the drilling mud to circulate down through the drillpipe, out the bit, and back up the casing and riser pipe to the drillship. This cools the bit, clears the borehole of cuttings (recovered aboard ship in the shale shakers) and allows real-time mud-gas monitoring. Mud weight can be more carefully controlled and adjusted, improving the quality of mudcake on the

  9. The objectives for deep scientific drilling in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The western area of the United Stated contains three young silicic calderas, all of which contain attractive targets for scientific drilling. Of the three, the Yellowstone caldera complex is the largest, has the most intense geothermal anomalies, and is the most seismically active. On the basis of scientific objectives alone. it is easily the first choice for investigating active hydrothermal processes. This report briefly reviews what is known about the geology of Yellowstone National Park and highlights unique information that could be acquired by research drilling only in Yellowstone. However, it is not the purpose of this report to recommend specific drill sites or to put forth a specific drilling proposal. 175 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing

  11. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project Archival Reference, Final Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-13

    This report provides an archival reference to the scientific information and other pertinent documents and materials associated with the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSDP). This archiving process ensures that valuable technical data and information obtained during the life of the project can be retrieved, organized and maintained as a historical record for future reference. This paper describes the background of the project and the process used for archiving the materials. [DJE-2005

  12. Semantic Approaches Applied to Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Jenkins, C. J.; Arko, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of Linked Open Data methods to 40 years of data from scientific ocean drilling is providing users with several new methods for rich-content data search and discovery. Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have been translated and placed in RDF triple stores to provide access via SPARQL, linked open data patterns, and by embedded structured data through schema.org / RDFa. Existing search services have been re-encoded in this environment which allows the new and established architectures to be contrasted. Vocabularies including computed semantic relations between concepts, allow separate but related data sets to be connected on their concepts and resources even when they are expressed somewhat differently. Scientific ocean drilling produces a wide range of data types and data sets: borehole logging file-based data, images, measurements, visual observations and the physical sample data. The steps involved in connecting these data to concepts using vocabularies will be presented, including the connection of data sets through Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) and open entity collections such as Freebase and dbPedia. Demonstrated examples will include: (i) using RDF Schema for inferencing and in federated searches across NGDC and IODP data, (ii) using structured data in the data.oceandrilling.org web site, (iii) association through semantic methods of age models and depth recorded data to facilitate age based searches for data recorded by depth only.

  13. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed. PMID:21553598

  14. Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    in a mid-crustal sill complex that has been imaged seismically. Further, the chemical and isotopic systematics of these basalts require assimilation of consanguineous mafic material inferred to represent previously intruded sills. Major and trace element modeling suggest formation of the primary melts by melting of a source similar to E- MORB source. Trace element systematics document mixing between a plume-like source and a more depleted source that is not DMM. A similar more depleted source is inferred for Hawaii, suggesting that it is not continental lithosphere. Future scientific drilling in the SRP is the focus of Project HOTSPOT, a multi-disciplinary initiative that seeks to document time-space variations in the SRP-Yellowstone volcanic system. A workshop sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program was held in May 2006 to develop a targeted program of scientific drilling that examines the entire plume-lithosphere system across a major lithospheric boundary, with holes targeting basalt, rhyolite, and sediments. These drill holes will complement geophysical studies of continental dynamics (e.g., Earthscope), as well as current studies centered on Yellowstone. Additional components of a targeted drilling program include studies of lacustrine sediments that document paleoclimate change in North America during the Pliocene—Pleistocene and fluid flow at deeper crustal levels.

  15. Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and drilling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenji; Kojima, Masaki; Kinkori, Shuuzou; Suzuki, Manji; Kawashima, Nobuki; Nakatani, Ichirou

    1991-07-01

    Running gears for the Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and the drilling equipment for the vehicles used to conduct underground exploration are studied. Review results on moving, driving, and running system for the vehicle are presented. For the driving system, comparison between conventional wheel system and crawler system are shown in a comprehensive table, and measures for failures are suggested. As for the development of the drilling equipment, the following items are presented: (1) methods of underground exploration; (2) methods of drilling (core boring and auger boring); (3) specifications for and the results of trial production of the experimental boring machine; (4) results of experimental boring machine operation on a simulated Mars surface; and (5) excavating capability of the experimental boring machine.

  16. Keeping Research Data from the Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) Accessible and Taking First Steps Towards Digital Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Ulbricht, D.; Conze, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) was a scientific drilling project from 1987 to 1995 near Windischeschenbach, Bavaria. The main super-deep borehole reached a depth of 9,101 meters into the Earth's continental crust. The project used the most current equipment for data capture and processing. After the end of the project key data were disseminated through the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The scientific reports were published as printed volumes. As similar projects have also experienced, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a data portal over a long time. Changes in software and underlying hardware make a migration of the entire system inevitable. Around 2009 the data presented on the ICDP web portal were migrated to the Scientific Drilling Database (SDDB) and published through DataCite using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) as persistent identifiers. The SDDB portal used a relational database with a complex data model to store data and metadata. A PHP-based Content Management System with custom modifications made it possible to navigate and browse datasets using the metadata and then download datasets. The data repository software eSciDoc allows storing self-contained packages consistent with the OAIS reference model. Each package consists of binary data files and XML-metadata. Using a REST-API the packages can be stored in the eSciDoc repository and can be searched using the XML-metadata. During the last maintenance cycle of the SDDB the data and metadata were migrated into the eSciDoc repository. Discovery metadata was generated following the GCMD-DIF, ISO19115 and DataCite schemas. The eSciDoc repository allows to store an arbitrary number of XML-metadata records with each data object. In addition to descriptive metadata each data object may contain pointers to related materials, such as IGSN-metadata to link datasets to physical specimens, or identifiers of literature interpreting the data

  17. 77 FR 15382 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Notice of Renewal AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (Committee). The Committee provides advice...

  18. 75 FR 10809 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee-Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee--Notice of Renewal AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Outer Continental Shelf Scientific...

  19. Coring technologies for scientific drilling projects: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report outlines the well-developed continuous diamond-coring technology of the minerals industry and the deep-spot-coring procedures that have been optimized for petroleum exploration. The coring hardware, procedures, and technology developed for the sea floor sampling by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) are presented as an example of a hybrid core drilling system adopted for scientific coring purposes. The important features and limitations of conventional coring technologies are set forth, and the alternate approaches that will optimize core quality and reduce time and costs are illustrated. Surface rotary drives and downhole motor drives are contrasted and compared. The most significant factors of long core bit life and continuous wireline core retrieval are stressed, and their influence on reduction of operating time and costs is indicated. Several types of core bits are illustrated, both those for slim hole mining and those for oil and gas applications, as well as several core bit designs that have been developed for scientific coring projects. Finally, after concepts, applications, and hardware have been considered, drilling strategies are recommended for deep, scientific coring in hard crustal rocks.

  20. X-ray Scanner for ODP Leg 204: Drilling Gas Hydrates on Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Kneafsey, Tim; Pruess, Jacob; Reiter, Paul; Tomutsa, Liviu

    2002-08-08

    An x-ray scanner was designed and fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide high speed acquisition of x-ray images of sediment cores collected on the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204: Drilling Gas Hydrates On Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Continental Margin. This report discusses the design and fabrication of the instrument, detailing novel features that help reduce the weight and increase the portability of the instrument. Sample x-ray images are included. The x-ray scanner was transferred to scientific drilling vessel, the JOIDES Resolution, by the resupply ship Mauna Loa, out of Coos Bay, Oregon on July 25. ODP technicians were trained in the instruments operation. The availability of the x-ray scanner at the drilling site allows real-time imaging of cores containing methane hydrate immediately after retrieval. Thus, imaging experiments on cores can yield information on the distribution and quantity of methane hydrates. Performing these measurements at the location of core collection eliminates the need for high pressures or low temperature core handling while the cores are stored and transported to a remote imaging laboratory.

  1. Scientific Drilling in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, N.; ICDP Barberton Scientific Drilling Team

    2011-12-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa, one of the best-preserved successions of mid-Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, is a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Despite generally good outcrop, complete field sections are not preserved, and crucial features such as the contacts of lava flows and continuous successions of critical sedimentary rock sequences are not exposed. Through diamond drilling we hope to obtain the continuous sections and relatively unaltered samples through the volcano-sedimentary successions. (1) Sedimentary sequences will provide information about erosion and sedimentation on the early Earth, the composition and temperature of Archean seawater, and one possible site where life may have emerged and evolved. Investigation of spherule layers (including impact debris) will provide information about the nature and magnitude of meteorite impact on the early Earth. (2) Successions of ultramafic to mafic volcanic rocks will provide new insights into volcanic processes, dynamics of the crust and mantle, interaction between oceanic volcanic crust and the hydrosphere and biosphere. The sources of hydrothermal fluids on the ocean floor, driven by circulation of seawater through the volcanic pile, constitute a second habitat of early life. A project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program and by scientists from 13 countries in five continents started on 15th July 2011. As of 31st July, two holes have been drilled in komatiites from the Tjakastad locality and another hole has been started in the Buck Reef Chert. Regular updates are available on the ICDP web site < www.icdp-online.org>. The distribution of samples and post-drilling research will be coordinated by a steering committee comprising representatives from all major participating countries. A workshop to decide who does what will be held in South Africa in early 2012

  2. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  3. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  4. 77 FR 39164 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 147 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile...; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, Alaska'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 10711). The NPRM included a 30- day comment period. We received 2...

  5. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  6. The Cenozoic Arctic Ocean Unveiled through Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, L.; Moran, K.; Backman, J.

    2007-12-01

    In late summer 2004, the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) conducted one of the most transformational missions in the almost 40 year history of scientific ocean drilling: the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX). This technically-challenging expedition recovered the first Cenozoic sediment record from the Arctic Ocean-extending previous records from ~1.5 Ma to an unprecedented ~56 Ma. Glimpses of the breadth of this transformation were even seen during ACEX when the massulae from fresh water ferns were found and the presence of Apectodinium augustum confirmed that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was unexpectedly recovered. Soon after the expedition, when the cores were opened and analyzed, ice-rafted debris was found to have occurred much earlier than previously thought-in the Eocene in an environment of high organic carbon content. The initial analyses also revealed an extensive hiatus that occurred between several of the most spectacular sediment cores in terms of color, e.g. turquoise, and structure, starkly contrasting black and white crossbedding that is now dubbed the "zebra" core. The exciting early results attracted other investigators that expanded the scientific investigating team to more than 40 people. This, in turn, extended the analyses to include new studies that revealed surprisingly high Arctic Ocean surface water temperatures and a hydrologically active system during the PETM. Although the hiatus is a lost window in time for the Arctic paleoclimate record, it spawned other studies that integrated the regional tectonic history with ACEX results revealing a major oceanographic reorganization at 17.5 Ma-ventilation of the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic through the Fram Strait. In this overview, recent results from the large ACEX scientific "family" are summarized and include: a new age model; detailed analyses of the middle Eocene that document a unique brackish water environment; sea ice and iceberg history reconstructions and

  7. Yellowstone National Park as an opportunity for deep continental drilling in thermal regions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera represnets the most intense magnatic and thermal anomaly within the conterminous United States. Voluminous rhyolite ash flows, accompanied by formation of huge calderas, occurred approximately 2.0, 1.3, and 0.6 My B.P. Although the last lava flow was about 70,000 B.P., much evidence suggests that magma may still be present at relatively shallow depth. The evidence from gravity and magnetic lows, magnetotelluric soundings, seismic wave velocities, maximum depths of earthquake foci, significant recent uplift of the caldera floor, and exceptionally high heat flux suggest that magmatic temperatures may be attained 5 to 10 km beneath much of the caldera. Most of the hot-spring and geyser activity occurs within the caldera and along a fault zone that trends north from the caldera rim through Norris Geyser Basin and Mammoth Hot Springs. The thermal waters and gases have been extensively sampled and analyzed over a period of 100 years. The chemical, isotopic, and hydrologic data obtained from natural discharges and from shallow wells drilled in thermal areas, enable formulation of models of the hydrothermal system. No previous intermediate-depth drilling has been conducted at Yellowstone to help select the best location for a deep drill hole, and because Yellowstone is a National Park, no commercial drilling will be available for add-on experiments. Also, a deep drill hole in Yellowstone would have to be sited with great regard to environmental and ecological considerations. Nevertheless, the large amount of existing data is sufficient to formulate testable models. The Yellowstone thermal anomaly is so extensive and scientifically interesting that almost any suitable drilling site there may be superior to the best drilling site in any other silicic caldera complex in the United States.

  8. 77 FR 27480 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Fess Parker's...

  9. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Marriott Downtown...

  10. Petrogenesis of High-CaO Lavas Recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of low degree partial melt of the Low-SiO2 mantle source and a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, or lower oceanic crust.Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of

  11. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact

  12. Crustal Magnetization and Magnetic Petrology in Basalts - What Can We Learn from Scientific Drillings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock magnetic and magneto-mineralogical data from scientific drillings contribute to our understanding of the growth history and tectonic evolution of volcanic structures and allows for an improved interpretation of magnetic anomaly data. Such data are not only important for the magnetic structure of volcanic buildings and spreading ridges on Earth but may also provide basic data for the interpretation of extraterrestrial magnetic anomalies like on Mars. Crustal magnetization of basalts is well studied since decades and in general, the amplitude of magnetic anomalies is mainly related to the induced and remanent magnetization. Direct measurements of the magnetic field and measurements of magnetic properties of oceanic and continental crust have indicated that the crustal magnetization is very complex and depends on different factors like e.g. magma composition, cooling rate, age and hydrothermal alteration. Generally a high oxygen fugacity (above the NNO buffer) and a low Ti/(Ti+Fe) ratio of the basaltic melt are suggested as a precondition for high concentration of magnetic minerals and therefore high primary TRM. High temperature subsolidus reactions and hydrothermal alteration as e.g. observed in the strongly magnetic basalts from the Stardalur drill core, Iceland, seems to increase NRM intensity and magnetic susceptibility due to creation of small, secondary magnetite (Vahle et al. 2007). Probably the increase occurred after the extinction of the hydrothermal system because active high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal areas like the Krafla caldera, NE-Iceland, often show distinct magnetic lows in aeromagnetic anomaly maps suggesting a destruction of magnetic minerals by hydrothermal activity (Oliva-Urcia et al. 2011). The destruction explains the significant magnetization loss, which is seen in many local magnetic anomaly lows within the oceanic crust and volcanic islands like Iceland or Hawaii. Borehole and core magnetic susceptibility measurements in

  13. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation...

  14. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  15. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  16. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  17. Integrated deep drilling, coring, downhole logging, and data management in the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Lothar; Bintakies, Eckhard; Kück, Jochem; Conze, Ronald; Harms, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    Impact structures in the solar system are mainly recognized and explored through remote sensing and, on Earth, through geophysical deep sounding. To date, a continuous scientific sampling of large impact craters from cover rocks to target material has only seldom been performed. The first project to deep-drill and core into one of the largest and well-preserved terrestrial impact structures was executed in the winter of 2001/2002 in the 65 Myr-old Chicxulub crater in Mexico using integrated coring sampling and in situ measurements. The combined use of different techniques allows a three-dimensional insight and a better understanding of impact processes. Here, we report the integration of conventional rotary drilling techniques with wireline mining coring technology that was applied to drill the 1510 m-deep Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) well about 40 km southwest of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. During the course of the project, we recovered approximately 900 m of intact core samples including the transitions of reworked ejecta to post-impact sediments, and that one from large blocks of tilted target material to impact-generated rocks, i.e., impact melt breccias and suevites. Coring was complemented by wireline geophysical measurements to obtain a continuous set of in situ petrophysical data of the borehole walls. The data acquired is comprised of contents of a natural radioactive element, velocities of compressional sonic waves, and electrical resistivity values. All the digital data sets, including technical drilling parameters, initial scientific sample descriptions, and 360° core pictures, were distributed during the course of the operations via Internet and were stored in the ICDP Drilling Information System (http://www.icdp-online.org), serving the global community of cooperating scientists as a basic information service.

