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Sample records for contingency management reduces

  1. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  2. Security Officer's Role in Reducing Inmate Problem Behaviors: A Program Based on Contingency Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Describes guard-designed and implemented contingency-management work squad training program for administratively segregated prison inmates with histories of violent and assaultive behavior. Notes that participation in the work squad program sharply reduced frequency of violent and assaultive behavior for 8 of 10 offender-participants whose…

  3. Contingency Management Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darst, Paul W.

    Contingency management is a system focused on managing the motivation of students, and can be developed and utilized in any type of physical education environment from elementary to college levels. An analysis of two existing contingency management learning systems (one for a fifth-grade gymnastics unit and the other for a seventh- and eigth-grade…

  4. The Effects of Contingency Management as a Means of Reducing Truancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Dunbar, Louise Hall

    Based on the assumption that truancy is a discrete form of behavior alterable by manipulation, rather than just a symptom of some underlying problem, an experiment among ninth graders investigated the effect of contingency management (using rewards to effect behavior changes) on truancy. Identification of habitual truants to participate in the…

  5. Students as Contingency Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briskin, Alan S.; Anderson, Donna M.

    1973-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of including sixth graders as an integral part of a behavior modification program designed to reduce the frequency of disruptive classroom behavior exhibited by third graders. It was hypothesized that this cross-age program would have positive impact on the younger subjects as well as on the sixth grade…

  6. Improved adherence with contingency management.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc I; Dieckhaus, Kevin; McMahon, Thomas J; Valdes, Barbara; Petry, Nancy M; Cramer, Joyce; Rounsaville, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) based interventions that reinforce adherence to prescribed medications have shown promise in a variety of disadvantaged populations. Fifty-six participants with histories of illicit substance use who were prescribed antiretroviral medication but evidenced suboptimal adherence during a baseline assessment were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of weekly CM-based counseling or supportive counseling, followed by 16 additional weeks of data collection and adherence feedback to providers. The CM intervention involved review of data generated by electronic pill-bottle caps that record bottle opening (MEMS) and brief substance abuse counseling. CM participants were reinforced for MEMS-measured adherence with drawings from a bowl for prizes and bonus drawings for consecutive weeks of perfect adherence. Potential total earnings averaged $800. Mean MEMS-measured adherence to the reinforced medication increased from 61% at baseline to 76% during the 16-week treatment phase and was significantly increased relative to the supportive counseling group (p = 0.01). Furthermore, mean log-transformed viral load was significantly lower in the CM group. However, by the end of the 16-week follow-up phase, differences between groups in adherence and viral load were no longer significantly different. Proportions of positive urine toxicology tests did not differ significantly between the two groups at any phase. A brief CM-based intervention was associated with significantly higher adherence and lower viral loads. Future studies should evaluate methods to extend effects for longer term benefits. PMID:17263651

  7. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management. PMID:24074193

  8. A Prompt Plus Delayed Contingency Procedure for Reducing Bathroom Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, T. Steuart

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made, and results were maintained at three-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. (Author/DB)

  9. Advances in Research on Contingency Management for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Lansing, Amy Hughes; Budney, Alan J

    2016-10-01

    Multiple interventions for treating adolescents with substance use disorders have demonstrated efficacy, but a majority of teens do not show an enduring positive response to these treatments. Contingency management (CM)-based strategies provide a promising alternative, and clinical research focused on the development and testing of innovative CM models continues to grow. This article provides an updated review on the progress made in this area. It is important to continue to search for more effective models, focus on post-treatment maintenance (reduce relapse), and strive for high levels of integrity and fidelity during dissemination efforts to optimize outcomes. PMID:27613343

  10. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. PMID:8881353

  11. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  12. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  13. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  14. Mountain substitutability and peak load pricing of high alpine peaks as a management tool to reduce environmental damage: a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Loomis, John B; Keske, Catherine M

    2009-04-01

    High alpine peaks throughout the world are under increasing environmental pressure from hikers, trekkers, and climbers. Colorado's "Fourteeners", peaks with summits above 14,000 feet are no exception. Most of these peaks have no entrance fees, and reach ecological and social carrying capacity on weekends. This paper illustrates how a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions can be used to evaluate substitutability between different alpine peaks and quantify the price responsiveness to an entrance fee. Using this approach, we find that peak load pricing would decrease use of popular Fourteeners in Colorado by 22%. This reduction is due almost entirely to substitution, rather than income effects. There is also price inelastic demand, as 60% of the hikers find no substitution for their specific Fourteener at the varying cost increases posed in the survey. The no substitute group has a mean net benefit of $294 per hiker, per trip, considerably higher than visitor net benefits in most recreational use studies. PMID:19111965

  15. Management Styles Associated with Organizational, Task, Personal, and Interpersonal Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes data from lengthy profile questionnaires completed by 78 managers and 407 of their subordinates and examines how five different management styles are related to various aspects of the contingent situation. (Available from Subscription Section, American Psychological Association, 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.; $30.00…

  16. A Contingency Model for Implementing a Classroom Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Douglas D.

    An outline is presented of a contingency plan for developing sound classroom management practices. The plan revolves around a conceptual model of the different maturity levels of each individual staff member in relation to their classroom management skills. In the model, a group of peer observers monitors the progress of those staff members whose…

  17. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the public,…

  18. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style. PMID:10247889

  19. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

  20. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  1. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  2. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  3. A Web-Based Contingency Management Program with Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Dallery, Jesse; Shroff, Palak; Patak, Michele; Leraas, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn…

  4. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  5. Home-Based Contingency Management Programs that Teachers Can Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vincent L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Offers three guidelines to aid teachers in selecting effective contingency management programs, based on degree of positiveness, effectiveness, and costs to teachers and parents. Describes how to use a simple home-based program, which resulted in successful reduction of mild classroom disruptive behavior. (JAC)

  6. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  7. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  8. Contingency management: utility in the treatment of drug abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Vandrey, R

    2008-04-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a strategy that uses positive reinforcement to improve the clinical outcomes of substance abusers in treatment, especially sustained abstinence from drugs of abuse. Further, CM has been adopted to improve methodology and interpretation of outcomes in clinical trials testing new pharmacotherapies and to improve adherence to efficacious medications in substance abuse patients. Thus, CM has proven to be widely useful as a direct therapeutic intervention and as a tool in treatment development. PMID:18305456

  9. Prize-based Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Abusers: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, L. A.; Dugosh, K. L.; Kirby, K. C.; Matejkowski, J.; Clements, N. T.; Seymour, B. L.; Festinger, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on articles published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k=19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k=9 studies) and long-term outcomes (k=6 studies) of prize-based contingency management . Results The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was .46 [95% CI=0.37,0.54). This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤ 3-month) post-intervention follow-up to .33 (95% CI=0.12,0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time point there was no detectable effect (d=-.09 (95% CI=−0.28,0.10)). Conclusion Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. PMID:24750232

  10. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management. PMID:16343765

  11. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  12. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations. PMID:25762429

  13. Contingency Management Approaches for Adolescent Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of contingency management (CM) to the menu of effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse has generated excitement in the research and treatment communities. CM interventions are based on extensive basic science and clinical research evidence demonstrating that drug use is sensitive to systematically applied consequences. This article provides (a) a review of basic CM principles, (b) implementation guidelines, (c) a review of the clinical CM research targeting adolescent substance abuse, and (d) a discussion of implementation successes and challenges. Although the research base for CM with adolescents is in its infancy, there are multiple reasons for high expectations. PMID:20682220

  14. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  15. Comments on contingency management and conditional cash transfers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT. PMID:19670269

  16. Duration Effects in Contingency Management Treatment of Methamphetamine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roll, John M.; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Howell, Donelle N.; McPherson, Sterling

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different durations of contingency management (CM) in conjunction with psychosocial treatment produced different rates of abstinence among methamphetamine dependent individuals. Participants were randomized to one of four 16-week treatment conditions: standard psychosocial treatment or psychosocial treatment plus one of three durations of CM (one-month, two-month, or four-month). A total of 118 participants were randomized to the four treatment conditions. There were significant differences across treatment conditions for number of consecutive days of methamphetamine abstinence (p < 0.05). These differences were in the hypothesized direction, as participants were more likely to remain abstinent through the 16-week trial as CM duration increased. A significant effect of treatment condition (p < 0.05) and time (p < 0.05) on abstinence over time was also found. Longer durations of CM were more effective for maintaining methamphetamine abstinence. PMID:23708468

  17. Comments on Contingency Management and Conditional Cash Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT. PMID:19670269

  18. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  19. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  20. The Relative Contribution of Economic Valence to Contingency Management Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Howard, Joni T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a contingency management (CM) procedure that deducted money from a grand total available at the end of the study compared to a procedure in which money accumulated with continued abstinence from cigarette smoking. Results suggested that the procedure in which money increased contingent on abstinence resulted in…

  1. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Rosenwasser, Beth J.; Gardner, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine…

  2. Prize Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term. PMID:24793364

  3. Contingency management voucher redemption as an indicator of delayed gratification.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J

    2014-07-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants' ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a "full" or "lite" voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n=118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR=0.66; 95% CI=0.44-0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40-0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants' tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  4. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  5. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  6. Psychometric properties of the contingency management competence scale.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Alessi, Sheila M; Ledgerwood, David M; Sierra, Sean

    2010-06-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, and clinicians are beginning to implement this intervention in practice. However, little research exists on methods for assuring appropriate implementation of CM. This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the 12-item CM Competence Scale (CMCS). Thirty-five therapists from nine community-based clinics participated; following a training period, a randomized trial evaluated the efficacy of CM in cocaine abusing patients. Analyses of the CMCS are based on ratings from 1613 audiotapes of therapist interactions with 78 patients enrolled in the training phase and 103 patients in the randomized phase. Inter-rater reliability from 11 raters and internal consistency of items on the CMCS was good to excellent. Items loaded onto two factors: one contained items specific to discussions of the outcomes of urine testing and reinforcement, and the other contained general items related to use of praise, communication of confidence, empathy, skillfulness, and maintaining session structure, as well as discussions of self-reports of drug use when they occurred. During the training phase in CM delivery, scores on the CMCS rose significantly between earlier and later training sessions, and during the randomized phase, CM sessions were rated more highly than non-CM sessions. Scores on the subscale assessing general items were significantly correlated with indices of the therapeutic alliance and predictive of durations of cocaine abstinence achieved. These data suggest that the CMCS is reliable and valid in assessing delivery of CM and that competence in CM delivery is associated with improved patient outcomes. PMID:20149950

  7. A Developmental Perspective on Neuroeconomic Mechanisms of Contingency Management

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a developmental overview of relevant theory and research on delay discounting and neuroeconomics, and their implications for CM approaches to treatment. Recent advances in neuroscience, and in particular the neuroscience of decision making, have the potential to inform treatment development for adolescent substance use in general, and contingency management (CM) treatments in particular. CM utilizes abstinence-based reinforcement to enhance motivation to engage in treatment and engender abstinence. CM interventions may be informed by research on delay discounting, a type of decision making that reflects how individuals value immediate vs. delayed rewards. Delay discounting reliably distinguishes substance abusers from non abusers and is a significant predictor of individual differences in response to substance use treatments. Delay discounting is also of high potential importance in the development of substance use problems in adolescence. Discounting may also be important in predicting response to CM, as CM attempts to directly influence this decision making process, shifting the preference from the immediate rewards of use to delayed rewards for choosing not to use. Multiple neural processes underlie decision making, and those processes have implications for adolescent substance abuse. There are significant neurodevelopmental processes that differentiate adolescents from adults. These processes are implicated in delay discounting, suggesting that adolescence may reflect a period of plasticity in temporal decision making. Understanding the neural mechanisms of delay discounting has led to promising working memory interventions directly targeting the executive functions that underlie individual choices. These interventions may be particularly helpful in combination with CM interventions that offer immediate rewards for brief periods of abstinence, and may show particular benefit in adolescence due to the heightened neural plasticity of systems

  8. Dentist-implemented contingent escape for management of disruptive child behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, K D; Loiben, T; Allen, S J; Stanley, R T

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a dentist-implemented intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment was provided to manage disruptive child behavior during restorative dental treatment. Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 4 children, aged 3 to 7 years, were provided temporary escape from dental treatment contingent upon brief periods of cooperative behavior. Disruptive behavior decreased when the appropriate escape contingency was used at least 80% of the time. The escape contingency required no more time than traditional management procedures (e.g., tell-show-do, reprimands and loud commands, restraint) to bring disruptive behavior under control. Independent ratings by two dentists provided social validation of the efficacy of the escape contingency. PMID:1429316

  9. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  10. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  11. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated 2 arrangements, 1 in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (full group), and 1 in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (mixed group). Mo̅tiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the full group ($33) relative to the mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  12. Contingency management of reliable attendance of chronically unemployed substance abusers in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-02-01

    The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting by using a salary that drug abusers earn for work. Drug abuse patients are trained and hired to become data entry operators in a Therapeutic Workplace business. Despite the opportunity to earn a high wage, participants frequently arrive at work late and fail to work complete shifts. In the present study, a contingency management intervention to promote consistent and reliable attendance was evaluated in 4 participants. Participants were not allowed to work on days that they arrived late, and their pay was temporarily reduced each time they arrived late at work or failed to complete a work shift. A within-subject reversal design showed that the intervention increased the frequency with which participants arrived at work on time and completed work shifts. PMID:14769098

  13. Contingency Management for Patients with Cooccurring Disorders: Evaluation of a Case Study and Recommendations for Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Claire E.; Rash, Carla J.; Burke, Randy S.; Parker, Jefferson D.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that contingency management (CM) has potential to improve a number of outcomes (e.g. substance use, treatment attendance, quality of life) among individuals with substance use and cooccurring disorders. However, multiple factors must be considered on a case-by-case basis in order to promote optimal treatment effects. The present study describes an individualized CM protocol for a US Veteran with substance dependence and cooccurring severe mental illness. CM targeted attendance at outpatient appointments and appropriate use of hospital resources. Effects of CM were assessed by comparing the 3-month baseline and CM periods. The CM intervention marginally reduced unnecessary hospital admissions, resulting in cost savings to the medical center of over $5,000 in three months for this individual. However, CM did not affect outpatient attendance. Several complications arose, highlighting challenges in using CM in populations with substance use and cooccurring disorders. Practical suggestions are offered for maximizing the effects of CM. PMID:22937413

  14. Expected Utility Theory as a Guide to Contingency (Allowance or Management Reserve) Allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Thibadeau, Barbara M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I view a project from the perspective of utility theory. I suggest that, by determining an optimal percent contingency (relative to remaining work) and identifying and enforcing a required change in behavior, from one that is risk-seeking to one that is risk-averse, a project's contingency can be managed more effectively. I argue that early on in a project, risk-seeking behavior dominates. During this period, requests for contingency are less rigorously scrutinized. As the design evolves, more accurate information becomes available. Once the designs have been finalized, the project team must transition from a free-thinking, exploratory mode to an execution mode. If projects do not transition fast enough from a risk-seeking to a risk-averse organization, an inappropriate allocation of project contingency could occur (too much too early in the project). I show that the behavioral patterns used to characterize utility theory are those that exist in the project environment. I define a project's utility and thus, provide project managers with a metric against which all gambles (requests for contingency) can be evaluated. I discuss other research as it relates to utility and project management. From empirical data analysis, I demonstrate that there is a direct correlation between progress on a project's design activities and the rate at which project contingency is allocated and recommend a transition time frame during which the rate of allocation should decrease and the project should transition from risk-seeking to risk-averse. I show that these data are already available from a project's earned value management system and thus, inclusion of this information in the standard monthly reporting suite can enhance a project manager's decision making capability.

  15. Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Adria J.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program was implemented within a community supervision setting. This program included a goals group that used a contingency management component and included the probation agent as a part of the treatment. In this article, the authors describe the contingency management component of the…

  16. A Feasibility Study of Home-Based Contingency Management with Adolescent Smokers of Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A.; Shelton, Brent J.; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted three video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT: n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT: n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until six-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until post-treatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  17. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  18. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  19. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  20. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  1. The Effect of Contingency Management Procedures on the Rate of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; And Others

    Two different groups of subjects--incarcerated adult offenders and freshman nursing students--participated in an academic experiment which employed an individually prescribed learning system. The system featured programmed instructional materials and contingency management procedures to obtain stable cumulative records of learning performance.…

  2. An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift…

  3. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  4. Use of Self-Management with the CW-FIT Group Contingency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Conklin, Carl; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of self-management as a tier two enhancement to the group contingency intervention, Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams Program (CW-FIT). Two classrooms, first and fourth grade, and two students in each of the classrooms participated in the intervention. The group contingency…

  5. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  6. Dentist-Implemented Contingent Escape for Management of Disruptive Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a dentist-implemented intervention in which brief escape from dental treatment (contingent on brief periods of cooperative behavior) was provided to manage disruptive child behavior during restorative dental treatment with four children, aged three to seven years. The procedure required no more time than traditional management…

  7. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  8. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  9. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  10. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  11. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-01

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling. PMID:21169007

  12. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  13. Computer-assisted behavioral therapy and contingency management for cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Budney, Alan J; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J Mick; Scherer, Emily B; Brown, Pamela C; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise D

    2015-09-01

    Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), that is, motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% Black, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629

  14. Computer-assisted Behavioral Therapy and Contingency Management for Cannabis Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budney, Alan J.; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J. Mick; Scherer, Emily; Brown, Pamela C.; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), i.e., motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% African Americans, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders: The Use of Contingency Management Procedures to Manage Dialectical Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise D

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have adapted and/or applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for populations with eating disorders. There is a growing body of research that indicates that DBT is an effective treatment option for this population, including those who have co-occurring Axis II disorders. The goal of the current paper is to summarize the research conducted in the area of DBT with those individuals who present with eating disorders only as well as those who present with both eating disorders and Axis II disorders. We also describe a dialectical dilemma, apparent compliance vs. active defiance, which is commonly observed in the group with comorbidities A DBT change strategy, contingency management, is discussed as an intervention to target apparent compliance and active defiance. PMID:26160619

  16. Contingent valuation analysis of willingness to pay to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2008-07-01

    Several recent surveys have asked Americans whether they support policies to reduce childhood obesity. There is reason for skepticism of such surveys because people are not confronted with the tax costs of such policies when they are asked whether they support them. This paper uses contingent valuation (CV), a method frequently used to estimate people's willingness to pay (WTP) for goods or services not transacted in markets, applied to unique survey data from New York State to estimate the willingness to pay to reduce childhood obesity. The willingness to pay data correlate in predictable ways with respondent characteristics. The mean WTP for a 50% reduction in childhood obesity is $46.41 (95% CI: $33.45, $59.15), which implies a total WTP by New York State residents of $690.6 million (95% CI: $497.7, $880.15), which is less than that implied by previous surveys that did not use CV methods but greater than current spending on policies to reduce childhood obesity and greater than the estimated savings in external costs. The findings provide policymakers with useful information about taxpayers' support for, and preferred budget for, anti-obesity policies. PMID:18619930

  17. Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    TROTMAN, ADRIA J.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program was implemented within a Community Supervision setting. This program included a goals group that included a contingency management component and included the probation agent as a part of treatment. This paper describes the contingency management component of the treatment and discusses, in detail, issues that arose throughout the course of the study. Possible causes and solutions to the issues are discussed from a contingency management perspective that can result in improved reinforcements to achieve better probationer outcomes. PMID:22235164

  18. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  19. Blowing in the (social) wind: implications of extrinsic esteem contingencies for terror management and health.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Jamie; Cox, Cathy R; Goldenberg, Jamie L; Vess, Matthew; Routledge, Clay; Cooper, Douglas P; Cohen, Florette

    2009-06-01

    In 4 studies, the role of extrinsic esteem contingencies in adjusting to shifting health-relevant standards when managing existential fears was examined. Study 1 demonstrated that after reminders of death, higher dispositional focus on extrinsic self-esteem contingencies predicted greater interest in tanning. Using a more domain-specific approach, Study 2 showed that, after being reminded of death, the more individuals smoke for social esteem reasons, the more compelling they find an antismoking commercial that exposes adverse social consequences of smoking. Study 3 explored how situational factors (i.e., priming a contingent relational schema) that implicate extrinsic contingencies facilitated the impact of shifting standard primes on tanning intentions after mortality salience. Finally, Study 4 found that mortality salience led to increased endorsement of exercise as a basis of self-worth when participants who derive self-esteem from extrinsic sources visualized someone who exercises. Together, these studies demonstrate that reminders of death interact with prevalent social standards to influence everyday health decisions. PMID:19469596

  20. Adaptability of Contingency Management in Justice Settings: Survey Findings on Attitudes Towards Using Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne Giuranna; Taxman, Faye S.

    2011-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is widely recognized as an evidence-based practice, but it is not widely used in either treatment settings or justice settings. CM is perceived as adaptable in justice settings given the natural inclination to use contingencies to improve compliance to desired behaviors. In the Justice Steps implementation study, five federal district court jurisdictions agreed to consider implementing CM in specialized problem-solving courts or probation settings. A baseline survey (n=186) examined the acceptance and feasibility of using rewards as a tool to manage offender compliance. The results of the survey revealed that the majority of respondents believe that rewards are acceptable, with little difference between social and material rewards. Survey findings also showed that female justice workers and those who were not Probation Officers were more accepting of material rewards than their counterparts. Findings are consistent with prior research in drug treatment settings where there is little concern about using rewards. PMID:22209658

  1. Disseminating Contingency Management to Increase Attendance in Two Community Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robrina; Rosvall, Traci; Field, Craig A.; Allen, Sean; McDonald, Daniel; Salim, Zeba; Ridley, Natalie; Adinoff, Bryon

    2010-01-01

    Although Contingency Management has been shown to be effective in substance use treatments, community adoption has been slow. In order to increase dissemination of contingency management (CM) into community practice, two community treatment programs collaborated with university faculty investigators to design, implement, and evaluate low-cost, prize-based CM interventions delivered by treatment staff using Petry’s (2000) fishbowl technique. A pre-post study design was used to evaluate the impact of CM on outpatient group attendance. All clients attending the targeted outpatient groups at both treatment programs were eligible to participate. Group attendance was significantly positively impacted after intervention implementation. This is one of the first studies demonstrating successful implementation of CM by community treatment program counselors within their existing treatment groups. The discussion focuses on practical lessons learned during the planning and implementation of the interventions. PMID:20598838

  2. Adaptability of contingency management in justice settings: survey findings on attitudes toward using rewards.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne Giuranna; Taxman, Faye S

    2012-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) is widely recognized as an evidence-based practice, but it is not widely used in either treatment settings or justice settings. CM is perceived as adaptable in justice settings given the natural inclination to use contingencies to improve compliance to desired behaviors. In the Justice Steps implementation study, 5 federal district court jurisdictions agreed to consider implementing CM in specialized problem-solving courts or probation settings. A baseline survey (N = 186) examined the acceptance and feasibility of using rewards as a tool to manage offender compliance. The results of the survey revealed that most of the respondents believe that rewards are acceptable, with little difference between social and material rewards. Survey findings also showed that female justice workers and those who were not probation officers were more accepting of material rewards than their counterparts. Findings are consistent with prior research in drug treatment settings where there is little concern about using rewards. PMID:22209658

  3. Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program.

