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Sample records for continuous long-term immunomodulatory

  1. Developing Continuity through Long-Term Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a project that set out to explore teachers' engagement with the issue of continuity in teaching, learning, and assessment as a central dimension of transition. The project revealed that teachers are deeply concerned with questions such as what progress students are making and how to maximise students' learning in the short and…

  2. Continued support of long-term research - cullars rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cullars Rotation (circa 1911) is the oldest continuous soil fertility study in the Southern U.S. In commemoration of the 2011 Centennial Year for this experiment, a comprehensive Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin was published covering the first 100 years of this experiment. (http...

  3. Factors Associated with the Effectiveness of Continuing Education in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolee, Paul; Esbaugh, Jacquelin; Aylward, Sandra; Cathers, Tamzin; Harvey, David P.; Hillier, Loretta M.; Keat, Nancy; Feightner, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines factors within the long-term-care work environment that impact the effectiveness of continuing education. Design & Methods: In Study 1, focus group interviews were conducted with staff and management from urban and rural long-term-care facilities in southwestern Ontario to identify their perceptions of the workplace…

  4. Effectiveness of Continuing Education in Long-Term Care: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Sandra; Stolee, Paul; Keat, Nancy; Johncox, Van

    2003-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the effectiveness of continuing education programs in long-term care facilities. Because of the lack of follow-up evaluation, there is minimal evidence that knowledge gained from training programs in sustained in the long term. Concludes that there is a need for further rigorous research on the effectiveness…

  5. Volunteerism as Purpose: Examining the Long-Term Predictors of Continued Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Carolyn; Mueller, Conrad T.; Ogata, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    This study frames continued long-term participation in community engagement activities as indicative of a sense of "purpose" as defined by Damon, Menon, and Cotton Bronk (2003). Using data from US-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined factors that predict whether students participating in civic engagement activities…

  6. Episodic but not continuous hypoxia elicits long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baker, T L; Mitchell, G S

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia elicits long-term facilitation (LTF) of phrenic motor output in anaesthetized rats. We tested the hypothesis that an equal cumulative duration of continuous hypoxia would not elicit phrenic LTF. Integrated phrenic nerve activity was recorded in urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and ventilated rats exposed to: (1) 3 × 3 min hypoxic episodes (inspired O2 fraction (FI,O2) = 0.11) separated by 5 min hyperoxia (FI,O2 = 0.5; n = 6), (2) 9 min continuous hypoxia (n = 6), or (3) 20 min continuous hypoxia (n = 7). Isocapnia was maintained throughout the protocol. Consistent with previous studies, phrenic amplitude was significantly elevated for at least 1 h following intermittent hypoxia (78 ± 15% 60 min post-hypoxia; P < 0.05) with an associated increase in burst frequency (11 ± 2.1 bursts min−1; P < 0.05). In contrast, 9 or 20 min continuous hypoxia did not elicit LTF of either phrenic amplitude (4.7 ± 5.1 and 10.1 ± 10.2% 60 min post-hypoxia, respectively; P > 0.05) or frequency (4.6 ± 1.3 and 5.1 ± 2 bursts min−1 60 min post-hypoxia, respectively; P > 0.05). The results indicate that hypoxia-induced long-term facilitation of phrenic motor output is sensitive to the pattern of hypoxic exposure in anaesthetized rats. PMID:11080263

  7. [Impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population in soybean rhizosphere].

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Xu, Yan-Li; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Si-Jia; Li, S

    2014-02-01

    The impact of long-term continuous cropping on the Fusarium population abundance and diversity, pathogenicity and phylogeny in soybean field were analyzed by using isolation, morphological identification, pathogenicity test, sequencing analysis and molecular marker with restricted fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The soybean field was located at the Hailun Experimental Station of Agricultural Ecology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Northeast China and had been under a long-term rotation experiment designed to two treatments, i. e., long-term continuous cropping (LCC) of soybean for 20 years and short-term continuous cropping (SCC) for 3 years. In SCC field, the population density of Fusarium spp. was 6.0 x 10(4) CFU x g(-1), in which F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. verticillioides possessing high pathogenicity and F. solani possessing moderate pathogenicity were the dominant species. In LCC field, the population density of Fusarium population and the dominance index of dominant species were significantly lower than that in SCC. The population density of F. oxysporum, F. graminearum and F. solani were only 36% , 32% and 22% of that in SCC, and F. verticillioide with highest pathogenicity was absent. The diversity and evenness index of Fusarium population were significantly higher than that in SCC. F. tricinctum, F. lateritium and F. avenaceum, just isolated from LCC, possessing a distant genetic relationship with Fusarium isolates possessing high pathogenicity based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1alpha) gene, were non-pathogenicity for soybean. Thus, it seemed that LCC of soybean could cause the inhibition of soil Fusarium population size, alteration of Fusarium community composition and genetic diversity, and even the decline of pathogenicity for soybean root rot disease of Fusarium population. PMID:24830251

  8. The long-term risk of continuous immunosuppression using thioguanides in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anthony; Qasim, Asghar; O'Moráin, Colm A.