  18. Hawaii scientific drilling protect: Summary of preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DePaolo, D.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D.; Albarede, F.; Chadwick, O.; Clague, D.; Feigenson, M.; Frey, F.; Garcia, M.; Hofmann, A.; Ingram, B.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Kirschvink, J.; Kurz, M.; Laj, Carlo; Lockwood, J.; Ludwig, K.; McEvilly, T.; Moberly, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, J.; Morin, R.; Paillet, F.; Renne, P.; Rhodes, M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Taylor, H.; Walker, G.; Wilkins, R.

    1996-01-01

    Petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, and volcanological characterization of the recovered core from a 1056-m-deep well into the flank of the Mauna Kea volcano in Hilo, Hawaii, and downhole logging and fluid sampling have provided a unique view of the evolution and internal structure of a major oceanic volcano unavailable from surface exposures. Core recovery was ???90%, yielding a time series of fresh, subaerial lavas extending back to ???400 ka. Results of this 1993 project provide a basis for a more ambitious project to core drill a well 4.5 km deep in a nearby location with the goal of recovering an extended, high-density stratigraphic sequence of lavas.

  19. Deep-sea drilling on the upper continental rise off New Jersey, DSDP Sites 604 and 605

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinte, Jan E.; Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.; Biart, Brian N. M.; Mitchener Covington, J.; Dunn, Dean A.; Haggerty, Janet A.; Johns, Mark W.; Meyers, Philip A.; Moullade, Michel R.; Muza, Jay P.; Ogg, James G.; Okamura, Makoto; Sarti, Massimo; von Rad, Ulrich

    1985-06-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 604 and 60S on the upper continental rise are the first of a series of cored holes along the “New Jersey transect” which, when completed, will provide the first comprehensive dipwise suite of drill holes across a passive margin from the coastal plain to the abyssal plain. Our drilling results document the age of important seismic sequence boundaries and allow their correlation with wells on the continental shelf and slope as well as with the regional oceanic seismic stratigraphy. Hole 605,156 km (97 mi) southeast of Atlantic City, New Jersey, and drilled 816.7 m down to mid-Maestrichtian limestones, penetrated a near-complete Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary section overlain by a 200-m expanded Paleocene sequence. Unusually high amounts of terrigenous silts and glauconite are present at the boundary and immediately above. Among the several hypotheses discussed, we suggest that the terrigenous silts and glauconite may represent a high-energy event such as a tsunami caused by a Cretaceous/Tertiary impact. Site 604, 5 km (3 mi) seaward of Site 605, was terminated in upper Miocene glauconitic sands and debris flows at 294.5 m by unstable hole conditions. These sediments contain shelf-derived gravels and exotic blocks of Eocene chalk (up to 50 cm across) eroded from bedrock that is today widely exposed on the adjacent slope. Our drilling results show that denudation of the Eocene units was not limited to the Oligocene Au erosional event, but that major loss occurred during late Miocene and later glacial sea-level lowstands.

  20. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  1. Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them

  2. CHART: An Online Workshop About the Future of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meth, C. E.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    The CHART (Charting the Future Course of Scientific Ocean Drilling) workshop was a six-week on-line meeting that gathered input from the U.S. science community regarding future research directions for scientific ocean drilling. The CHART workshop was hosted and implemented by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, under the U.S. Science Support Program associated with IODP. The online format allowed researchers who would normally not have the time or resources to travel to a physical meeting to participate in this discussion and allowed Ocean Leadership to archive, in written form, input from every participant, instead of just preserving popular or consensus views. The meeting had six discussion boards, each with initial questions intended to stimulate discussion on current emerging fields, unanswered research questions, implementation strategies, and potential future directions for scientific ocean drilling. The moderators read the posts on a daily basis, interjected comments or questions to stimulate more discussion, and wrote short weekly summaries. Interest in the CHART discussions increased over the course of the workshop and prompted the steering committee to extend the meeting to the final sixth week, allowing time for the participants to complete reading and responding to the new activity. In all, the CHART discussion boards were visited 2,242 times by 695 visitors and resulted in 535 posts. The visitors came to the site from 37 states, the District of Columbia, and 17 countries. The CHART workshop represented the first step in garnering input from U.S. scientists to plan for scientific ocean drilling beyond 2013. The resulting white paper became part of the planning process for the international meeting, INVEST, and will be used to write the science plan for the next scientific drilling program. The white paper also allowed U.S. participants at INVEST to better represent and express the collective vision of the their community.

  3. Scientific Use of the Sampler, Drill and Distribution Subsystem (SD2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.; Crepaldi, M.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli Finzi, A.

    Rosetta is the third cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency scientific program "Horizon 2000". Rosetta will be the first spacecraft to orbit around a comet nucleus. It was launched in March 2004 and will reach the comet 67P/ChurymovGerasimenko in 2014. A lander (Philae) will be released and land on the comet surface for in-situ investigation. One of the key subsystems of the lander Philae is the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) subsystem. SD2 provides in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, samples collection, and their distribution to two evolved gas analyzers (COSAC and PTOLEMY) and one imaging instrument (ÇIVA). Recent studies have proven the existence of a correlation between the drill behavior during perforation and the mechanical characteristics of the cometary soil. This outlines the possibility of using SD2 not only as a tool to support other instruments, but also as a scientific instrument itself. In this paper the possibility of using the drill as a quasi-static penetrator is presented. Within this approach, laboratory tests on glass-foam specimens of different porosity show that the drill behaviour during penetration can be exploited for cometary soil characterization.

  4. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sedimentary sequences in ancient or long-lived lakes can reach several thousands of meters in thickness and often provide an unrivalled perspective of the lake's regional climatic, environmental, and biological history. Over the last few years, deep-drilling projects in ancient lakes became increasingly multi- and interdisciplinary, as, among others, seismological, sedimentological, biogeochemical, climatic, environmental, paleontological, and evolutionary information can be obtained from sediment cores. However, these multi- and interdisciplinary projects pose several challenges. The scientists involved typically approach problems from different scientific perspectives and backgrounds, and setting up the program requires clear communication and the alignment of interests. One of the most challenging tasks, besides the actual drilling operation, is to link diverse datasets with varying resolution, data quality, and age uncertainties to answer interdisciplinary questions synthetically and coherently. These problems are especially relevant when secondary data, i.e., datasets obtained independently of the drilling operation, are incorporated in analyses. Nonetheless, the inclusion of secondary information, such as isotopic data from fossils found in outcrops or genetic data from extant species, may help to achieve synthetic answers. Recent technological and methodological advances in paleolimnology are likely to increase the possibilities of integrating secondary information. Some of the new approaches have started to revolutionize scientific drilling in ancient lakes, but at the same time, they also add a new layer of complexity to the generation and analysis of sediment-core data. The enhanced opportunities presented by new scientific approaches to study the paleolimnological history of these lakes, therefore, come at the expense of higher logistic, communication, and analytical efforts. Here we review types of data that can be obtained in ancient lake drilling

  5. Scientific Ocean Drilling: A Legacy of ODP Education and Community Engagement by JOI/USSSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Cortes, M.; Farrell, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP) was established in 1986 to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the international Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Since inception, USSSP has been managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), through a cooperative agreement with NSF, and guided by the U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC). One of USSSP's primary goals has been to enhance the scientific contribution of ocean drilling and to maintain its vitality through a broad range of education and outreach activities. USSSP's first educational program, the Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship, was established to encourage doctoral candidates to conduct research aboard the ODP drill ship, JOIDES Resolution. Since 1987, 74 fellowships have been awarded and the program has been expanded to include shorebased ODP-related research and Masters degree candidates. USSSP's second major educational activity is the Distinguished Lecturer Series. To date, 70 scientists have spoken about their ODP research at 334 institutions, effectively reaching new and diverse educational communities. In addition, USSSP has developed and distributed two interactive educational CD-ROMs (ODP: Mountains to Monsoons and Gateways to Glaciation) and an educational poster (Blast from the Past). All three items are popular supplements in classrooms from middle school to college because they present accessible scientific content, demonstrate the scientific method, and illustrate the collaborative and international nature of scientific research. USSSP's outreach efforts have included publishing the JOI/USSAC Newsletter since 1988 and ODP's Greatest Hits (abstracts written by U.S. scientists). The latter is broadly used because it communicates exciting scientific results in lay terms. USSSP has sponsored other educational efforts including a workshop to seek recommendations for educational activities to be associated with future scientific ocean drilling. NSF is currently considering the

  6. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean: A Synthesis of Three Decades of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, D. A.; Filippelli, G.; Flores, J.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    A Workshop on " Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean: A Synthesis of Three Decades of Scientific Ocean Drilling" Jan. 21-23, 2005 Boulder, CO Co-Convenors: D. Warnke, G. Filippelli, J.-A. Flores, T. Marchitto One of the greatest successes of the Ocean Drilling Program has been the concerted drilling efforts and exciting results recovered from the Southern Ocean (SO), which has been the focus of ten DSDP/ODP drilling legs. The SO is a critical component in the development and persistence of Antarctic glaciation, is a sensitive mixing pool of global water masses, a locus of high biological sedimentation, and contains high resolution records of climate forcing and response. As such, it is one of the most important oceanographic regions in the world. It is now an important time to mine the rich results from scientific ocean drilling over the past several decades and develop a scientific framework for future ocean drilling in this region. The focus of this Synthesis Workshop will be on the biogeochemical history of the SO, including: · Productivity proxies, rates, records, variations, and role of climate · Sedimentary records of organic carbon, calcium, silica, nutrients, and biogenic proxies: The role of the SO as a biogeochemical sink · Development and dynamics of the APFZ · Thermal structure and evolution of the SO · The role of limiting nutrients The overall goal to integrate the various proxies into a coherent paleoceanographic picture. Such a goal will help to synthesize several decades of scientific ocean drilling in the SO, and will likely bring to the forefront the as-yet-unanswered questions about the biogeochemical history of this important oceanic system. With this goal in mind, workshop participants will submit of a short (~250 word) abstract as the Workshop application, commit to presenting a poster at the workshop based on this abstract, and contribute to one or more manuscripts that will be published after the workshop, likely

  7. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, Stephen; Younker, Leland; Zobeck, Mark; Cooper, George

    1994-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, we hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300??C; 2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

  8. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  9. Geochemistry of pore waters from Shell Oil Company drill holes on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1969-01-01

    Pore waters were analyzed from 6 holes drilled from M.V. "Eureka" as a part of the Shell Oil Co. deeper offshore study. The holes were drilled in water depths of 600-3,000 ft. (approximately 180-550 m) and penetrated up to 1,000 ft. (300 m) of Pliocene-Recent clayey sediments. Salt and anhydrite caprock was encountered in one diapiric structure on the continental slope. Samples from holes drilled near diapiric structures showed systematic increases of pore-water salinity with depth, suggestive of salt diffusion from underlying salt plugs. Anomalous concentrations of K and Br indicate that at least one plug contains late-stage evaporite minerals. Salinities approaching halite saturation were observed. Samples from holes away from diapiric structures showed little change in pore-water chemistry, except for loss of SO4 and other variations attributable to early-stage diagenetic reactions with enclosing sediments. Thus, increased salt concentrations in even shallow sediments from this part of the Gulf appear to provide an indicator of salt masses at depth. ?? 1969.

  10. Problems of deep drilling in abnormally pressured zones of the Kara Sea continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    There are discussed results of drilling operations in shelf hydrocarbon areas of the Far North of Tyumen Region (Kharassavieskaya, Bovanenkovskaya and Krusenshternskaya ones) and on the Bely Island. The author describes equipment and technologies used, problems arising in the process of operations and possible ways of solving them. Application of the results discussed in the report seems rather attractive in connection with possible realization of joint projects on development of the mentioned areas. Thus, Amoco Eurasia plans to participate in development of Bovanenkovskoye and Novoportovskoye fields. Well planning for Amoco has been done of specialists of ZapSibBurNIPI. Experience of Russian drilling companies in the Yamal area (Far North of Tyumen Region) has proved that well planning for shelf areas requires special attention as drilling-in both overpressured zones (Bovanenkovskoye field) and underpressured ones (Novoportovskoye field) is done actually in balance. Investigated are reasons for such drilling problems as kicks and lost circulation. Taking them into consideration will help to decrease considerably the cost of well drilling in shelf areas.

  11. Peering into the Cradle of Life: Scientific Drilling in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, N. T.; Barberton Drilling Team

    2012-04-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid-Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, and a site where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Despite generally good outcrop, complete field sections are not preserved, and crucial features such as the contacts of lava flows and continuous successions of critical sedimentary rock sequences are not exposed. Through diamond drilling we have obtained continuous sections and relatively unaltered samples from the volcano-sedimentary successions. The sedimentary sequences provide information about erosion and sedimentation on the early Earth, the composition and temperature of Archean seawater, and one possible site where life may have emerged and evolved. Investigation of spherule layers (including impact debris) provide information about the nature and magnitude of meteorite impact on the early Earth. The ultramafic to mafic volcanic rocks provide new insights into volcanic processes, dynamics of the crust and mantle, interaction between oceanic volcanic crust and the hydrosphere and biosphere. The project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program and by scientists from 13 countries in five continents. Drilling started in July 2011 and is expected to finish in February 2012. Regular updates are posted on the ICDP web site < www.icdp-online.org>. By December 2011, two 300m holes in komatiite had been completed. This drilling provided excellent sections through over 60 flows of komatiite or komatiitic basalt, including a thick inflated flow composed of highly magnesian, possibly hydrous komatiite. Drilling was continuing at two sites in sedimentary sequences. The first, at Buck Reef, has yielded over 600 m of banded chert retaining complex sedimentary and diagenetic structures; the second, in the Middle Fig Tree formation, has intersected 350 m of interbanded chert and ferruginous shale. Two

  12. PROMESS 1: Past Global Changes Investigated by Drilling Mediterranean Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, S.