    PubMed

    Lott, David C; Jencius, Simon

    2009-06-01

    Controlled studies have shown that motivational incentives reduce drug use, but community implementation has been limited. This observational study examines the effect of a contingency management (CM) program on urine, attendance, and cost measures in a community substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. Treatment included elements of 12-step facilitation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement. All urine tests included cannabinoids, opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and amphetamines. Patients with negative urines or perfect attendance earned chances to draw weekly from a bag for prizes of varying value, and the number of draws increased with each consecutive negative urine test. Data were collected for those patients (age 12-18) treated immediately before (n=83) and after (n=264) the CM program was introduced to the treatment center, and positive urine rates were compared using chi-square tests. Patients treated with the CM program had lower rates of urines positive for opioids (p<0.005) and cocaine (p<0.05), and non-significantly but consistently lower rates of urines positive for all other drug classes. Altogether, the proportion of urines positive for any drug decreased from 33.3% to 23.4% (p<0.01). Pre- and post-CM comparisons of attendance reveal lower daily attendance rates but longer retention in treatment. Expenses were minimal at $0.39 per patient per day. These data yield additional evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of CM methods in community adolescent treatment programs. PMID:19250774

  4. Initial Abstinence Status and Contingency Management Treatment Outcomes: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has evaluated African American substance users’ response to evidence-based treatments. This study examined the efficacy of contingency management (CM) in African American and White cocaine users. Method A secondary analysis evaluated effects of race, treatment condition, and baseline cocaine urine sample results on treatment outcomes of African American (n = 444) and White (n = 403) cocaine abusers participating in one of six randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard care. Results African American and White patients who initiated treatment with a cocaine-negative urine sample remained in treatment for similar durations and submitted a comparable proportion of negative samples during treatment regardless of treatment type; CM was efficacious in both races in terms of engendering longer durations of abstinence in patients who began treatment abstinent. Whites who began treatment with a cocaine positive sample remained in treatment longer and submitted a higher proportion of negative samples when assigned to CM than standard care. African Americans who initiated treatment with a cocaine positive sample, however, did not remain in treatment longer with CM compared with standard care, and gains in terms of drug use outcomes were muted in nature relative to Whites. This interaction effect persisted through the 9-month follow-up period. Conclusions CM is not equally effective in reducing drug use among all subgroups, specifically African American patients who are using cocaine upon treatment entry. Future research on improving treatment outcomes in this population is needed. PMID:25798729

  5. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, MaryLouise E; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Rosenwasser, Beth J; Gardner, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine abstinence (CA) versus one of four behaviors (CA, treatment attendance, group CM attendance, and methadone compliance) selected randomly at each drawing. Two groups were formed with 22 cocaine-dependent community-based methadone patients and exposed to both CA and multiple behavior (MB) conditions in a reversal design counterbalanced across groups for exposure order. The group CM intervention proved feasible and safe. The MB condition improved group CM meeting attendance relative to the CA condition. PMID:19192861

  6. Randomization of Group Contingencies and Reinforcers To Reduce Classroom Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of randomizing both contingencies for reinforcement and reinforcers to decrease classroom disruptive behavior in five adolescent students with serious emotional disorder. Results reveal that the percentage of observed intervals of disruptive behaviors decreased immediately and dramatically in all students. (Contains 24…

  7. "Our Mystery Hero!" A Group Contingency Intervention for Reducing Verbally Disrespectful Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melissa; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Bender, William N.

    2008-01-01

    A reversal (ABAB) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a group contingency intervention on the verbally disrespectful behaviors of seven middle school students with specific learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders (ADHD) in a special education resource classroom setting for reading instruction. During the intervention…

  8. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  9. Facilitating the Adoption of Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roll, John M; Madden, Gregory J; Rawson, Richard; Petry, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment strategy for addressing many types of substance abuse disorders and associated problems. Nonetheless, CM protocols have not been widely embraced by community-based treatment providers. Exploration of the viability of CM outside of a research context remains largely an academic pursuit. In this paper, we outline several areas that may hinder the transfer of CM technology into community-based practice settings, review the literature that may address these barriers, and offer suggestions to researchers for overcoming them. PMID:22477692

  10. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems: Technical Level Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Patterson-Hines, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management is essential to the robust operation of complex systems such as spacecraft and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Automatic contingency handling allows a faster response to unsafe scenarios with reduced human intervention on low-cost and extended missions. Results, applied to the Autonomous Rotorcraft Project and Mars Science Lab, pave the way to more resilient autonomous systems.

  11. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  12. A Multi-Level Approach to Predicting Community Addiction Treatment Attitudes About Contingency Management

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Donovan, Dennis; Tillotson, Carrie; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Doyle, Suzanne; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed. PMID:22138199

  13. Contingency management is effective across cocaine-dependent outpatients with different socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Fernández, Gloria; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy for treating cocaine dependence, but there is still some controversy with regard to its dissemination. Understanding how individual differences affect CM outcomes is important for detecting barriers to its dissemination. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of socioeconomic variables in cocaine-dependent outpatients on the effectiveness of CM in a community setting. Cocaine-dependent outpatients (N=118) were randomized to community reinforcement approach (CRA) treatment or a CRA plus vouchers program. The impact of baseline economic variables, alone and in combination with treatment conditions, on abstinence and retention outcomes after 6 months of treatment was assessed. Results showed that income had no effect on retention or abstinence outcomes after 6 months of treatment in either treatment condition. The addition of a CM component was beneficial for individuals with any socioeconomic status. These results support the generalizability of CM strategies with patients of different socioeconomic status in community settings. PMID:22999380

  14. Sex effects in cocaine using methadone patients randomized to contingency management interventions

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Ashley E.; Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for promoting cocaine abstinence in patients receiving methadone maintenance. However, few studies have examined the effect of sex on treatment outcomes in this population. This study evaluated the impact of sex on longest duration of abstinence (LDA) and percent negative urine samples in 323 cocaine-using methadone patients from four randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard methadone care. Overall, women had better treatment outcomes compared to men, demonstrated by an increase in both LDA and percentages of negative samples. Patients receiving CM also had significantly higher LDA and percentages of negative samples compared to patients receiving standard care, but sex by treatment condition effects were not significant. These data suggest that cocaine using methadone patients who are women have better substance use outcomes than men in interventions that regularly monitor cocaine use, and CM is equally efficacious regardless of sex. PMID:26237326

  15. Diffusion of Contingency Management and Attitudes Regarding Its Effectiveness and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are critical as the key arbiters of clients’ acceptance and use of innovative treatment techniques, with their potential support embedded in their knowledge of and attitudes towards particular innovations. In this analysis we examine the role of substance abuse counselors in the adoption of a psychosocial treatment innovation, contingency management (CM). Using data collected from 1140 counselors employed in a national sample of 318 public treatment centers, we examine theoretical predictors of counselors’ knowledge of CM, and their attitudes regarding CM's effectiveness and acceptability. Findings suggest that lack of exposure to CM through program use and innovation-specific training is the most salient barrier to CM adoption and diffusion. The study also highlights the importance of social networks in the diffusion and acceptance of treatment innovations. PMID:20687001

  16. Meta-Analysis of Day Treatment and Contingency-Management Dismantling Research: Birmingham Homeless Cocaine Studies (1990-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Joseph E.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Meehan, Dawna-Cricket; Kertesz, Stefan; Vuchinich, Rudy; Dunning, Jonathan; Usdan, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Four successive randomized clinical trials studying contingency management (CM), involving various treatment arms of drug-abstinent housing and work therapy and day treatment (DT) with a behavioral component, were compared on common drug abstinence outcomes at 2 treatment completion points (2 and 6 months). The clinical trials were conducted from…

  17. A Comparison of Five Reinforcement Schedules for Use in Contingency Management-Based Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Huber, Alice; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Chudzynski, Joy E.; Moynier, Eugene; Shoptaw, Steve

    2006-01-01

    One variation of contingency management involves providing vouchers with monetary value for the provision of a biological sample indicating no recent drug use. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods or services. The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate…

  18. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  19. Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    2008-01-01

    A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the…

  20. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  1. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  2. Contingency management is efficacious in opioid-dependent outpatients not maintained on agonist pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an empirically supported intervention for substance dependence, but it has not been evaluated systematically in non maintained opioid-dependent patients. This retrospective analysis examined whether CM was effective in opioid-dependent patients initiating intensive outpatient psychosocial treatment. In the primary trial (Petry, N. M., Weinstock, J., & Alessi, S. M. [2011]. A randomized trial of contingency management delivered in the context of group counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 686-696), substance-abusing patients (n = 239) at two community-based clinics were randomized to standard care (SC) or SC with CM for 12 weeks; in the CM condition, patients earned opportunities to win prizes for attending treatment and submitting drug-negative samples. For this analysis, patients were further classified as non-opioid-dependent (n = 159), opioid-dependent and not receiving maintenance therapy (n = 33), or opioid-dependent and on methadone or Suboxone maintenance therapy (n = 47). Main effects of opioid dependence/maintenance status, treatment condition, and their interaction were evaluated with respect to attendance and abstinence outcomes. Opioid-dependent patients receiving maintenance pharmacotherapy attended treatment on fewer days and achieved less abstinence than their opioid-dependent counterparts who were not on opioid agonist therapy, with Cohen's d effect sizes of 0.63 and 0.61 for attendance and abstinence outcomes, respectively. Nonmaintained opioid-dependent patients evidenced similar outcomes as substance abusing patients who were not opioid-dependent. CM also improved retention and abstinence (d = .26 and .40, respectively), with no interaction effects with opioid dependence/maintenance status noted. These data suggest that CM may be an effective psychosocial intervention potentially suitable for the growing population of opioid-dependent patients, including those not receiving maintenance

  3. Contingent observation: an effective and acceptable procedure for reducing disruptive behavior of young children in a group setting.

    PubMed Central

    Porterfield, J K; Herbert-Jackson, E; Risley, T R

    1976-01-01

    Since a major task of childhood is learning to get along in a group without disrupting other children's activities, caregivers need explicit guidelines for gentle but effective procedures for dealing with disruptive behaviors in child-care settings. In a day-care center for normal 1- and 2-yr.-old children, an effort was made to develop a procedure that appeared sufficiently humane and educational to be acceptable to parents and day-care workers, and yet effective in reducing disruptive play behaviors. Caregivers used the occasion of disruptive behavior to instruct the child in appropriate alternatives, then had the child sit on the periphery and observe the appropriate social behavior of the other children "sit and watch", for a brief period before inviting him or her to rejoin the play activities. The effectiveness of this procedure was compared with a method commonly recommended for the use with young children: instructing the child, then distracting or redirecting the child to an alternative toy or activity. Contingent observation, combining instruction with a brief timeout (from being a participant in an activity to becoming an observer of the activity), proved considerably more effective in maintaining low levels of disruptions and was considered by caregivers and parents to be an appropriate and socially acceptable method of dealing with young children's disruptive behaviors. Therefore, contingent observation can be recommended for general use in day-care programs for young children. PMID:1254542

  4. Impaired Contingent Attentional Capture Predicts Reduced Working Memory Capacity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.; Park, Sohee

    2012-01-01

    Although impairments in working memory (WM) are well documented in schizophrenia, the specific factors that cause these deficits are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that a heightened susceptibility to attentional capture at an early stage of visual processing would result in working memory encoding problems. 30 patients with schizophrenia and 28 demographically matched healthy participants were presented with a search array and asked to report the orientation of the target stimulus. In some of the trials, a flanker stimulus preceded the search array that either matched the color of the target (relevant-flanker capture) or appeared in a different color (irrelevant-flanker capture). Working memory capacity was determined in each individual using the visual change detection paradigm. Patients needed considerably more time to find the target in the no-flanker condition. After adjusting the individual exposure time, both groups showed equivalent capture costs in the irrelevant-flanker condition. However, in the relevant-flanker condition, capture costs were increased in patients compared to controls when the stimulus onset asynchrony between the flanker and the search array was high. Moreover, the increase in relevant capture costs correlated negatively with working memory capacity. This study demonstrates preserved stimulus-driven attentional capture but impaired contingent attentional capture associated with low working memory capacity in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a selective impairment of top-down attentional control in schizophrenia, which may impair working memory encoding. PMID:23152783

  5. Disseminating contingency management: impacts of staff training and implementation at an opiate treatment program.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Jackson, T Ron; Jones, Brinn E; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A

    2014-04-01

    Guided by a comprehensive implementation model, this study examined training/implementation processes for a tailored contingency management (CM) intervention instituted at a Clinical Trials Network-affiliate opioid treatment program (OTP). Staff-level training outcomes (intervention delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness) were assessed before and after a 16-hour training, and again following a 90-day trial implementation period. Management-level implementation outcomes (intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability) were assessed at study conclusion in a qualitative interview with OTP management. Intervention effectiveness was also assessed via independent chart review of trial CM implementation vs. a historical control period. Results included: 1) robust, durable increases in delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness among trained staff; 2) positive managerial perspectives of intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability; and 3) significant clinical impacts on targeted patient indices. Collective results offer support for the study's collaborative intervention design and the applied, skills-based focus of staff training processes. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:24462242

  6. Disseminating contingency management: Impacts of staff training and implementation at an opiate treatment program

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Jackson, T. Ron; Jones, Brinn E.; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a comprehensive implementation model, this study examined training/implementation processes for a tailored contingency management (CM) intervention instituted at a Clinical Trials Network-affiliate opioid treatment program (OTP). Staff-level training outcomes (intervention delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness) were assessed before and after a 16-hour training, and again following a 90-day trial implementation period. Management-level implementation outcomes (intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability) were assessed at study conclusion in a qualitative interview with OTP management. Intervention effectiveness was also assessed via independent chart review of trial CM implementation vs. a historical control period. Results included: 1) robust, durable increases in delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness among trained staff; 2) positive managerial perspectives of intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability; and 3) significant clinical impacts on targeted patient indices. Collective results offer support for the study’s collaborative intervention design and the applied, skills-based focus of staff training processes. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:24462242

  7. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    PubMed

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment. PMID:27114113

  8. Comparable Efficacy of Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence Among African American, Hispanic and White Methadone Maintenance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Danielle; Sullivan, Brendan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine use is a significant problem among methadone maintenance clients. Contingency management (CM) is a reinforcement-based approach with demonstrated efficacy for reducing cocaine use. This study examines whether the efficacy of CM treatment for cocaine-dependent individuals receiving methadone maintenance for opioid dependence differs by ethnicity. Participants were 191 African American, Hispanic and White cocaine-dependent methadone maintenance clients, randomly assigned to standard methadone treatment or standard methadone treatment plus CM for 12 weeks. Hispanic participants were younger, less educated, and reported fewer years of cocaine use than African American and White participants and reported fewer years of heroin use than African American participants. African American participants were less likely to report a history of psychiatric symptoms or treatment compared to Hispanic and White participants. While CM was associated with longer duration of continuous cocaine abstinence and a greater proportion of submitted urine samples negative for cocaine, ethnicity was not related to treatment outcomes, and there was no significant interaction between treatment and ethnicity. CM appears to be an efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence among methadone maintenance clients, regardless of ethnicity. PMID:19290703

  9. A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brent A.; Rosen, Marc I.; Wang, Yan; Shen, Jie; Ablondi, Karen; Sullivan, Anna; Guerrero, Mario; Siqueiros, Lisa; Daar, Eric S.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency Management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site AdheRence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants’ adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV infected patients on ART (N=10) with recent stimulant or alcohol use completed 10.6 of 12 possible telephone sessions, spent 44 minutes/call, and rated the counseling 6.2 on a 1–7 scale. Medication adherence improved from 81% to 93% (p = .04). CARE appears to be acceptable and engaging. PMID:25645326

  10. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.; Kamon, Jody L.; Thostensen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    An initial efficacy test of an innovative behavioral outpatient treatment model for adolescents with problematic use of marijuana enrolled 69 adolescents, aged 14–18, and randomly assigned them to one of two treatment conditions. Both conditions received individualized Motivational Enhancement and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MET/CBT) and a twice-weekly drug-testing program. The experimental contingency management condition involved a clinic delivered, abstinence-based incentive program, and weekly behavioral parent training sessions that included a parent-delivered, abstinence-based, substance monitoring contract. The comparison condition included an attendance-based incentive program, and weekly psychoeducational parent sessions. Follow-up assessments were performed at 3, 6, 9 months post-treatment. The experimental condition showed greater marijuana abstinence during treatment, e.g., 7.6 vs. 5.1 continuous weeks and 50% vs. 18% achieved ≥ 10 weeks of abstinence. Improvements were found in parenting and youth psychopathology across treatment conditions, and improvements in negative parenting uniquely predicted post treatment abstinence. The outcomes observed in the experimental condition are consistent with adult substance dependence treatment literature, and suggest that integrating CM abstinence-based approaches with other empirically-based outpatient interventions provides an alternative and efficacious treatment model for adolescent substance abuse/dependence. Replication and continued development of more potent interventions remain needed to further advance the development of effective substance abuse treatments for adolescents. PMID:19717250

  11. Interaction effects of age and contingency management treatments in cocaine-dependent outpatients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lindsay M; Petry, Nancy M

    2011-04-01

    As the American population ages, older adults are accounting for a larger percentage of the drug-abusing population, but little attention has been given to this age group especially in regards to evaluating responsivity to different treatment modalities. Contingency management (CM) is a highly effective behavioral treatment that provides positive tangible reinforcers for objective evidence of behavior change. The purpose of this study was to examine main and interactive effects of age on outcomes in cocaine-dependent patients receiving CM with standard care (SC) or SC alone. Patients (N = 393) participating in 1 of 3 randomized trials of CM for cocaine dependence were divided into young, middle, and older age cohorts. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared across the age groups. The oldest age group had more medical problems than the youngest and middle age groups but had fewer legal difficulties and psychiatric symptoms. The oldest age group remained in treatment significantly longer than the other age groups, regardless of the type of treatment received. Although all age groups benefited from CM in terms of retention and longest duration of abstinence achieved, a significant age by treatment interaction effect emerged, with the older cohort improving relatively less from CM than the younger age groups. These findings demonstrate that age may play a role in moderating intervention outcomes, and tailoring CM to the needs of older and middle-aged substance abusers may be important for improving outcomes in this growing population. PMID:21463074

  12. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M

    2014-10-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  13. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  14. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals. PMID:24080020

  15. Efficacy of contingency management for cocaine dependence treatment: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, Alwin; van Amsterdam, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine dependence causes serious individual and social harm and a considerable proportion of substance related treatment capacity is devoted to cocaine dependent persons. In the absence of approved pharmacotherapies, other treatments for cocaine dependence should be explored. In this review, the efficacy of Contingency Management (CM), a promising behavior therapy using operant conditioning, is evaluated for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A systematic evaluation of 19 studies with a total of 1,664 patients showed that CM - in combination with standard cognitive behavioral or other psychological interventions - (1) increases cocaine abstinence, (2) improves treatment retention during and after group-based or individual psychological treatment, (3) is of benefit in pharmacotherapy trials, and (4) that CM may act synergistically with pharmacotherapy. This suggests that CM is a promising add-on intervention for cocaine dependence treatment. Therefore, it is advocated to include CM in standard treatment programs for cocaine dependence and future pharmacotherapy research. Future larger studies are deemed necessary to replicate these promising results, now often lacking statistical significance. PMID:23244344

  16. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with post-treatment abstinence outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine abusing methadone maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence such as pre-treatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM. PMID:21707189

  17. If you build it, they will come: statewide practitioner interest in contingency management for youths.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Chapman, Jason E; Rowland, Melisa D; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2007-03-01

    Addressing the science-service gap, we examined in this study the amenability of a large heterogeneous sample of community-based therapists in the state mental health and substance abuse treatment sectors to learn about an evidence-based practice (EBP) for adolescent substance abuse (i.e., contingency management [CM]) when such learning was supported administratively and logistically. Leadership in most (44 of 50) public sector agencies supported practitioner recruitment, and 432 of 543 eligible practitioners subsequently attended a 1-day workshop in CM. Workshop attendance was predicted by organizational factors but not by practitioner demographic characteristics, professional background, attitudes toward EBPs, or service sector. Moreover, the primary reason for workshop attendance was to improve services for adolescent clients; the primary barriers to attendance, for those who did not attend, were practical in nature and not due to theoretical incompatibility. The findings demonstrate a considerable amount of interest practitioners showed in both the substance abuse and mental health sectors in learning about an EBP. PMID:17306721

  18. A randomized controlled trial of contingency management for psycho-stimulant use in community mental health outpatients with co-occurring serious mental illness