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of thiopurine treatment in the induction, and especially maintenance, of remission in inflammatory bowel disease is well proven; however, it is associated with side effects in both medium and long-term use. The potential harmful effects may be anticipated and minimised by due diligence prior to commencing these drugs followed by close monitoring of haematological and biochemical parameters once started. Careful clinical examination and history taking are also essential. Affected patients are expected to lead lives that include travel, employment and pregnancy — the implications of continued thiopurine therapy in such patients are discussed. PMID:23251725

  9. Gas-generating polymeric microspheres for long-term and continuous in vivo ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Su; Kang, Eunah; Koo, Heebeom; Lee, Jaeyoung; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Park, Rang-Woon; Kim, In-San; Choi, Youngseok; Kwon, Ick Chan; Han, Moonhee

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most common biomedical imaging methods, due to the easy assessment and noninvasive way. For more precise and accurate US imaging, many contrast agents have been developed in a form of microbubbles composed of inner gas and shell materials. However, microbubbles showed undesirable short half-life under acoustic field during US imaging and insufficient in vivo stability in blood flow due to diffusion or bubble destruction. Therefore, the improvement of the half-life and stability of microbubbles under in vivo condition is highly needed for long-term in vivo US imaging. Herein, we developed rationally designed gas-generating polymeric microsphere (GGPM) that can produce microbubbles without encapsulation of gas for long-term and continuous US imaging. The poly(cholesteryl γ-butyrolactone-b-propylene oxide), poly(CB-PO), with carbonate side chains was synthesized as gas-generating polymer by ring-opening polymerization of cholestryl γ-butyrolactone (CB) and propylene oxide (PO). As optimal structure for intense US signal generation, porous GGPMs (p-GGPMs) with the average size about 3-5 μm were prepared with poly(CB-PO) by double emulsion method. These p-GGPMs generated continuous US signals over 70 min, while the signals from Sonovue(®), a commercial US contrast agent were completely attenuated within 15 min. This long-term signal duration of p-GGPM was also reproduced when they were subcutaneously injected under the skin of mouse. Moreover, as advanced in vivo application, the fine US imaging of heart in rat was enabled by intravenous injection of p-GGPM. Therefore, these overall results showed the great potential of p-GGPM as gas-generating US contrast agent for in vivo biomedical imaging and diagnosis. PMID:22050793

  10. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed. PMID:20378494

  11. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  12. Long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as bridge to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Matteo; Giraud, Raphaël; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Meyer, Philippe; Obadia, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Heart transplantation (HTx) is the treatment of choice for end-stage heart failure but the limited availability of heart’s donors still represents a major issue. So long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been proposed as an alternative treatment option to assist patients scheduled on HTx waiting list bridging them for a variable time period to cardiac transplantation—the so-called bridge-to-transplantation (BTT) strategy. Nowadays approximately 90% of patients being considered for MCS receive a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). In fact, LVAD experienced several improvements in the last decade and the predominance of continuous-flow over pulsatile-flow technology has been evident since 2008. The aim of the present report is to give an overview of continuous-flow LVAD utilization in the specific setting of the BTT strategy taking into consideration the most representative articles of the scientific literature and focusing the attention on the evolution, clinical outcomes, relevant implications on the HTx strategy and future perspectives of the continuous-flow LVAD technology. PMID:25922736

  13. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality analysis using continuous measurements in a French urban catchment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Siao; Barraud, Sylvie; Castebrunet, Hélène; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-11-15

    The assessment of urban stormwater quantity and quality is important for evaluating and controlling the impact of the stormwater to natural water and environment. This study mainly addresses long-term evolution of stormwater quantity and quality in a French urban catchment using continuous measured data from 2004 to 2011. Storm event-based data series are obtained (716 rainfall events and 521 runoff events are available) from measured continuous time series. The Mann-Kendall test is applied to these event-based data series for trend detection. A lack of trend is found in rainfall and an increasing trend in runoff is detected. As a result, an increasing trend is present in the runoff coefficient, likely due to growing imperviousness of the catchment caused by urbanization. The event mean concentration of the total suspended solid (TSS) in stormwater does not present a trend, whereas the event load of TSS has an increasing tendency, which is attributed to the increasing event runoff volume. Uncertainty analysis suggests that the major uncertainty in trend detection results lies in uncertainty due to available data. A lack of events due to missing data leads to dramatically increased uncertainty in trend detection results. In contrast, measurement uncertainty in time series data plays a trivial role. The intra-event distribution of TSS is studied based on both M(V) curves and pollutant concentrations of absolute runoff volumes. The trend detection test reveals no significant change in intra-event distributions of TSS in the studied catchment. PMID:26370780

  14. A controlled investigation of continuing pain education for long-term care staff

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari, Omeed O; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Thorpe, Lilian; Alfano, Dennis P; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Malloy, David C; Martin, Ronald R; Rahaman, Omar; Zwakhalen, Sandra MG; Carleton, R Nicholas; Hunter, Paulette V; Lix, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The underassessment and undertreatment of pain in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented. Gaps in staff knowledge and inaccurate beliefs have been identified as contributors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of an expert-based continuing education program in pain assessment/management for LTC staff. METHODS: Participants included 131 LTC staff members who were randomly assigned to either an interactive pain education (PE) program, which addressed gaps in knowledge such as medication management, or an interactive control program consisting of general dementia education without a specific clinical focus. Participants attended three sessions, each lasting 3 h, and completed measures of pain-related knowledge and attitudes/beliefs before, immediately after and two weeks following the program. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to gauge perception of the training program and barriers to implementing pain-related strategies. RESULTS: Analysis using ANOVA revealed that PE participants demonstrated larger gains compared with control participants with regard to pain knowledge and pain beliefs. Barriers to implementing pain-related strategies certainly exist. Nonetheless, qualitative analyses demonstrated that PE participants reported that they overcame many of these barriers and used pain management strategies four times more frequently than control participants. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous research, the present study found that the interactive PE program was effective in changing pain beliefs and improving knowledge. Continuing PE in LTC has the potential to address knowledge gaps among front-line LTC providers. PMID:23457681

  15. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  16. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  17. A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, J; Krieg, N; Vogel, W M