    2004-12-01

    Between June, 24th and July, 22nd, 2004, a team of European scientists embarked from Brindisi (Italy) to Barcelona (Spain) onboard the Russian vessel "Bavenit", operated by the Dutch geotechnical company FUGRO, for a drilling expedition in the Adriatic Sea and the NW Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this cruise was to collect long sediment sections and in situ measurements from two deltaic margins where the history of global changes during the last ca. 400 kyr is particularly well preserved. In the Adriatic, two boreholes were drilled at site PRAD1 (water depth 184 m), where the objective was to study the record of the last 4 glacial cycles. A pilot hole was first drilled for assessing the risk of shallow gases, a downhole logging was carried out in this borehole. A second site allowed continuous coring to the targeted depth (71m below sea-floor) with excellent recovery (better than 95%). Very preliminary interpretation indicates that seismic sequences previously identified correspond to 100 kyr glacial cycles. Downhole logging and physical properties of cores allow to identify magnetic events, and tephras. Site PRAD2 was devoted to the study of the recent most sediments (last 12,000 yrs) near the coastline, at a water depth of 56m. The targeted depth was 32 m below sea floor, sufficient to obtain a good record for the last ca 12,000 years. All together, six boreholes were drilled at PRAD2, including a pilot hole, one for continuous sediment recovery, and additional holes for in situ geotechnical tests and sampling. One of the objectives of these tests is to determine whether the wavy features shaping the sedimentary sequences are caused by near-bottom currents or result from liquefaction of unstable sediments triggered by earthquakes or storms. Site PRGL1 in the Gulf of Lion is at 298 m water depth, and the targeted depth below sea floor was 300 m, allowing to reach an expected age of about 430 kyr BP. A pilot hole was drilled down to 310 mbsf, and logged. Two

  13. A national drilling program to study the roots of active hydrothermal systems related to young magmatic intrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of studies of active hydrothermal-magma systems as part of a national continental scientific drilling program has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. The present report, prepared by the Panel on Thermal Regimes of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands on earlier recommendations. The US Geodynamics Committee 1979 report of the Los Almos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed major emphasis on maximizing the scientific value of current and planned drilling by industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations that may be added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Thermal Regimes recognizes that such opportunities are limited and thus focused its study on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The San Andreas fault zone drilling project: Scientific objectives and technological challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, S.; Younker, L.; Zobeck, M.; Cooper, G.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, the authors hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: (1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300 C; (2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; (3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and (4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, the authors expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

  15. The San Andreas fault zone drilling project: Scientific objectives and technological challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.; Cooper, G.A.

    1995-12-01

    The authors are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, the authors hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: (1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300 C; (2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; (3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and (4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, the authors expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  16. New roles of LWD and wireline logging in scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Y.; Kido, Y. N.; Moe, K.; Aoike, K.

    2014-12-01

    D/V Chikyu implemented by CDEX/JAMSTEC joined IODP from 2007. Various LWD (Logging While Drilling) and wireline logging have been carried out in many expeditions and for various purposes. Significant features of logging in Chikyu expeditions are many use of LWD than wireline logging, and riser dirlling. riser selected specific tools for each scientific target, and 3) carried out various borehole experiments. LWD has been more popular than wireline logging in Chikyu expeditions, because its advantages match theirs science targets. The advantages are followings. 1) LWD has more opportunities for measurement in unstable borehole, such as in the series of Nankai trough drilling expeditions. 2) LWD realtime data allows us to make realtime interpretation and operational decision. Realtime interpretation was required to set obsevartory at the properposition. 3) LWD before coring allows us to make a strategy of spot coring.We can design coring intervals for our interest and core length to improve core recovery.Riser drilling brings us merits for logging. One is hole stability (good hole condition) and the other is the use of large diameter tools. Controled drilling mud in riser drilling system prevent mud invasion to formation and mitigates collapse of borehole wall. They reduce the risk of tool stack and improve data quality. Large diameter of riser pipe enhances variation of tool seizes. A couple of new tools were used for new measurement and improvement of the data quality. For example, SonicScanner (trademark of Schulumberger) successfully measured compressional and share velocity in very low velocities at the soft sediment, where it has been difficult to measure them with conventional DSI tool (Exp319). The stress and pore pressure in the borehole were measured with the wireline logging tool, (Schlumberger MDT). The single probe tool enable to measure temporal formation fluid pressure. The double packer tool enable to fracture test by sealing and pumping in the

  17. Constraining Crustal Anisotropy by Receiver Functions at the Deep Continental Drilling Site KTB in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. In order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RF) methodology has started to be widely applied recently. Such effects of anisotropy on RF were illustrated in theoretical studies, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RF on the 3D characteristics of the media sampled by the waves. The use of teleseismic RF has the advantage of not being affected by a heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique however, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test the technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. A field experiment has thus been carried out around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz area in Southeastern Germany, in order to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments, and geological studies. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. The drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body. The SKS shear-wave splitting method has been applied as well, revealing coherent results for the whole region with exception

  18. Drilling's value stressed at hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A Senate subcommittee recently heard testimony from government, university, and industry geoscientists in support of a bill that would formalize the planning and coordination of continental scientific drilling. Among the reasons given in favor of the bill by the 13 witnesses at the July 24, 1986, hearing were the possible benefits of a continental drilling program for our understanding of the history of the earth's crust, the origins of mineral and energy resources, the mechanisms of earthquakes and volcanos, and the migration of toxic wastes. The hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production, chaired by Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.).

  19. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are

  20. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1) ; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site ; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve ; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat [hor ellipsis]the, paleothermal regime ; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks ; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  1. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1)?; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site?; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve?; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat? {hor_ellipsis}the, paleothermal regime?; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks?; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system? Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  2. First Riser Logging in Scientific Ocean Drilling: Operational Planning and results/reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Kyaw Thu, Moe; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Hino, Ryota; Eguchi, Nabuhisa; Toczko, Sean; Takahashi, Kyoma; 319 Science Party, Iodp

    2010-05-01

    distribution. The 16 sets of the no planned 3-C geophone are clumped with 15m spacing at ~1300-1600mbsf in the cased C0009 hole by Chikyu. Eight OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer)s deployed at the seafloor. JAMSTEC R/V Kairei shot along 53km line (maximum offset from the hole is ~30km) and round 3.5km circle with 16-array tuned air-gun. Zero-offset VSP was conducted to measure velocity and create seismogram along the well as well. Using high resolution data obtained from the equipment, detailed structural interpretation, anisotropy analysis, and shear velocity analysis are being carried out. Riser drilling takes not only operational advantages such as deeper and safety hole, but also scientific advantage such as increasing measurement items which has never done in riserless drilling and improving data quality. It enlarge the options to approach new discovery and Science.

  3. Unzen Volcano Scientific Drilling: Well Logging Data of the USDP-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, T.; Ikeda, R.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.; Nishi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Unzen Volcano Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) has been conducted to target the magma conduit shortly after the 1990-1995 eruption. After two drillings of 752 m and 1463 m deep at the flank site, the conduit surveying well (USDP-4) was drilled to the depth of 1995.75 m in the mountainside to clarify the ascending and degassing mechanisms of magma. We have conducted physical logging in the USDP-4 well to elucidate the structure and material properties in and around the conduit. The logging items are as follows: Gamma Ray (167 to 1780 m), Resistivity (167 to 1795 m), Self-Potential (167 to 1775 m), Density (392 to 1782 m), Neutron Porosity (770 to 1777 m), Sonic velocity (392 to 1787 m), Full-bore Formation Micro Imager (FMI : 167 to 1540 m), Formation Micro Scanner (FMS : 1550 to 1791.5 m) and VSP (237 to 737m). Because of the high inclination of this well (Sakuma et al., this meeting), we used the Tough Logging Condition System (TLCS) below the depth of 800 m where the well inclination is up to 70 degrees. We had some concern because of a possible well collapse and high temperatures at the conduit zone before drilling. However, a good well condition and low temperature enabled us to obtain good logging data from this well. Comparing the logging data and lithology, determined mainly from drilled cores and cuttings (Nakada et al., this meeting), we can make clear the features of its formation and material properties found within the well. Gamma Ray varies between 40 API to 100 API, with the high (90 to 100 API) value coinciding with a lava dike. Resistivity structure can be classified into 5 layers. The value of resistivity above 240 m, 240 to 550 m, 550 to 1100 m, 1100 to 1760 m and below 1760 m are a few hundred ohm-m, 500 to 1000 ohm-m, about 100 ohm-m, about 10 ohm-m, about 100 ohm-m, respectively. The lava dike indicates a characteristic feature of about 100 ohm-m even though it is distributed in the 10 ohm-m layer. P-wave velocity varies 3 to 5 km

  4. Corganiser: a web-based software tool for planning time-sensitive sampling of whole rounds during scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, I. P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Corganiser is a software tool developed to simplify the process of preparing whole-round sampling plans for time-sensitive microbiology and geochemistry sampling during scientific drilling. It was developed during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347, but is designed to work with a wide range of core and section configurations and can thus be used in future drilling projects. Corganiser is written in the Python programming language and is implemented both as a graphical web interface and command-line interface. It can be accessed online at http://130.226.247.137/.

  5. Present and future of subsurface biosphere studies in lacustrine sediments through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariztegui, Daniel; Thomas, Camille; Vuillemin, Aurèle

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the discovery of active microbial life in deep-sea sediments has triggered a rapid development of the field known as the "deep biosphere." Geomicrobiological investigations in lacustrine basins have also shown a substantial microbial impact on lake sediments similar to that described for the marine record. Although only 30 % of the lake sites drilled by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) have included microbial investigations, these lakes cover a relatively wide range of salinities (from 0.15 to 33.8 %), pH (from 6.0 to 9.8) and environmental conditions (from very arid to humid subtropical conditions). Here, we analyze results of very recent ICDP lake sites including subsurface biosphere research from southern Patagonia (Laguna Potrok Aike) to the Levantine area (Dead Sea) as well as the East Anatolian high plateau (Lake Van) and Macedonia (Lake Ohrid). These various settings allow the examination of the impact of contrasting environments on microbial activity and their subsequent role during early diagenesis. Furthermore, they permit the identification of biosignatures of former microbial activity recorded in the sediments as well as investigating the impact of microbes in biogeochemical cycles. One of the general outcomes of these preliminary investigations is data to support the hypothesis that microbes react to climatically driven environmental changes that have a direct impact on their subsurface distribution and diversity. This is clear at conspicuous levels associated with well-known climatic periods such as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly or the Little Ice Age. Although more research is needed, this relationship between prevailing microbial assemblages and different climatic settings appears to dominate the lacustrine sites studied until to date.

  6. Early Cretaceous rifting and exposure of periodotite on the Galicia continental margin: preliminary results of ocean drilling program Leg 103

    SciTech Connect

    Winterer, E.; Boillot, G.; Meyer, A.; Applegate, J.; Baltuck, M.; Bergen, J.; Comas, M.; Davies, T.; Dunham, K.; Evans, C.; Girardeau, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results of drilling near the ocean-continent boundary on the Galicia margin of Iberia shed new light on the timing of rifting and demonstrate the presence at the foot of the margin of a ridge of foliated, lineated, sheared and serpentinized harzburgite, probably representing oceanic mantle. Fifty km east of the periodotite ridge, on a continental fault block, the stratigraphic section sampled during Leg 103 above Hercynian basement comprises: (1) at least 250m of Upper Jurassic and possibly lowest Cretaceous limestone, dolomite and minor sandstone and claystone deposited in relatively shallow water before rifting began; (2) about 20m of Valanginian calpionellid marlstone, probably deposited in moderate depths at the onset of rifting; (3) from about 500 to 1500m of Valanginian and Hauterivian turbidite sandstone rich in terrestrial plant debris, and Barremian and Aptian( ) claystone and marlstone deposited in deeper water during rifting; and (4) about 700m of sediments deposited after Aptian time, when rifting ceased and oceanic spreading between Iberia and Newfoundland began. The lithology and seismic stratigraphy of the wedges of clastic sediments laid down during rifting show the progressive filling of basins that formed by episodic listric faulting that began very early in the Cretaceous and continued for about 25 my. The Lower Cretaceous turbidite sandstone cored on the Galicia margin correlates with thick Lower Cretaceous turbidites cored off Morocco during DSDP Leg 50, and with Wealden deltaic and fluviatile deposits on both sides of the Atlantic.

  7. Improved structural characterization of the Earth's crust at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site using advanced seismic imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloušek, F.; Hellwig, O.; Buske, S.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the principles of three novel seismic imaging techniques and their application to two deep seismic reflection data sets from the vicinity of the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). These imaging techniques are based on Kirchhoff prestack depth migration and use an inherent restriction of the migration operator to focus the wavefield to its actual reflection point. For Fresnel volume migration, the emergent angle at the receivers is estimated and then used to propagate the wavefield back into the subsurface along which the Fresnel volume is determined. The migration operator is restricted to this volume, thereby focusing the image to the part of the isochrone which physically contributes to the reflection. For coherency migration, the coherency of the wavefield at neighboring traces is calculated and used as a weighting factor within the migration integral, leading to a comparable focusing to the reflection point. For coherency-based Fresnel volume migration, both approaches are combined, resulting in an even more focused seismic image with significantly increased image quality. We applied these methods to two seismic data sets from the area around the KTB: a survey with standard split-spread geometry (KTB8502) and a sparse data set with a small number of source points in combination with short receiver lines (INSTRUCT93). The focusing approaches yield major improvements in the final images for both data sets. Incoherent noise and migration artifacts are reduced and the visibility of crustal structures is strongly enhanced, allowing for an improved geologic and tectonic characterization.

  8. Scientific results of the Second Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition in the Ulleung Basin (UBGH2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryu, Byong-Jae; Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, Michael; Kim, Gil-Young; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Geun

    2013-01-01

    As a part of Korean National Gas Hydrate Program, the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted from 9 July to 30 September, 2010 in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea using the D/V Fugro Synergy. The UBGH2 was performed to understand the distribution of gas hydrates as required for a resource assessment and to find potential candidate sites suitable for a future offshore production test, especially targeting gas hydrate-bearing sand bodies in the basin. The UBGH2 sites were distributed across most of the basin and were selected to target mainly sand-rich turbidite deposits. The 84-day long expedition consisted of two phases. The first phase included logging-while-drilling/measurements-while-drilling (LWD/MWD) operations at 13 sites. During the second phase, sediment cores were collected from 18 holes at 10 of the 13 LWD/MWD sites. Wireline logging (WL) and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were also acquired after coring operations at two of these 10 sites. In addition, seafloor visual observation, methane sensing, as well as push-coring and sampling using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) were conducted during both phases of the expedition. Recovered gas hydrates occurred either as pore-filling medium associated with discrete turbidite sand layers, or as fracture-filling veins and nodules in muddy sediments. Gas analyses indicated that the methane within the sampled gas hydrates is primarily of biogenic origin. This paper provides a summary of the operational and scientific results of the UBGH2 expedition as described in 24 papers that make up this special issue of the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology.

  9. Investigations related to scientific deep drilling to study reservoir-triggered earthquakes at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Roy, Sukanta; Arora, Kusumita; Tiwari, V. M.; Patro, Prasanta K.; Satyanarayana, H. V. S.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Goswami, Deepjyoti; Vyas, Digant; Ravi, G.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Srihari, M.; Mishra, S.; Dubey, C. P.; Raju, D. Ch. V.; Borah, Ujjal; Chinna Reddy, K.; Babu, Narendra; Rohilla, Sunil; Dhar, Upasana; Sen, Mrinal; Bhaskar Rao, Y. J.; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2015-09-01

    Artificial water reservoir-triggered earthquakes have continued at Koyna in the Deccan Traps province, India, since the impoundment of the Shivaji Sagar reservoir in 1962. Existing models, to comprehend the genesis of triggered earthquakes, suffer from lack of observations in the near field. To investigate further, scientific deep drilling and setting up a fault zone observatory at depth of 5-7 km is planned in the Koyna area. Prior to undertaking deep drilling, an exploratory phase of investigations has been launched to constrain subsurface geology, structure and heat flow regime in the area that provide critical inputs for the design of the deep borehole observatory. Two core boreholes drilled to depths of 1,522 and 1,196 m have penetrated the Deccan Traps and sampled the granitic basement in the region for the first time. Studies on cores provide new and direct information regarding the thickness of the Deccan Traps, the absence of infra-Trappean sediments and the nature of the underlying basement rocks. Temperatures estimated at a depth of 6 km in the area, made on the basis of heat flow and thermal properties data sets, do not exceed 150 °C. Low-elevation airborne gravity gradient and magnetic data sets covering 5,012 line km, together with high-quality magnetotelluric data at 100 stations, provide both regional information about the thickness of the Deccan Traps and the occurrence of localized density heterogeneities and anomalous conductive zones in the vicinity of the hypocentral zone. Acquisition of airborne LiDAR data to obtain a high-resolution topographic model of the region has been completed over an area of 1,064 km2 centred on the Koyna seismic zone. Seismometers have been deployed in the granitic basement inside two boreholes and are planned in another set of six boreholes to obtain accurate hypocentral locations and constrain the disposition of fault zones.