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Michael G.; Srebnik, Debra; Angelo, Frank; McPherson, Sterling; Lowe, Jessica M.; Sugar, Andrea; Short, Robert A.; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine if contingency management was associated with increased stimulant drug abstinence in community mental health outpatients with serious mental illness and stimulant dependence. Secondary objectives were to determine if contingency management was associated with reductions in use of other substances, psychiatric symptoms, HIV-risk behavior, and inpatient service utilization. Method A randomized controlled design compared outcomes of 176 outpatients with serious mental illness and stimulant dependence. Participants were randomized to three months of contingency management for stimulant abstinence plus treatment-as-usual or treatment-as-usual with reinforcement for study participation only. Urine drug tests, self-report, clinician-report, and service utilization outcomes were assessed during three-month treatment and three-month follow-up periods. Results While participants in the contingency management condition were less likely to complete the treatment period (n=38; 42%) than those assigned to the control condition (n=55; 65%), X2(1)=9.8, p=0.02; those assigned to the contingency management condition were 2.4 (CI=1.9-3.0) times more likely to submit a stimulant-negative urine test during treatment. Participants assigned to contingency management experienced significantly lower levels of alcohol use, injection drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and were five times less likely than those assigned to the control condition to be admitted for psychiatric hospitalization, X2(1)=5.4, p=0.02. Contingency management participants reported significantly fewer days of stimulant drug use, relative to controls during the three-month follow-up. Conclusions When added to treatment-as-usual, contingency management is associated with large reductions in stimulant, injection drug, and alcohol use. Reductions in psychiatric symptoms and hospitalizations were important secondary benefits. PMID:23138961

  19. Reducing Absenteeism and Rescheduling among Grocery Store Employees with Point-Contingent Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Matt C.; Price, Virginia A.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reward program designed to reduce absenteeism among staff (N = 38) at a grocery store. The intervention included public feedback and a credit reward system whereby participants got store dollars for attendance and authorized rescheduling of work assignments. Results showed that absenteeism decreased…

  20. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  1. Contingency Management Facilitates the Use of Postexposure Prophylaxis Among Stimulant-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Landovitz, Raphael J.; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Reback, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stimulant-using men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Contingency Management (CM) is a robust substance abuse intervention that provides voucher-based incentives for stimulant-use abstinence. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of CM with postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) among stimulant-using MSM. Participants were randomized to CM or a noncontingent “yoked” control (NCYC) intervention and observed prospectively. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the effect of CM on PEP course completion, medication adherence, stimulant use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results. At a single site in Los Angeles, 140 MSM were randomized to CM (n = 70) or NCYC (n = 70). Participants were 37% Caucasian, 37% African American, and 18% Latino. Mean age was 36.8 (standard deviation = 10.2) years. Forty participants (29%) initiated PEP after a high-risk sexual exposure, with a mean exposure-to-PEP time of 32.9 hours. PEP course completion was greater in the CM group vs the NCYC group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 7.2; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1–47.9), with a trend towards improved medication adherence in the CM group (AOR, 4.3; 95% CI, 0.9–21.9). Conclusions. CM facilitated reduced stimulant use and increased rates of PEP course completion, and we observed a trend toward improved adherence. Participants in the CM group reported greater reductions in stimulant use and fewer acts of condomless anal intercourse than the control group. This novel application of CM indicated the usefulness of combining a CM intervention with PEP to produce a synergistic HIV prevention strategy that may reduce substance use and sexual risk behaviors while improving PEP parameters. PMID:25884003

  2. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  3. A randomized trial of Assertive Continuing Care and Contingency Management for adolescents with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.; Dennis, Michael L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most adolescents relapse within 90 days of discharge from residential substance use treatment. We hypothesized that Contingency Management (CM), Assertive Continuing Care (ACC), and their combination (CM+ACC) would each be more effective than Usual Continuing Care (UCC). Method 337 adolescents were randomized to 4 continuing care conditions following residential treatment: UCC alone, CM, ACC, or CM+ACC. UCC was available across all conditions. Outcome measures over 12 months included percentage of days abstinent from alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana, and any alcohol or other drugs (AOD) using self-reports and toxicology testing and remission status at 12 months. Results CM had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC for heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.50, p<.01, d = 0.34), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.58, p<.01, d = 0.36), any AOD use (t(297)= 2.12, p=.01, d = 0.41), and had a higher rate in remission (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.45 [90% CI: 1.18 to 5.08], p=.02). ACC had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC from heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.66, p<.01, d = 0.31), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.63, p<.01, d = 0.30), any marijuana use (t(297)= 1.95, p=.02, d = 0.28), any AOD use (t(297)= 1.88, p=.02, d = 0.30), and had higher rates in remission (OR=2.31 [90% CI: 1.10 to 4.85], p=.03). The ACC+CM condition was not significantly different from UCC on any outcomes. Conclusions CM and ACC are promising continuing care approaches after residential treatment. Future research should seek to further improve their effectiveness. PMID:24294838

  4. Contingency management in substance abuse treatment: A structured review of the evidence for its transportability

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Lash, Steve; Roll, John

    2011-01-01

    Aims Extant literature on contingency management (CM) transportability, or its transition from academia to community practice, is reviewed. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR; Damschroder et al., 2009) guides the examination of this material. Methods PsychInfo and Medline database searches identified 27 publications, with reviewed reference lists garnering 22 others. These 49 sources were examined according to CFIR domains of the intervention, outer setting, inner setting, clinicians, and implementation processes. Results Intervention characteristics were focal in 59% of the identified literature, with less frequent focus on clinicians (34%), inner setting (32%), implementation processes (18%), and outer setting (8%). As intervention characteristics, adaptability and trialability most facilitate transportability whereas non-clinical origin, perceived inefficacy or disadvantages, and costs are impediments. Clinicians with a managerial focus and greater clinic tenure and CM experience are candidates to curry organizational readiness for implementation, and combat staff disinterest or philosophical objection. A clinic’s technology comfort, staff continuity, and leadership advocacy are inner setting characteristics that prompt effective implementation. Implementation processes in successful demonstration projects include careful fiscal/logistical planning, role-specific staff engagement, practical adaptation in execution, and evaluation via fidelity-monitoring and cost-effectiveness analyses. Outer setting characteristics—like economic policies and inter-agency networking or competition—are salient, often unrecognized influences. Conclusions As most implementation constructs are still moving targets, CM transportability is in its infancy and warrants further scientific attention. More effective dissemination may necessitate that future research weight emphasis on external validity, and utilize models of implementation science. PMID

  5. Behavioral research in preventive dentistry: educational and contingency management approaches to the problem of patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A; Becksfort, C M

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reinforcement on compliance with an oral hygiene education program. Patients 18 years of age or older who enrolled in an ongoing program at a periodontal practice received 3-5 sessions of instruction in preventive dental care. Using a between-subjects design, patients who entered the program during alternating months also had a portion of their fees refunded contingent upon improvements in their dental plaque scores. Pre- and posttreatment data showed that all subjects exhibited lower plaque levels following the program, but that greater improvements were seen in patients who were exposed to the fee reduction contingency. Plaque scores taken at a 6-month follow-up revealed some relapse for the Fee Reduction subjects. However, their scores were still substantially better than pretreatment, and better than those of the Education only subjects, whose data differed little from untreated Controls. Methodological and practical issues related to behavioral research in preventive dentistry are discussed. PMID:7287595

  6. Collegiate contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.; Rakos, Richard F.; Greenspoon, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We discuss contemporary trends and developments that affect colleges and universities and describe several central contingencies that have given rise to, maintain, and operate in response to these trends and developments. We identify the differential impacts of these contingencies on faculty, students, and administrators in various types of higher education institutions. These contingencies are sources of conflict between and among these three groups within the academy that, we argue, cause significant instability in contemporary academe. We discuss prominent domains of this dis-equilibrium and propose several general interventions to address the sources of the instability. PMID:22478348

  7. Choosing between Two Objects Reduces 3-Year-Olds' Errors on a Reverse-Contingency Test of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Daniel J.; Apperly, Ian A.; Riggs, Kevin J.

    2007-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used a reversed-contingency paradigm (the windows task: [Russell, J., Mauthner, N., Sharpe, S., & Tidswell, T. (1991). The windows task as a measure of strategic deception in preschoolers and autistic subjects. "British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9," 331-349]) to explore the effect of alterations in the task…

  8. Lifetime Substance Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Predict Treatment Response to Contingency Management among Homeless, Substance-dependent MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent MSM continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/white (p < .05); reported fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p ≤ .05); and reported more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than non-responders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and non-responders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations. PMID:22880545

  9. Reducing the risk, managing safety.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust. PMID:27017658

  10. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  11. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  12. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment. PMID:25455821

  13. Synthetic cannabinoids to avoid urine drug screens: Implications for contingency management and other treatments for drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Ninnemann, Andrew L; Lechner, William V; Borges, Allison; Lejuez, C W

    2016-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for substance use dependence. Within CM, rewards or vouchers promote continued abstinence by acting as alternative reinforcers to substance use. However, CM relies on the use of accurate biochemical verification methods, such as urinalysis, to verify abstinence. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) pose a risk for CM treatment because they are not easily detected by common urinalysis techniques. Although SCs pose a risk, there is limited information regarding current rates of SC use within substance dependent populations as well as rates of substance use and psychiatric disorders among those who use SCs in treatment. We discuss emerging research on these topics and potential implications for CM treatments. Findings suggest CM researchers should test for and query SC use among those being treated for cannabis and cocaine use problems as well as among younger populations of substance users. Implications of other novel psychoactive substances for drug treatment and drug urinalysis are also discussed. PMID:27424166

  14. An Evaluation of a Classwide Intervention Package Involving Self-Management and a Group Contingency on Classroom Behavior of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.; Jaffery, Rose; Fallon, Lindsay M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention package involving self-management and a group contingency at increasing appropriate classroom behaviors was evaluated in a sample of middle school students. Participants included all students in each of the 3 eighth-grade general education classrooms and their teachers. The intervention package included…

  15. An experiment in contingent valuation: Willingness to pay for stormwater management. [Homeowners in Baltimore County

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The contingent valuation (CV) method is a technique used frequently in benefit-cost analysis to estimate the economic value of non-market goods such as environmental quality. In CV, surveys are used to ask people about their willingness to pay for a good in a hypothetical market situation. In this application, homeowners in Baltimore County were asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for programs to control pollutants in urban stormwater runoff designed to achieve, respectively, 4% and 1% reductions in nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. The main variation comprised alternate descriptions of the payment vehicle. Tests show that the mean WTP by means of property taxes does not differ significantly from mean WTP via user charges. This result was somewhat surprising because of other evidence that the respondents believe strongly that user charges are fairer than property taxes. A best estimate of the benefits to homeowners in Baltimore County of controlling nutrient loads for urban stormwater is from $1.2 to $4.2 million annually, depending on the reduction objective.

  16. Contingency contracting and systematic desensitization for heroin addicts in methadone maintenance programs.

    PubMed

    Piane, G

    2000-01-01

    The use and effectiveness of contingency contracting and systematic desensitization with heroin addicts being treated in methadone maintenance programs are discussed. Both behavior therapies can be practically implemented in methadone maintenance programs to supplement methadone pharmacotherapy. Contingency contracting has been effectively employed to reduce illicit drug use and to manage patients in the clinic. Systematic desensitization has less effect on actual heroin usage yet effectively reduces the fear of withdrawal and general anxiety, while improving self-image, assertiveness, and adjustment in the community. A clinic protocol that incorporates all three therapies-methadone maintenance, contingency contracting, and systematic desensitization-is proposed. PMID:11061683

  17. Control, Contingency and Delegation in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Stephen R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes a model which emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority and managerial control of operations. Suggests that risks can be reduced by using (1) a contingency approach to delegation, (2) decision rules for consistency, (3) decision models for specific situations, (4) vital indicator reports, (5) management by objectives, and (6)…

  18. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  19. Income received during treatment does not affect response to contingency management treatments in cocaine-dependent outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies find no effect of baseline income on response to contingency management (CM) interventions. However, income among substance disordered patients is variable, particularly at treatment entry. This study investigated the impact of during-treatment income, a more proximal estimate of economic resources at the time that CM is in effect, on response to standard treatment or the standard treatment plus CM. Method These secondary analyses included 418 cocaine dependent participants initiating community intensive outpatient treatment. We examined whether differences were present in pretreatment and during-treatment overall income, as well as specific income sources. We then conducted a series of regression models to investigate the impact of during-treatment income on treatment outcome. Results Participants’ during-treatment income was significantly lower compared to pretreatment income, and this difference was largely attributable to decreases in earned income, illegal income, and support from friends and family. Neither the main effect of income, nor the interaction of income and treatment condition, was significantly associated with treatment outcome. CM, however, was a significant predictor of improved treatment outcome relative to standard treatment. Income sources and some demographic characteristics were also significant predictors of outcomes; public assistance income was associated with improved outcomes and illegal income was associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that substance abusers benefit from CM regardless of their income level, and these data add to the growing literature supporting the generalizability of CM across a variety of patient characteristics. PMID:23631869

  20. Do PTSD Symptoms and Course Predict Continued Substance Use for Homeless Individuals in Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Lehman, Kenneth A.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Homeless individuals (n = 187) entering contingency management (CM) for cocaine dependence were assessed for PTSD diagnosis, and a subset of 102 participants reporting traumatic exposure also periodically completed a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD in full remission at 6 months (end of active treatment) and 12 months (end of aftercare) used substances much less frequently during aftercare than those with no PTSD diagnosis. Those whose PTSD diagnosis improved to full remission status during active treatment, and remained in full remission at 12 months, also had superior substance use outcomes. Severity of PTSD symptoms at 6 months, but not baseline or 2 months, was associated with substance use across treatment phases. Substance use during aftercare, however, was better predicted by changes in PTSD symptom severity. Patients whose PTSD symptoms improved more during active treatment fared better during aftercare than those with less improvement. Findings suggest homeless individuals with comorbid PTSD entering CM for cocaine dependence are not necessarily at increased risk for substance use compared to those without the comorbidity. However, course of PTSD does predict substance use, with the potential for CM to be unusually effective for those who respond with substantial, lasting improvements in PTSD. PMID:20363465

  1. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  2. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials. PMID:26456717

  3. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  4. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; Bach, D.; Torney, S.

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  5. Access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on reducing TV-viewing and body-weight.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A; Brackshaw, E

    1999-06-01

    One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this study was watching an excessive amount of TV (averaging over 4 hours per day), and she had a weight problem. An ABAB design was used in the study. After collecting baseline data, the child was required to ride a bicycle for 60 minutes to watch 60 minutes of TV, and this program successfully reduced TV viewing. Reductions in TV viewing and weight loss were found at a follow-up. PMID:10489090

  6. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  7. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Jackson, L.J.; Eby, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Lake Michigan is a microcosm of global environmental issues. A history of problems has plagued the lake, arising from the wide range of human activities the basin supports. Much of Lake Michigan`s watershed is agriculturally developed, and the shoreline is dotted with major urban, industrial centers. The lake has supported important commercial shipping and fishing industries for more than a century. In the 1960s and 1970s eutrophication was a concern. More recently toxic contaminants, particularly PCBs, and invasions by exotic species, such as the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), have captured headlines. More than 200 years of development and exploitation have taken Lake Michigan far from a pristine state. The Lake Michigan fishery in intensively managed, and food web manipulation may more effectively reduce PCB exposure than cleanup activities do. Four management options are discussed in this article: trophic cascade; growth maximization; size of stocked fish; and selective species stocking. The most promising option, well supported by data is in many ways the simplist: selective stocking of species that accumulate contaminants at the lowest levels. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. LeRC reduced gravity fluid management technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Symons, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the reduced gravity fluid management technology program is presented. Information on reduced gravity fluid behavior, techniques for thermal control of cryogenic tankage, and design for fluid management systems are discussed. The development of Spacelab experiments, propellant management systems for orbit transfer vehicles, and computer techniques for simulating reduced gravity fluid dynamic processes is reported.

  9. Motivating Reluctant Learners: Innovative Contingency Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raschke, Donna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Contingency packages can be incorporated into classroom management techniques for reluctant learners (who may have already experienced failure in education) to encourage enthusiasm and motivation for learning. Suggestions are provided for implementing programs using a robot or football concepts. (CB)

  10. Training elementary aged peer behavior managers to control small group programmed mathematics1

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Sloane, Howard N.; Baskin, Arlene

    1974-01-01

    The effects of a training procedure and two maintenance contingencies on consequence-dispensing behavior were investigated. Four peer behavior managers were trained to supervise small groups of subjects (four to six per group) working in programmed math materials and were compared with a teacher skilled in the use of social and point reinforcement and response cost. Manager training was differentially effective in accelerating manager's rates of appropriate social and point dispensing. Having manager reinforcement contingent upon manager consequence-dispensing resulted in moderately higher rates of appropriate social and point dispensing for three of four subjects than did having manager reinforcement contingent upon group study behavior. Two managers exposed to the group performance contingency before the manager performance contingency increased inappropriate social and point-dispensing behaviors to pretraining baseline levels. Subsequent change to the manager performance contingency was effective in reducing the inappropriate dispensing behavior of only one of the two managers. PMID:16795460

  11. Contingency and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more general account of contingency and to integrate the concept with other behavioral processes. The third aspect is one of practical considerations in the application of the contingency concept in both laboratory and applied settings. PMID:22478219

  12. Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model. PMID:24808167

  13. Real-time contingency handling in MAESTRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Daniel L.; Geoffroy, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    A scheduling and resource management system named MAESTRO was interfaced with a Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard at MSFC. The combined system serves to illustrate the integration of planning, scheduling, and control in a realistic, complex domain. This paper briefly describes the functional elements of the combined system, including normal and contingency operational scenarios, then focusses on the method used by the scheduler to handle real-time contingencies.

  14. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  15. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  16. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  17. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  18. Investigating Group Contingencies to Promote Brief Abstinence from Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358

  19. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, Craig A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Eby, Lisa A.; Jackson, Leland J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper concludes that contaminants in Lake Michigan fishes are likely to remain above detectable levels for some time. Some interest groups have called for measures ranging from additional effluent controls to a ban on the industrial use of chlorine. Such measures, however well intended, are likely to have little impact on many of the contaminants of primary concern. PCBs, in particular, are largely the legacy of past activities and are not likely to be substantially affected by additional regulation. The authors review several options for reducing human exposure to PCBs, using relatively simple fisheries manipulations, although they do not propose that these measures are the ultimate solution to the contaminant problem. Of the options presented, the most promising is the replacement of lake trout with less-contaminated species, such as rainbow trout.

  20. The Effects of Contingency Contract Negotiation and Management on the Academic Achievement and Self Concept of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James M.; Wall, Shavaun M.

    1979-01-01

    Instructor-made quizzes, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and Miskimins' Self-Goal-Other Discrepancy Scale were used to measure achievement and self-concept in this study of contract procedures and contract management. Students in the negotiated contract and teacher-managed conditions obtained significantly higher final grades than those in other…

  1. Detecting contingencies: an infomax approach.

    PubMed

    Butko, Nicholas J; Movellan, Javier R

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect social contingencies plays an important role in the social and emotional development of infants. Analyzing this problem from a computational perspective may provide important clues for understanding social development, as well as for the synthesis of social behavior in robots. In this paper, we show that the turn-taking behaviors observed in infants during contingency detection situations are tuned to optimally gather information as to whether a person is responsive to them. We show that simple reinforcement learning mechanisms can explain how infants acquire these efficient contingency detection schemas. The key is to use the reduction of uncertainty (information gain) as a reward signal. The result is an interesting form of learning in which the learner rewards itself for conducting actions that help reduce its own sense of uncertainty. This paper illustrates the possibilities of an emerging area of computer science and engineering that focuses on the computational understanding of human behavior and on its synthesis in robots. We believe that the theory of stochastic optimal control will play a key role providing a formal mathematical foundation for this newly emerging discipline. PMID:20951334

  2. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  3. NextGen Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO): Contingency Holds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakowski, Deborah Lee; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.; Wolter, Cynthia A.; Cheng, Lara W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop taxi simulation was to investigate a NextGen Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO) concept called "contingency holds." The contingency-hold concept parses a taxi route into segments, allowing an air traffic control (ATC) surface traffic management (STM) system to hold an aircraft when necessary for safety. Under nominal conditions, if the intersection or active runway crossing is clear, the hold is removed, allowing the aircraft to continue taxiing without slowing, thus improving taxi efficiency, while minimizing the excessive brake use, fuel burn, and emissions associated with stop-and-go taxi. However, when a potential traffic conflict exists, the hold remains in place as a fail-safe mechanism. In this departure operations simulation, the taxi clearance included a required time of arrival (RTA) to a specified intersection. The flight deck was equipped with speed-guidance avionics to aid the pilot in safely meeting the RTA. On two trials, the contingency hold was not released, and pilots were required to stop. On two trials the contingency hold was released 15 sec prior to the RTA, and on two trials the contingency hold was released 30 sec prior to the RTA. When the hold remained in place, all pilots complied with the hold. Results also showed that when the hold was released at 15-sec or 30-sec prior to the RTA, the 30-sec release allowed pilots to maintain nominal taxi speed, thus supporting continuous traffic flow; whereas, the 15-sec release did not. The contingency-hold concept, with at least a 30-sec release, allows pilots to improve taxiing efficiency by reducing braking, slowing, and stopping, but still maintains safety in that no pilots "busted" the clearance holds. Overall, the evidence suggests that the contingency-hold concept is a viable concept for optimizing efficiency while maintaining safety.

  4. A Group-Oriented Contingency Management Program: A Review of Research on the Good Behavior Game and Implications for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankersley, Melody

    1995-01-01

    Research on a team game designed to reinforce positive target behaviors is reviewed. Classroom organization, reinforcement criteria, when and how long to play the game, and reinforcement for winning teams are discussed, as are two variants on the original game. The game is found to be highly effective in reducing talking and out-of-seat behavior.…

  5. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  6. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  7. Building the human component into contingency plans.