    1987-01-01

    A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients is presented. The method is noninvasive and may be applied in a clinical setting over a period of several days without adversely affecting the patient's wellbeing. The set-up was designed exclusively as a research tool. It registers oxygen uptake and CO2 elimination at 5 min intervals; breath-averaged measurements are carried out every 30 s. Expired minute volume is measured with a pneumotachograph equipped with an automatic drift compensation. A newly developed gas mixer insures that the inspiratory oxygen concentration remains constant. Expired gases are analysed for O2 and CO2 concentrations by mass spectrometer. The effect of the compressible gas volume is eliminated by segregating the inspiratory gas from the expired gas. The basic accuracy of measurement of the method is +/- 2.5% for oxygen uptake and +/- 2.0% for CO2 elimination. This result is based on a comparison of the individual components of the system with standard methods. The system's time constant (t90) for changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations is about 50 s. Based on the results of a case study, we will discuss oxygen uptake, CO2 elimination and the oxygen uptake profile of a patient measured over a period of seven days. PMID:3120837

  18. Low-complexity detection of atrial fibrillation in continuous long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petrėnas, Andrius; Marozas, Vaidotas; Sörnmo, Leif

    2015-10-01

    This study describes an atrial fibrillation (AF) detector whose structure is well-adapted both for detection of subclinical AF episodes and for implementation in a battery-powered device for use in continuous long-term monitoring applications. A key aspect for achieving these two properties is the use of an 8-beat sliding window, which thus is much shorter than the 128-beat window used in most existing AF detectors. The building blocks of the proposed detector include ectopic beat filtering, bigeminal suppression, characterization of RR interval irregularity, and signal fusion. With one design parameter, the performance can be tuned to put more emphasis on avoiding false alarms due to non-AF arrhythmias or more emphasis on detecting brief AF episodes. Despite its very simple structure, the results show that the detector performs better on the MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation database than do existing detectors, with high sensitivity and specificity (97.1% and 98.3%, respectively). The detector can be implemented with just a few arithmetical operations and does not require a large memory buffer thanks to the short window. PMID:25666902

  19. Long term, continuous exposure to panobinostat induces terminal differentiation and long term survival in the TH-MYCN neuroblastoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Waldeck, Kelly; Cullinane, Carleen; Ardley, Kerry; Shortt, Jake; Martin, Ben; Tothill, Richard W; Li, Jason; Johnstone, Ricky W; McArthur, Grant A; Hicks, Rodney J; Wood, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy in childhood and accounts for ∼15% of childhood cancer deaths. Amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma is associated with aggressive disease and predicts for poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are therefore essential to improving patient outcomes in this setting. The histone deacetylases are known to interact with N-Myc and regulate numerous cellular processes via epigenetic modulation, including differentiation. In this study, we used the TH-MYCN mouse model of neuroblastoma to investigate the antitumor activity of the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat. In particular we sought to explore the impact of long term, continuous panobinostat exposure on the epigenetically driven differentiation process. Continuous treatment of tumor bearing TH-MYCN transgenic mice with panobinostat for nine weeks led to a significant improvement in survival as compared with mice treated with panobinostat for a three-week period. Panobinostat induced rapid tumor regression with no regrowth observed following a nine-week treatment period. Initial tumor response was associated with apoptosis mediated via upregulation of BMF and BIM. The process of terminal differentiation of neuroblastoma into benign ganglioneuroma, with a characteristic increase in S100 expression and reduction of N-Myc expression, occurred following prolonged exposure to the drug. RNA-sequencing analysis of tumors from treated animals confirmed significant upregulation of gene pathways associated with apoptosis and differentiation. Together our data demonstrate the potential of panobinostat as a novel therapeutic strategy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26914605

  20. A long-term, continuous simulation approach for large-scale flood risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falter, Daniela; Schröter, Kai; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Kreibich, Heidi; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Flood Model (RFM) is a process based model cascade developed for flood risk assessments of large-scale basins. RFM consists of four model parts: the rainfall-runoff model SWIM, a 1D channel routing model, a 2D hinterland inundation model and the flood loss estimation model for residential buildings FLEMOps+r. The model cascade was recently undertaken a proof-of-concept study at the Elbe catchment (Germany) to demonstrate that flood risk assessments, based on a continuous simulation approach, including rainfall-runoff, hydrodynamic and damage estimation models, are feasible for large catchments. The results of this study indicated that uncertainties are significant, especially for hydrodynamic simulations. This was basically a consequence of low data quality and disregarding dike breaches. Therefore, RFM was applied with a refined hydraulic model setup for the Elbe tributary Mulde. The study area Mulde catchment comprises about 6,000 km2 and 380 river-km. The inclusion of more reliable information on overbank cross-sections and dikes considerably improved the results. For the application of RFM for flood risk assessments, long-term climate input data is needed to drive the model chain. This model input was provided by a multi-site, multi-variate weather generator that produces sets of synthetic meteorological data reproducing the current climate statistics. The data set comprises 100 realizations of 100 years of meteorological data. With the proposed continuous simulation approach of RFM, we simulated a virtual period of 10,000 years covering the entire flood risk chain including hydrological, 1D/2D hydrodynamic and flood damage estimation models. This provided a record of around 2.000 inundation events affecting the study area with spatially detailed information on inundation depths and damage to residential buildings on a resolution of 100 m. This serves as basis for a spatially consistent, flood risk assessment for the Mulde catchment presented in

  1. Modelling long-term sediment deposition in a river floodplain during continues flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Wright, Nigel; Sleigh, P. Andrew

    2015-04-01

    River floodplains act as a form of storage during high discharges in a river. As a floodplain generally has a lower energy environment, sediment aggradation commonly occurs over the period of time, which will reduce the overall storage capacity of the floodplain. Also, in a river system sediments are generally considered as the carrier of pesticides and metal contamination from the upstream catchment. Hence, studying sediment deposition in a floodplain is not only helpful for local flood risk assessment, but also can improve our understanding of the dispersion of contaminants associated with the transfer of sediment between a river and its floodplain. This study adopts a recently updated two-dimensional hydro-morphodynamic model based on the full shallow water equations to model a long-term spatial migration of Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon and its floodplain. The 500-year, 100-year, 50-year, 10-year, as well as the recorded flood events during 1941-2014 were simulated. Suspended load with three grain-sizes was transported to the river along with the floods. The results indicate that about 30 - 45% of total sediment load is deposited in the floodplain for the studied return period floods. The spatial distribution and amount of short and long-term sediment deposition on the floodplain is demonstrated, and the resulting potential loss of flood storage capacity is analysed and discussed.