  10. Preliminary Palaeomagnetic Results from ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drill Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas; Hill, Mimi

    2013-04-01

    Four drill cores from the ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drilling Project have been sampled for palaeomagnetic analysis. Some 350 oriented mini-samples (10mm diameter) were collected from cores BARB1 to BARB 4, allowing units from the Onverwacht (Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations) and Fig Tree Groups to be studied. Previous work has indicated that rocks from the Noisy and Hooggenoeg Formations have the potential to record a near-primary direction of remanence and suggest the presence of a reversing geomagnetic field of similar magnitude to the recent field at ca. 3.5Ga. Previous paleomagnetic studies carried out on the Komatii Formation have yielded one of the oldest paleomagnetic poles and intensities in the world but these results are even more questionable. So far, no paleomagnetic work has been carried out on the Buck Reef Chert Formation or the Fig Tree Group. This sampling forms part of a larger study aiming, firstly to constrain the reliability of previous results by performing improved field stability tests. A positive fold test would constrain the age of the magnetic signal recorded by the Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations to older than 3.2 Ga. Confirmation of the presence of a viable and reversing field during the Palaeoarchean would place a strong constraint on processes occurring in the outer core during this time with implications for planetary evolution. Rates of polar wander will also be constrained by the directional findings, shedding some light on mantle convection processes at the time. Preliminary directional work on samples from drill cores will be presented here.

  11. Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 4.1 {micro}gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  12. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  13. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Latham, T.; McConnell, D.; Frye, M.; Hunt, J.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Ruppel, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Collett, T.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand

  14. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The need to validate and refine concepts regarding the structure, properties, and dynamic processes of the earth's continental crust through the use of the drill was the subject of the workshop sponsored by DOSECC, Inc. and held April 29 through May 1, 1985 in Houston, Texas and attended by more than 145 scientists. Scientific objectives and targets for a program of research drilling as part of basic studies of the continental lithosphere were discussed, with over 30 scientific proposals presented. Individual drilling proposals were grouped under several themes; basement structures and deep continental basins, active fault zones, thermal regimes and fossil mineralized hydrothermal/magma systems.

  15. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nielson, D.; Evans, J. P.; Christiansen, E. H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Prokopenko, A. A.; Lachmar, T.; Liberty, L. M.; Blackwell, D. D.; Glen, J. M.; Champion, L. D.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP). The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. The primary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho. Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1) The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2) The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperature rhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3) The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments. We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.15.06.2013

  16. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  17. The ICDP Lake Bosumtwi impact crater scientific drilling project (Ghana): Core LB-08A litho-log, related ejecta, and shock recovery experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alexander; Luetke, Sabine; Heinrich, Volker

    The 1.07 Myr old Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana was drilled within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP). Hole LB-08A, drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift and with a total depth of 451 m, yielded 215.71 m of impact-related rocks. This paper summarizes observations of the lithological logging on core LB-08A. Between a depth of 235.6 and ~260 m, the section consists of a melt-bearing allochthonous, polymict, and mostly clast-supported impact breccia. Down to ~418 m, the section comprises a rather uniform unit of metagraywacke alternating with phyllite to slate (lower greenschist facies); few (par-) autochthonous impact breccia bodies and rare impact dike breccias are present. The lowermost part of the section contains several centimeter- to decimeter-thick melt-bearing breccia dikes in country rocks identical to those occurring above. Omnipresent fracturing was mapped in a qualitative manner. Most prominent shock effects in the uplifted target rocks comprise planar fractures and deformation elements in quartz and polysynthetic twinning in carbonate minerals; the maximum shock pressure as evidenced by quartz is below 26 GPa. The allochthonous breccias occasionally contain a few vol% of melt particles. Suevites occur outside the crater rim, carrying diaplectic crystals, coesite, and ballen quartz as well as true melt glasses and a variety of lithic clasts, among those spectacular staurolite-rich mica-schists. The recorded shock level in the uplifted target rocks is lower than expected and modeled. Shock recovery experiments with analogue carbonaceous graywackes at 34 and 39.5 GPa yielded nearly complete transformation of quartz into diaplectic glass. We therefore exclude a specific shock behavior of the soft, fluid-rich target material (carbonaceous graywackes, shales, slates) in core LB-08A as the prime or only reason for the melt deficit and the generally low shock levels recorded inside the Lake

  18. From Arctic greenhouse to icehouse: the Cenozoic development of the West Greenland-Baffin Bay margin and the case for scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik; Hopper, John R.; Dybkjær, Karen; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Sheldon, Emma; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    The long-term evolution of glaciated margins plays an essential role in understanding the driving forces and interactions that determine the build-up and decay of ice sheets. The Greenland continental margin towards Baffin Bay is densely covered by industry seismic data and several exploration wells have been drilled, providing a regional stratigraphic framework for the sedimentary successions. This presentation provides an overview of the major depositional units and stratigraphy of the mid-late Cenozoic (since mid-Eocene), with examples demonstrating the different processes that have formed this margin. A sedimentary succession up to 3.5 km thick, of mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene age (mega-unit D), infills the pronounced ridge-basin structures of the rifted and tectonically inverted margin. The lower part of this interval, presumably late Eocene-Oligocene in age, is interpreted as basin-floor fan deposits, while the upper section, of early-middle Miocene age, is mainly marine mudstone. The basin infilling strata are overlain by a late Miocene-Pliocene succession consisting of two mega-units (B and C), with typical thicknesses of 0.5-1 km. The units are characterised by upslope-climbing sediment waves and along-slope trending sedimentary prisms reminiscent of giant contourite drifts. The borehole data associates the prism accumulations with a deep shelf environment influenced by strong marine currents and nearby fluvial sources. On the slope and in the deep basin of Baffin Bay the late Neogene succession is strongly influenced by mass wasting correlated with erosional scars updip. The uppermost seismic mega-unit (A) is dominated by aggradational wedges and prograding fan deposits displaying depocentres >3 km thick, formed at the terminus of palaeo-ice streams. Borehole information associates this interval with deposition of primarily diamict sediments and suggests a late Pliocene onset of major shelf based glaciations on the NW Greenland margin. The southwest margin

  19. Seismic monitoring of the June, 1988 Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program flow/injection test

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Hutchings, L.J.; Hauk, T.F.

    1988-10-04

    The purpose of the seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface. We deployed our recording stations so that we could detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous seismic noise energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. This event has provided the opportunity to compare the detection and location capabilities of small networks and arrays in a geothermal environment. At present, we are carefully scanning all of the data that we collected during the flow test for evidence of anomalous seismic noise sources and for impulsive events smaller than the network detection threshold (magnitude 0.0). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The Effect of Temperature on Microbially-Mediated Organic Carbon Decomposition from a Global Survey of Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverno, A.; Martinez, E. A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The burial of particulate organic carbon (POC) in marine sediments is an important process in the Earth's carbon cycle. While some POC is buried for the long term, a substantial fraction is decomposed within the sediment, fueling subseafloor microbial life. The fundamental controls on the rate of POC decomposition are not well understood at present. Temperature has been proposed as an important factor, because at higher temperatures reaction rates are expected to be faster (as in the Arrhenius equation). To test the effect of temperature on POC decomposition, we assembled from the global scientific ocean drilling archive (DSDP, ODP, and IODP) a large data set of POC content in Cenozoic marine sediments. We concentrated on sites that are in regions of high POC deposition (continental margins and upwelling areas), have a reliable age model, and had in situ measurements of sediment temperature. Using the age and temperature data, we selected two sets of sites where sediments experienced either relatively high- or low-temperature histories that should have resulted in different rates of POC decomposition. We then compared average POC contents versus age in the high-T and low-T sets of sites. The POC content versus age in the low-T set (82 sites) follows a pattern similar to that of all the sites with an age model (419 sites): POC content (dry sediment weight fraction) starts around 1% at the seafloor, reaches a maximum of 1.2-1.3% at ~1.5 Ma, and then slowly decreases with increasing age to a nearly constant value of 0.6-0.7% at ages > 5 Ma. In the high-T set (83 sites), the average POC content shows a stronger decrease from a maximum of ~1.5% around 1 Ma to a low constant value of 0.4% at ages > 5 Ma. The more pronounced decrease in POC content and the lower amount remaining at ages > 5 Ma suggest that higher temperatures result in a greater extent of POC decomposition.

  1. 77 FR 10711 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 147 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile... prospects located in the Beaufort Sea Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska, from 12:01 a.m. on July 1, 2012... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting The Coast Guard does not plan to hold a public meeting....

  2. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  3. New Results from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Li, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) is a rapid response project to study this great earthquake and its continuing aftershocks. That earthquake provides a typical example of seismic mechanism for high-angle inverse and right-lateral fault zone. The NNE-SSW trending LongMenShan (LMS) range lies at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and the Sichuan Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basin of the Yangtze block. The LMS range is composed of Pre-Cambrian (700-800 Ma) granitic and volcanic rocks, and Sinian to early-Middle Triassic marine covers. Three main thrust faults are present along the LMS from west to east: the Wenchuan-Maoxian fault, the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Anxian-Guanxian fault. There are nappes composed of Pre-Cambrian complex and Paleozoic-Triassic sediments overlapping the tectonic slice composed of Upper Triassic-Jurassic sediments between the Beichuan-Yingxiu and the Anxian-Guanxian faults. The WFSD drilling sites consist of 4 boreholes (500-2500 m deep) lying at the maximum displacement locations along the Yingxiu-Beichuan surface co-seismic rupture zone (276 km-long) and the Anxian-Guanxian surface co-seismic rupture zone (80 km-long). The WFSD project allows various analyses of the rock samples from the boreholes, online fluid geochemistry monitoring, and borehole geophysical logging. Our goal is to 1) determine the composition, texture and structure of the fault zones, 2) reconstruct the physical and chemical properties of the fault zones during the earthquake, energy budget and rupture processes, 3) improve our understanding of the transpressional behavior of this fault zone, 4) provide key information for the forecasting, prediction, and early warning of future large earthquakes, and 5) install instruments in the boreholes after the drilling, for long-term monitoring . The main slip plane of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault in the WFSD-1 was identified through seismic reflection profile, borehole thermometrics, fault gouge

  4. Scientific drilling into the San Andreas fault and site characterization research: Planning and coordination efforts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, M.D.

    1998-08-30

    The fundamental scientific issue addressed in this proposal, obtaining an improved understanding of the physical and chemical processes responsible for earthquakes along major fault zones, is clearly of global scientific interest. By sampling the San Andreas fault zone and making direct measurements of fault zone properties to 4.0 km at Parkfield they will be studying an active plate-boundary fault at a depth where aseismic creep and small earthquakes occur and where a number of the scientific questions associated with deeper fault zone drilling can begin to be addressed. Also, the technological challenges associated with drilling, coring, downhole measurements and borehole instrumentation that may eventually have to be faced in deeper drilling can first be addressed at moderate depth and temperature in the Parkfield hole. Throughout the planning process leading to the development of this proposal they have invited participation by scientists from around the world. As a result, the workshops and meetings they have held for this project have involved about 350 scientists and engineers from about a dozen countries.

  5. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Alteration of Basalt and Hyaloclastite in the Project Hotspot MHC-2 Core with Some Comparison to Hyaloclastites of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program #2 (HSDP) Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. W.; Walker, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Project Hotspot's 1821m coring operation at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho (MHC), sought to examine interaction of hotspot magmas with continental crust and evaluate geothermal resources. Subsurface temperature increased at a gradient of 76˚/km. Alteration was uniform and not intense over the upper part of the core and at the bottom, but differed markedly in an anomalous zone (AZ) from 1700 to 1800m. The MHC core contains diatomite, basalt lava and minor hyaloclastite. Olivine (Ol) in lavas is more-or-less altered to iddingsite. Plagioclase (Plag) has altered to smectite along cleavage planes and fractures except in the AZ, where it is intensely altered to corrensite. Clinopyroxene (CPX, pinkish in thin section) is little altered, as are apatite and opaque minerals (probably ilmenite with magnetite or pyrite in different samples). Interstitial material is converted to smectite or, in the AZ, to corrensite. Phyllosilicate lines vesicles, and calcite, zeolite and phyllosilicate fill them. Pore-lining phillipsite is common shallow in the core, with vesicle-filling analcime and heulandite at greater depth. A fibrous zeolite, probably stilbite, is also present. Hyaloclasts are altered to concentrically layered masses of smectite. MHC hyaloclastites do not display the microbial traces and palagonite ("gel-palagonite") alteration common in Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project #2 (HSDP) samples. HSDP samples do contain pore-lining phillipsite, but pore fillings are chabazite. Calcite is absent in HSDP hyaloclastites. Neither Ol nor Plag were altered in HSDP hyaloclastites. HSPD glasses are less silicic and Ti-rich than MHC lavas, containing Ol rather than CPX as a dominant mafic. However the differences in alteration of hyaloclastites probably reflect either the fact that the HSDP core was collected at temperatures equivalent to those at the top of the MHC-2 core or HSDP samples were from beds that were in modified marine pore water, rather than continental waters.

  8. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  9. The life cycle of continental rifting as a focus for U.S.-African scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Keller, G. Randy; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2004-11-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) provides the unique opportunity found nowhere else on Earth, to investigate extensional processes from incipient rifting in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, to continental breakup and creation of proto-oceanic basins 3000 km to the north in the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti.The study of continental rifts is of great interest because they represent the initial stages of continental breakup and passive margin development, they are sites for large-scale sediment accumulation, and their geomorphology may have controlled human evolution in the past and localizes geologic hazards in the present. But there is little research that provides insights into the linkage between broad geodynamic processes and the life cycle of continental rifts: We do not know why some rifts evolve into mid-ocean ridges whereas others abort their evolution to become aulacogens. Numerous studies of the EARS and other continental rifts have significantly increased our understanding of rifting processes, but we particularly lack studies of the embryonic stages of rift creation and the last stages of extension when continental breakup occurs.

  10. Geoscience Research Drilling Office Operations I: the North INYO Drilling Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1986-05-01

    The North Inyo Drilling Program was part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program/Thermal Regimes and it was put forth by the Department of Energy/Office of Basic Energy Sciences to explore roots of a 600 year old volcanic system which is found in the north-west corner of Long Valley Caldera, California. The responsibility of the Geoscience Research Drilling Office was to provide logistical support to the scientific drilling team. This support consisted of obtaining the necessary permits, obtaining a drilling contract and providing field services involving logging and core handling/laboratory facilities. The first portion of this program was successful when hole RDO-2b traversed the conduit which fed Obsidian Dome; the second portion succeeded when RDO-3a traversed the dike underlying the Inyo Chain of volcanoes.