    PubMed

    Donaho, John

    2014-01-01

    In the 'who, what, when, where and how' approach to disaster and contingency planning, the 'who' component often receives less attention than it should. It is relatively easy to determine the appropriate amounts of feed and bedding to store for emergencies or how to stage a replacement generator for electricity, whereas planning for the people who will respond to the emergency is more difficult. Understanding the issues involving 'who' designs and implements the contingency plan for disaster response can help facility managers to build a more effective plan, ultimately ensuring faster recovery and long-term success. PMID:24356019

  8. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  9. A Novel Combination HIV Prevention Strategy: Post-Exposure Prophylaxis with Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment Among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Inzhakova, Galina; Lake, Jordan E.; Shoptaw, Steven; Reback, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine use has been associated with HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, providers have been hesitant to utilize post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in populations of stimulant users. This single-arm, open label pilot study sought to demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of PEP combined with the drug abstinence intervention of contingency management (CM) in methamphetamine-using MSM. HIV-uninfected MSM reporting recent methamphetamine use were recruited to a CM intervention. Those who reported a recent high-risk sexual or injection drug exposure to an HIV-infected or serostatus unknown source were initiated on tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada)-based PEP. Participants were followed over 3 months for infectious/biologic, behavioral, and drug use outcomes. Fifty-three participants enrolled in the study; 35 participants (66%) initiated PEP after a high-risk exposure. The median time from exposure to medication administration was 37.8 h (range 12.5–68.0 h). Twenty-five (71.4%) PEP initiators successfully completed the treatment course. Median medication adherence was 96% (IQR 57–100%), and medication was generally well tolerated. Methamphetamine abstinence during CM treatment increased PEP adherence (2% [95% CI +1–+3%]) per clean urine toxicology sample provided), and increased the odds of PEP course completion (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.31). One incident of HIV seroconversion was observed in a participant who did not complete PEP treatment, and reported multiple subsequent exposures. Findings demonstrate that PEP, when combined with CM, is safe, feasible, and acceptable as an HIV prevention strategy in methamphetamine-using MSM. PMID:22680280

  10. How performance (non-)contingent reward modulates cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Reward has repeatedly been shown to influence cognitive control. More precisely, performance contingent reward is known to increase preparatory, proactive control. In comparison, performance non-contingent reward, that is, reward that is not dependent on a pre-specified performance criterion but is given unconditional for any response, even errors, is a rather understudied topic. Recently, Fröber and Dreisbach (2014) compared performance contingent and non-contingent reward in a single experiment. They found that non-contingent reward seems to modulate cognitive control in an oppositional way than contingent reward, namely by reducing proactive control. In the present paper, the authors further investigate this dissociation in two experiments with a reward manipulation that facilitated adaptations to changes in reward availability: reward - with performance contingency varying between subjects - was manipulated not trial-by-trial but in mini-blocks of 20 consecutive trials in an AX-Continuous Performance Task. Performance contingent reward significantly increased proactive control. The repeated experience of non-contingent reward even for errors did not result in increased error rates, but instead was indicative of stable compliance with task rules over time and with less reliance on proactive control. PMID:27160060

  11. Reducing Pesticide and Nutrient Runoff from Fairways Using Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We designed experiments to measure the quantity of fertilizers and pesticides transported with runoff from golf course fairway turf, and to evaluate the ability of management practices to reduce the transport of applied chemicals with runoff. Overall aeratation of fairway turf with hollow tines redu...

  12. Manure management in reduced tillage and grassland systems: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing manure in reduced tillage systems remains a major concern, because tillage has traditionally been used to incorporate manure. Surface applied manure that is not incorporated into soil provides inefficient delivery of manure nutrients to crops due to environmental losses of nutrients and ser...

  13. Peer-Assisted Leadership: Reducing Educational Managers' Professional Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussault, Marc; Barnett, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study that verified the effects of the peer-assisted leadership program (PAL) on communication networks and professional isolation of 41 Quebec educational managers, using a one-group pretest posttest design. Results showed that PAL significantly reduced professional isolation without widening participants' communication networks. (34…

  14. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  15. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:22478208

  16. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    PubMed

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships. PMID:20053033

  17. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  18. Space Flight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Ross, Charles E.; Hamilton, Douglas; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to develop an enhanced plan to diagnose, treat, and manage decompression sickness (DCS) during extravehicular activity (EVA). This plan is merited by the high frequency of upcoming EVAs necessary to construct and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). The upcoming ISS era will demand a significant increase in EVA. The DCS Risk and Contingency Plan provided a new and improved approach to DCS reporting, treatment, management, and training.

  19. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  20. Can managed care reduce employers' retiree medical liability?

    PubMed

    Taylor, R S; Newton, B

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has forced U.S. companies to look squarely at their current retiree health obligations and their future commitments. Accounting Statement No. 106 (FAS 106) requires employers to accrue liabilities for retiree health benefits during employees' active service, rather than record the costs as benefits are paid. Employers are scrambling to find ways to reduce the statement's effect on corporate balance sheets. While managed health care has been increasingly employed to control benefit costs in active employee health plans, it has not been as popular in retiree plans. This article reviews important demographic and health trends in the retiree population and summarizes employers' early responses to FAS 106. It explores why managed health care has thus far played a limited role in reducing employers' postretirement medical liability, and offers insight into how that role could be increased in the future. PMID:10116958

  1. Some contingencies of spelling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vicki L.; Sanderson, Gwenda M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some speculation about the contingencies that might select standard spellings. The speculation is based on a new development in the teaching of spelling—the process writing approach, which lets standard spellings emerge collateral to a high frequency of reading and writing. The paper discusses this approach, contrasts it with behavior-analytic research on spelling, and suggests some new directions for this latter research based on a behavioral interpretation of the process writing approach to spelling. PMID:22477529

  2. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  3. Some contingencies of spelling.

    PubMed

    Lee, V L; Sanderson, G M

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some speculation about the contingencies that might select standard spellings. The speculation is based on a new development in the teaching of spelling-the process writing approach, which lets standard spellings emerge collateral to a high frequency of reading and writing. The paper discusses this approach, contrasts it with behavior-analytic research on spelling, and suggests some new directions for this latter research based on a behavioral interpretation of the process writing approach to spelling. PMID:22477529

  4. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  5. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism.

    PubMed

    Cage, Eilidh; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has reported that autistic adults do not manage their reputation, purportedly due to problems with theory of mind [Izuma, Matsumoto, Camerer, & Adolphs]. The current study aimed to test alternative explanations for this apparent lack of reputation management. Twenty typical and 19 autistic adults donated to charity and to a person, both when alone and when observed. In an additional manipulation, for half of the participants, the observer was also the recipient of their donations, and participants were told that this observer would subsequently have the opportunity to donate to them (motivation condition). This manipulation was designed to encourage an expectation of a reciprocal "tit-for-tat" strategy in the participant, which may motivate participants to change their behavior to receive more donations. The remaining participants were told that the person watching was just observing the procedure (no motivation condition). Our results replicated Izuma et al.'s finding that autistic adults did not donate more to charity when observed. Yet, in the motivation condition, both typical and autistic adults donated significantly more to the observer when watched, although this effect was significantly attenuated in autistic individuals. Results indicate that, while individuals with autism may have the ability to think about reputation, a reduced expectation of reciprocal behavior from others may reduce the degree to which they engage in reputation management. PMID:23836550

  6. [Preoperative management to reduce morbidity and mortality of hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Ferré, F; Minville, V

    2011-10-01

    Hip femur is extremely common in the elderly and is one of the most common reasons for admission in trauma care. The main reported causes of death after hip fracture were cardiovascular (29%), neurological (20%) and pulmonary. Large epidemiological studies have shown a relatively small decrease in mortality for 20 years despite an active approach to medical and surgical management. Yet 57% of deaths occurring within 30 days post-surgery are preventable because they are not related to a pre-existing disease. Preoperative management to optimize these patients could help to reduce morbidity and mortality and is thus a crucial issue. The anesthesia consultation is used to evaluate the perioperative risk, treat pain, manage treatment and stabilize the patient. An operative delay of more than 48hours after admission increases mortality. This period should not be prolonged by unnecessary investigations that will not change the perioperative management. The preoperative period is a key moment because it allows to choose the anesthetic technique. Even if this choice is controversial, continuous spinal anesthesia (titrated) do not modify the cardiovascular and neurological physiological balance of these precarious patients. PMID:21945704

  7. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  8. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  9. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  10. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  11. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  12. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identifymore » the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.« less

  13. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  14. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  15. Cooperative Learning Contingencies: Unrelated versus Related Individual and Group Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Erin; Williams, Robert L.; Hautau, Briana

    2006-01-01

    College students operating under related cooperative contingencies (students had to earn individual credit before being considered for group credit) showed more consistent individual and group improvement on exam performance than students operating under unrelated contingencies (individual credit and group credit were independently determined). A…

  16. Reducing uncertainty in managing respiratory tract infections in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Naomi; Francis, Nick A; Butler, Chris C

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain the commonest reason for acute consultations in primary care in resource-rich countries. Their spectrum and severity has changed from the time that antibiotics were discovered, largely from improvements in the socioeconomic determinants of health as well as vaccination. The benefits from antibiotic treatment for common RTIs have been shown to be largely overstated. Nevertheless, serious infections do occur. Currently, no clinical features or diagnostic test, alone or in combination, adequately determine diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis, or response to treatment. This narrative review focuses on emerging evidence aimed at helping clinicians reduce and manage uncertainty in treating RTIs. Consultation rate and prescribing rate trends are described, evidence of increasing rates of complications are discussed, and studies and the association with antibiotic prescribing are examined. Methods of improving diagnosis and identifying those patients who are at increased risk of complications from RTIs, using clinical scoring systems, biomarkers, and point of care tests are also discussed. The evidence for alternative management options for RTIs are summarised and the methods for changing public and clinicians' beliefs about antibiotics, including ways in which we can improve clinician–patient communication skills for management of RTIs, are described. PMID:21144191

  17. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  18. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  19. Use of Integrated Malaria Management Reduces Malaria in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okech, Bernard A.; Mwobobia, Isaac K.; Kamau, Anthony; Muiruri, Samuel; Mutiso, Noah; Nyambura, Joyce; Mwatele, Cassian; Amano, Teruaki; Mwandawiro, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    insecticide treated bed net and 81% reported buying the nets within the last 5 years. The community also used mosquito reduction measures including, in order of preference, environmental management (35%), mosquito repellent and smoke (31%) insecticide canister sprays (11%), and window and door screens (6%). These methods used by the community comprise an integrated malaria management (IMM) package. Over the last 4 years prior to this study, the malaria cases in the community hospital reduced from about 40% in 2000 to less than 10% by 2004 and by the year 2007 malaria cases decreased to zero. In addition, a one time cross-sectional malaria parasite survey detected no Plasmodium infection in 300 primary school children in the area. Mosquito vector populations were variable in the six villages but were generally lower in villages that did not engage in irrigation activities. The malaria risk as estimated by EIR remained low and varied by village and proximity to irrigation areas. The average EIR in the area was estimated at 0.011 infectious bites per person per day. Conclusions The usage of a combination of malaria control tools in an integrated fashion by residents of Mwea division might have influenced the decreased malaria cases in the district hospital and in the school children. A vigorous campaign emphasizing IMM should be adopted and expanded in Mwea division and in other areas with different eco-epidemiological patterns of malaria transmission. With sustained implementation and support from community members integrated malaria management can reduce malaria significantly in affected communities in Africa. PMID:19115000

  20. Academic response rate as a function of teacher- and self-imposed contingencies1

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Curtiss, Karen A.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the contingency manager (teacher or pupil) on a pupil's academic response rate. The results of two such experiments disclosed that higher academic rates occurred when the pupil arranged the contingency requirements than when the teacher specified them. A third study manipulated only reinforcement magnitude to ascertain whether amount of reinforcement had interacted with pupil-specified contingencies to produce the increase in academic response rate. The latter findings revealed that the contingency manager, not reinforcement magnitude, accounted for this subject's gain in performance. PMID:16795202

  1. Evaluation of a case management service to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Julia; Harris, E. Clare; Cox, Vanessa; Ntani, Georgia; Coggon, David

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether and to what extent intensive case management is more effective than standard occupational health services in reducing sickness absence in the healthcare sector. Aims To evaluate a new return to work service at an English hospital trust. Methods The new service entailed intensive case management for staff who had been absent sick for longer than four weeks, aiming to restore function through a goal-directed and enabling approach based on a bio-psycho-social model. Assessment of the intervention was by controlled before and after comparison with a neighbouring hospital trust at which there were no major changes in the management of sickness absence. Data on outcome measures were abstracted from electronic databases held by the two trusts. Results At the intervention trust, the proportion of 4-week absences which continued beyond 8 weeks fell from 51.7% in 2008 to 49.1% in 2009 and 45.9% in 2010. The reduction from 2008 to 2010 contrasted with an increase at the control trust from 51.2% to 56.1% – a difference in change of 10.7% (95%CI 1.5% to 20.0%). There was also a differential improvement in mean days of absence beyond four weeks, but this was not statistically significant (1.6 days per absence, 95%CI −7.2 to 10.3 days). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the intervention was effective, and calculations based on an annual running cost of £57,000 suggest that it was also cost-effective. A similar intervention should now be evaluated at a larger number of hospital trusts. PMID:23365116

  2. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  3. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population. PMID:16716843

  4. Endoscopic surgery and telemedicine in microgravity: developing contingency procedures for exploratory class spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Campbell, M.; Miles, B.; Billica, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of a urinary calculus during an extended duration mission into the reduced gravity environment of space is significant. For medical operations to develop a comprehensive strategy for the spaceflight stone risk, both preventive countermeasures and contingency management (CM) plans must be included. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the potential CM technique of endoscopic ureteral stenting with ultrasound guidance for the possible in-flight urinary calculus contingency. The procedure employed the International Space Station/Human Research Facility ultrasound unit for guide wire and stent localization, a flexible cystoscope for visual guidance, and banded, biocompatible soft ureteral stents to successfully stent porcine ureters bilaterally in zero gravity (0g). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that downlinked endoscopic surgical and ultrasound images obtained in 0g are comparable in quality to 1g images, and therefore are useful for diagnostic clinical utility via telemedicine transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In order to be successful, surgical procedures in 0g require excellent positional stability of the operating surgeon, assistant, and patient, relative to one another. The technological development of medical procedures for long-duration spaceflight contingencies may lead to improved terrestrial patient care methodology and subsequently reduced morbidity.

  5. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency...

  6. 49 CFR 1544.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1544.301 Section 1544.301... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.301 Contingency plan. Each aircraft operator must adopt a contingency plan and must: (a) Implement its contingency plan when directed by TSA. (b)...

  7. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  8. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  9. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    PubMed

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process. PMID:24340457

  10. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  11. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  12. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  13. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  14. Reducing watershed scale phosphorus export through integrated management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from golf course have been documented and are comparable to losses from agriculture and urban areas. Integrated management practices are required to address the problem. An integrated management approach using filter socks and limiting the amount of phosphorus applied to the golf c...

  15. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  16. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. PMID:26774064

  17. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  18. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  19. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  20. 47 CFR 73.3517 - Contingent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....3517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3517 Contingent applications. Contingent... will otherwise increase the area of interference-free service. The applications must state that...

  1. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  2. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.152 Contingency plans. (a) Each contingency plan must— (1) Specify two or more stages...

  3. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.152 Contingency plans. (a) Each contingency plan must— (1) Specify two or more stages...

  4. 47 CFR 73.3517 - Contingent applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingent applications. 73.3517 Section 73.3517 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3517 Contingent applications. Contingent applications for new stations and for...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.301 Contingency plan. (a) Each...

  6. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Episodes § 51.152 Contingency plans. (a) Each contingency plan must— (1) Specify two or more stages of... forth in appendix L.) (b) Each contingency plan for a Priority I region must provide for the following... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a...

  7. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201 Contingency operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The...

  8. Contingent Faculty and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2008-01-01

    While it may provide greater economic efficiency, the increased use of part-time faculty in colleges and universities has been strongly criticized. The criticisms of increased employment of contingent faculty are based on research that supports the idea that faculty-student interaction leads to positive outcomes, including increased cognitive and…

  9. The Psychophysics of Contingency Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Lorraine G.; Hannah, Samuel D.; Crump, Matthew J. C.; Siegel, Shepard

    2008-01-01

    The authors previously described a procedure that permits rapid, multiple within-participant evaluations of contingency assessment (the "streamed-trial" procedure, M. J. C. Crump, S. D. Hannah, L. G. Allan, & L. K. Hord, 2007). In the present experiments, they used the streamed-trial procedure, combined with the method of constant stimuli and a…

  10. The Contingency Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Develops a conceptual framework for determining the appropriateness of various methodologies. Concludes that educators should stop switching from one to another and recognize that the best methodology is contingent upon the circumstances. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  11. Contingent Faculty across the Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobe, Monica F.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a 1999 survey conducted by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce (CAW), a group of higher education and disciplinary associations concerned about the dramatic rise in contingent faculty, to examine the staffing practices across eleven humanities and social science disciplines. The comprehensive report showed…

  12. Contingency Planning for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David; Washington, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. But this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the power required, the data storage necessary, along with its position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  13. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  14. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  15. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  16. 81 FR 8504 - Recommendations for Donor Screening, Deferral, and Product Management To Reduce the Risk of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-02-19

    ... applicable disclosure law. For more information about FDA's posting of comments to public dockets, see 80 FR... Management To Reduce the Risk of Transfusion-Transmission of Zika Virus; Guidance for Industry; Availability... Screening, Deferral, and Product Management to Reduce the Risk of Transfusion-Transmission of Zika...

  17. Reducing the variability of compound management delivery using visual management systems.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Philip; Ratcliffe, Stuart; Cole, Shaun

    2014-04-01

    The globalization and externalization of a pharmaceutical company's research and development (R&D) places considerable demands on its underpinning compound management (CM) capability. More robust CM workflows are needed to support higher demands and cross-continent supply chains. The tracking and visibility of compound orders progressing through CM processes has become crucial to ensure prompt and reliable delivery to customers and project timelines worldwide. AstraZeneca at Alderley Park UK has successfully introduced and integrated a visual management system into its CM processes to support the company's global R&D strategy. A simple, low-cost approach has been employed to track solid processing and solubilization orders. This reduced variability and end-to-end cycle times by decreasing waiting time between processing steps. The visual tracking system has been quick to implement, adaptable to change, and able to be owned and run by delivery teams. Introduction of the visual tracking system has resulted in significant improvements in order processing, both in terms of variability and speed. The percentage of orders processed within 24 h rose from 81.5% to 92.5%, and reductions of 50% and 17.5% in the average processing time were seen for solid dispense and solubilization orders, respectively. PMID:23918922

  18. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Flynn, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized. PMID:24319649

  19. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures. PMID:26075794

  20. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  1. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  2. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  3. Inpatient management protocols to reduce health care costs.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, T; Moulton, A W; Pezzullo, J; Hamolsky, M

    1986-01-01

    A group of 12 internists, members of a university-affiliated hospital, designed and implemented protocols for the general inpatient management of four medical problems (chest pain, stroke, pneumonia, and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage). Hospital charges for the 63 cases were compared with charges generated by 64 controls who had been patients admitted to the same physicians with the same diagnoses during the same period of the preceding year, before the project was begun. A group of nonparticipating internists was similarly evaluated during the two time periods to control for changes in practice patterns extraneous to the intervention. Adjustment was made for inflation (6%) and differences in case mix. The program resulted in a 15% reduction in total average charge generated by the cases. Sizeable reductions were achieved in utilization of EKGs (34.8%), x-rays (15.4%), laboratory testing (20.4%), and drugs (11.4%). Given the prevailing attitude that health care costs are too high and that many services are unnecessary, the benefit of altering physician behavior by using standards established by them for themselves could be substantial, especially with the threat of more restrictive and less sympathetic modes of controlling costs. PMID:3084902

  4. Reducing the cognitive workload: Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. Mission control operators are well-trained experts but they can not afford to have their attention diverted by extraneous information. During normal operating conditions monitoring the status of the components of a complex system alone is a big task. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe are its potential uses.

  5. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  6. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  7. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  8. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  9. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC's Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  10. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC`s Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  11. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  12. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  13. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  14. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

  15. Self-Monitoring and Verbal Feedback to Reduce Stereotypic Body Rocking in a Congenitally Blind Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A self-management approach (utilizing self-counting of behaviors, corrective verbal feedback, and contingent verbal praise) was effectively used to reduce stereotypical body rocking in a congenitally blind young adult. Positive results were maintained, with replacement of overt counting with covert counting and immediate with delayed feedback as…

  16. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  17. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhenyu Huang

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  18. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2012-12-31

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  19. Three essays on contingent valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Timothy Kenneth Munro

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the contingent valuation methodology. The first essay develops a theoretical model of how agents respond to willingness to pay questions in a survey context. In particular, this essay focuses on the difference between a voluntary contribution mechanism and a mandatory contribution mechanism. The second essay applies this theory to a survey of willingness to pay for renewable energy by varying the mechanism by which the public good is supplied. The third essay proposes a methodology for choosing the number, location and range of contributions or bid levels in dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys. The first essay, "Mandatory vs. Voluntary Payment to a Public Good" models the differing incentive effects of two different payment mechanisms in contingent valuations surveys. It is shown that under rationed voluntary payment (where each agent can contribute either a fixed amount or nothing) there exists a Nash equilibrium in which the level of public good provided is strictly below the level provided under a mandatory provision rule. This result is generalized to hypothetical valuation surveys and a set of condition ranking willingness to pay under each mechanism is described. The second essay "Valuing a Public Good" describes the result of a survey designed to test the above theory. This essay considers willingness to pay for renewable energy. In order to test the theory, a split sample survey of over fifteen hundred respondents was conducted. One half of the sample was asked whether they would volunteer to pay for green power and the other half was asked whether they would vote to support a program in which the entire population was required to contribute towards the provision of the public good. On average, respondents' willingness to pay was higher for the public good provided by the mandatory provision mechanism. The third essay describes the literature on how the contribution or bid levels can be chosen to

  20. Managing a subsidized predator population: Reducing common raven predation on desert tortoises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.