  2. A simple and accurate automated system for continuous long-term metabolic studies during artificial ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stam, H; van den Berg, B; Bogaard, J M; Versprille, A

    1987-08-01

    Energy expenditure and the amount of metabolised carbohydrate, protein and lipid can be calculated from the O2 consumption, CO2 production and nitrogen excretion using indirect calorimetry. A low-cost automatic system has been developed suitable for short- and long-term measurements during artificial ventilation, in which the gas analysers were calibrated automatically every 10 min and in which the desired variables were calculated and printed every 5 min. O2 and CO2 concentrations of mixed expired and inspiratory gas, the expired minute volume VE, and patient's rectal temperature, were sampled at regular time intervals and a simple programmable calculator with printer was used for the on-line data analysis. Tests on accuracy, stability, reproducibility and feasibility showed this system to be suitable for clinical application. PMID:3113814

  3. Long-term, continuous formaldehyde measurements in a rural Mid-Western location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorris, M. R.; Skog, K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to the formation of secondary pollutants, such as ozone and secondary organic aerosol. Formaldehyde, which has an atmospheric lifetime of a few hours, is a ubiquitous VOC oxidation product so is widely used as a tracer of local to regional VOC processing. Although formaldehyde measurements are widely used, there are few long-term, high-time resolution measurements available. During the spring of 2013 and summer and fall of 2014, the UW-Madison fiber laser induced fluorescence instrument monitored formaldehyde concentration at the Horicon Wildlife Refuge, which houses Wisconsin's National Core Monitoring and National Air Toxics Trends Station. We will present work that uses the formaldehyde measurements in conjunction with other data available at the Horicon site to evaluate different sources of anthropogenic influence on atmospherically rural areas. Particular attention will be paid to implications for SOA and ozone formation in this biogenically controlled area with regularly changing types and amounts of anthropogenic influence.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities of Long-Term Continuous Stream Metabolism Measurements at the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, K. J.; Lunch, C. K.; Baxter, C.; Hall, R.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Roberts, B. J.; Marcarelli, A. M.; Tank, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in dissolved oxygen sensing and modeling have made continuous measurements of whole-stream metabolism relatively easy to make, allowing ecologists to quantify and evaluate stream ecosystem health at expanded temporal and spatial scales. Long-term monitoring of continuous stream metabolism will enable a better understanding of the integrated and complex effects of anthropogenic change (e.g., land-use, climate, atmospheric deposition, invasive species, etc.) on stream ecosystem function. In addition to their value in the particular streams measured, information derived from long-term data will improve the ability to extrapolate from shorter-term data. With the need to better understand drivers and responses of whole-stream metabolism come difficulties in interpreting the results. Long-term trends will encompass physical changes in stream morphology and flow regime (e.g., variable flow conditions and changes in channel structure) combined with changes in biota. Additionally long-term data sets will require an organized database structure, careful quantification of errors and uncertainties, as well as propagation of error as a result of the calculation of metabolism metrics. Parsing of continuous data and the choice of modeling approaches can also have a large influence on results and on error estimation. The two main modeling challenges include 1) obtaining unbiased, low-error daily estimates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), and 2) interpreting GPP and ER measurements over extended time periods. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), in partnership with academic and government scientists, has begun to tackle several of these challenges as it prepares for the collection and calculation of 30 years of continuous whole-stream metabolism data. NEON is a national-scale research platform that will use consistent procedures and protocols to standardize measurements across the United States, providing long-term

  5. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  6. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  7. Effect on endometrium of long term treatment with continuous combined oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy: follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Michael; Sturdee, David W; Barlow, David H; Ulrich, Lian G; O'Brien, Karen; Campbell, Michael J; Vessey, Martin P; Bragg, Anthony J

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine effects of five years of treatment with an oral continuous combined regimen of 2 mg 17β-oestradiol and 1 mg norethisterone acetate on endometrial histology in postmenopausal women. Design Follow up study in postmenopausal women. Setting 31 menopause clinics in the United Kingdom. Participants 534 postmenopausal women, all with an intact uterus, who had completed nine months of treatment with oral continuous combined 2 mg 17β-oestradiol and 1 mg norethisterone acetate agreed to take part in a long term follow up study. Women were assigned to different groups on the basis of the treatment status immediately before entering the original study: 360 women had taken sequential oestrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy, 164 had taken no hormone replacement therapy, and 10 had taken unopposed oestrogen therapy. Methods Endometrial aspiration specimens were taken before the women started the continuous combined regimen, after 9 and 24-36 months, and at the end of the five year treatment period or on withdrawal from the study. Main outcome measure Results of endometrial histology. Results The duration of treatment with continuous combined hormone replacement therapy was 4.4 (range 1.1-5.9) years. Data on endometrial specimens were available for 526 women after nine months of treatment, 465 women after 24-36 months of treatment, and 398 women who completed the five years treatment (345 women) or were withdrawn between the two latter visits for biopsies (53 women). No cases of endometrial hyperplasia or malignancy were detected at biopsy; 69% of women had an endometrium classified as atrophic or unassessable on completion of the study or withdrawal from it. Before the continuous combined therapy was started, complex hyperplasia was detected in 21 women who had taken sequential hormone replacement therapy before the study and in one who had taken unopposed oestrogen. All of these women had normal results on histological examination of

  8. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.