  11. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  12. Esmeralda Energy Company, Final Scientific Technical Report, January 2008. Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project, DOE GRED III

    SciTech Connect

    Deymonaz, John; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nash, Gregory D.; Schriener, Alex

    2008-01-22

    The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Geomagnetic Field Determined From the Paleomagnetism of Sediment Cores From Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, G.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the main geomagnetic field at Earth's surface is important for understanding underlying geodynamo processes and conditions near the core-mantle boundary. Much of the geomagnetic variability, known as secular variation, occurs on timescales of tens of years to many thousands of years, requiring the use of paleomagnetic observations to derive continuous records of the ancient field, referred to as paleosecular variation (PSV) records. Marine depositional systems where thick sedimentary sections accumulate at high sedimentation rates provide some of the best locations for obtaining long continuous PSV records that can reveal both the short- and long-term changes in the field. Scientific ocean drilling has been successful at recovering many such sections and the paleomagnetic records from these reveal how the amplitude of PSV differs between sites and through time. In this study, several such records cored during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), and other cruises from high, mid, and low latitudes will be used to quantify time intervals of low and high PSV, to examine time-average properties of the field, to map spatial variations in the angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP), and to assess whether the spatial variation in angular dispersion changes with time.

  14. Towards an Automated Production of Scientific Drilling Operations' Reports. Example from IODP Complex Nankai Through Seismological ZONE Experiment (Stage 1a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Gaillot, P.; Scientists, I.

    2008-12-01

    As scientific drilling efforts expand in terms of technological capability, geographical reach, and scientific scope, new themes that arise out of past discoveries and research are driving the efforts of the scientific drilling community. The primary steps in conducting such research rely on the collection of high quality core materials and downhole logging, which in turn necessitates proper planning, safe and efficient execution, review and constant improvement of operational procedures. This paper presents a tool for automatic production of operations reports. Outputs include a time-break down of operations by operation categories (ship operation, preparation, downhole operation, etc.) and sub categories (drilling, coring, etc.) displayed either as time series, pie chart or in a tabular format. The procedure is illustrated using operational data from the first stage (IODP Exp 314, 315 and 316) of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), a complex ocean drilling project that aims to drill, sample, and instrument the Nankai Trough to investigate forearc tectonic processes and great subduction earthquakes. This preliminary work aims to demonstrate the possibility of automatically generating operation reports in a useful, user-friendly format. It also suggests directions for easier data capture and better integration of drilling parameters, meteocean data and core/log results to further improve drilling practices and overall management of operations.

  15. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  16. Drilling the solid earth: global geodynamic cycles and earth evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; Arndt, Nicholas; Goodenough, Kathryn M.

    2015-09-01

    The physical and chemical evolution of the Earth is driven by geodynamic cycles that are global in scale, operating over 4.57 Ga of Earth's history. Some processes are truly cyclic, e.g., the Wilson Cycle, while others are irreversible (e.g., core formation). Heat and mass transfer between the lowermost mantle (e.g., core-mantle boundary) and the surface drives these global geodynamic processes. Subduction of lithospheric plates transfers cool fractionated material into the lower mantle and leads indirectly to the formation of new oceanic lithosphere, while the rise of thermochemical plumes recycles the remnants of these plates back to the surface, driven by heat transfer across the core-mantle boundary. These global geodynamic cycles are responsible for hotspot volcanism, the formation of continental crust, collisional orogenies, continental rifting, subduction zone processes (arcs, accretionary prisms), and ore deposits. Each of these presents opportunities for investigation by continental scientific drilling. In addition, these cycles affect other processes that are targets of continental scientific drilling: the origin and evolution of life and an oxygenated atmosphere, the impact of large volcanic eruptions on climate, and geological hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In this paper, we present the scientific rationale for continental scientific drilling to study global geodynamic processes, review past successes in this realm that were sponsored in part by ICDP, and suggest potential new targets for drilling campaigns that focus on solid earth evolution. This paper builds on discussions at the 2013 ICDP Science Meeting on the future of continental scientific drilling, held in Potsdam in November 2013.

  17. Natural constraints on exploring Antarctica's continental margin, existing geophysical and geological data basis, and proposed drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    There have been a number of multichannel seismic reflection and seismic refraction surveys of the Antarctic continental shelf. While glacial erosion has left acoustic basement exposed on portions of the inner shelf, thick sedimentary sequences occur on the passive margin of east Antarctica. The thickness and age of these strata vary due to different breakup histories of the margin. Several sedimentary basins have been identified. Most are rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica's separation from other Gondwana continents and plateaus. The west Antarctic continental shelf is extensive, being approximately twice the size of the Gulf of Mexico shelf. It has been poorly surveyed to date, owing mainly to its perennial sea ice cover. Gradual subduction of the spreading center from south to north along the margin resulted in old active margin sequences being buried beneath passive margin sequences. The latter should increase in thickness from north to south along the margin although no data bear this out. Hydrocarbon potential on the northern portion of the west Antarctic margin is considered low due to a probable lack of reservoir rocks. Establishment of ice sheets on Antarctica caused destruction of land vegetation and greatly restricted siliciclastic sand-producing environments. So only sedimentary basins which contain pre-early Miocene deposits have good hydrocarbon prospectivity. The Antarctic continental shelf is the deepest in the world, averaging 500 m and in places being more than a kilometer deep. The shelf has been left rugged by glacial erosion and is therefore prone to sediment mass movement. Widespread sediment gravity flow deposits attest to this. The shelf is covered with sea ice most of the year and in a few areas throughout the year. Icebergs, drift freely in the deep waters of the shelf; drift speeds of 1 to 2.5 km/year are not uncommon.

  18. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

    As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

  19. A ~1.3Ma paleoecological record from scientific drilling at Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Blome, Margaret; Ivory, Sarah; King, John; Cole, Julie; McGlue, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Long records of Quaternary ecological and climatic change are critical to understanding the range of potential responses of ecosystems to environmental forcing. Here we present an integrated lake and watershed paleoecological analysis from drill core records obtained by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project, documenting extraordinary fluctuations in climate, hydrology and ecosystem response for the southern tropics of Africa. High resolution lacustrine and terrestrial paleoecology and sedimentology data sets from these Early Pleistocene-Holocene drill cores provide the most complete record of this duration currently available from Africa. Time series analyses of these records demonstrate strong orbital forcing of regional hydroclimate that drives high-amplitude changes in Malawi ecosystems. Prior to ~600ka we also observe a secondary overprint of watershed processes involving river capture or diversion that may have a tectonic origin. We observe shifts between more arid conditions (shallow alkaline and well mixed lake, with discontinuous desert vegetation) and more humid environments (deep, stratified, freshwater lake with dense forest). These broadly synchronous changes in lake paleoecology, lake sedimentology, and watershed vegetation demonstrate the major role of climate in regulating this system. Transitions between these lake/watershed state extremes is often very abrupt, suggesting that the combined lake/watershed repeatedly passed through hydroclimate thresholds, with important implications for the evolution of the lake's endemic biodiversity and ecosystem. The tempo of lake/watershed state fluctuations changes at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, altering from one of higher frequency/lower amplitude variability prior to 900ka to lower frequency/higher amplitude variability after that time.

  20. "Probing Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India through Scientific Deep Drilling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Nayak, S.; Bansal, B.; Rao, P.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave a further impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of a few tens of meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Two of them have been already in operation and six more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work include: Submitting a proposal to ICDP for the main boreholes by Jan 15, 2015

  1. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India to Investigate Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Nayak, Shailesh; Bansal, Brijesh; Roy, Sukanta; Purnachandra Rao, Nemalikanti; S, Satyanarayana H. V.; M, Tiwari V.; Arora, Kusumita; K, Patro B. P.; Dodla, Shashidhar; Kothamasu, Mallika

    2015-04-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave an impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of ~ 50 meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Four of them are already in operation and four more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work includes: • Submitting a proposal to ICDP for two pilot boreholes by Jan 15, 2015.

  2. Overview of the extensive logging use in the scientific ocean drilling's most challenging project, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyaw Thu, Moe; Sanada, Yoshinori; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi; Matsuda, Shigemi

    2010-05-01

    First of its kind in scientific drilling history, NanTroSEIZE is complex drilling project with multiyear and multistage effort, aimed at drilling, coring, logging, and instrumenting the seismogenic zone of an active subduction margin, in a region thought to generate megathrust earthquakes of magnitude >8.0 on the moment-magnitude scale. Four stages are divided to realize ambitious scientific objectives using CHIKYU, most advanced floating laboratory in scientific drilling. Unlike the industry use of logging technology, expeditions in the scientific ocean drilling used logging data in much wider applications by working various software onboard Chikyu and laboratory measurements of core-cuttings throughout single or multiple expeditions, ranging from 40 to 56 days. Instead of traditional full coring, logging-while-drilling was made across the transect at the beginning to quickly access the geological and structural information from the formation. In line with changing tactic of heavy use on logging, four working groups were organized and worked on the logging data; lithologic characterization/lithostratigraphy, physical properties and hydrogeology, structural geology and geomechanics and cuttings/core-log-seismic integration (CLSI). During the Stage 1 with three expeditions, a transect of eight sites were drilled frontal thrust region, the midslope megasplay fault region, and the Kumano forearc basin region using full suite of MWD-LWD and made coring and downhole measurements. Stage 2 composed of two expeditions with the aims of building on the results of Stage 1 and preparing for later observatory installations for long-term monitoring of deformation at the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Extensive logging program at riser site, first ever in scientific ocean drilling history, includes conventional wireline logging with long-awaited formation stress measurements and wide-angle walk-away VSP with longest-ever offset to have better

  3. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  4. Orbital- versus glacial-mode forcing of tropical African climate: Results of scientific drilling in Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; Johnson, T. C.; King, J. W.; Brown, E. T.; Lyons, R. P.; Stone, J. R.; Beuning, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    Lake Malawi extends from 9-14 degrees S within the East African Rift Valley, and at 700 m deep, contains more than 20 percent of the surface water on the African continent. In 2005 the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project drilled 7 holes at two sites in the lake, recovering a continuous sediment record that samples much of the Quaternary. Detailed studies completed to date on sediments deposited during the past 145 ka indicate periods of severe aridity at precessional frequency between 135 and 75 ka, when the lake's water volume was periodically reduced by at least 95 percent. These dramatic drops in lake level (more than 550 m), signifying markedly arid conditions in the catchment, are documented in sediment lithology (decreased organic carbon content and increased authigenic carbonate content during severe lowstands), aquatic microfossils (appearance of a littoral ostracode fauna, and saline/alkaline lake diatom flora during extreme low lake stages), as well as in dramatic reductions in catchment pollen production. These intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum, and are consistent with sediment records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa). In all three lakes a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions is observed after ~70 ka. The transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with the relaxation of orbital eccentricity and a reduction in the amplitude of precession. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but these new drill cores provide evidence for dramatically drier conditions prior to 70 ka that have not as yet been detected in marine sediment records. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  5. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  6. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  7. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (<20 m) in this supposedly ice-free world because Eocene sequence boundaries also appear to correlate with minor ??18O increases. Subsidence estimates (backstripping) indicate amplitudes of short-term (million-year scale) lowerings that are consistent with estimates derived from ??18O studies (25-50 m in the Oligocene-middle Miocene and 10-20 m in the Eocene) and a long-term lowering of 150-200 m over the past 65 myr, consistent with estimates derived from volume changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist

  8. Thermal regime of a continental permafrost associated gas hydrate occurrence a continuous temperature profile record after drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henninges, J.; Huenges, E.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    Both the size and the distribution of natural methane hydrate occurrences, as well as the release of gaseous methane through the dissociation of methane hydrate, are affected by the subsurface pressure and temperature conditions. During a field experiment, which was carried out in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada, within the framework of the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program*, the variation of temperature within three 40 m spaced, 1200 m deep wells was measured deploying the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology. An innovative experimental design for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of temperature along boreholes was developed and successfully applied under extreme arctic conditions. A special feature is the placement of the fibre-optic sensor cable inside the cement annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. Temperature profiles were recorded with a sampling interval of 0.25 m and 5 min, and temperatures can be determined with a resolution of 0.3 °C. The observed variation of temperature over time shows the decay of the thermal disturbances caused by the drilling and construction of the wells. An excellent indicator for the location of the base of the ice-bonded permafrost layer, which stands out as a result of the latent heat of the frozen pore fluid, is a sharp rise in temperature at 604 m depth during the period of equilibration. A similar effect can be detected in the depth interval between 1105 m and 1110 m, which is interpreted as an indicator for the depth to the base of the methane hydrate stability zone. Nine months after the completion of the wells the measured borehole temperatures are close to equilibrium. The mean temperature gradient rises from 9.4 K/km inside the permafrost to 25.4 K/km in the ice-free sediment layers underneath. The zone of the gas hydrate occurrences between 900 m and 1100 m shows distinct variations of the geothermal gradient, which locally rises up to 40 K/km. At the lower

  9. Geothermal modelling of faulted metamorphic crystalline crust: a new model of the Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalaiová, Eva; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Marquart, Gabriele; Vogt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The area of the 9.1-km-deep Continental Deep Drillhole (KTB) in Germany is used as a case study for a geothermal reservoir situated in folded and faulted metamorphic crystalline crust. The presented approach is based on the analysis of 3-D seismic reflection data combined with borehole data and hydrothermal numerical modelling. The KTB location exemplarily contains all elements that make seismic prospecting in crystalline environment often more difficult than in sedimentary units, basically complicated tectonics and fracturing and low-coherent strata. In a first step major rock units including two known nearly parallel fault zones are identified down to a depth of 12 km. These units form the basis of a gridded 3-D numerical model for investigating temperature and fluid flow. Conductive and advective heat transport takes place mainly in a metamorphic block composed of gneisses and metabasites that show considerable differences in thermal conductivity and heat production. Therefore, in a second step, the structure of this unit is investigated by seismic waveform modelling. The third step of interpretation consists of applying wavenumber filtering and log-Gabor-filtering for locating fractures. Since fracture networks are the major fluid pathways in the crystalline, we associate the fracture density distribution with distributions of relative porosity and permeability that can be calibrated by logging data and forward modelling of the temperature field. The resulting permeability distribution shows values between 10-16 and 10-19 m2 and does not correlate with particular rock units. Once thermohydraulic rock properties are attributed to the numerical model, the differential equations for heat and fluid transport in porous media are solved numerically based on a finite difference approach. The hydraulic potential caused by topography and a heat flux of 54 mW m-2 were applied as boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the model. Fluid flow is generally slow and

  10. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  11. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  12. CHAPHOLO (scientific drilling project): Paleolimnological Evaluation of Lake Chapala, western Mexico, During Holocene (CONACYT grant: CB2011-168685)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, P. F.; Fritz, S. C.; Ramirez Sanchez, U.; Gomez Salazar, S.; Ceja Andrade, I.; Priyadarsi Debajyoti, R.; Brenner, M.