    2003-01-01

    Human communities often are an inadvertent source of food, water, and other resources to native species of wildlife. Because these resources are more stable and predictable than those in a natural environment, animals that subsist on them are able to increase in numbers and expand their range, much to the detriment of their competitors and species they prey upon. In the Mojave Desert, common ravens (Corvus corax) have benefited from human-provided resources to increase in population size precipitously in recent years. This trend has caused concern because ravens prey on juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally threatened species. In this paper, I discuss management strategies to reduce raven predation on desert tortoises. The recommendations fall into three categories: (1) managing raven populations by reducing access to anthropogenic resources; (2) removing offending ravens or other birds in specially targeted tortoise management zones; and (3) continuing research on raven ecology, raven behavior, and methods of reducing raven predation on tortoises. I also recommend approaching the problem within an adaptive management framework: management efforts should first be employed as scientific experiments - with replicates and controls - to yield an unbiased assessment of their effectiveness. Furthermore, these strategies should be implemented in concert with actions that reduce other causes of desert tortoise mortality to aid the long-term recovery of their populations. Overall, the approaches outlined in this paper are widely applicable to the management of subsidized predators, particularly where they present a threat to a declining species of prey.

  1. Contingent Work in the Late-1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, there were 5.6 million contingent workers; the number and proportion remained unchanged from 1997-1999. Contingency rate was highest for younger workers, part-time workers, women, blacks, and Hispanics. More than half would rather have noncontingent jobs. Compared with earlier data, they were more likely to have personal than economic…

  2. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  6. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  7. 9 CFR 2.134 - Contingency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contingency planning. 2.134 Section 2.134 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.134 Contingency planning. (a) Dealers,...

  8. 48 CFR 218.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... preparation for overseas contingency, humanitarian, or peacekeeping operations. See 213.270(c)(3) and (5). (4... humanitarian or peacekeeping operation may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase... threshold in support of a contingency operation or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation. See...

  9. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  10. Base Rates, Contingencies, and Prediction Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus; Avrahami, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A skew in the base rate of upcoming events can often provide a better cue for accurate predictions than a contingency between signals and events. The authors study prediction behavior and test people's sensitivity to both base rate and contingency; they also examine people's ability to compare the benefits of both for prediction. They formalize…

  11. Contingency Management in a Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    1971-01-01

    The individually prescribed instruction (IPI) system in use at Draper Correctional Center was studied. The IPI system for basic education involves five operations: (1) establishing the learning objectives--basic literacy, educational skills prerequisite for occupational training, preparation for the GED high school equivalency examination, etc.,…

  12. A new frontier in healthcare risk management: Working to reduce avoidable patient suffering.

    PubMed

    Card, Alan J; Klein, Victor R

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new avenue for healthcare risk managers to drive improvement for patients and healthcare organizations alike: working to reduce avoidable patient suffering. It briefly describes the problem of patient suffering, differentiates between avoidable and unavoidable suffering, and suggests that common risk management tools can be used to tackle the problem. It also highlights a success story from one large health system. PMID:26789746

  13. Does bacteriology laboratory automation reduce time to results and increase quality management?

    PubMed

    Dauwalder, O; Landrieve, L; Laurent, F; de Montclos, M; Vandenesch, F; Lina, G

    2016-03-01

    Due to reductions in financial and human resources, many microbiological laboratories have merged to build very large clinical microbiology laboratories, which allow the use of fully automated laboratory instruments. For clinical chemistry and haematology, automation has reduced the time to results and improved the management of laboratory quality. The aim of this review was to examine whether fully automated laboratory instruments for microbiology can reduce time to results and impact quality management. This study focused on solutions that are currently available, including the BD Kiestra™ Work Cell Automation and Total Lab Automation and the Copan WASPLab(®). PMID:26577142

  14. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  15. Effects of contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Chad E; Hirsch, Jameson K; Nelson, Lyndsay A; Nsamenang, Sheri A

    2014-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem, or self-worth hinged upon successfully meeting standards or attaining goals, requires continual maintenance and validation. Despite the inherent instability that accompanies contingent self-esteem, relatively little is known about how it relates to markers of mental health. A sample of 371 college students completed measures of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem, suicidal behaviors, and depression. Individuals with fragile low self-esteem, described as highly contingent, reported greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Among those with secure high self-esteem, or high yet noncontingent, depression and suicide risk were markedly lower. Therapeutically promoting positive but noncontingent self-worth may reduce poor mental health outcomes. PMID:24499415

  16. Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Eyal M; Loschky, Lester C; McConkie, George W; Stampe, David M

    2003-01-01

    Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays (GCMRDs) center high-resolution information on the user's gaze position, matching the user's area of interest (AOI). Image resolution and details outside the AOI are reduced, lowering the requirements for processing resources and transmission bandwidth in demanding display and imaging applications. This review provides a general framework within which GCMRD research can be integrated, evaluated, and guided. GCMRDs (or "moving windows") are analyzed in terms of (a) the nature of their images (i.e., "multiresolution," "variable resolution," "space variant," or "level of detail"), and (b) the movement of the AOI (i.e., "gaze contingent," "foveated," or "eye slaved"). We also synthesize the known human factors research on GCMRDs and point out important questions for future research and development. Actual or potential applications of this research include flight, medical, and driving simulators; virtual reality; remote piloting and teleoperation; infrared and indirect vision; image transmission and retrieval; telemedicine; video teleconferencing; and artificial vision systems. PMID:14529201

  17. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculat...

  18. Reducing the Environmental Risk of Pesticides: Implications of Management Practices in Agricultural Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables uses polyethylene (plastic) mulch to increase soil temperature, maintain soil moisture and reduce weed pressure. However, multiple applications of fungicides and insecticides are required, and rain events afford more runoff ...

  19. Reducing the transport of pesticides with runoff from fairway turf using management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical pollutants have been detected in surface waters of urban and rural areas. As a result, attempts are being made to identify the sources of these compounds and reduce their inputs. The use of pesticides in highly managed turf systems has raised questions concerning the contribution of runoff ...

  20. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  1. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  2. Management Practices Reduce Nutrient and Pesticide Loss with Runoff from Fairway Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess nutrients and multiple pesticides have been detected in surface waters of urban and rural areas; raising questions concerning their source, potential environmental and health effects and the need to reduce these chemical inputs. Fertilizers and pesticides are used in the management of home la...

  3. Reducing Pesticide and Nutrient Loads with Runoff from Fairway Turf Utilizing Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality surveys have detected excess nutrients and multiple pesticides in surface waters of urban and rural areas. As a result, attempts are being made to identify the sources of these compounds and reduce their inputs. The use of fertilizers and pesticides in highly managed turf systems has r...

  4. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  5. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  6. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan must... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan in accordance with part 112 of this...

  7. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contingent assets and... ACT General Instructions § 367.15 Contingent assets and liabilities. Contingent assets represent a possible source of value to the service company contingent upon the fulfillment of conditions regarded...

  8. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must...

  9. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be: (a) Maintained at the facility; and...

  10. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  12. 48 CFR 218.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in a contingency contracting force. See 201.603-2(2). (2) Policy for item unique identification. Contractors will not be required to provide DoD item unique identification if the items, as determined by...

  13. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  14. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  15. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  16. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency... requirements of this section those portions of Priority I, IA, or II regions which have been designated...

  17. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part II: Issues under federal employment and labor legislation.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses the effects of several key pieces of employment and labor legislation on the employment of contingent workers. PMID:20436333

  18. Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pruden, Amy; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action. PMID:23735422

  19. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides. PMID:17941735

  20. The historical contingency of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Kevles, D J

    2000-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics. PMID:11936137

  1. Nutrition and feed management strategies to reduce nutrient excretions and odors from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2004-01-01

    Manipulation of the pig's diet to reduce nutrient excretions and odors is feasible and practical. Avoiding excessive dietary protein, using high quality protein sources, and feeding low protein, amino acid supplemented diets are practices that will reduce the N in excreta. Avoiding excessive overages of dietary P, balancing diets on an available P basis, and use of phytase as a dietary supplement offers potential for further reducing the P in manure. Use of reduced or organic forms of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg will reduce excretion of these nutrients in manure. Feeding management technologies that will enhance feed efficiencies and reduce nutrient excretion include feeding for phase, sex and genetic ability of the animal. Reducing the intact protein levels in diets and balancing with synthetic amino acids, use of low levels of specific non-starch polysaccharides (NSP; soybean hulls, sugar beet pulp), and maintaining the proper acid-base balance and buffering in the diet can significantly reduce odorous compounds. Greater nutrient reductions may be possible through the development of specialty feed ingredients that will be used for specific animal diets. Research to fine-tune the diets for production systems is needed. PMID:15137450

  2. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws? PMID:26762897

  3. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  4. 5-HT modulation by acute tryptophan depletion of human instrumental contingency judgements

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Murphy, Robin A.; Clark, Luke; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The concept of ‘depressive realism’, that depression leads to more accurate perception of causal control, has been influential in the field of depression research, but remains controversial. Recent work testing contingency learning has suggested that contextual processing might determine realism-like effects. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT)), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, might also influence contextual processing. Using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), we tested the hypothesis that dysfunctional serotoninergic neurotransmission influences contingency judgements in dysphoric subjects via an effect on contextual processing. Materials and methods We employed a novel contingency learning task to obtain separate measures (ratings) of the causal effect of partcipants’ responses and efficacy of the background context over an outcome. Participants, without a history of depression, completed this task on and off ATD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design. Results As with other work on contingency learning, the effects of ATD were related to baseline mood levels. Although no overall effects of ATD were observed, the subgroup of participants with low Beck depression inventory (BDI) scores showed reduced ratings of contextual control and improved accuracy of contingency judgements under positive contingencies following ATD, compared to placebo. High BDI participants demonstrated low accuracy in contingency judgements, regardless of serotoninergic status. Conclusions No effect of ATD on contingency judgements was observed in the group as a whole, but effects were observed in a subgroup of participants with low BDI scores. We discuss these data in light of the context processing hypothesis, and prior research on 5-HT and depressive realism. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1934-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  5. Reducing Patient Clinical Management Errors Using Structured Content and Electronic Nursing Handover.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Sanchez, Paula; Zheng, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether an integrated nursing handover system-structured content and an electronic tool within the patient clinical information system with bedside delivery-would improve the quality of information delivered at nursing handover and reduce adverse patient outcomes. Using a pre/posttest evaluative design, improvements in the transfer of critical patient information and reductions in nursing clinical management incidents were demonstrated. No changes in falls or medication incident rates were identified. PMID:26796972

  6. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary. PMID:23586490

  7. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  8. Passive, Collapsible Contingency Urinal for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Fluid transport systems for spacecraft face acute challenges because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-gravity environment. IRPI, LLC, has developed a contingency wastewater collection and processing device that provides passive liquid collation, containment, bubble separation, and droplet coalescence functions. The lightweight, low-volume, low-cost, and potentially disposable device may be used for subsequent sampling, metering, storage, disposal, and/or reuse. The approach includes a fractal wetting design that incorporates smart capillary fluidics. This work could have a broad impact on capillary-based fluid management on spacecraft and on Earth.

  9. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares. PMID:25981406

  10. Increasing Teacher Delivery of Contingent Praise and Contingent Materials using Consultant Feedback and Praise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (1) broaden the range of teacher behaviors to include both the use of contingent praise and contingent educational materials; (2) present a procedure efficent in terms of demands on teacher and consultant time; and (3) illustrate the delivery of services using a behavioral consultation model. (BW)

  11. Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden within the Language of Contingency "Theory".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)

  12. Can a pain management programme approach reduce healthcare use? Stopping the revolving door.

    PubMed

    Clare, Ajay; Andiappan, Manoharan; MacNeil, Sarah; Bunton, Tamzin; Jarrett, Stephanie

    2013-08-01

    Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain are frequent users of healthcare. Whilst evidence suggests that a multidisciplinary pain management programme (PMP) approach is effective in reducing patients' levels of distress and disability, there is little research examining the cost-effectiveness of such an approach. The present study sought to address this by examining the impact a PMP had on patients' pain-related secondary care healthcare use. A 90.5% reduction in healthcare use was found 12 months after the PMP, compared with 12 months before the PMP. The cost of the pain-related healthcare use 12 months before the PMP was £35,700. Twelve months after the PMP, the cost of healthcare use had reduced to £3879. The findings suggest that a PMP approach could reduce pain-related healthcare use. PMID:26516513

  13. A case study in evolutionary contingency.

    PubMed

    Blount, Zachary D

    2016-08-01

    Biological evolution is a fundamentally historical phenomenon in which intertwined stochastic and deterministic processes shape lineages with long, continuous histories that exist in a changing world that has a history of its own. The degree to which these characteristics render evolution historically contingent, and evolutionary outcomes thereby unpredictably sensitive to history has been the subject of considerable debate in recent decades. Microbial evolution experiments have proven among the most fruitful means of empirically investigating the issue of historical contingency in evolution. One such experiment is the Escherichia coli Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE), in which twelve populations founded from the same clone of E. coli have evolved in parallel under identical conditions. Aerobic growth on citrate (Cit(+)), a novel trait for E. coli, evolved in one of these populations after more than 30,000 generations. Experimental replays of this population's evolution from various points in its history showed that the Cit(+) trait was historically contingent upon earlier mutations that potentiated the trait by rendering it mutationally accessible. Here I review this case of evolutionary contingency and discuss what it implies about the importance of historical contingency arising from the core processes of evolution. PMID:26787098

  14. CHANG'E-3 contingency scheme and trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Jian-feng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Song-jie; Tang, Ge-shi; Xie, Jian-feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses contingency trajectories of CHANG'E-3 in the case of a failure of the lunar brake, which is crucial to the CHANG'E-3 mission, i.e., the first Chinese lunar soft-landing and rover mission. Considering the flight-time and control-energy requirements placed on the contingency trajectories, the paper proposes a direct return method and a low-energy return method and develops the corresponding contingency trajectories based on the CHANG'E-3 cislunar transfer trajectory. The direct return method was studied on return style, flight time, control energy, and influence of maneuver time on energy. The low-energy return method was investigated using the method of invariant manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit, the method of direct libration-point orbit transfer and injection, and the control strategy used for a low-energy trajectory. The results demonstrate that the control energy for direct return trajectories can be reduced using a certain flight course. When a flight time of less than half of a month is desired, a trajectory from the north celestial pole should be selected as a lunar approach trajectory for CHANG'E-3. Otherwise, a trajectory from the south celestial pole should be selected. Furthermore, these two trajectories have approximately equal velocity increments if their flight-time difference is close to half of a month. In the case of the low-energy return method, methods using approximate manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit and the direct transfer and injection to a libration-point orbit are proposed and shown to be useful. CHANG'E-3 would return via the Sun-Earth L2 libration point and would require four maneuvers during its flight. The low-energy return method offers remarkable energy savings of up to 267 m/s compared to the direct return method. The methodology not only provides a contingency control technique for CHANG'E-3 and for future lunar missions, but it also serves as a beneficial supplement to the present studies

  15. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. PMID:23151459

  16. Increasing value and reducing waste in biomedical research regulation and management

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Beller, Elaine; Kagan, Jonathan; Hemminki, Elina; Phillips, Robert S; Savulescu, Julian; Macleod, Malcolm; Wisely, Janet; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-01

    After identification of an important research question and selection of an appropriate study design, waste can arise from the regulation, governance, and management of biomedical research. Obtaining regulatory and governance approval has become increasingly burdensome and disproportionate to the conceivable risks to research participants. Regulation and governance involve interventions that are assumed to be justified in the interests of patients and the public, but they can actually compromise these interests. Inefficient management of the procedural conduct of research is wasteful, especially if it results in poor recruitment and retention of participants in well designed studies addressing important questions. These sources of waste can be minimised if the following four recommendations are addressed. First, regulators should use their influence to reduce other causes of waste and inefficiency in research. Second, regulators and policy makers should work with researchers, patients, and health professionals to streamline and harmonise the laws, regulations, guidelines, and processes that govern whether and how research can be done, and ensure that they are proportionate to the plausible risks associated with the research. Third, researchers and research managers should increase the efficiency of recruitment, retention, data monitoring, and data sharing in research through use of research designs known to reduce inefficiencies, and further research should be done to learn how efficiency can be increased. Finally, everyone, particularly those responsible for health-care systems, should promote integration of research into everyday clinical practice. Regulators and researchers should monitor adherence to each of these recommendations and publish metrics. PMID:24411646

  17. Evaluation of management strategies for reducing nitrogen loadings to four US estuaries.

    PubMed

    Whitall, D; Castro, M; Driscoll, C

    2004-10-15

    In this study we used the Watershed Assessment Tool for Evaluating Reduction Strategies for Nitrogen (WATERSN) model to evaluate a variety of management strategies for reducing nitrogen (N) loads to four US east coast estuaries: Casco Bay, Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. These management strategies encompass reductions in atmospheric emissions and deposition of N from sources including, fossil fuel burning utility emissions and mobile NO(x) emissions, N treatment in wastewater and controls on agricultural N inputs. We find that in primarily urban watersheds biological removal of N in wastewater treatment produces the greatest reduction in N loading (32-57% reductions), while in less urban watersheds, reductions in agricultural loading are more effective (5-56% reductions) in decreasing N loads to coastal ecosystems. Because anthropogenic N inputs are derived from a variety of sources, we also examined an integrated scenario targeting all major N sources; this resulted in 35-58% reductions in N loading. Nitrogen pollution originates from multiple sources and is transported through several media (air, soil, water); a major challenge of the development of N management strategies will be the control of multiple sources to effectively reduce N loads to estuaries. PMID:15364517

  18. Tension between reducing sea-level rise and global warming through solar-radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.

    2012-02-01

    Geoengineering using solar-radiation management (SRM) is gaining interest as a potential strategy to reduce future climate change impacts. Basic physics and past observations suggest that reducing insolation will, on average, cool the Earth. It is uncertain, however, whether SRM can reduce climate change stressors such as sea-level rise or rates of surface air temperature change. Here we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantify the possible response of sea levels and surface air temperatures to projected climate forcings and SRM strategies. We find that SRM strategies introduce a potentially strong tension between the objectives to reduce (1) the rate of temperature change and (2) sea-level rise. This tension arises primarily because surface air temperatures respond faster to radiative forcings than sea levels. Our results show that the forcing required to stop sea-level rise could cause a rapid cooling with a rate similar to the peak business-as-usual warming rate. Furthermore, termination of SRM was found to produce warming rates up to five times greater than the maximum rates under the business-as-usual CO2 scenario, whereas sea-level rise rates were only 30% higher. Reducing these risks requires a slow phase-out of many decades and thus commits future generations.

  19. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20145467

  20. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20733412

  1. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color. PMID:26856050

  2. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PMID:23731028

  3. Waste management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickin, J. G.; Yuen, S. T. S.; Hennings, H.

    A lifecycle assessment to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from the paper cycle is summarised. The greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia in 1999/2000 were estimated to be 12.1 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 equivalent. Nearly half of this amount consisted of CH 4 emissions from landfilled waste paper. Various waste management options were modelled to investigate the greenhouse impact of a tonne of paper over its whole lifecycle. Options that keep paper out of landfills significantly reduce greenhouse emissions, waste-to-energy recovery being most effective. Recycling is also beneficial, and is of particular interest from a management perspective because it can be controlled by the pulp and paper industry. These findings can be extended to other wood-based and organic wastes.

  4. Data Mining to Improve Management and Reduce Costs Associated With Environmental Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Farrell, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, data from 105 soil and groundwater remediation projects at BP gas stations were mined for lessons to reduce cost and improve management of remediation sites. A data mining tool called D2K was used to train decision tree, stepwise linear regression and instance based weighting models that relate hydrogeologic, sociopolitical, temporal and remedial factors in the site closure reports to remediation cost. The most important factors influencing cost were found to be the amount of soil excavated and the number of wells installed, suggesting that better management of excavation and well placement could result in significant cost savings. The best model for predicting cost classes (low, medium, and high cost) was the decision tree which had a prediction accuracy of approximately 73%. The misclassification of approximately 27% of the sites in even the best model suggests that remediation costs at service stations are influenced by other site-specific factors that may be difficult to accurately predict in advance.

  5. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. PMID:22293018

  6. Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Ruberto, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of an intensive training protocol on levels of paraeducator fidelity to a group contingency intervention used to manage the classroom behavior of students with EBD. A multiple baseline design across classrooms was used to determine whether the training was associated with initial and sustained increases…

  7. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  8. 77 FR 66729 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to amend the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), to acknowledge advancements in technologies used to manage and convey information to the public. Specifically, this revision will add language to EPA regulations to broaden the technology, to include computer telecommunications or other electronic means, that the lead agency......

  9. A Systematic Evidence Review of School-Based Group Contingency Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Ruberto, Laura M.; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject…

  10. Planning Education Reforms in Developing Countries: The Contingency Approach. Duke Press Policy Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondinelli, Dennis A.; And Others

    Focusing on education improvement programs in developing countries, this book offers a set of guidelines for applying contingency theory in planning such projects and for selecting appropriate management strategies to implement them. The success of people-centered development programs depends on planners' ability to tailor services to different…

  11. Designing and Implementing Group Contingencies in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Jason C.; Gilmour, Allison F.

    2016-01-01

    Group contingencies are a positive, proactive classroom management technique that works well as Tier 1 of a multi-tiered system of behavior support. These programs are adaptable to student and classroom needs and work well to support the behavior of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Off-the-shelf programs exist, but…

  12. Biochar application reduces N2O emission in intensively managed temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is seen as an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce N2O emissions. Mainly used in highly weathered tropical soils, the interest of using biochar in intensively managed temperate soils is increasing. Our previous laboratory incubations have shown N2O reduction potentials of between 20 and 100% for temperate soils after biochar application (Felber et al., Biogeosciences Discuss, 2012). To assess the effect of biochar application under field conditions, a plot experiment (3 control vs. 3 biochar amended plots of 3x3 m size at a rate of 15 t ha-1) was set up in a temperate intensively managed grassland soil. N2O and CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured by static chambers under standard management practice over 8 months. In parallel soil samples were taken monthly from all plots and their N2O and CO2 productions were measured under controlled conditions in the lab. At the beginning of the field measurements (April 2011) cumulative N2O fluxes from biochar amended plots were above those of control plots, but the pattern reversed towards reduced fluxes from biochar plots after 3 months and the reduction reached about 15% by the end of 2011. The biochar effect on reducing N2O emissions in the laboratory was two times that of the field measurements, indicating that results from laboratory experiments are not directly transferable to field conditions. The experiments indicate a substantial N2O emission reduction potential of biochar in temperate grassland fields.