  9. A long-term observation on a case of epilepsy with occipital continuous spikes.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Sakuma, K; Miyamoto, H; Koizumi, J

    1992-09-01

    We have reported a 38-year-old female who did not show clinical seizures during continuous spikes in the left occipital area over a period of 18 years. As to the neurological findings, visual disturbance, optic nerve atrophy and right hemianopsia were almost always present. The low density area distributing from the left occipital area to the left temporal one on the CT revealed to be porencephaly. From the clinical findings obtained in this case, the lesion responsible for the occipital continuous spikes could be ascribed to be functional abnormality of the visual pathway connecting the left lateral geniculate body with the left occipital cortex. PMID:1487852

  10. Development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Theanh; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Thambiratnam, David P.; King, Les

    2015-12-01

    In the structural health monitoring (SHM) field, long-term continuous vibration-based monitoring is becoming increasingly popular as this could keep track of the health status of structures during their service lives. However, implementing such a system is not always feasible due to on-going conflicts between budget constraints and the need of sophisticated systems to monitor real-world structures under their demanding in-service conditions. To address this problem, this paper presents a comprehensive development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous SHM of a newly constructed institutional complex with a special focus on the main building. First, selections of sensor type and sensor positions are scrutinized to overcome adversities such as low-frequency and low-level vibration measurements. In order to economically tackle the sparse measurement problem, a cost-optimized Ethernet-based peripheral DAQ model is first adopted to form the system skeleton. A combination of a high-resolution timing coordination method based on the TCP/IP command communication medium and a periodic system resynchronization strategy is then proposed to synchronize data from multiple distributed DAQ units. The results of both experimental evaluations and experimental-numerical verifications show that the proposed DAQ system in general and the data synchronization solution in particular work well and they can provide a promising cost-effective and flexible alternative for use in real-world SHM projects. Finally, the paper demonstrates simple but effective ways to make use of the developed monitoring system for long-term continuous structural health evaluation as well as to use the instrumented building herein as a multi-purpose benchmark structure for studying not only practical SHM problems but also synchronization related issues.

  11. LONG-TERM CONTINUOUS MONITOR DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM: COLUMBUS AND SOUTHERN OHIO ELECTRIC COMPANY, CONESVILLE UNIT 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a continuous monitoring demonstration at the Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Company's Conesville Generating Station. The purpose of the demonstration was to determine the feasibility of the requirements for monitoring and control of SO2 emissions ...

  12. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  13. Continued Long-Term Evolution of the Correlated Spectral and Timing Properties of CIR X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert

    Our previous RXTE results demonstrate that at the baseline intensity level of 1.0 Crab, Cir X-1 exhibits Z-source behavior, but with QPOs which shift to lower than usual frequencies. In contrast, EXOSAT observations at lower intensity (as low as <0.1 Crab) showed behavior that resembled that of atoll sources. We recently carried out a set of RXTE TOO observations across a cycle during which the source intensity gradually decreased from 1.5 Crab to <0.5 Crab. In order to study the continued evolution of the timing and spectral properties of Cir X-1 and to search for type-1 bursts as its baseline intensity decreases, we propose observations at additional faint intensity levels. We also propose observations if radio flares (which are now faint) return to previously high intensities.

  14. Continuous observations of long-term variations in cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wende, C. D.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kohl, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for the Charged Particle Measurements Experiment which was conducted on board IMP-7 to detect X-ray fluxes from the sun, the galactic center, Tau X-1, and Sco X-1 over a nine-month period. Autocorrelation analysis of the data indicates a probable 80-day periodicity in the flux from Sco X-1, a 110-day periodicity in the flux from the galactic center, no periodicities in the flux from Tau X-1, and a strong 27-day periodicity in the solar X-ray flux. A transient event detected within the cluster of sources constituting the galactic center is reported which lasted about two months and had a flux roughly equal to the regular flux from this area. It is noted that this was the only transient event detected in the whole area under continuous observation for the duration of the experiment.

  15. The continuous plankton recorder survey: A long-term, basin-scale oceanic time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, John C.; Hunt, Harold G.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1920s, before the advent of echo sounders, fishery biologists were greatly concerned with assisting the fisherman to locate schools of pelagic fish. One of the approaches they developed was to relate the distribution of the planktonic food organisms to the presence of the schools of predators such as herring (Clupea harengus). The British planktologist, Alister Hardy, who had already carried out extensive studies on the feeding preferences of herring (Hardy, 1926a), initiated a program to examine the fishermen's contention that herring schools avoided 'green', i.e., phytoplankton-rich, water but could be correlated with high concentrations of zooplankton. This practical program was centered on the use of a specially developed instrument, the 'Plankton Indicator', designed to be used by the fisherman to assist in the search for suitable waters. It had limited success in its main aim but, as a collecting device, it embodied several profoundly important features. It was a simple instrument which was robust enough to be deployed and recovered by the crew of commercial vessels (in this case fishing vessels) while they were underway. The Indicator however, was no more than a high speed net which integrated the plankton over the area of sampling, but Hardy had also become interested in describing the patchiness of planktonic populations. He thus developed the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) where he substituted the fixed filter screen of the Indicator by a continually moving length of silk mesh. The screen traversed at constant speed across the path of the incoming water and the trapped organisms were retained in place by sandwiching beneath an additional second mesh screen. Thus, knowing the speed of the towing vessel and the shooting and hauling positions, the spatial patterns of the plankton could be determined. Hardy took the first CPR to the Antarctic where he used it in the Southern Atlantic (Hardy, 1926b) and later deployed it in the North Sea to make

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Factors That Influence Participation in Continuing Education among Nurses Employed in Long-Term Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rhoda R.