    2012-12-01

    CHAPHOLO ( CHAP: Chapala; HOLO: Holocene) has as goal to evaluate paleoenvironmental variations recorded in the sediment of neotectonic Lake Chapala (LCH), western Mexico (20°15.129'N, 103° 02.996'W). The lake lies about 1524 m asl. LCH is the largest lake in Mexico (1,100 kmyr2), but is shallow (zmax = 7.20 m). It is located in a basin belonging to the Citala Rift, the east-west branch of three continental rifts that join to form the so-called Jalisco triple junction. Our working hypothesis is that recent (Holocene) paleolimnological changes in LCH were caused by major climate variations and by minor regional/local processes (e.g. volcanism). We will drill a 40m long core from the lake depocenter, with the objective of recovering a full Holocene record, and likely more, assuming a mean sedimentation rate of 2 mm yr-1. Core chronology will be established using AMS 14C and 210Pb techniques and climate inferences will be made using geochemical, geophysical and micropaleontological proxies. Particularly, we pretend to identify the six "short" fluctuations of climate that characterized the Holocene (Mayewski et al., 2004) and the identification of Mediewal Warm Period and the droughts affected the mayan culture (Hodell et al., 1995). We will verify the application of Ti as a proxy to rainfall (Metcalfe et al., 2010). During the last 10,000 the fact about the dissolution of diatom in LCH sediments must be evaluated (Ryves et al., 2009). The working group is multidisciplinary (Geochemistry, Micropaleontology, Paleolimnology, Geophysics) and involves multiple institutions (Guadalajara University, Mexican National University-UNAM, University of Florida, University of Nebraska-Lincoln). CHAPHOLO is supported by funds from the Mexican government and from the Guadalajara University. The theme of CHAPHOLO is consistent with global environmental programs such as PAGES and CLIVAR. This project will be developed in stages over three years.

  13. Fault-rock Magnetism from Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) Implies the Different Slip Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had caused great human and financial loss, and it had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. Fault-rocks magnetism is an effective method for the earthquake fault research, such as earthquake slip dynamics. In this study, the fault-rocks from the drilling-hole cores and close to the Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to do the rock-magnetism and discuss the earthquake slip dynamics. The measurement results of magnetic susceptibility (MS) show that the relative high or low MS values are corresponded to the fault-rocks from the Y-B F. and G-A F., respectively. Other rock-magnetism gives more evidence to the magnetic mineral assemblage of fault-rocks from the two earthquake fault zones. The relative high MS in the drilling-holes and trench along the Y-B F. was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals during the high temperature and rapid speed earthquake slip process, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The relative low MS in the trench along the G-A F. was possible caused by high content of Fe-sulfides, and the G-A F. had possibly experienced the low temperature and slow speed mechanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was possibly controlled by the deep structure of the two earthquake faults, such as the fault

  14. Mineral Compositions from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP): Preliminary Results Part I - Clinopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polfer, K. M.; Smart, C. M.; Putirka, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    Drill core samples recovered from the HSDP have sampled Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii, to depths of over 3000 meters. These samples provide a temporal view of the evolution of the Mauna Kea magma plumbing system not easily discerned from surface sampling. We utilize mineral compositions from the HSDP as a monitor of the depths at which magmas stagnated and partially crystallized. Mineral compositions provide a record of magma stagnation, and due to their resistance to re-equilibration and mixing, provide an archive of the range of liquid compositions that entered the magma plumbing system. Most interesting is the question as to whether the Mauna Kea magma plumbing system changed during the construction of the volcanic edifice, or during the waxing and waning of magma supply as Mauna Kea passed over the Hawaiian mantle hot spot. Here we use clinopyroxenes to examine magma transport, and in two accompanying abstracts we compare these results to those obtained from the analysis of plagioclase and olivine compositions. We utilized the models of Putirka (1999) to test clinopyroxene-melt equilibria and the models of Putirka et al (2003) to calculate the P-T conditions of crystallization of clinopyroxene, where appropriate. Equilibrium tests suggest that clinopyroxene phenocrysts are out of equilibrium with whole rock compositions. As an attempt to recover an equilibrium liquid, we adjusted whole rock compositions by adding or subtracting olivine so as to achieve Fe-Mg exchange equilibrium between (calculated) residual liquid and average olivine phenocryst compositions. This strategy required the subtraction of large amounts of olivine, 20% on average. Approximately 68% of cpx phenocrysts were calculated to approach equilibrium with these corrected liquid compositions; only these phenocrysts are used for the calculation of P and T. The distribution of cpx phenocryst depth estimates is not unlike those found for Mauna Kea in earlier studies (Putirka, 1997; Yang et al., 1999

  15. Magnetofabrics of ultrahigh-pressure gneisses from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project: Retrogression of ferromagnetic gneisses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, J.-C.; Qi, X. X.; Xu, Z. Q.

    2009-04-01

    In order to better understand retrograde processes during exhumation of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured on UHP-gneisses from the 5138 m deep CCSD-mainhole. The Sulu UHP-gneisses are composed of variable proportions of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite, and white mica with variable contents of garnet, chlorite, epidote, amphibole, and accessory phases such as zircon, apatite, and Fe-Ti-oxides. 111 samples from 21 oriented core pieces from the uppermost 1800 m of the CCSD-mainhole were measured for their AMS. The mean susceptibilities (Kmean) of the gneisses vary from 0.1x10-3 to 37.2x10-3 SI. Some core pieces outline a large intra-sample variation of Kmean. The anisotropies (Ṕ) of the gneisses vary from 1.05 to 1.62. 83% of the samples display positive shape factors (T) and thus oblate AMS-ellipsoids. Magnetic foliations coincide with metamorphic foliations dipping to the ENE with variable dip angles. The orientations of the principal susceptibility axes show no systematic variation with Kmean at the intra- and inter-sample scale. The average gneiss density is 2.67±0.12 g/cm3. The main carrier of susceptibility is biotite for the paramagnetic gneisses (Kmean < 0.5x10-3 SI) and magnetite for the ferromagnetic gneisses (Kmean > 5x10-3 SI). Variation diagram of Kmean versus density outlines a well-constrained positive correlation for paramagnetic gneisses since higher contents of biotite augment both density and Kmean. For the ferromagnetic gneisses the correlation is also well constrained and positive since higher contents of magnetite augment both density and Kmean. Cogenetic gneisses with a large intra-sample variation of Kmean are in particular suitable to better understand possible genetic links between the para- and ferromagnetic gneisses. These particular samples outline diffuse, but nevertheless negative correlations between Kmean and the density corroborating decomposition of magnetite and concomitant biotite formation. Since no impact on the orientation of the AMS-ellipsoids is observed magnetite decomposition took place during or after the major ductile deformation phase. This can be well documented by SEM imaging, which shows fractured magnetite with newly grown biotite and magnetite inclusions in biotite. AMS data may thus be better interpreted as tracing retrograde fluid-induced decomposition of magnetite and concomitant biotite growth rather than primary compositional variation.

  16. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  17. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  18. Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B.

    1987-07-01

    In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

  19. Koolau Scientific Drilling Project: A transition from typical Koolau to Mauna Loa-like compositions at ˜325 mbsl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Frey, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The well established geochemical differences between adjacent Hawaiian shields provide important constraints on the sources and processes involved in Hawaiian hotspot volcanism. Recent studies of lavas forming the Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea shields show that there are important geochemical variations during the growth of individual Hawaiian shields. Koolau volcano is significant because the surficially exposed shield lavas define endmember geochemical characteristics for major and trace elements, radiogenic and oxygen isotopic ratios in Hawaiian shield lavas. There is strong evidence that these extreme geochemical characteristics reflect a source component derived from recycled oceanic crust including abyssal sediment. Is this endmember composition characteristic of the entire Koolau shield? Studies of lavas and glasses exposed in the Nuuanu landslide block suggest that older Koolau lavas were unlike the subaerially exposed Koolau lavas; however, stratigraphy of blocks within the landslide is complex. With the objective of directly defining temporal geochemical variations during growth of the Koolau shield, the Koolau Scientific Drilling Project (KSDP) penetrated the shield to a depth of 679m. Only chips are available from the upper part of the hole that was rotary drilled, but coring of the lower 328m recovered 103 lava flows. Based on petrography and major element compositions, Haskins and Garcia (submitted) argue that the distinctive Koolau lavas defining endmember geochemical characteristics "form only a veneer with maximum thickness of ˜400m in the volcano's summit region." We have determined trace element abundances in cored KSDP lavas from 304m to 625m and find that a gradual transition from Koolau-like to Mauna Loa-like lavas occurs at ~325m in the core. For example, Frey et al. (1994) showed that among Hawaiian shield lavas, subaerially exposed Koolau lavas have the highest La/Nb and Sr/Nb. In the KSDP core with decreasing age these ratios show a

  20. Effect of eight outer continental shelf drilling muds on the calcification rate and free amino acid pool of the coral Acropora cervicornis

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, E.N.; Kendall, J.J. Jr.; Connor, S.J.; Zastrow, C.E.; Bright, T.J.

    1984-09-01

    During most offshore drilling operations, drilling muds are routinely discharged into surrounding waters. Because corals are relatively sensitive to many environmental perturbations and can be adversely affected by offshore drilling operations, the effects of drilling muds on corals have received considerable attention. Because drilling muds are discharged intermittently, only periodic exposures of short duration should impact nearby coral reefs. To fully assess the impact of a drilling mud discharge on corals requires an assessment of the capacity for corals to recover from short-term exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative toxicity of a number of muds that were slated for marine disposal for the coral Acropora cervicornis after a 48-hr recovery period. Calcification rate and free amino acid pool were investigated.

  1. Imaging the SE1 reflector near the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB, Germany) with coherence-based prestack-depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, O.; Hlousek, F.; Buske, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kirchhoff prestack depth migration algorithms are widely used to image geological structures. There are a variety of Kirchhoff-type methods, such as Fresnel-Volume-Migration (FVM), that try to overcome the incapability of standard Kirchhoff migration to image steeply dipping reflectors or to produce clear and artifact-free seismic images if only a small number of seismic traces is available. All of these modified Kirchhoff migration algorithms employ additional weighting factors to confine the migration operator and to limit the seismic image to the actual position along the two-way travel time isochrone where diffractions and reflections originate. Coherence-based prestack-depth migration (CBM) uses a weighting factor obtained directly from the input data by evaluating a normalized coherence measure defined over neighboring traces and a time window around the particular time sample to be imaged. This coherence measure and the corresponding weighting factor are high if the differences in the arrival times of a coherent event at nearby receivers can be explained by the differences in the travel times along the ray paths from the source position to a certain image point on the two-way travel time isochrone, and from there to the receiver group. In turn, a small weighting factor is obtained if the travel time differences cannot be explained by a certain combination of source, image point and the selected receiver group. Thereby it is possible to suppress random noise and to obtain artifact-free seismic images even with a small number of seismic traces. This method is applied to a single shot from the Instruct-93 data recorded at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB) near Windischeschenbach (Germany). This seismic experiment was designed to illuminate the steeply dipping SE1-reflector, that was known from earlier seismic investigations, at a target depth of about 8 to 9 km. For this purpose the shot point and the 120 receivers were placed approximately 10 km away

  2. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  3. Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their

  4. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Results from the initial phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these volcanoes' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each volcano. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also

  5. Does Earthquake Rupturing Initiate in Fluid-Overpressured Crust? - The Case for Scientific Drilling in NE Honshu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    overpressured crust is important because cycling of fluid-pressure and fault frictional strength through fault-valve action (postseismic discharge along rupture zones from overpressured portions of the crust) likely affects the nucleation and recurrence of successive earthquakes. A program of investigatory scientific drilling coupled to high-resolution geophysical investigations is proposed to target the lower seismogenic zone at depths of 5-10 km where larger inland earthquakes commonly initiate. It would aim to establish: (1) whether overpressuring extends throughout the full depth of sedimentary basins adjacent to active fault structures; (2) whether overpressures also exist in underlying basement assemblages; (3) whether overpressures are localized around the active fault structures; and, (4) the calibration of physical conditions responsible for observed geophysical anomalies. Unequivocal demonstration of overpressured pore fluids in basement rocks adjacent to an active fault would highlight the role of fluids in fault processes, providing important insights into the balance between stress-driven and fluid-driven failure, and critical variables affecting rupture nucleation and recurrence. Borehole measurements would also help to calibrate geophysical anomalies attributed to fluid overpressuring.

  6. Extending a thickened crustal bulge: toward a new geodynamic evolution model of the paleozoic NW Bohemian Massif, German Continental Deep Drilling site (SE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohe, Alexander

    1998-09-01

    Fault-bounded (tectonic) metamorphic complexes assembling the NW Bohemian Massif around the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) site are seen to be extremely heterogeneous in tectonic and metamorphic histories. In current models, the different complexes were supposed to reflect a puzzle of small pre-Devonian microplates, and the related collision events supposedly lasted until the Carboniferous. Opposed to these models, it will be shown that all the boundaries among the complexes were formed by detachment, late in a prolonged overall geodynamic history of a thickened crustal bulge, during extensional tectonics and associated thermal events that outlasted the onset of collision in the Silurian/Lower Devonian by about 70-80 Ma. (Micro-)structures, petrological and geochronological data of individual complexes predominantly preserve the late stages rather than the unbroken record of their tectonometamorphic histories. Such partial histories strongly different among individual complexes, depict diverse snapshots taken at different places in the evolving thickened crustal bulge and at different instants in its overall evolution, and do not define different precollisional microplates. Predominantly P- T and deformation episodes after terrane juxtaposition are preserved. This article presents an integrated view of the structural geology, microscopic fabrics, P- T data and geochronology of such diverse metamorphic complexes. This integrated view provides a new understanding of (1) the tectonic evolution during Upper Silurian/Devonian collision of the Gondwana-derived Central European lithosphere with Laurussia, (2) the postaccretionary events that lasted through the Upper Carboniferous and (3), the earlier (Lower Ordovician) metamorphic and magmatic history, which is only locally recorded. Metamorphic complexes occupying the structurally highest position (upper tectonic complexes) record Devonian and earlier tectonometamorphic and magmatic events. After the Mid

  7. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  8. Olivine compositions from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, Phase 2: Evidence for a peridotite mantle source region

    SciTech Connect

    Putirka, K D; Ryerson, F J

    2008-10-27

    To the extent that mantle plumes reflect whole mantle convection, Hawaii may provide the clearest window into Earth's lower mantle. Samples from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) thus provide valuable tests for models of mantle mineralogy and composition. In this vein, it has been argued recently that Hawaiian olivines, especially those from the shield-building phase as sampled by HSDP, are so high in Ni (Sobolev et al., 2005, 2007), and that Hawaiian whole rocks are so low in CaO (Herzberg, 2006) and high in SiO{sub 2} (Hauri, 1996) that a peridotite mantle source cannot generate such compositions. The Hawaiian plume, so the argument goes, is thus supposedly rich in pyroxenite, and possibly olivine-free. However, comparisons of HSDP olivines to lherzolites, and HSDP whole rocks to lherzolites and partial melting experiments belie these premises. Testable predictions of the pyroxenite model also fail. New comparisons instead show that Hawaiian lavas can be produced from a peridotite source. First, it is unclear that the Hawaiian source is enriched in NiO. The NiO contents of olivines hosted by lherzolites (GEOROC) have the same range as olivines from the HSDP; indeed, the maximum NiO for olivines from lherzolites (0.6 wt.%) is as high as that reported for olivines from any oceanic volcano locality. There is a compositional separation between lherzolite- and HSDP-hosted olivines. But HSDP olivines are not NiO enriched so much as lherzolite olivines are higher in Fo at a given NiO. Lower Fo contents at Hawaii (at a given NiO) ensue because olivine compositions there follow a liquid line of descent, where both Ni and Mg decrease with differentiation. In contrast, subsolidus equilibria involving orthopyroxene enforce a higher and less variable Fo content for lherzolite-derived olivines. Moreover, the pyroxenite mantle model predicts that whole rocks with low CaO and high SiO{sub 2} should host olivines with high NiO. But in HSDP samples, neither correlation

  9. Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea Volcano cored by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a volcano works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from <1 to >100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea Volcano. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and Hawaii. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La

  10. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  11. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  12. Lake Van Drilling Project 'PaleoVan' to be drilled in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Anselmetti, Flavio; Kipfer, Rolf; Öcen, Sefer; Cagaty, Namik; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (volume 607 km3, area 3,570 km2, maximum depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau, Turkey. The annually-laminated sedimentary record of Lake Van promises to be an excellent palaeoclimate archive because it potentially yields a long and continuous continental sequence that covers several glacial-interglacial cycles (ca. 500 kyr). Therefore, Lake Van is a key site within the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) for the investigation of the Quaternary climate evolution in the Near East. Based on the high-resolution seismic data and multidisciplinary scientific work, it is planned to drill a series of sites in Lake Van in the frame of ICDP in summer 2010. The geochronological precision on a decadal or even annual scale will allow comparisons not only with astronomical cyclicity but also signals below the frequency of Milankovitch cycles, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, which may have also affected the past climate system of the eastern Mediterranean region. As a closed and saline lake, Lake Van reacts very sensitively to lake level changes caused by any alterations in the hydrological regime in response to climate change. Tephra layers, documented in short cores and also expected in the deep drill cores of Lake Van sediments, allow reconstructing larger volcanic events and environmental impacts. The short cores from Lake Van show also strong evidence of earthquake-triggered microfaults, interpreted as seismites. Similar features are expected to be found in the deeper sections. The unique setting of Lake Van, which records simultaneously the volcanic as well as the earthquake history, will also allow establishing possible coincidence between larger earthquakes and volcanic events. Preparation of the drilling campaign is almost finished and drilling is scheduled to start in July 2010.