  13. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  14. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  15. Wind erosion reduces soil organic carbon sequestration falsely indicating ineffective management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Baldock, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    Improved management of agricultural land has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce atmospheric CO2 via soil carbon sequestration. However, SOC stocks are reduced by soil erosion which is commonly omitted from calculations of crop production, C cycling, C sequestration and C accounting. We used fields from the wind eroded dryland cropping region of Western Australia to demonstrate the global implications for C sequestration and C accounting of omitting soil erosion. For the fields we previously estimated mean net (1950s-1990) soil erosion of 1.2 ± 1.0 t ha-1 y-1. The mean net (1990-2013) soil erosion increased by nearly four times to 4.4 ± 2.1 t ha-1 y-1. Conservation agriculture has evidently not reduced wind erosion in this region. The mean net (1990-2013) SOC erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 across all sampled fields and similar to measured sequestration rates in the region (up to 0.5 t C ha-1 y-1; 10 years) for many management practices recommended for building SOC stocks. The minimum detectable change (MDC; 10 years) of SOC without erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 whilst the MDC of SOC with erosion was up to 0.4 t C ha-1 y-1. These results illustrate the generally applicable outcome: (i) if SOC erosion is equal to (or greater than) the increase in SOC due to management practices, the change will not be detectable (or a loss will be evident); (ii) without including soil erosion in SOC sequestration calculations, the monitoring of SOC stocks will lead to, at best the inability to detect change and, at worst the false impression that management practices have failed to store SOC. Furthermore, continued omission of soil erosion in crop production, C accounting and C sequestration will most likely undermine confidence in policy designed to encourage adoption of C farming and the attendant benefits for soil stewardship and food security.

  16. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  17. Your workers may be contingent but your liability for them is certain: Part III: other employment issues.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the concluding part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses additional issues including benefits, tax implications, workers' compensation, contract considerations, and the screening of potential staffing partners. PMID:20686392

  18. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p < 0.01), while private-based contingencies demonstrated a negative relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p < 0.001). Finally, the appearance contingency for self-worth had the strongest relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles. PMID:21329442

  19. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  20. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  1. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... attain the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date. The contingency measures must take effect...

  2. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... attain the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date. The contingency measures must take effect...

  3. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... attain the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date. The contingency measures must take effect...

  4. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... attain the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date. The contingency measures must take effect...

  5. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... attain the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date. The contingency measures must take effect...

  6. Reducing nitrogen loss with managed drainage and polymer-coated urea.

    PubMed

    Nash, Patrick; Nelson, Kelly; Motavalli, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Continuous corn ( L.) production during dry years combined with high N fertilizer rates can have a high potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water. Claypan soils can further increase the potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water due to the claypan layer that restricts N leaching below the tile drains. The objective of this 4-yr study was to determine whether use of managed subsurface drainage (MD) in combination with a controlled-release N fertilizer could reduce the annual amount of NO-N loss through tile drainage water compared with free subsurface tile drainage (FD) with a noncoated urea application. Due to dry conditions over the summer and fall months, MD reduced the annual amount of water drained by at least 73% compared with FD in two of the four crop years. Low N loss and reduced corn N uptake possibly resulted in carry-over N and high soil N concentrations throughout the study, which may have limited the effect of N fertilizer source on annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water. Use of MD reduced annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water by 78 to 85% in two of the four years. High NO-N loss reduction with MD compared with FD was largely due to dry growing season conditions in combination with wet conditions over the noncropping period. PMID:25602341

  7. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    PubMed

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed. PMID:18293611

  8. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-07-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  9. Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death and disability worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for clinically identifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as a host of other metabolic, sleep, and orthopedic disorders. Coordinated and systematic interventions are needed to manage obesity and reduce these risks. The Obesity 2 Expert Panel updated previous guidelines and produced the “Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.” The Panel used data from publications from years 1999 to 2011 to address five critical questions, provide evidence statements, and recommend creation of a treatment algorithm to guide decision making about clinical care. The current review discusses the evidence statements pertaining to CVD risk in the assessment and management of patients who are overweight and obese. We summarize the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of overweight and obesity and their impact on CVD risk and risk factors, as well as ongoing clinical trials which will further inform clinical practice. PMID:25092581

  10. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-12-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  11. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  12. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site. PMID:25566831

  13. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  14. Using Group Contingencies with Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen A.; Misra, Anjali

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses using a group contingency as a technique to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior of students with learning disabilities who are either in regular classrooms or special classes. The advantages and disadvantages of three types of group contingencies (dependent group contingency, independent group…

  15. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments, and contingent liabilities may...

  16. 7 CFR 1770.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 1770.25... BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.25 Unusual items and contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments and contingent liabilities shall be submitted to RUS for review before...

  17. 48 CFR 52.203-5 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contingent Fees. 52.203-5 Section 52.203-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.203-5 Covenant Against Contingent Fees. As prescribed in 3.404, insert the following clause: Covenant Against Contingent Fees (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor warrants that no person or agency has...

  18. 7 CFR 1488.18 - Covenant against contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covenant against contingent fees. 1488.18 Section... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.18 Covenant against contingent fees..., or contingent fee, except bona fide employees or bona fide established commercial or selling...

  19. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishermen's contingency fund. 296.3... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's contingency fund. (a) General. There is established in the Treasury of the United States the...

  20. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  1. Area contingency plan: Cleveland. (COTP Cleveland)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Cleveland Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Cleveland Coastal Zone.

  2. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  3. Fire! Anguish! Dumb Luck! or Contingency Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gordon H.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests nine requirements for a contingency plan to assure a library's successful recovery from a disaster. A discussion of the salvage team, security, and staff problems follows an enumeration of helpful supplies and equipment. Appended is a sample emergency procedure checklist. (SW)

  4. "Contingency" or "Career" Schedules for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Jessie

    1978-01-01

    The notion of contingency scheduling for women is presented in this discussion of how women schedule their futures--marriage, child-bearing, professional training, and career development--and how colleges and universities can be more responsive to their needs. (Author/AF)

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... presently known or unknown causes, the outcome of which is indeterminable at the present time. (b) Costs for contingencies are generally unallowable for historical costing purposes because such costing deals with costs... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations...

  6. The Contingency of Recasts and Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun; Fei, Fei; Roots, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Recasts are an important type of implicit negative feedback that has attracted much attention in both L1 research and SLA research. The utility of recasts in face-to-face interaction has been empirically established, and the contingency of recasts is argued to be the key. However, the efficacy of recasts in computer-mediated communication (CMC),…

  7. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  8. CAN CONTINGENT VALUATION MEASURE PASSIVE USE VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contingent valuation (CV) is the only method currently available for practically measuring passive-use values. Because proposed laws may require that environmental regulations pass a benefit-cost test, CV has become central to the policy debate on environmental protection. Crit...

  9. 7 CFR 457.9 - Appropriation contingency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriation contingency. 457.9 Section 457.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.9 Appropriation...

  10. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Goncalves, Fabio Leyser; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative…

  11. The Contingent Valuation Method in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present a new model measuring the economic value of public libraries, combining the dissonance minimizing (DM) and information bias minimizing (IBM) format in the contingent valuation (CV) surveys. The possible biases which are tied to the conventional CV surveys are reviewed. An empirical study is presented to compare the model…

  12. An Exploratory Contingency Model for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorton, David M.

    In an application of contingency theory, data from 45 Arizona schools were analyzed to determine the relationships between three sets of independent variables (organizational structure, leadership style, and environmental characteristics) and the dependent variable (organizational effectiveness as perceived by principals and teachers). Contingency…

  13. Triggers of Contingency in Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim; Thwaites, Anne; Jared, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Our research in the last decade has been into classroom situations that we perceive to make demands on mathematics teachers' disciplinary knowledge of content and pedagogy. Amongst the most visible of such situations are those that we describe as "contingent", in which a teacher is faced with some unexpected event, and challenged to…

  14. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  15. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  16. Contingent Take-Home Incentive: Effects on Drug Use of Methadone Maintenance Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined contingent methadone take-home privileges for effectiveness in reducing supplemental drug use of methadone maintenance patients. Assigned 53 new intakes to begin receiving take-home privileges after 2 consecutive weeks of drug-free urines or to noncontingent procedure in which take-homes were delivered independently of urine results.…

  17. Nurse Case Management and Housing Interventions Reduce Allergen Exposures: The Milwaukee Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Jill; Wendt, Jean; Dixon, Sherry; Murphy, Amy; Wilson, Jonathan; Meurer, John; Cohn, Jennifer; Jacobs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the impact of a combination of home environmental interventions and nurse case management services on total settled dust loadings and on allergen concentrations in the homes of asthmatic children. Methods Using a randomized longitudinal controlled trial study design, we randomly assigned homes of asthmatic children in Milwaukee to either a control (n=64) or an intervention (n=57) group. Control group homes received a visual assessment, education, bed/pillow dust mite encasings, and treatment of lead-based paint hazards. The intervention group received these same services plus nurse case management that included tailored, individual asthma action plans, provision of minor home repairs, home cleaning using special vacuuming and wet washing, and integrated pest management. Dust vacuum samples were collected from measured surface areas of floors in the TV room, kitchen, and child's bedroom at baseline and at three-, six-, and 12-month follow-up visits. Dust loading (mass per surface area) is a means of measuring total dust and the total amount of allergen present. Results For the intervention group, geometric mean dust loadings declined significantly from baseline (39 milligrams per square foot [mg/ft2]) to post-intervention (11 mg/ft2) (p<0.001). Baseline dust loading, treatment group, visit, and season were significant predictors of follow-up dust loadings. Mean post-intervention dust loadings were 72% higher in the control group. The total amount of allergen in settled house dust declined significantly following the intervention because total dust loading declined; the concentration of allergens in settled dust did not change significantly. Conclusion The combination of nurse case management and home environmental interventions promotes collaboration between health and housing professionals and is effective in reducing exposures to allergens in settled dust. PMID:21563716

  18. Nurse-led risk assessment/management clinics reduce predicted cardiac morbidity and mortality in claudicants.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Josephine; Gulati, Sumit; Abdul Rahman, Morhisham N A; Coughlin, Patrick A; Chetter, Ian C

    2008-12-01

    Nurse-led assessment/management of risk factors is effective in many chronic medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate whether this finding was true for patients with intermittent claudication and to analyze its impact on patient-reported quality of life and predicted mortality due to coronary heart disease. We prospectively studied a series of 78 patients (51 men; median age, 65 years [IQR: 56-74 years]), diagnosed with intermittent claudication and referred to a nurse-led risk assessment/management clinic (NLC) from a consultant-led vascular surgical clinic. The NLC used clinical care pathways to manage antiplatelet medication, smoking cessation, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes and to provide exercise advice. All patients were reassessed at a 3 months. Medication compliance, smoking status, fasting lipid profiles, blood pressure, and HbA1c were recorded. Disease-specific quality of life was assessed using King's College VascuQoL and predicted cardiac morbidity and mortality were calculated using the PROCAM and Framingham risk scores. We found that NLC enrollment produced an antiplatelet and a statin compliance of 100%, a smoking cessation rate of 17% (9 patients) and significant improvements in total cholesterol (median, 5.2-4.5 mmol/l), LDL (median, 3.1-2.5 mmol/l) and triglyceride (median, 1.7-1.4 mmol/l) levels. Significant disease-specific quality of life improvements and significant reduction in both the PROCAM (14% to 10%) and Framingham (14% to 11%) coronary risk scores were observed. Providing care at NLCs for claudicants is effective in assessing and managing risk factors, improves disease-specific quality of life and reduces predicted morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease. PMID:19022170

  19. Sealift model for contingency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.E.; McLaren, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    US military transportation is arranged by the three Transportation Operating Agencies (TOA). The Military Transportation Management Command, as the overall coordinator of movements, selects routes and modes of transport and prepares for the movements connections. The Military Airlift Command and the Military Sealift Command have the responsibility of matching requirements with lift resources. A prototype of a ship allocation and cargo scheduling model is now being developed and tested for the Military Sealift Command.

  20. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. PMID:24091158

  1. Reducing Overheating-Induced Failures Via Performance-Aware CPU Power Management.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.-H.; Feng, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    Cluster end-users and administrators have become more cognizant of the fact that large-scale commodity clusters fail quite frequently, and the main source of these failures is hardware (e.g., processors) with the primary cause being heat. This situation is expected to worsen with even larger-scale clusters powered by faster (and/or multicore) processors. In this paper, we propose a power-management algorithm that addresses heat-related reliability for processors by controlling their clock speeds in a performance-aware manner. This approach is complementary to existing approaches such as exotic cooling and fault-tolerant technologies in that it proactively deals with power and cooling issues before they become a problem. Our preliminary experimental work demonstrates that our approach can easily be applied commodity processors and can reduce heat generation by 30% on average with minimal effect on performance when running the SPEC benchmarks.

  2. Can Artificial Reef Wrecks Reduce Diver Impacts on Shipwrecks? The Management Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edney, Joanne; Spennemann, Dirk H. R.

    2015-08-01

    Managers have been advocating the use of artificial reef wrecks to diversify the experiences of recreational divers and thereby reduce the well-known impact on reefs. To examine whether artificial reef wrecks can serve as substitutes for historic shipwrecks this paper discusses the attitude of Australian divers to wreck diving in general and to artificial reef wrecks in particular. While the overwhelming majority of divers surveyed accepted the need for control, the experienced divers were less interested in artificial reef wrecks and less prepared to tolerate controls over their perceived freedom to dive wrecks. We present projections that show that this legacy issue will have largely resolved itself by 2025 due to attrition and natural ageing.

  3. Managing sedentary behavior to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Owen, Neville; Biddle, Stuart J H; Dunstan, David W

    2014-01-01

    Modern human environments are vastly different from those of our forebears. Rapidly advancing technology in transportation, communications, workplaces, and home entertainment confer a wealth of benefits, but increasingly come with costs to human health. Sedentary behavior-too much sitting as distinct from too little physical activity-contributes adversely to cardiometabolic health outcomes and premature mortality. Findings from observational epidemiology have been synthesized in meta-analyses, and evidence is now shifting into the realm of experimental trials with the aim of identifying novel mechanisms and potential causal relationships. We discuss recent observational and experimental evidence that makes a compelling case for reducing and breaking up prolonged sitting time in both the primary prevention and disease management contexts. We also highlight future research needs, the opportunities for developing targeted interventions, and the potential of population-wide initiatives designed to address too much sitting as a health risk. PMID:25052856

  4. Reduced Transfusion During OLT by POC Coagulation Management and TEG Functional Fibrinogen: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    De Pietri, Lesley; Ragusa, Francesca; Deleuterio, Annalisa; Begliomini, Bruno; Serra, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation are at high risk of bleeding complications. Several Authors have shown that thromboelastography (TEG)-based coagulation management and the administration of fibrinogen concentrate reduce the need for blood transfusion. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort observational study (Modena Polyclinic, Italy) on 386 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation. We assessed the impact on resource consumption and patient survival after the introduction of a new TEG-based transfusion algorithm, requiring also the introduction of the fibrinogen functional thromboelastography test and a maximum amplitude of functional fibrinogen thromboelastography transfusion cutoff (7 mm) to direct in administering fibrinogen (2012-2014, n = 118) compared with a purely TEG-based algorithm previously used (2005-2011, n = 268). Results After 2012, there was a significant decrease in the use of homologous blood (1502 ± 1376 vs 794 ± 717 mL, P < 0.001), fresh frozen plasma (537 ± 798 vs 98 ± 375 mL, P < 0.001), and platelets (158 ± 280 vs 75 ± 148 mL, P < 0.005), whereas the use of fibrinogen increased (0.1 ± 0.5 vs 1.4 ± 1.8 g, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between the 2 groups. Conclusions The implementation of a new coagulation management method featuring the addition of the fibrinogen functional thromboelastography test to the TEG test according to an algorithm which provides for the administration of fibrinogen has helped in reducing the need for transfusion in patients undergoing liver transplantation with no impact on their survival. PMID:27500243

  5. Improving Learning Results and Reducing Cognitive Load through 3D Courseware on Color Management and Inspection Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Liang-Yuan; Lai, Mu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to solve the problem that schools in Taiwan lack of the equipment for color management and inspection instruction and seek ways to improve learning results and reduce cognitive load. The researchers developed 3D courseware for color management and inspection through a research and development process. To further scrutinize the…

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-03-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO2-e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using /metric-ton CO2-e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment.

  7. Social risk management--reducing disparities in risk, vulnerability and poverty equitably.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005 and took 1,000 lives or more, was the third deadliest storm to hit the United States, falling behind only the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. It is New Orleans' worst natural disaster in its nearly 300-year history. The storm left hundreds of thousands without access to shelter, food, water, clothing and basic sanitation. The human suffering and health consequences are immeasurable. Dissatisfaction with the federal, national and local governments' planning and response is widespread. Many believe that the system discriminated cruelly by race and class against those in greatest need. The storm revealed serious flaws in disaster relief and preparedness structures, which require major reform. As an alternative, this article proposes a social risk management system to provide both universal risk protection and an efficient, more equitable approach to managing and reducing disparities in vulnerability. While one must realize that incremental rather than comprehensive reform of the system is most likely and most politically feasible, Katrina's horrific consequences and revealed inequities necessitate an alternative model. PMID:18592885

  8. Surveillance recommendations in reducing risk of and optimally managing breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Ostby, Pamela L; Armer, Jane M; Dale, Paul S; Van Loo, Margaret J; Wilbanks, Cassie L; Stewart, Bob R

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  9. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Ostby, Pamela L.; Armer, Jane M.; Dale, Paul S.; Van Loo, Margaret J.; Wilbanks, Cassie L.; Stewart, Bob R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  10. Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements. PMID:22859864

  11. Improving water management practices to reduce nutrient export from rice paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Yao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Zhao-De; Xu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Yong; Czapar, George F; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from rice paddy fields represents a significant threat to water quality in China. In this project, three irrigation-drainage regimes were compared, including one conventional irrigation-drainage regime, i.e. continuous submergence regime (CSR), and two improved regimes, i.e. the alternating submergence-nonsubmergence regime (ASNR) and the zero-drainage irrigation technology (ZDIT), to seek cost-effective practices for reducing nutrient loss. The data from these comparisons showed that, excluding the nutrient input from irrigation, the net exports of total N and total P via surface field drainage ranged from -3.93 to 2.39 kg ha and 0.17 to 0.95 g ha(-1) under the CSR operation, respectively, while N loss was -2.46 to -2.23 kg ha(-1) and P export was -0.65 to 0.31 kg ha(-1) under the improved regimes. The intensity of P export was positively correlated to the rate of P application. Reducing the draining frequency or postponing the draining operation would shift the ecological role of the paddy field from a nutrient export source to an interception sink when ASNR or the zero-drainage water management was used. In addition, since the rice yields are being guaranteed at no additional cost, the improved irrigation-drainage operations would have economic as well as environmental benefits. PMID:21473282

  12. Reducing surgery in management of spontaneous abortions. Family physicians can make a difference.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E.; Janssen, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of physician and patient education in reducing the rate of surgery in management of spontaneous abortions in family practice. DESIGN: A before-after intervention trial. SETTING: Urban and suburban family doctors' practices in greater Vancouver, BC. PARTICIPANTS: Family practice patients (56 physicians contributed 417 patients) who had spontaneous abortions between June 1997 and August 1998. INTERVENTIONS: Seminars for doctors and educational pamphlets for patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of surgeries, and rates of referrals and complications. RESULTS: In the 2 years before the intervention, the rate of surgery was 45.8% (n = 299); after, it was 32.2% (n = 118). No transfusions were required. Before the intervention, 17% of women had hemorrhages; after, 13%. Rates of infection were 3.7% and 0.8%, respectively. Rates of referral to gynecologists were 54.0% and 40.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients of family doctors who attended seminars and agreed to join the study had significantly reduced rates of surgery after spontaneous abortions. Rates of referral for these patients were also lower, and there was no increase in complications. PMID:10540696

  13. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical models were developed for describing and testing temperature and humidity parameters for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. A factor was included for analyzing systems operating at low (10-101.3 kPa) pressure to reduce gas leakage and structural mass (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for space application). The expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity was observed, along with the importance of heat exchanger coil temperature and air circulation rate. The presence of plants in closed habitats results in increased water flux through the system. Changes in pressure affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and change convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. A consistent observation from studies with plants at reduced pressures is increased evapotranspiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status is a critical factor for managing low-pressure production systems. The approach suggested should help space mission planners design artificial environments in closed habitats.

  14. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent. PMID:25957753

  15. Implications of chronic wasting disease, cougar predation, and reduced recruitment for elk management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Weber, D.C.; Roddy, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging diseases and expanding carnivore populations may have profound implications for ungulate harvest management and population regulation. To better understand effects of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and cougar (Puma concolor) predation, we studied mortality and recruitment of elk (Cervus elaphus) at Wind Cave National Park (WICA) during 2005-2009. We marked 202 elk (83 subadult M and 119 subadult and ad F) with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, observed 28 deaths during 74,220 days of monitoring, and investigated 42 additional deaths of unmarked elk found dead. Survival rates were similar for males and females and averaged 0.863 (SE = 0.025) annually. Leading causes of mortality included hunting (0.065, SE = 0.019), CWD (0.034, SE = 0.012), and cougar predation (0.029, SE = 0.012). Marked elk killed by hunters and cougars typically were in good physical condition and not infected with CWD. Effects of mortality on population growth were exacerbated by low rates of pregnancy (subadults = 9.5%, SE = 6.6%; ad = 76.9%, SE = 4.2%) and perinatal survival (0.49, SE = 0.085 from 1 Feb to 1 Sep). Chronic wasting disease, increased predation, and reduced recruitment reduced the rate of increase for elk at WICA to approximately ?? = 1.00 (SE = 0.027) during the past decade. Lower rates of increase are mitigating effects of elk on park vegetation, other wildlife, and neighboring lands and will facilitate population control, but may reduce opportunities for elk hunting outside the park. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Valuing nonmarket goods through contingent markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, F.J.