    2013-01-01

    As the American population ages, the need for more long-term care services will increase. The elderly who are afflicted with a number of chronic illnesses predominantly use long-term care services. By 2020, 12 million older Americans will need long-term care services, and those 65 and older have a 40% chance of entering some type of long-term care…

  17. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system. PMID:27085149

  18. Comparison of the long-term effectiveness of progressive neuromuscular facilitation and continuous passive motion therapies after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Alaca, Nuray; Atalay, Ayçe; Güven, Zeynep

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the long term functional effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) after total knee arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] We included 30 patients and they were randomly assigned to two groups. In addition to the standard rehabilitation program the PNF group received proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy and the CPM group received continuous passive motion therapy. The outcome measures included range of motion using a goniometer, pain scores using a numeric pain rating scale, days to reach functional benchmarks, the Beck depression scale and isokinetic torque and isometric strength measurements. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline demographic data, clinical findings and length of stay. Days to reach range of motion benchmarks were similar in the two groups. Pain at the 8th week was slightly higher in the PNF group. With the exception of walking with a walker, days to reach functional benchmarks were statistically significantly fewer in patients of the PNF group despite similar isokinetic measurements. Administration of PNF resulted in earlier functional gains in patients after total knee arthroplasty. These functional accomplishments were more pronounced in the PNF group despite it having isokinetic torque measurements similar to those of the CPM group. [Conclusion] PNF techniques can positively affect functional outcomes over the long term. PMID:26696702

  19. Comparison of the long-term effectiveness of progressive neuromuscular facilitation and continuous passive motion therapies after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alaca, Nuray; Atalay, Ayçe; Güven, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the long term functional effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) after total knee arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] We included 30 patients and they were randomly assigned to two groups. In addition to the standard rehabilitation program the PNF group received proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy and the CPM group received continuous passive motion therapy. The outcome measures included range of motion using a goniometer, pain scores using a numeric pain rating scale, days to reach functional benchmarks, the Beck depression scale and isokinetic torque and isometric strength measurements. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline demographic data, clinical findings and length of stay. Days to reach range of motion benchmarks were similar in the two groups. Pain at the 8th week was slightly higher in the PNF group. With the exception of walking with a walker, days to reach functional benchmarks were statistically significantly fewer in patients of the PNF group despite similar isokinetic measurements. Administration of PNF resulted in earlier functional gains in patients after total knee arthroplasty. These functional accomplishments were more pronounced in the PNF group despite it having isokinetic torque measurements similar to those of the CPM group. [Conclusion] PNF techniques can positively affect functional outcomes over the long term. PMID:26696702

  20. Self-adhesive epidermal carbon nanotube electronics for tether-free long-term continuous recording of biosignals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Byeon, Hang Jin; Lee, Joong Hoon; Baek, Dong Hyun; Lee, Kwang Ho; Hong, Joung Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The long-term, continuous, inconspicuous, and noiseless monitoring of bioelectrical signals is critical to the early diagnosis of disease and monitoring health and wellbeing. However, it is a major challenge to record the bioelectrical signals of patients going about their daily lives because of the difficulties of integrating skin-like conducting materials, the measuring system, and medical technologies in a single platform. In this study, we developed a thin epidermis-like electronics that is capable of repeated self-adhesion onto skin, integration with commercial electronic components through soldering, and conformal contact without serious motion artifacts. Using well-mixed carbon nanotubes and adhesive polydimethylsiloxane, we fabricated an epidermal carbon nanotube electronics which maintains excellent conformal contact even within wrinkles in skin, and can be used to record electrocardiogram signals robustly. The electrode is biocompatible and can even be operated in water, which means patients can live normal lives despite wearing a complicated recording system. PMID:25123356

  1. Self-adhesive epidermal carbon nanotube electronics for tether-free long-term continuous recording of biosignals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Byeon, Hang Jin; Lee, Joong Hoon; Baek, Dong Hyun; Lee, Kwang Ho; Hong, Joung Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    The long-term, continuous, inconspicuous, and noiseless monitoring of bioelectrical signals is critical to the early diagnosis of disease and monitoring health and wellbeing. However, it is a major challenge to record the bioelectrical signals of patients going about their daily lives because of the difficulties of integrating skin-like conducting materials, the measuring system, and medical technologies in a single platform. In this study, we developed a thin epidermis-like electronics that is capable of repeated self-adhesion onto skin, integration with commercial electronic components through soldering, and conformal contact without serious motion artifacts. Using well-mixed carbon nanotubes and adhesive polydimethylsiloxane, we fabricated an epidermal carbon nanotube electronics which maintains excellent conformal contact even within wrinkles in skin, and can be used to record electrocardiogram signals robustly. The electrode is biocompatible and can even be operated in water, which means patients can live normal lives despite wearing a complicated recording system.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in female patients with OSA. The effect of CPAP on life satisfaction was also investigated. Methods Fifty-four therapy-compliant, female patients (age 22–71) received a survey before and after 1 year of nocturnal CPAP treatment. The questions on this survey were drawn from three self-administered questionnaires: two on sexuality and one on life satisfaction. The results were compared with a population sample. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used for assessment of daytime sleepiness. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction, four questions from Life Satisfaction 11, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were all used to measure outcome. Results In total, 44 patients responded to the survey (81% response rate). The results were a significant, positive change in manifest female sexual dysfunction, but no significant changes in isolated sexual difficulties or sexual distress. Daytime sleepiness significantly decreased after 1 year. The results from the Life Satisfaction 11 questionnaire remained unchanged after 1 year. Conclusions After 1 year of CPAP treatment, female patients with OSA reported reduced manifest sexual dysfunction. However, it cannot be concluded if this result is due to CPAP treatment alone. Furthermore, reduced daytime tiredness was found in the surveyed population. CPAP treatment, per se, does not seem to affect partner relationships. Petersen M, Kristensen E, Berg S, and Midgren B. Long-term

  3. Geoscience data: Defining policies and workflow tools for long-term storage of continuously and temporarily collected data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, P.; Kirchner, I.; Peters-Kottig, W.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.; Rusch, B.; Ulbricht, D.; Wattenbach, M.