  13. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  14. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  15. “Imaging” the cross section of oceanic lithosphere: The development and future of electrical microresistivity logging through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako

    2013-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the architecture of volcanic and magmatic lithologies present within the oceanic lithosphere is essential to advance our knowledge of the geodynamics of spreading ridges and subduction zones. Undertaking sub-meter scale observations of oceanic lithosphere is challenging, primarily because of the difficulty in direct continuous sampling (e.g., by scientific ocean drilling) and the limited resolution of the majority of geophysical remote sensing methods. Downhole logging data from drillholes through basement formations, when integrated with recovered core and geophysical remote sensing data, can provide new insights into crustal accretion processes, lithosphere hydrogeology and associated alteration processes, and variations in the physical properties of the oceanic lithosphere over time. Here, we introduce an alternative approach to determine the formation architecture and lithofacies of the oceanic sub-basement by using logging data, particularly utilizing downhole microresistivity imagery (e.g. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) imagery), which has the potential to become a key tool in deciphering the high-resolution internal architecture of the intact upper ocean crust. A novel ocean crust lithostratigraphy model based on meticulously deciphered lava morphology determined by in situ FMS electrofacies analysis of holes drilled during Ocean Drilling Program legs (1) advances our understanding of ocean crust formation and accretionary processes over both time and space; and (2) allows the linking of local igneous histories deciphered from the drillholes to the regional magmatic and tectonic histories. Furthermore, microresistivity imagery can potentially allow the investigation of (i) magmatic lithology and architecture in the lower ocean crust and upper mantle; and, (ii) void space abundances in crustal material and the determination of complex lithology-dependent void geometries.

  16. The Towuti Drilling Project: paleoenvironments, biological evolution, and geomicrobiology of a tropical Pacific lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Vogel, Hendrik; Melles, Martin; Kallmeyer, Jens; Ariztegui, Daniel; Crowe, Sean; Fajar, Silvia; Hafidz, Abdul; Haffner, Doug; Hasberg, Ascelina; Ivory, Sarah; Kelly, Christopher; King, John; Kirana, Kartika; Morlock, Marina; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ordonez, Luis; Stevenson, Janelle; von Rintelen, Thomas; Vuillemin, Aurele; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel; Wicaksono, Satrio; Wonik, Thomas; Bauer, Kohen; Deino, Alan; Friese, André; Henny, Cynthia; Imran; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Ode Safiuddin, La; Simister, Rachel; Tamuntuan, Gerald

    2016-07-01

    The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) is an international research program, whose goal is to understand long-term environmental and climatic change in the tropical western Pacific, the impacts of geological and environmental changes on the biological evolution of aquatic taxa, and the geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry of metal-rich, ultramafic-hosted lake sediments through the scientific drilling of Lake Towuti, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti is a large tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a chain of five highly biodiverse lakes that are among the oldest lakes in Southeast Asia. In 2015 we carried out a scientific drilling program on Lake Towuti using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Deep Lakes Drilling System (DLDS). We recovered a total of ˜ 1018 m of core from 11 drilling sites with water depths ranging from 156 to 200 m. Recovery averaged 91.7 %, and the maximum drilling depth was 175 m below the lake floor, penetrating the entire sedimentary infill of the basin. Initial data from core and borehole logging indicate that these cores record the evolution of a highly dynamic tectonic and limnological system, with clear indications of orbital-scale climate variability during the mid- to late Pleistocene.

  17. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must familiarize the crew with its...-control drill plan. You must prepare a well control drill plan for each well. Your plan must outline...

  18. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and...-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must... and efficiently. (a) Well-control drill plan. You must prepare a well control drill plan for each...

  19. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and...-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must... and efficiently. (a) Well-control drill plan. You must prepare a well control drill plan for each...

  20. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and...-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew. Your drill must... and efficiently. (a) Well-control drill plan. You must prepare a well control drill plan for each...

  1. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 -- 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Paillet, F.L.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the I-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; delta(18)O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is similar to 200 m thick. Although it ha s not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred C-14 activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate

  2. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, D.M.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Conrad, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the 1-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; ??18O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is ???200 m thick. Although it has not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred 14C activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate formation that

  3. A key continental archive for the last 2 Ma of climatic history of the central Mediterranean region: A pilot drilling in the Fucino Basin, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccio, B.; Regattieri, E.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Galli, P.; Mannella, G.; Niespolo, E.; Peronace, E.; Renne, P. R.; Nomade, S.; Cavinato, G. P.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Boschi, C.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Sadori, L.

    2015-12-01

    An 82 m long sedimentary succession was retrieved from the Fucino Basin, the largest intermountain tectonic depression of the central Apennines. The basin hosts a succession of fine-grained lacustrine sediments (ca. 900 m-thick) possibly continuously spanning the last 2 Ma. A preliminary tephrostratigraphy study allows us to ascribe the drilled 82 m long record to the last 180 ka. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses (XRF scanning, total organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, oxygen isotopes) reveal noticeable variations, which are interpreted as paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental expressions related to classical glacial-interglacial cycles from the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to present day. In light of the preliminary results, the Fucino sedimentary succession is likely to provide a long, continuous, sensitive, and independently dated paleoclimatic archive of the central Mediterranean area.

  4. The DOE Thermal Regimes Drilling Program through 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    In response to strong endorsement from the scientific community, in the form of a report by the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee of the National Academy of Sciences (CSDC, 1984), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the DOE undertook a program of investigations of young magmatic intrusions and their associated thermal systems. To date, the effort has encompassed the first phases of a program to investigate the roots of active hydrothermal systems and has also investigated the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior of geologically recent (less than 600 years) magmatic extrusions. Shallow to intermediate-depth holes have been drilled and cored into hydrothermal systems in the silicic Valles and Long Valley calderas and at the crustal spreading center of the Salton Trough. These projects are briefly summarized here and are covered in greater detail in the accompanying appendices.

  5. Paleomagnetic and Magnetostratigraphic Studies in Drilling Projects of Impact Craters - Recent Studies, Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2013-05-01

    Paleomagnetic studies have long been successfully carried out in drilling projects, to characterize the borehole columns and to investigate the subsurface structure and stratigraphy. Magnetic susceptibility logging and magnetostratigraphic studies provide data for lateral correlation, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation, physical properties, etc., and are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. The inclusion of continuous core recovery in scientific drilling projects have greatly expanded the range of potential applications of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies, by allowing laboratory measurements on core samples. For this presentation, we concentrate on drilling studies of impact structures and their usefulness for documenting the structure, stratigraphy and physical properties at depth. There are about 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small number compared to what is observed in the Moon, Mars, Venus and other bodies of the solar system. Of the terrestrial impact craters, only a few have been studied by drilling. Some craters have been drilled as part of industry exploration surveys and/or academic projects, including notably the Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake and El gygytgyn craters. Drilling of terrestrial craters has proved important in documenting the shallow stratigraphy and structure, providing insight on the cratering and impact dynamics. Questions include several that can only be addressed by retrieving core samples and laboratory analyses. Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been conducted in the various craters, which are here summarized with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater and Yucatan carbonate platform. Chicxulub is buried under a kilometer of younger sediments, making drilling an essential tool. Oil

  6. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  7. The ICDP Information Network - A Link between Continental and Marine Data ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, R.; Behrends, K.; Waechter, J.

    2001-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. On the other hand ODP as well as the future OD21 have also the same objectives on studying the marine geosciences: 'The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) is an international partnership of scientists and research institutions organized to explore the evolution and structure of Earth. ODP provides researchers around the world access to a vast repository of geological and environmental information recorded far below the ocean surface in seafloor sediments and rocks. By studying ODP data we gain a better understanding of Earth's past, present, and future.' (ODP web site, http://www.oceandrilling.org/ODP/ODP.html) The main objective of the Information Network (http://www.icdp-online.de) of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program is to provide comprehensive data and information management for continental scientific drilling projects. The Information Network offers services supporting: ” the common portal for and dissemination of project information by the ICDP Clearinghouse, ” capture of scientific drilling data using individual On-Site Drilling

  8. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  9. Drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Stokley, C.O.; Haas, R.C.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a drilling method. It includes: rotating a drill bit in a well head to drill a well in an earth formation while circulating drilling fluid consisting essentially of a liquid; conducting the returning drilling fluid, and oil and gas from the formation to a flow rate control valve and to a pressure control valve; and conducting fluid from the flow rate control valve and the pressure control valve to a separator vessel maintained under pressure.

  10. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  11. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well-control drills? You must conduct a weekly well-control drill with each drilling crew....

  12. Results from shallow research drilling at Inyo Domes, Long Valley Caldera, California and Salton Sea geothermal field, Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.W.; Eichelberger, J.C.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Vogel, T.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews the results from two shallow drilling programs recently completed as part of the United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The purpose is to provide a broad overview of the objectives and results of the projects, and to analyze these results in the context of the promise and potential of research drilling in crustal thermal regimes. The Inyo Domes drilling project has involved drilling 4 shallow research holes into the 600-year-old Inyo Domes chain, the youngest rhyolitic event in the coterminous United States and the youngest volcanic event in Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the drilling at Inyo was to understand the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of silicic magma as it intrudes the upper crust. This behavior, which involves the response of magma to decompression and cooling, is closely related to both eruptive phenomena and the establishment of hydrothermal circulation. The Salton Sea shallow research drilling project involved drilling 19 shallow research holes into the Salton Sea geothermal field, California. The purpose of this drilling was to bound the thermal anomaly, constrain hydrothermal flow pathways, and assess the thermal budget of the field. Constraints on the thermal budget links the local hydrothermal system to the general processes of crustal rifting in the Salton Trough.

  13. CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1990-05-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 3 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. The past year has been extremely productive especially in the area of interpretation theory, including the following two major break-throughs. One is the derivation of an integral equation for time-dependent power spectra, which unified all the existing theories on seismic scattering (including the radiative transfer theory for total energy and single and multiple scattering theories based on the ray approach) and offers more complete and economical solutions to the problems of seismic scattering and attenuation. The other is the new formula for synthetic seismograms for layered media with irregular interfaces, combining the T-matrix method for an arbitrary shaped inclusion and the method of global generalized reflection/transmission coefficients for layered media. Both breakthroughs will enable us to deal with seismic observations in complex earth structures more efficiently and accurately. In the area of experimental studies, we discovered seismic guided waves trapped in the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. 54 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Geothermal study at the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project-hole 1 (WFSD-1): Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong; Li, Haibing; Gong, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project-hole 1 (WFSD-1) offers a unique opportunity for studying the faulting behavior and the thermal regime of the Longmen Shan fault zone (LMFZ), east margin of Tibetan Plateau. Thermal conductivity of fault rocks within main fault zone shows strong negative interrelations with the porosity, the gamma ray and the P-wave slowness, as well as a positive interrelation with the density. Here we attribute these correlations to the fractures and the rock-fluid reaction generated from the earthquake, which will increase the porosity, the radioactivity and the P-wave slowness as well as decrease the density and the thermal conductivity, synchronously. 15 continuous temperature profiles were summarized in this paper. Based on integrated studies of temperature variations and thermal gradients, local temperature anomalies were detected at three depth ranges of 480-510 m, 580-610 m and 625-755 m, respectively. These anomalies seem to correspond to different fracture zones and may be attributed to fluid flow in the fractures. In addition, the non-uniform vertical distribution of these temperature anomalies was observed across the co-seismic slip surface at 589.2 m. In the below ∼200 m borehole depth, a prominent thermal anomaly zone was developed, implying more factures were generated in the footwall than the hanging wall during the Wenchuan earthquake. The heat flow ranges from 69 mW/m2 to 72 mW/m2 for different logs. The persistence of elevated heat flow in the LMFZ appears to rule out frictional heating on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) as the source of the WFSD-1 value, but is probably related to the regional tectonic evolution.

  15. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  16. 30 CFR 250.1617 - Application for permit to drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for permit to drill. 250.1617... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1617 Application for permit to drill. (a) Before drilling a well under a BOEM-approved...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1617 - Application for permit to drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for permit to drill. 250.1617... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1617 Application for permit to drill. (a) Before drilling a well under a BOEM-approved...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1617 - Application for permit to drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application for permit to drill. 250.1617..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1617 Application for permit to drill. (a) Before drilling a well under an...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1617 - Application for permit to drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application for permit to drill. 250.1617... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1617 Application for permit to drill. (a) Before drilling a well under a BOEM-approved...