    1982-09-01

    This paper estimates the extent and significance of three biases associated with contingent market analysis - strategic bias, information bias, and interviewer bias. The contingent market analyzed is that for improved water quality. The values households place on improved water quality are obtained from a random sample of almost 2000 households in the Washington, DC metropolitan reach of the Potomac River. Thus, the analysis also provides information necessary to select the optimal level of water quality. The findings indicate that the value attached to improved water quality is substantially higher than that estimated in prior studies. Findings support the hypothesis that respondents engaged in strategic behavior. Respondents who were given incentives to bias their revealed value downward were found to have mean bids significant lower than households who were given incentives to bias their revealed values upward. In addition, statistically significant evidence supporting the existence of both information and interviewer bias was found.

  17. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  18. Oil, biological communities and contingency planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

  19. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. PMID:20152890

  20. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides technical support to the requesting federal agency such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Defense, the National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), or a state agency to address the radiological consequences of an event. These activities include measures to alleviate damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused by the incident; protect public health and safety; restore essential government services; and provide emergency assistance to those affected. Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2009, Mars Science Laboratory is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Mars Science Laboratory is a rover that will assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's "habitability." The Mars Science Laboratory rover will carry a radioisotope power system that generates electricity from the heat of plutonium's radioactive decay. This power source gives the mission an operating lifespan on Mars' surface of a full Martian year (687 Earth days) or more, while also providing significantly greater mobility and operational flexibility, enhanced science payload capability, and exploration of a much larger range of latitudes and altitudes than was possible on previous missions to Mars. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the DOE in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. NSTec is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment

  1. Reduced-Order Models for Load Management in the Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh

    In recent years, considerable research efforts have been directed towards designing control schemes that can leverage the inherent flexibility of electricity demand that is not tapped into in today's electricity markets. It is expected that these control schemes will be carried out by for-profit entities referred to as aggregators that operate at the edge of the power grid network. While the aggregator control problem is receiving much attention, more high-level questions of how these aggregators should plan their market participation, interact with the main grid and with each other, remain rather understudied. Answering these questions requires a large-scale model for the aggregate flexibility that can be harnessed from the a population of customers, particularly for residences and small businesses. The contribution of this thesis towards this goal is divided into three parts: In Chapter 3, a reduced-order model for a large population of heterogeneous appliances is provided by clustering load profiles that share similar degrees of freedom together. The use of such reduced-order model for system planning and optimal market decision making requires a foresighted approximation of the number of appliances that will join each cluster. Thus, Chapter 4 provides a systematic framework to generate such forecasts for the case of Electric Vehicles, based on real-world battery charging data. While these two chapters set aside the economic side that is naturally involved with participation in demand response programs and mainly focus on the control problem, Chapter 5 is dedicated to the study of optimal pricing mechanisms in order to recruit heterogeneous customers in a demand response program in which an aggregator can directly manage their appliances' load under their specified preferences. Prices are proportional to the wholesale market savings that can result from each recruitment event.

  2. Reduced fine sediment flux in response to the managed diversion of an upland river channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M. T.; Warburton, J.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a novel mitigation approach and subsequent adaptive management, designed to reduce the transfer of fine sediment in Glaisdale Beck; a small upland catchment in the UK. Hydro-meteorological and suspended sediment datasets are collected over a two year period spanning pre- and post-diversion periods in order to assess the impact of the channel reconfiguration scheme on the fluvial suspended sediment dynamics. Analysis of the river response demonstrates that the fluvial sediment system has become more restrictive with reduced fine sediment transfer. This is characterised by reductions in flow-weighted mean suspended sediment concentrations from 77.93 mg L-1 prior to mitigation, to 74.36 mg L-1 following the diversion. A Mann-Whitney U test found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) between the pre- and post-monitoring median SSCs. Whilst application of one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the coefficients of sediment rating curves developed before and after the diversion found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001), with both Log a and b coefficients becoming smaller following the diversion. Non-parametric analysis indicates a reduction in residuals through time (p < 0.001), with the developed LOWESS model over-predicting sediment concentrations as the channel stabilises. However, the channel is continuing to adjust to the reconfigured morphology, with evidence of a headward propagating knickpoint which has migrated 120 m at an exponentially decreasing rate over the last 7 years since diversion. The study demonstrates that channel reconfiguration can be effective in mitigating fine sediment flux in upland streams but the full value of this may take many years to achieve whilst the fluvial system, slowly readjusts.

  3. Health management with reduced antibiotic use - the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Baker, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Since World War II the use of antimicrobial products associated with food animal production has increased. Antimicrobials along with evolving production practices have significantly increased throughput, animal welfare, and improved health. Concerns surrounding the growing significance of emerging and in some cases rapidly disseminating antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistant bacterial pathogens among human and livestock populations has stimulated a reassessment of this application. The negative publicity has led many consumers and activist groups to believe that protein derived from food animals grown in the absence of those drugs is safer than products derived from the conventionally reared. There is a general fear that antimicrobial usage in agriculture threatens the sustainability of human therapeutic agents and the public wellbeing. The issue has gradually emerged from "fringe group paranoia" to mainstream - finally impacting consumer choices. Antimicrobial resistance concerns have stimulated a significant reaction by the US animal agriculture industry. Numerous pig production entities, large and small, have attempted to create additional pork product value by developing niche marketing opportunities. Thus far most of the subtherapeutic in-feed antimicrobial reduction has been voluntary in the US. Two production areas have developed where reduced usage occurs. First is the growth of antibiotic free production (ABF) and second is an increased use of treatment levels which avoids subtherapeutic criticism. The bulk of this article is directed at new production practices, pig health management, disease elimination, and biosecurity efforts that result from early industry attempts at reduced or excluded antimicrobial pig production. Raising antimicrobial (antibiotic) free (ABF) pork from birth is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these challenges can be cost effectively dealt with while others are difficult if not impossible to control in modern production

  4. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. PMID:25644838

  5. Possible land management uses of common cypress to reduce wildfire initiation risk: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Hernando, C; Madrigal, J; Danti, R; Moya, J; Guijarro, M; Pecchioli, A; Moya, B

    2015-08-15

    Accurate determination of flammability is required in order to improve knowledge about vegetation fire risk. Study of the flammability of different plant species is essential for the Mediterranean area, where most ecosystems are adapted to natural fire but vulnerable to recurrent human-induced fires, which are the main cause of forest degradation. However, the methods used to evaluate vegetation flammability have not yet been standardized. Cupressus sempervirens is a native or naturalized forest tree species in the Mediterranean area that is able to tolerate prolonged drought and high temperatures. The aim of this study was to characterize the flammability of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis at particle level by using different bench-scale calorimetry techniques (mass loss calorimeter, epiradiator and oxygen bomb) to determine the main flammability descriptors (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability) in live crown and litter samples. Our findings indicate that this variety of cypress is relatively resistant to ignition because of the high ash content, the high critical heat flux, the high time to ignition displayed by both crown and litter samples and the ability of the leaves to maintain a high water content during the summer. We also discuss the possibility of exploiting some morphological, functional and ecological traits of the species to construct a barrier system (with selected varieties of cypress) as a promising complementary land management tool to reduce the fire spread and intensity in a Mediterranean context. PMID:26046989

  6. Longitudinal annoyance responses to a road traffic noise management strategy that reduced heavy vehicles at night.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L

    2015-01-01

    A traffic management strategy was designed to reduce trucks using an urban corridor. The intervention had potential to affect night-time truck flows, but did not target truck traffic in the day, or vehicles other than trucks at any hour. A two-year long panel study measured the community's response to this intervention, using five repeated measurements of response. There were significant reductions in the panel's response to noise, both for night-time annoyance and for interference with activities. This was remarkable given that noise monitoring showed that the intervention produced no change in conventional traffic noise indicators. However, there were measureable changes in the number of articulated truck movements at night, and the benefit can be attributed to reduction in the number of noise events from heavy vehicles. The parallel tracking of changes in reported noise effects and the numbers of heavy vehicles in the night hours in this longitudinal study provides strong support to the notion that noise effects at night depend on the number of noise events experienced, not only on the overall level of traffic noise. The latter appear to be unresponsive indicators by which to assess the noise-effect benefit of heavy vehicle reduction strategies. PMID:25618048

  7. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  8. The differential influences of positive affect, random reward, and performance-contingent reward on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive affect and reward have differential effects on cognitive control. So far, however, these effects have never been studied together. Here, the authors present one behavioral study investigating the influences of positive affect and reward (contingent and noncontingent) on proactive control. A modified version of the AX-continuous performance task, which has repeatedly been shown to be sensitive to reward and affect manipulations, was used. In a first phase, two experimental groups received either neutral or positive affective pictures before every trial. In a second phase, the two halves of a given affect group additionally received, respectively, performance-contingent or random rewards. The results replicated the typical affect effect, in terms of reduced proactive control under positive as compared to neutral affect. Also, the typical reward effects associated with increased proactive control were replicated. Most interestingly, performance-contingent reward counteracted the positive affect effect, whereas random reward mirrored that effect. In sum, this study provides first evidence that performance-contingent reward, on the one hand, and positive affect and performance-noncontingent reward, on the other hand, have oppositional effects on cognitive control: Only performance-contingent reward showed a motivational effect in terms of a strategy shift toward increased proactive control, whereas positive affect alone and performance-noncontingent reward reduced proactive control. Moreover, the integrative design of this study revealed the vulnerability of positive affect effects to motivational manipulations. The results are discussed with respect to current neuroscientific theories of the effects of dopamine on affect, reward, and cognitive control. PMID:24659000

  9. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  10. Religious behaviors as strategies for organizing groups of people: A social contingency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    A social contingency analysis of religion is presented, arguing that individual religious behaviors are principally maintained by the many powerful benefits of participating in social groups rather than by any immediate or obvious consequences of the religious behaviors. Six common strategies are outlined that can shape the behaviors of large groups of people. More specifically, religious behavior is shaped and maintained by making already-existing contingencies contingent upon low-probability, but socially beneficial, group behaviors. Many specific examples of religious themes are then analyzed in terms of these common strategies for social shaping, including taboos, rituals, totems, personal religious crises, and symbolic expression. For example, a common view is that people are anxious about life, death, and the unknown, and that the direct function of religious behaviors is to provide escape from such anxiety. Such an explanation is instead reversed—that any such anxiety is utilized or created by groups through having escape contingent upon members performing less probable behaviors that nonetheless provide important benefits to most individual group members. These generalized beneficial outcomes, rather than escape from anxiety, maintain the religious behaviors and this fits with observations that religions typically act to increase anxiety rather than to reduce it. An implication of this theory is that there is no difference in principle between religious and nonreligious social control, and it is demonstrated that the same social strategies are utilized in both contexts, although religion has been the more historically important form of social control. PMID:22478297

  11. Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Esme V; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background An estimated two-thirds of the world's 3.2 million stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to labour, and are often overlooked in policy and programs. Poorly recognised, untreated or inadequately treated maternal infections such as syphilis and malaria, and maternal conditions including hypertensive disorders, are known risk factors for stillbirth. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the evidence for 16 antenatal interventions with the potential to prevent stillbirths. We searched a range of sources including PubMed and the Cochrane Library. For interventions with prior Cochrane reviews, we conducted additional meta-analyses including eligible newer randomised controlled trials following the Cochrane protocol. We focused on interventions deliverable at the community level in low-/middle-income countries, where the burden of stillbirths is greatest. Results Few of the studies we included reported stillbirth as an outcome; most that did were underpowered to assess this outcome. While Cochrane reviews or meta-analyses were available for many interventions, few focused on stillbirth or perinatal mortality as outcomes, and evidence was frequently conflicting. Several interventions showed clear evidence of impact on stillbirths, including heparin therapy for certain maternal indications; syphilis screening and treatment; and insecticide-treated bed nets for prevention of malaria. Other interventions, such as management of obstetric intrahepatic cholestasis, maternal anti-helminthic treatment, and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, showed promising impact on stillbirth rates but require confirmatory studies. Several interventions reduced known risk factors for stillbirth (e.g., anti-hypertensive drugs for chronic hypertension), yet failed to show statistically significant impact on stillbirth or perinatal mortality rates. Periodontal disease emerged as a clear risk factor for stillbirth but no interventions have reduced stillbirth rates

  12. Reducing diabetes disparities through the implementation of a community health worker-led diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Walton, James W; Snead, Christine A; Collinsworth, Ashley W; Schmidt, Kathryn L

    2012-01-01

    Disparities in prevalence of type 2 diabetes and complications in underserved populations have been linked to poor quality of care including lack of access to diabetes management programs. Interventions utilizing community health workers (CHWs) to assist with diabetes management have demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes. Use of CHWs may be an effective model for providing care coordination and reducing disparities, but there is limited knowledge on how to implement this model on a large scale. This article describes how an integrated health care system implemented a CHW-led diabetes self-management education program targeting Hispanic patients and reports lessons learned from the first 18 months of operation. PMID:22367263

  13. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to

  14. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  15. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  16. Synergi and E&P forum HSE management system helps companies improve HSE performance and reduce losses

    SciTech Connect

    Grundt, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the use of information on accidents and near-misses to improve HSE performance and reduce losses in Exploration and Production activities. Incidents are considered a result of management system failure. To avoid incidents and recurrence of incidents, companies should adopt an integrated HSE Management System and software especially designed for recording, analyzing and following up events. The E&P Forum has issued guidelines to support current company HSE Management systems and practices. Concurrently, the Synergi Project has been established to facilitate experience transfer and effective handling of incidents as part of an integrated HSE Management System. The paper describes how important it is to learn from past mistakes, to have a management system which facilitates the implementation of the required corrective action, and that tools for improved loss control are available.

  17. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  18. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  19. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  20. Hedging contingent claims on defaultable assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beumee, Johan G. B.

    2001-02-01

    Following the JLT model (Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull), this paper represents a defaultable asset as a continuous stochastic process plus a Poisson jump modelling the bankruptcy event. It is shown that if the recovery condition is known beforehand, a contingent claim can be hedged by a position in the defaultable asset and a risk-free instrument. In addition, the claim must satisfy a jump-diffusion equation and a risk-neutral representation is obtained using this equation. Examples include the price of a risky zero-coupon bond with a fixed recovery value and the prices of risky Call/Put options on corporate instruments (instrument terminates upon default).

  1. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  2. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  3. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  4. Projectizing the development and/or maintenance process for emergency response/contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    A. A. Francis

    2000-07-01

    The attainment of established goals and objects is essential and paramount for all successful projects in business and industry, including the development and/or maintenance of emergency response/contingency plans. The need for effective project management is an ongoing effort. As with any aspect of business, better ways of managing projects have been and are being developed. Those organizations that take the lead in implementing these capabilities consistently perform their projects better, and in the case of emergency management, provide better protection to employees, property, and the environment.

  5. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  6. Design of Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables: A Resource Management Perspective on Complete and Reduced Factorial Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct an experiment with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy.…

  7. Contingent cooperation between wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Dorothy L; Moscovice, Liza R; Heesen, Marlies; Mundry, Roger; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-05-25

    The apparent rarity of contingent cooperation in animals has convinced many investigators that such reciprocity is unimportant, stimulating consideration of alternative explanations for cooperation, such as by-product mutualism and biological markets motivated by the likelihood of immediate reward. Nevertheless, there is also limited evidence that animals do sometimes rely on memory of recent interactions when behaving altruistically toward others. Here we describe a playback experiment conducted on wild female baboons, suggesting that contingent cooperation may occur among unrelated individuals, even when there is a temporal delay between the two cooperative acts. Hearing the recruitment call of an unrelated recent grooming partner caused subjects to move in the direction of the loudspeaker and approach their former partner, particularly when this partner had an infant. When the subject and her partner were close kin no such effect was observed. Subjects' responses were not influenced by any type of recent interaction, because prior grooming and prior aggression influenced their behavior in qualitatively different ways. Similarly, their responses were not prompted only by the motivation to resume friendly interactions, because prior grooming alone did not elicit approach. Instead, subjects were most likely to approach their former grooming partner when they had also heard her recruitment call. Results suggest that at least some forms of cooperation in animals may be based on memory of specific recent interactions. PMID:20457901

  8. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Araujo Silva, Maria; Leyser Gonçalves, Fábio; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative stimuli, responses, and consequences. This paper is aimed at highlighting exemplar instances in the development of this issue. It has long been known that the electrical stimulation of certain cerebral areas can have a reinforcing function. Extraordinary technological advances in recent years show that neural activity can be selected by consequences. For example, the activity of in vitro isolated neurons that receive dopamine as a reinforcer functions as a cellular analogue of operant conditioning. The in vivo activity of populations of neurons of rats and monkeys can be recorded on an instant-to-instant basis and can then be used to move mechanical arms or track a target as a function of consequences. Neural stimulation acts as a discriminative stimulus for operant responses that are in turn maintained by neural consequences. Together with investigations on the molecular basis of classical conditioning, those studies are examples of possibilities that are being created for the study of behavior–environment interactions within the organism. More important, they show that, as an element in the three-term contingency, neural activity follows the same laws as other events. PMID:22478485

  9. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bochkarev, V.; Solovyev, V.; Wichmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution. PMID:25274040

  10. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. A Special Report from the Center for Community College Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Part-time faculty teach approximately 58% of U.S. community college classes and thus manage learning experiences for more than half (53%) of students enrolled in community colleges (JBL Associates, 2008). Often referred to as "contingent faculty," their work is conditional; the college typically has no obligation to them beyond the…

  11. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  12. Environmental Management: A Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Vince-Whitman, Cheryl; Colthurst, Tom; Cretella, Maggie; Gilbreath, Michael; Rosati, Michael; Zweig, Karen

    This guide presents a comprehensive strategy, called "environmental management," for alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention in institutions of higher education. The environmental management approach utilizes, in addition to educational programs, changes in the physical, social, economic, and legal environment accomplished through a combination of…

  13. Use of Turf Management Practices to Reduce Nutrient and Pesticide Loads with Runoff from Fairway Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of fertilizers and pesticides in highly managed turf systems has raised questions concerning their off-site transport to surrounding areas. To address these questions we designed experiments to measure the quantity of fertilizers and pesticides transported with runoff from turf plots managed...

  14. Reducing CH4 emission from rice paddy fields by altering water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Itoh, M.

    2010-12-01

    Percentage of atmospheric methane emitted form rice paddy is estimated at 60Tg/yr (20 - 100Tg/yr) which is near 10% of total global methane emission of 535Tg/yr (410 - 660Tg) (IPCC(1995), and which is near 30% of anthropogenic CH4 emission. Thus, mitigation of CH4 emission is urgently required. CH4 in paddy soil is emanated by the activities of anaerobic bacteria which is called methane producer through reduction of CO2 or decomposition of acetic acid, and it is transported to atmosphere through soil or paddy water surface. It is effective to control methane emission from rice paddy that period is extended on intermittent drainage, composted rice straw is incorporated as fertilizer instead of flesh one, or other. However, empirical approach of these kinds of experiments had not been sufficient because such a kind of experiment required significant times and efforts. In this study, we conducted demonstrative experiments to verify the effects of water management method differences in order to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddy at 9 experimental sites in 8 prefectures. In this, we used new gas analyzer which can measure CH4, CO2 and N2O at once developed by National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), Japan. In this report, we show the results in two years of this study. 'Nakaboshi' (mid-season-drainage) is one of cultivation methods in rice paddy that surface water in paddy field is once drained for about 10 days and the field is maintained like upland field to give adequate stress to rice plant for better harvest qualities and yields. Our targeted evaluation was dependencies of Nakaboshi periods lengths and Nakaboshi periods to CH4 emission reduction amounts for total cultivation periods within harvest yield maintained. The longer length of Nakaboshi period was extended, the lesser CH4 emitted even after when Nakaboshi period lasted, as a whole. In some cases, for example in Kagoshima, exceptional phenomena of that significant high emission were

  15. Medication Management in Schools: A Systems Approach to Reducing Risk and Strengthening Quality in School Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper and the invitational meeting for which it has been prepared make certain assumptions about the challenge of strengthening the quality of medication management in school. The participants believe that recent research on improving the safety and quality of patient care has relevance for health services in school, particularly the safety…

  16. Safe Schools: Unified Emergency Contingency Plan for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Police, Springfield.

    This contingency plan is intended to stimulate emergency planning and provide an organizational tool for Illinois schools to use in the development of individual emergency plans. It may accommodate and complement a school's current contingency plan and will allow for the inclusion of additional material concerning school safety. It is intended as…

  17. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  18. An Experimental Test of the Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemers, Martin M.; Skrzypek, George J.

    The present experiment provided a test of Fiedler's (1967) Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, i.e., the relationship of leader style to group effectiveness is mediated by situational demands. Thirty-two 4 man task groups composed of military academy cadets were run in the experiment. In accordance with the Contingency Model, leaders…

  19. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal contingency plans. 300.210 Section 300.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness...

  20. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  1. Universalistic and Contingency Predictions of Employee Satisfaction and Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Robert; Werbel, James

    1979-01-01

    Reviews contingency and universalistic theoretical rationales linking satisfaction and conflict to organic and mechanistic styles of structure and control. Results indicate that contingency variables are frequently as good as, or even better than, universalistic variables as predictors of satisfaction and conflict. (Author/IRT)

  2. The Dependence Structure of Conditional Probabilities in a Contingency Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Al-Sabah, Walid S.

    2002-01-01

    Conditional probability and statistical independence can be better explained with contingency tables. In this note some special cases of 2 x 2 contingency tables are considered. In turn an interesting insight into statistical dependence as well as independence of events is obtained.