    2012-04-01

    The intention of the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences) is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives. In the pilot phase test data are provided by two participating research institutions, both producing large amounts of data. One of them - Institut für Meteorologie, Freie Universität Berlin - provides continuously meteorological data, these data are measured every minute at several stations throughout Berlin. The other - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam - conducts geophysical field experiments and thus produces data temporarily. The digital long-term archive test system is provided by an infrastructure facility - Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Both use cases require definite ways for the digital preservation workflows. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. At the beginning of the project the actual state of the art in science data preservation policies has to be identified, gaps should be detected and analyzed, so that missing workflow components can be designed. Contact to other institutions, having already policies for their data lifecycle, is necessary to get an overview of existing operating procedures and data management software tools. Assuring the usability of the archived data is necessary during all stages of the project. All information essential for interpreting the data has to be available in a simple way. Usability tests of the archive will be performed together with domain scientists as well as students (bachelor, master, graduate). Questions about the quality of data access, documentation, metadata, etc. should be answered. User feedback and the knowledge of the consortium will be used to compose a university lecture or seminar series on digital data curation, so that future generations of scientists become familiar with the handling of their

  4. Continuing Risk of Ipsilateral Breast Relapse After Breast-Conserving Therapy at Long-Term Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Kreike, Bas; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Velde, Tony van de; Borger, Jacques; Peterse, Hans; Rutgers, Emiel; Bartelink, Harry; Vijver, Marc J. van de

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Currently, the local treatment of most patients with early invasive breast cancer consists of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We have previously reported on the risk factors for ipsilateral breast relapse (IBR) in 1,026 patients treated with BCT after a median follow-up of 5.5 years. In the present study, we evaluated the IBR incidence and the risk factors for IBR after prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: We updated the disease outcome for all 1,026 patients using the clinical information collected from the medical registration of The Netherlands Cancer Institute and performed step-wise proportional hazard Cox regression analysis to identify the risk factors associated with an increased risk of IBR after BCT at long-term follow-up. Results: After a median follow-up of 13.3 years, 114 patients had developed an IBR as the first event. The IBR rate was 9.3% and 13.8%, respectively, at 10 and 15 years. Also, the increase in IBR was continuous without reaching a plateau, even after 15 years. Univariate analysis showed that involved surgical resection margins, young age, vascular invasion, and the presence and quantity of an in situ component are risk factors for IBR. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor-positive surgical resection margins (hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-5.2, p = 0.0002) or the presence of vascular invasion (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.2, p = 0.004) is the major independent risk factor for IBR. Conclusions: The data from long-term follow-up showed a constant increase in IBR among patients treated by BCT, even after 15 years, without reaching a plateau. Involved surgical resection margins and vascular invasion were the most important risk factors for IBR.

  5. Long-Term Maintenance Therapy Using Rituximab-Induced Continuous B-Cell Depletion in Patients with ANCA Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Pendergraft, William F.; Cortazar, Frank B.; Wenger, Julia; Murphy, Andrew P.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Laliberte, Karen A.; Niles, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Remission in the majority of ANCA vasculitis patients is not sustained after a single course of rituximab, and risk of relapse warrants development of a successful strategy to ensure durable remission. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective analysis of ANCA vasculitis patients who underwent maintenance therapy using rituximab-induced continuous B-cell depletion for up to 7 years was performed. Maintenance therapy with rituximab was initiated after achieving remission or converting from other prior maintenance therapy. Continuous B-cell depletion was achieved in all patients by scheduled rituximab administration every 4 months. Disease activity, serologic parameters, adverse events, and survival were examined. Results In the study, 172 patients (mean age=60 years, 55% women, 57% myeloperoxidase–ANCA) treated from April of 2006 to March of 2013 underwent continuous B-cell depletion with rituximab. Median remission maintenance follow-up time was 2.1 years. Complete remission (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS]=0) was achieved in all patients. Major relapse (BVAS≥3) occurred in 5% of patients and was associated with weaning of other immunosuppression drugs. Remission was reinduced in all patients. Survival mirrored survival of a general age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched United States population. Conclusion This analysis provides evidence for long-term disease control using continuous B-cell depletion. This treatment strategy in ANCA vasculitis patients also seems to result in survival rates comparable with rates in a matched reference population. These findings suggest that prospective remission maintenance treatment trials using continuous B-cell depletion are warranted. PMID:24626432

  6. Physics-Based Continuous Simulation of Long-Term Near-Surface Hydrologic Response for the Coos Bay Experimental Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, B. A.; Loague, K.; Montgomery, D. R.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    The study reported here employed the physics-based InHM to simulate continuous hydrologic response from 1990 through 1996 for the Coos Bay (CB1) experimental catchment. InHM dynamically simulates 3D variably- saturated subsurface flow using Richards equation and 2D surface and open channel flow using the diffusion- wave approximation to the depth-integrated shallow-water equations. The uniqueness of the boundary-value problem (BVP) used in a previous study to successfully simulate three sprinkling experiments was assessed, via model performance evaluation against piezometric and discharge data, for 33 events extracted from the seven- year continuous record. The simulations conducted in this effort suggest the potential for interaction between the deeper water table and near-surface hydrologic response, which is in agreement with the detailed field observations made during the CB1 sprinkling experiments. The InHM simulations could not adequately reproduce the observed pore-water pressures, suggesting that detailed characterization of the locations and connectivities of bedrock fractures would be necessary to simulate distributed hydrologic response at locations where bedrock fracture flow is important. The results from this study suggest that uniqueness is a problem for physics-based models when employing a BVP used successfully for smaller magnitude storms to simulate larger storms. The long-term simulations conducted here, combined with previous event-based hydrologic- response simulations and field-based observations, highlight the challenges in characterizing / simulating fractured bedrock flow at small catchments like CB1.