  20. New Scientific Drilling in the Bering Sea--Results Imply Contribution of Thermogenic Methane to Beringian Margin BSR and Miocene Termination of Subduction Beneath Bowers Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    METHANE BENEATH THE BERINGIAN MARGIN: Based on an acoustically prominent BSR (~450 m), it has long been surmised that large volumes of methane gas and methane hydrate occur within the Cenozoic deposits that thickly (5-10 km) drape the Beringian continental margin. In 2009, IODP Exp. 323 drilled three sites along the margin to recover the late Cenozoic paleoceanographic history stored there. On deck, warming sediment cores vigorously released interstitial methane gas. Disassociation of pore-space methane hydrate was inferred, but hydrate was not visually seen. P/T conditions at the BSR (24 C at 360 bars) matched those of the expected phase transition from methane gas below to methane hydrate above. Reflection records below bright sectors of the BSR display gas-blanking effects traceable to subsurface depths of several km, at which the thermal gradient of 50-55 deg C/km implies thermogenic methane would be generated. Since at least the early Miocene, surface water overlying the Beringian margin has been a biologically productive garden spot. Large quantities of organic matter can be expected to have accumulated in the underlying slope deposits. Deep, glacial-age canyon cutting, normal faulting, and diagenetic fracturing of siliceous shale (opal-A to opal-CT) provide venting paths for deep-generated methane. It is posited that ascending thermogenic methane importantly nourishes the sub-margin hydrate BSR. END OF SUBDUCTION AND ARC VOLCANISM AT BOWERS RIDGE: Submarine Bowers Ridge, which is not volcanically active, projects oddly northward and curvingly westward into the Bering Sea Basin from the mid point of the Aleutian Arc. The ridge rises as high as 3500 m to flatten near 600 m at wave-planed platforms cut across basement rock. The ridge's magnetic, velocity, and gravity characteristics are typical of an arc massif. A sediment-filled, trench-shaped trough along the base of the ridge's northern flank implies a former subduction zone underthrust the ridge to the

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on the Long Valley Caldera: A pre-drilling data review

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1987-09-01

    This proceedings volume contains papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new scientific results and geologic-hydrogeoloic interpretations for the Long Valley caldera. The talks and the discussions that followed focused on concepts and models for the present-day magmatic-hydrothermal system. Speakers at the symposium also addressed the topic of where to site future scientific drill holes in the caldera. Deep scientific drilling projects such as those being contemplated by the DOE Division of Geothermal Technology (DGT), under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Energy Research, Division of Engineering and Geosciences (DEG), along with the USGS and NSE, under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will be major and expensive national undertakings. DOE/DEG is sponsoring a program of relatively shallow coreholes in the caldera, and DOE/DGT is considering the initiation of a multiphase program to drill a deep hole for geophysical observations and sampling of the ''near magmatic'' environment as early as FY 1988, depending on the DOE budget. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers.

  2. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  3. The Future of Deep-Ocean Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scientific accomplishments of the International Program of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) during its first decade. Notable are the scientific contributions to understanding the sea floor. Critical decisions for the second decade include economic and social implications. (MA)

  4. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  5. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  6. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations... discuss the departure you are requesting in your APD (see § 250.414(h)). Applying for a Permit To Drill...

  7. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these...)). Applying for a Permit To Drill...

  8. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your drilling prognosis... permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or abnormally pressured formation fluids; (f)...

  9. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fluid-handling areas? 250.459 Section 250.459 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas? You must classify drilling...

  10. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program? You must design and implement your...

  11. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  12. The SCOPSCO drilling project recovers more than 1.2 million years of history from Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Wilke, T.; Krastel, S.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Reicherter, K.; Leng, M. J.; Grazhdani, A.; Trajanovski, S.; Francke, A.; Lindhorst, K.; Levkov, Z.; Cvetkoska, A.; Reed, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Lacey, J. H.; Wonik, T.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project is an international research initiative to study the influence of major geological and environmental events on the biological evolution of lake taxa. SCOPSCO drilling campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 2013. In 2011 we used gravity and piston coring at one of the five proposed drill sites, and in 2013 we undertook deep drilling with the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC). In April and May 2013, a total of 2100 m sediments were recovered from four drill sites with water depths ranging from 125 to 260 m. The maximum drill depth was 569 m below the lake floor in the centre of the lake. By retrieving overlapping sediment sequences, 95% of the sediment succession was recovered. Initial data from borehole logging, core logging and geochemical measurements indicate that the sediment succession covers >1.2 million years (Ma) in a quasi-continuous sequence. These early findings suggest that the record from Lake Ohrid will substantially improve the knowledge of long-term environmental change and short-term geological events in the northeastern Mediterranean region, which forms the basis for improving understanding of the influence of major geological and environmental events on the biological evolution of endemic species.

  13. Drilling choke

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, R.D.

    1984-09-11

    A drilling choke is disclosed for controlling flow of drilling fluids from a well comprising: a body having an inlet and outlet and an intermediate cavity therebetween; a seat member coaxially disposed in the body outlet; an operator assembly removably attached to the body; and a stem assembly connected to the operator assembly for axial movement thereof. A portion of the stem assembly is removable, upon removal of the operator assembly from the body, without otherwise disturbing the operator assembly.

  14. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, eastern Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Thomas; Pickarski, Nadine; Heumann, Georg; Stockhecke, Mona; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2014-11-01

    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (38.5°N, 43°E, volume 607 km3, area 3570 km2, maximum water depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the eastern Anatolian high plateau, Turkey. The sedimentary record of Lake Van, partly laminated, obtains a long and continuous continental sequence that covers multiple interglacial-glacial cycles. Promoted by the potential of the sedimentary sequence for reconstructing the paleoecological and paleoclimate development of the Near East, a deep drilling operation was carried out in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The 219 m long continental pollen record presented here is based on a well-dated composite profile drilled on the so-called Ahlat Ridge in water depth of 360 m encompassing the last 600,000 years. It is the longest continuous continental pollen record of the Quaternary in the entire Near East and central Asia obtained to date. The glacial-interglacial cycles and pronounced interstadials are clearly reflected in the vegetation development based on millennial-scale time resolution. In general, the glacial/stadial vegetation is characterized by dwarf-shrub steppe and desert steppe, whereas the climax vegetation of past interglacials can be described as oak steppe-forest similar to the present interglacial in this sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas. By comparing the Lake Van pollen record with other western Asian and southern European long continental pollen sequences as well as marine and ice-core records, the regional variability of the climate signals is also discussed.

  15. First time real-time mud gas monitoring during riser drilling in the Kumano Basin (IODP Exp 319)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.; Horiguchi, K.; Saffer, D. M.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Araki, E.; Takahashi, K.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    Chikyu Expedition 319 was the first cruise of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) where riser drilling was performed and real-time mud gas monitoring was conducted, because this technique requires drill-mud circulation. In contrast to conventional IODP drilling that uses drill water in combination with lost circulation, during riser drilling the drill mud returns back to the surface through a riser pipe which encases the drill pipe. The dissolved gas is extracted from returning drill mud, analyzed in real time and sampled for noble gas and stable isotopes studies. This technique has been applied in the past on scientific continental drilling projects of e.g. the International Continental Drilling Program. Expedition 319 is part of the NanTroSEIZE project, a multiexpedition, multistage IODP drilling program focused on understanding the mechanics of seismogenesis and ruptures propagation along the Nankai accretionary prism. Riser drilling was carried out on Hole C0009 that intersects the cover sediments of the Kumano Basin and probably penetrates into the accretionary prism below. Site NT2-11 is located approx. 60 km SE of the harbour of Shingu, Japan. Real-time mud gas monitoring was performed in Hole C0009 during drilling from 703 mbsf (meter below sea floor) down to 1594 mbsf and during hole enlargement from 703 mbsf to 1569 mbsf. Both datasets show similar gas distribution at depth. Gas was furthermore extracted, sampled and analyzed from drill cuttings. Drill mud gas is generally composed of air and gases that derive from the formation. The principal formation gas in drill mud from both drilling phases and in cuttings was methane. Up to 14 vol % CH4 was detected during drilling and up to 3 vol % during hole enlargement. Down to 800 mbsf and below 1280 mbsf, the methane concentration in drill mud is lower than in the surrounded interval, where methane peaks at several depths. At 1280 mbsf an unconformity is indicated from lihology, in seismic and

  16. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  17. Probing continental collision in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.

    Knowledge about the processes of continental collisional would unlock a wealth of data for the field of tectonics, but such processes have been poorly documented by academic ocean drilling. On the basis of 1993 data confirming that the easternmost Mediterranean is in the initial stages of continental collision, the Ocean Drilling Program has scheduled two legs of drilling for summer 1995 in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea.Effects of continental collision in the easternmost Mediterranean include the Quaternary uplift of Cyprus [Poole and Robertson, 1991] and the break up and subsidence of the Eratosthenes Seamount, which is located in the easternmost Mediterranean between Cyprus and the Levantine Basin (Figure 1).

  18. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1989-04-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    populated calderas (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Italy). Experiments with the live system will aid in hazard assessment and eruption forecasting for this most difficult of volcano hazard problems. We will report on an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held to assess feasibility and to develop a plan for KMDP.

  20. Pre-drilling data review and synthesis for the Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, N. E.

    A 2-day symposium was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on March 17-18, 1987, to review a large body of scientific investigations for the Long Valley Caldera and to discuss concepts and models for the present-day magmatic-hydrothermal system. Speakers at the symposium also addressed the problem of where to locate future scientific drill holes in the caldera.Deep scientific drilling projects such as those being contemplated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Division (GTD), under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) along with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will be major and expensive national undertakings that will require strong support from geoscientists and engineers and from industry and government-supported laboratories. DOE/OBES is sponsoring a program of relatively shallow core holes (less than 1 km) in the caldera, and DOE/GTD is considering the start of a deep (6-km) hole for geophysical observations and sampling of the near-magmatic environment as early as fiscal year (FY) 1988.

  1. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  2. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  3. Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continental flood basalts have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-basalt provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-basalt volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood Basalts, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-basalt province.Continental Flood Basalts has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-basalt provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-basalts and mid-oceanic ridge basalts. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River basalt, the northwest United States including the Columbia River basalt, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic basaltic rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.

  4. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part I: Introducing Seismic Interpretation and Isostasy Principles Using Gulf of California Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, M. A.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Loveless, J. P.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum designed for an upper-division structural geology, tectonics or geophysics course. The curriculum includes lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. The first set of materials introduces the RCL initiative to students and has them analyze the bathymetry and oblique-rifting geometry of the GOC in an exercise using GeoMapApp. The second set of materials has two goals: (1) introduce students to fundamental concepts of interpreting seismic reflection data via lectures and in-class interpretation of strata, basement, and faults from recent GOC seismic data, and (2) encourage students to discover the structural geometry and rift evolution, including the east-to-west progression of faulting and transition from detachment to high-angle faulting in the northern GOC, and changes in deformation style from north to south. In the third set of materials, students investigate isostatic affects of sediment fill in GOC oblique rift basins. This activity consists of a problem set, introduced in a lecture, where students integrate their findings from the previous bathymetry- and seismic-interpretation exercises.

  5. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  6. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463 Section 250.463 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1612 - Well-control drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control drills. 250.1612 Section 250.1612 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1612 Well-control drills....

  8. 33 CFR 106.225 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill and exercise requirements. 106.225 Section 106.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  9. 33 CFR 106.225 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill and exercise requirements. 106.225 Section 106.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  10. 33 CFR 106.225 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill and exercise requirements. 106.225 Section 106.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  11. 33 CFR 106.225 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill and exercise requirements. 106.225 Section 106.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  12. 33 CFR 106.225 - Drill and exercise requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill and exercise requirements. 106.225 Section 106.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  13. U.s. Geological survey core drilling on the atlantic shelf.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J C; Poag, C W; Valentine, P C; Manheim, F T; Kohout, F A; Bothner, M H; Miller, R E; Schultz, D M; Sangrey, D A

    1979-11-01

    The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies showed that relatively fresh to brackish water occurs beneath much of the Atlantic continental shelf, whereas increases in salinity off Georgla and beneath the Florida-Hatteras slope suggest buried evaporitic strata. The sediment cores showed engineering properties that range from good foundation strength to a potential for severe loss of strength through interaction between sediments and man-made structures. PMID:17759411

  14. Planning for Future Ocean Drilling With the JOIDES Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphris, Susan E.; Koppers, Anthony A. P.

    2013-06-01

    October 2013 brings a new scientific ocean drilling program to the community, one founded on the principle that excellent scientific outcomes, combined with practical planning and efficient operations, will provide outstanding opportunities for future generations of researchers and educators. Despite an identical acronym to its predecessor (the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), this new program, called the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), constitutes a forward looking and societally relevant roadmap for scientific ocean drilling.

  15. 30 CFR 556.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Directional drilling. 556.71 Section 556.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions §...

  16. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and...

  17. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and...

  18. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments,...

  19. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and...

  20. 30 CFR 556.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Directional drilling. 556.71 Section 556.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions §...

  1. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.71...

  2. 30 CFR 556.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Directional drilling. 556.71 Section 556.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions §...

  3. The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier initiative - a key to link EC research and international scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontiers project, DS3F, represents the continuation of the DSF roadmap towards the sustainable management of oceanic resources on a European scale. It will develop strategies for sub-seafloor sampling to contribute to a better understanding of deep-sea and sub-seafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, as well as socio-economic issues and policy building. We propose to establish a long-lived research approach that considers (i) the need for a sustainable management of the ocean, and particularly the deep sea with enhanced activity (fishery, hydrocarbon exploration), (ii) the necessity to unravel deep-seated geological processes that drive seafloor ecosystems, and (iii) the value of seabed archives for the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions and the improved prediction of future climate change. Sub-seafloor drilling and sampling can provide two key components in understanding how deep-sea ecosystems function at present, and how they will respond to global change: (a) an inventory of present subsurface processes and biospheres, and their links to surface ecosystems, including seafloor observation and baseline studies, and (b) a high resolution archive of past variations in environmental conditions and biodiversity. For both components, an international effort is needed to share knowledge, methods and technologies, including mission-specific platforms to increase the efficiency, coverage and accuracy of sub-seafloor sampling and exploration. The deep biosphere has been discovered only within the past two decades and comprises the last major frontier for biological exploration. We lack fundamental knowledge of composition, diversity, distribution and metabolism in sub-seafloor biological communities at Earth's extremes, and their repercussions on seafloor ecosystems and life in the deep sea. There is equally an emerging need to shed light on geodynamic processes

  4. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  5. CAT-scan analysis in scientific drilling: effective routine data acquisition and processing of whole cores, split cores and u-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Francus, P.; Labrie, J.; Beauvais, Q.; Velle, J. H.; Fortin, D.; Mix, A. C.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Bahlburg, H.; Forwick, M.; Zolitschka, B.

    2014-12-01

    CAT-scan analysis of sediment cores provides a rapid, high-resolution and non destructive method to visualise sedimentary structures, coring-induced artefacts, as well as to derive a continuous downcore CT number profile primarily associated with changes in bulk density. Here, we will briefly overview how we now routinely use CAT-scan analysis for paleoenvironmental and sedimentological purposes. We will present some advances in data processing, as well as a few case studies from lacustrine and marine sedimentary sequences measured using either whole cores, split cores and u-channels in order to highlight the advantages and complementarity of CAT-Scan measurements with other continuous downcore high-resolution physical or magnetic measurements. We will also illustrate how effective data acquisition and processing have now enabled the use of CAT-scan for the continuous interpretation of long drilled sequences from IODP (Exp. 341 - Gulf of Alaska) and ICDP (PASADO - Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia) previously hampered by the large number of core sections and derived images.

  6. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your... depths to significant porous and permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or...

  7. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your... depths to significant porous and permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or...

  8. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your... depths to significant porous and permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or...

  9. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis...) Estimated depths to significant porous and permeable zones containing fresh water, oil, gas, or...

  10. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.