  3. Flexible Workstyles: A Look at Contingent Labor. Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at a conference on contingent labor sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor. The first two sections are introductory: (1) "Introduction to the Role of Contingent Labor" (Kathleen Christensen, Mary Murphree); and (2) "Between Now and the Year 2000: A Glimpse of the Workplace" (Jill Houghton…

  4. At the Crossroads: Attention, Contingency Awareness, and Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Halbeisen, Georg; Weil, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (US). One of the most debated topics in EC research is whether or not EC is dependent on contingency awareness. In this study, we go beyond this debate by examining whether contingency awareness…

  5. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  6. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4 Section 1.1275-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1275-4 Contingent payment debt instruments....

  7. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal contingency plans. 300.210 Section 300.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness...

  8. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  9. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  10. 12 CFR 741.12 - Liquidity and contingency funding plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liquidity and contingency funding plans. 741.12 Section 741.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... resolutions to obtain credit from a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to 12 CFR part 201. (d) Contingency......

  11. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4... Contingent payment debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any debt instrument that provides for one or more...

  12. Contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation - a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Ottensmeyer, D J; Smith, H L; Porter, J

    1983-08-01

    The medical profession has experienced high liability insurance premiums accompanied by widespread use of contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation. It is worthwhile, therefore, to assess qualitatively the merits of contingent fees, the evidence suggesting that they are associated with unjustified litigation and their implications for the medical and legal professions. PMID:6636743

  13. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  14. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    PubMed Central

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  15. Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in Eleven Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but the community-common or community-specific nature of key features of their vocal interactions remains unclear. Here we examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and United States). Rates of mothers’ and infants’ vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing across communities mothers vocalized to infants contingent on the offset of their infants’ nondistress vocalizing, infants vocalized contingent on the offset of their mothers’ vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated, pointing to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is common across communities, supporting essential functions of turn-taking in early child socialization. PMID:26133571

  16. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    SciTech Connect

    Purdie, J.

    1995-09-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

  17. Role of health sector contingency plan in emergency preparedness and response: Orissa experiences.

    PubMed

    Biswas, R; Dasgupta, A

    2009-01-01

    A study was organized to orient the district level health sector disaster managers to review, revise and update the health sector contingency plan (HSCP) against common natural calamities, followed by its execution and evaluation. An inter-state 3 days workshop was organized at Kolkata during the month of October 2004 to review the district level HSCP and its execution in 5 (five) worst affected districts. The District Health Officers, in consultation with the investigators, revised and updated the HSCP. Thereafter, status survey was conducted to examine the implementation of the contingency plan. During flood, the HSCP was found to be followed in the districts. Control room, construction/identification of flood shelter, sanitation and other preventive measures were taken care of, with an exception of Kendra Para, where lack of man power was noted. Technical support, trained manpower, relief materials, ambulance, Communication and information system were present in all the 5 (five) districts. PMID:20108889

  18. Reducing energy costs at state agencies and institutions in Texas through the Governor's energy management center

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The one year internship required for partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Engineering Degree was completed at the Governor's Energy Management Center in Austin, Texas. The intern worked for the State Agencies Department of the Energy Management Center. The intern was involved in a variety of projects, but the primary projects requiring the greatest time were the involvement with the design reviews for energy efficiency of new prisons being constructed in Texas, conducting energy management audits at 18 major state universities, and the technical and administrative assistance to the State Cogeneration Council. Other project involvement included managing the preliminary engineering design of the cogeneration facility at Austin State Hospital, responsibility for applying for a $1.4 million dollar crude oil refund on the behalf of all state agencies in Texas, and assisting in the planning and coordination of the $48 million Revolving Loan Program for the state of Texas. The internship taught many things about management and communications. The experience also provided a better understanding of how the state and federal government operate. The greatest contribution of the internship experience was the improvement of the intern's written and oral communication skills.

  19. Contingency designs for attitude determination of TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Markley, F. Landis; Ha, Kong

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, several attitude estimation designs are developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. A contingency attitude determination mode is required in the event of a primary sensor failure. The final design utilizes a full sixth-order Kalman filter. However, due to initial software concerns, the need to investigate simpler designs was required. The algorithms presented in this paper can be utilized in place of a full Kalman filter, and require less computational burden. These algorithms are based on filtered deterministic approaches and simplified Kalman filter approaches. Comparative performances of all designs are shown by simulating the TRMM spacecraft in mission mode. Comparisons of the simulation results indicate that comparable accuracy with respect to a full Kalman filter design is possible.

  20. Reducing the distance: providing challenging and engaging online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Health professionals need access to flexible, high-quality, advanced education in pain management. 2. There are multiple pedagogical distances to be negotiated in the delivery of effective postgraduate education. 3. A critical consideration in the design and delivery of effective online learning for postgraduate education in pain management is how to: actively engage students in the learning process; and encourage students to become lifelong learners. 4. Conceptual frameworks for encouraging student interaction online provide a useful tool in the design of postgraduate online learning activities. PMID:26516472

  1. Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicides are the foundation of weed control in commercial crop production. However, herbicide-resistant weed populations are developing rapidly in response to selection pressure. Critical practices include reducing selection through diversification of weed control techniques, minimizing spread of ...

  2. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Postma, Merel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Hogeveen, Henk; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and economic performance. As an alternative, improved management practices based on biosecurity and vaccinations have been proven useful to reduce antimicrobial use without lowering productivity, but issues with insufficient experimental design possibilities have hindered economic analysis. In the present study a quasi-experimental approach was used for assessing the economic impact of reduction of antimicrobial use coupled with improved management strategies, particularly biosecurity strategies. The research was performed on farrow-to-finish pig farms in Flanders (northern region of Belgium). First, to account for technological progress and to avoid selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare data on technical parameters. The treatment group (n=48) participated in an intervention study whose aim was to improve management practices to reduce the need for use of antimicrobials. Before and after the change in management, data were collected on the technical parameters, biosecurity status, antimicrobial use, and vaccinations. Treated farms were matched without replacement with control farms (n=69), obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network, to estimate the difference in differences (DID) of the technical parameters. Second, the technical parameters' DID, together with the estimated costs of the management intervention and the price volatility of the feed, meat of the finisher pigs, and piglets served as a basis for modelling the profit of 11 virtual farrow-to-finish pig farms representative of the Flemish sector. Costs incurred by new biosecurity measures (median +€3.96/sow/year), and new vaccinations (median €0.00/sow/year) did not exceed the cost reduction

  3. Strategic Management of ELT in Public Educational Systems: Trying to Reduce Failure, Increase Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Paul

    2009-01-01

    English as a foreign/second language teaching (ELT) is notably successful in some national public educational systems and unsuccessful in others. Holland, Singapore and Sweden are outstanding examples of great success in the strategic management of ELT in their public educational systems. General failures abound, particularly in countries that…

  4. Risk Management: How School Districts Can Identify Risks, Reduce Losses, and Conserve Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    1993-01-01

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. School administrators are continually being challenged to develop new strategies to safeguard their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to protect an organization's assets, both human and financial, from all…

  5. Working to Reduce the Effects of Discrimination: Identity Management Strategies in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J.; Bucher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity…

  6. Debriefing Can Reduce Misperceptions of Feedback: The Case of Renewable Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of misperception of feedback, people's poor performance in renewable resource management tasks can be attributed to their general tendency to systematically misperceive the dynamics of bioeconomic systems. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping individuals develop more…

  7. Understanding and Reducing the Impact of Defensiveness on Management Learning: Some Lessons from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmer, Leanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurosciences have expanded our understanding of the role of the "old" brain in generating defensive reactions to threat. Because the learning and practice of management skills pose various forms of threat to would-be practitioners, the question of how individuals respond to threat and how this affects their ability to learn has also…

  8. Prefire (preemptive) management to decrease fire-induced bunchgrass mortality and reduce reliance on postfire seeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western rangelands are currently under severe threat from exotic annual grasses. To successfully manage rangelands that are either infested with or susceptible to exotic annual grasses, we must focus on increasing resilience to disturbance and resistance to exotic annual grass invasion. Here, we p...

  9. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  10. Lack of cross-scale linkages reduces robustness of community-based fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Basurto, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Community-based management and the establishment of marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as means to overcome overexploitation of fisheries. Yet, researchers and managers are divided regarding the effectiveness of these measures. The "tragedy of the commons" model is often accepted as a universal paradigm, which assumes that unless managed by the State or privatized, common-pool resources are inevitably overexploited due to conflicts between the self-interest of individuals and the goals of a group as a whole. Under this paradigm, the emergence and maintenance of effective community-based efforts that include cooperative risky decisions as the establishment of marine reserves could not occur. In this paper, we question these assumptions and show that outcomes of commons dilemmas can be complex and scale-dependent. We studied the evolution and effectiveness of a community-based management effort to establish, monitor, and enforce a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Our findings build on social and ecological research before (1997-2001), during (2002) and after (2003-2004) the establishment of marine reserves, which included participant observation in >100 fishing trips and meetings, interviews, as well as fishery dependent and independent monitoring. We found that locally crafted and enforced harvesting rules led to a rapid increase in resource abundance. Nevertheless, news about this increase spread quickly at a regional scale, resulting in poaching from outsiders and a subsequent rapid cascading effect on fishing resources and locally-designed rule compliance. We show that cooperation for management of common-pool fisheries, in which marine reserves form a core component of the system, can emerge, evolve rapidly, and be effective at a local scale even in recently organized fisheries. Stakeholder participation in monitoring, where there is a rapid feedback of the systems response, can play a key role in reinforcing cooperation

  11. Sodium chlorate reduces presence of Escherichia coli in feces of lambs and ewes managed in shed-lambing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to establish doses of orally-administered NaClO3 that reduced presence of generic Escherichia coli in intestines of ewes and neonatal lambs managed in a shed-lambing system. Neonatal lambs (n = 32; age = 7.1 ± 1.2 d; BW = 6.8 ± 1.0 kg) and yearling ewes (n = 44; BW = 74.8 ± 5.6 kg)...

  12. Contingency Power Study for Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Angelo, Marin M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has concluded from previous studies that the twin engine tiltrotor is the most economical and technologically viable rotorcraft for near-term civil applications. Twin engine civil rotorcraft must be able to hover safely on one engine in an emergency. This emergency power requirement generally results in engines 20 to 50 percent larger than needed for normal engine operation, negatively impacting aircraft economics. This study identifies several contingency power enhancement concepts, and quantifies their potential to reduce aircraft operating costs. Many unique concepts were examined, and the selected concepts are simple, reliable, and have a high potential for near term realization. These engine concepts allow extremely high turbine temperatures during emergency operation by providing cooling to the power turbine and augmenting cooling of both turbines and structural hardware. Direct operating cost are reduced 3 to percent, which could yield a 30 to 80 percent increase in operating profits. The study consists of the definition of an aircraft economics model and a baseline engine, and an engine concept screening study, and a preliminary definition of the selected concepts. The selected concepts are evaluated against the baseline engine, and the critical technologies and development needs are identified, along with applications for this technology.

  13. Gradual extinction reduces reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Shiban, Youssef; Wittmann, Jasmin; Weißinger, Mara; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day 2) were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE) and gradual extinction (GE) procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms). A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli (CS). The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response, SCR and startle response). There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. GE compared to SE significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for SCR or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the GE process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction. PMID:26441581

  14. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  15. Telehealth interventions to reduce management complications in type 1 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Balkhi, Amanda M; Reid, Adam M; Westen, Sarah C; Olsen, Brian; Janicke, David M; Geffken, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness with a high burden of care. While effective interventions and recommendations for diabetes care exist, the intensive nature of diabetes management makes compliance difficult. This is especially true in children and adolescents as they have unique psychosocial and diabetes needs. Despite the development of effective in-person interventions targeting improving self-management and ameliorating psychosocial difficulties there are still a number of barriers to implementing these interventions, namely time, cost, and access. Telehealth interventions allow for the dissemination of these interventions to a broader audience. Self-management and psychosocial telehealth interventions are reviewed with a special emphasis on mobile phone and internet based technology use. While efficacy has been demonstrated in a number of telehealth interventions with improved cost effectiveness over in-person interventions, many challenges remain including high participant attrition and difficulties with receiving reimbursement for services rendered. These and other challenges are discussed with recommendations for researchers and telehealth providers provided. PMID:25897348

  16. Managing Medical Costs by Reducing Demand for Services: The Missing Element in Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Edward K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that higher education institutions can play a major role in health care reform by providing campus cultures that foster healthy lifestyle choices and in turn reduce medical costs. Specific issues discussed include elimination of unnecessary tests, focus on special high-risk populations, and use of advance directives. (MSE)

  17. Improvements in Care and Reduced Self-Management Barriers Among Rural Patients With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Nancy; Flook, Benjamin N.; Pessl, Erich; Quesenberry, Kim; Loh, Johnson; Harris, Colleen; McDowall, Janet M.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Improved preventive care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes can reduce complications and costs; however, diabetes care continues to be suboptimal. Few studies have described effective strategies for improving care among rural populations with diabetes. In 2000, the Park County Diabetes Project and the Montana Diabetes Control…

  18. Corn and soybean rotation under reduced tillage management: impacts on soil properties, yield, and net return

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-yr field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating corn and soybean under reduced tillage conditions on soil properties, yields, and net return. The six rotation systems were continuous corn (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), corn-soybean (CSCS),...

  19. Best Nitrogen Management Practices Can Reduce the Potential Flux of Nitrogen Out of the Arkansas Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been reported that nitrogen losses in the Arkansas Delta can contribute to the flux of nitrogen into the Mississippi River Basin, which can in turn contribute to the nitrate load that the hypoxia problem in the Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to. Developing effective methods of reducing th...

  20. Cover crop use for weed management in Southern reduced-tillage vegetable cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With growing agricultural demands from both conventional and organic systems comes the need for sustainable practices to ensure long-term productivity. Implementation of reduced- or no-till practices offers a number of environmental benefits for agricultural land and maintains adequate yield for cu...

  1. Contingency Experiences of 3-Month-Old Children and Their Relation to Later Developmental Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Keller, Heidi; Lissmann, Ilka; Ball, Juliane; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relation between early social contingency experiences and infants' competencies to detect nonsocial contingencies. In this study of 87 three-month-old infants, the authors operationalized early social contingencies as prompt, contingent maternal responses and coded microanalytically on the basis of…

  2. 40 CFR 267.54 - When must I amend the contingency plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I amend the contingency plan... STANDARDIZED PERMIT Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 267.54 When must I amend the contingency plan? You must review, and immediately amend the contingency plan, if necessary, whenever: (a) The...

  3. 25 CFR 39.503 - How can a school use contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a school use contingency funds? 39.503 Section 39.503 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.503 How can a school use contingency funds? Contingency funds can...

  4. 25 CFR 39.502 - How does a school apply for contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a school apply for contingency funds? 39.502... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.502 How does a school apply for contingency funds? To apply for contingency funds, a school must send a request to the ELO. The ELO must send the request to the Director...

  5. 25 CFR 39.501 - What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency? 39.501... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.501 What is an emergency or unforeseen contingency? An emergency or unforeseen contingency is an event that meets all of the following criteria: (a) It could not be planned...

  6. 25 CFR 39.500 - What emergency and contingency funds are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What emergency and contingency funds are available? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Contingency Fund § 39.500 What emergency and contingency funds are available... unforeseen contingencies affecting educational programs; (b) Can carry over to the next fiscal year a...

  7. Failure detection and recovery in the assembly/contingency subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1993-12-01

    The Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) is the primary communications link on board the Space Station. Any failure in a component of this system or in the external devices through which it communicates with ground-based systems will isolate the Station. The ACS software design includes a failure management capability (ACFM) that provides protocols for failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR). The the ACFM design requirements as outlined in the current ACS software requirements specification document are reviewed. The activities carried out in this review include: (1) an informal, but thorough, end-to-end failure mode and effects analysis of the proposed software architecture for the ACFM; and (2) a prototype of the ACFM software, implemented as a C program under the UNIX operating system. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the FDIR protocols specified in the ACS design and the specifications themselves in light of their use in implementing the ACFM. The basis of failure detection in the ACFM is the loss of signal between the ground and the Station, which (under the appropriate circumstances) will initiate recovery to restore communications. This recovery involves the reconfiguration of the ACS to either a backup set of components or to a degraded communications mode. The initiation of recovery depends largely on the criticality of the failure mode, which is defined by tables in the ACFM and can be modified to provide a measure of flexibility in recovery procedures.

  8. Failure detection and recovery in the assembly/contingency subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) is the primary communications link on board the Space Station. Any failure in a component of this system or in the external devices through which it communicates with ground-based systems will isolate the Station. The ACS software design includes a failure management capability (ACFM) that provides protocols for failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR). The the ACFM design requirements as outlined in the current ACS software requirements specification document are reviewed. The activities carried out in this review include: (1) an informal, but thorough, end-to-end failure mode and effects analysis of the proposed software architecture for the ACFM; and (2) a prototype of the ACFM software, implemented as a C program under the UNIX operating system. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the FDIR protocols specified in the ACS design and the specifications themselves in light of their use in implementing the ACFM. The basis of failure detection in the ACFM is the loss of signal between the ground and the Station, which (under the appropriate circumstances) will initiate recovery to restore communications. This recovery involves the reconfiguration of the ACS to either a backup set of components or to a degraded communications mode. The initiation of recovery depends largely on the criticality of the failure mode, which is defined by tables in the ACFM and can be modified to provide a measure of flexibility in recovery procedures.

  9. Collaborative Care Management Reduces Disparities in Dementia Care Quality for Caregivers with Less Education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Arleen F.; Vassar, Stefanie D.; Connor, Karen I.; Vickrey, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower educational attainment among informal caregivers’ may be associated with poorer outcomes for patients with dementia. OBJECTIVE To examine educational gradients in dementia care and whether the effect of a dementia collaborative care management intervention varied by the educational attainment of the informal caregiver. DESIGN Analysis of data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING Eighteen clinics across 3 healthcare organizations in Southern California. PARTICIPANTS Dyads of Medicare recipients, ages 65 years and older with a diagnosis of dementia, and an eligible caregiver. INTERVENTION Collaborative care management for dementia. MEASUREMENTS 1) Caregiver educational attainment, 2) adherence to four dimensions of guideline-recommended processes of dementia care: Assessment, Treatment, Education/Support, and Safety pre- and post-intervention, and 3) the adjusted intervention effect (IE) for each dimension stratified by caregiver education. Each IE was estimated by subtracting the difference between pre- and post-intervention scores for the usual care participants from the difference in the intervention participants. RESULTS At baseline, caregivers with lower educational attainment had lower guideline-recommended processes of dementia care for the Treatment and Education dimensions than those with more education. However, less educated caregivers had significantly more improvement after the intervention on the Assessment, Treatment, and Safety dimensions. The IEs for those who had not graduated from high school compared to college graduates were 44.4 vs. 29.5 for the Assessment dimension (P<0.001), 36.9 vs. 15.7 for the Treatment dimension (P<0.001), and 52.7 vs. 40.9 for the Safety Dimension (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Collaborative care management was associated with reductions in disparities in dementia care quality among caregivers with lower educational attainment relative to more educated caregivers. PMID:23320655

  10. A management strategy to reduce bacterial pollution in shellfish areas: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Stuart R.; Moore, James A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of bacterial pollution in shellfishing areas is not uncommon in the coastal regions of the United States. Bacterial contamination from man's activities can effectively reduce our natural shellfish resource areas by forcing their closure because of high potential risk of diseases being spread by shellfish harvested in these areas. Tillamook Bay, a relatively small, enclosed drainage basin of nonurban character, presents an excellent study area for observing this problem. The high population density of animals, raised on a relatively small floodplain area, represents one of the major sources of pollution in the bay. This paper summarizes the history of the agencies involved with the problem and presents the current approach to alleviate bacterial pollution in the bay without unduly penalizing other industries in the Tillamook basin. The paper also presents some of the legal aspects of reducing water pollution in shellfish harvesting areas and the jurisdiction of federal agencies in these matters. Finally, recommendations are given to reduce bacterial output by the major source categories in the basin, and criteria for bay closure to shellfish harvest are developed to protect the public from bacterially contaminated shellfish.

  11. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  12. 34 CFR 685.209 - Income contingent repayment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... principal. (c) Other features of the income contingent repayment plan—(1) Alternative documentation of... AGI does not reasonably reflect the borrower's current income, the Secretary may use other... and second year borrowers. The Secretary requires alternative documentation of income from...

  13. 34 CFR 685.209 - Income contingent repayment plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... principal. (c) Other features of the income contingent repayment plan—(1) Alternative documentation of... AGI does not reasonably reflect the borrower's current income, the Secretary may use other... and second year borrowers. The Secretary requires alternative documentation of income from...

  14. Application of Cray XMT for Power Grid Contingency Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Huang, Zhenyu

    2009-05-07

    Contingency analysis is a key function to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures. It involves combinatorial numbers of contingencies which exceed the capability of even very large supercomputing platforms. Therefore, it is critical to select contingency cases within the constraint of computing power. This paper presents a contingency selection method employing graph theory (edge betweenness centrality) to power grid weighted graphs to remove low-impact components. The parallel implementation of the method was successfully carried out on the Cray XMT machine. The implementation takes advantage of the superior capabilities of the Cray XMT for graph-based problems and its programming features. This paper presents the performance scalability of Cray XMT and comparison with a cache-based, shared-memory machine.

  15. Integrated Demonstration of Instrument Placement , Robust Execution and Contingent Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Bualat, M.; Lees, D.; Smith, D. E.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Washington, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated demonstration of ground-based contingent planning, robust execution and autonomous instrument placement for the efficient exploration of a site by a prototype Mars rover.

  16. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  17. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... payments in writing before contract award (see 225.7307(a)). (2) For FMS to countries not listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this subsection, contingent fees exceeding $50,000 per FMS case are unallowable under...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... payments in writing before contract award (see 225.7307(a)). (2) For FMS to countries not listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this subsection, contingent fees exceeding $50,000 per FMS case are unallowable under...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... payments in writing before contract award (see 225.7307(a)). (2) For FMS to countries not listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this subsection, contingent fees exceeding $50,000 per FMS case are unallowable under...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7303-4 - Contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... payments in writing before contract award (see 225.7307(a)). (2) For FMS to countries not listed in paragraph (b)(1) of this subsection, contingent fees exceeding $50,000 per FMS case are unallowable under...