  7. Reliable long-term continuous blood glucose monitoring for patients in critical care using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.

    2006-02-01

    For clinical research, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an ongoing important topic to improve glycemic control in patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation. Critically ill patients received much interest, since the intensive insulin therapy treatment, as established for diabetics, reduces mortality significantly. Despite the existence of commercially available, mainly amperometric biosensors, continued interest is in infrared spectroscopic techniques for reagent-free glucose monitoring. For stable long-term operation, avoiding also sensor recalibration, a bed-side device coupled to a micro-dialysis probe was developed for quasi-continuous glucose monitoring. Multivariate calibration is required for glucose concentration prediction due to the complex composition of dialysates from interstitial body fluid. Measurements were carried out with different test persons, each experiment lasting for more than 8 hours. Owing to low dialysis recovery rates, glucose concentrations in the dialysates were between 0.83 and 4.44 mM. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) obtained with Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration and different cross-validation strategies were mainly between 0.13 and 0.18 mM based on either full interval data or specially selected spectral variables.

  8. Short and long term outcomes of 200 patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Paone, Gaetano; Nemeh, Hassan W; Borgi, Jamil; Williams, Celeste T; Lanfear, David E; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the institutional experience over 8 years with 200 continuous-flow (CF) - left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). METHODS: We evaluated our institution’s LVAD database and analyzed all patients who received a CF LVAD as a bridge to transplant (BTT) or destination therapy from March 2006 until June 2014. We identified 200 patients, of which 179 were implanted with a HeartMate II device (Thoratec Corp., Pleasanton, CA) and 21 received a Heartware HVAD (HeartWare Inc., Framingham, MA). RESULTS: The mean age of our LVAD recipients was 59.3 years (range 17-81), 76% (152/200) were males, and 49% were implanted for the indication of BTT. The survival rate for our LVAD patients at 30 d, 6 mo, 12 mo, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years was 94%, 86%, 78%, 71%, 62% and 45% respectively. The mean duration of LVAD support was 581 d (range 2-2595 d). Gastrointestinal bleeding (was the most common adverse event (43/200, 21%), followed by right ventricular failure (38/200, 19%), stroke (31/200, 15%), re exploration for bleeding (31/200, 15%), ventilator dependent respiratory failure (19/200, 9%) and pneumonia (15/200, 7%). Our driveline infection rate was 7%. Pump thrombosis occurred in 6% of patients. Device exchanged was needed in 6% of patients. On multivariate analysis, preoperative liver dysfunction, ventilator dependent respiratory failure, tracheostomy and right ventricular failure requiring right ventricular assist device support were significant predictors of post LVAD survival. CONCLUSION: Short and long term survival for patients on LVAD support are excellent, although outcomes still remain inferior compared to heart transplantation. The incidence of driveline infections, pump thrombosis and pump exchange have declined significantly in recent years. PMID:26635927

  9. Long-term follow-up of cognitive functions in patients with continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS).

    PubMed

    Maltoni, Lucia; Posar, Annio; Parmeggiani, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) are associated with several cognitive, neurological, and psychiatric disorders, which sometimes persist after CSWS disappearance. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the correlation between general (clinical and instrumental) and neuropsychological findings in CSWS, to identify variables that predispose patients to a poorer long-term neuropsychological outcome. Patients with spikes and waves during sleep with a frequency ≥25/min (spikes and waves frequency index - SWFI) were enrolled. There were patients presenting abnormal EEG activity corresponding to the classic CSWS and patients with paroxysmal abnormalities during sleep <85% with SWFI ≥25/min that was defined as excessive spike-waves during sleep (ESWS). Clinical and instrumental features and neuropsychological findings during and after the spike and wave active phase period were considered. A statistical analysis was performed utilizing the Spearman correlation test and multivariate analysis. The study included 61 patients; the mean follow-up (i.e., the period between SWFI ≥25 first recording and last observation) was 7years and 4months. The SWFI correlated inversely with full and performance IQ during CSWS/ESWS. Longer-lasting SWFI ≥25 was related to worse results in verbal IQ and performance IQ after CSWS/ESWS disappearance. Other variables may influence the neuropsychological outcome, like age at SWFI ≥25 first recording, perinatal distress, pathologic neurologic examination, and antiepileptic drug resistance. This confirms that CSWS/ESWS are a complex pathology and that many variables contribute to its outcome. The SWFI value above all during CSWS/ESWS and long-lasting SWFI ≥25 after CSWS/ESWS disappearance are the most significant indexes that appear mostly to determine cognitive evolution. This finding underscores the importance of EEG recordings during sleep in children with a developmental disorder, even if seizures are not

  10. 21 CFR 310.303 - Continuation of long-term studies, records, and reports on certain drugs for which new drug...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Records and Reports § 310.303 Continuation of long-term studies, records, and... application. Some drugs, because of the nature of the condition for which they are intended, must be used...

  11. 21 CFR 310.303 - Continuation of long-term studies, records, and reports on certain drugs for which new drug...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuation of long-term studies, records, and reports on certain drugs for which new drug applications have been approved. 310.303 Section 310.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Records and Reports...

  12. Long-Term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Normalizes High Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ai-Ping; Aboussouan, Loutfi S.; Minai, Omar A.; Paschke, Kelly; Laskowski, Daniel; Dweik, Raed A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be linked to cardiovascular consequences. We prospectively examined fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a surrogate marker of upper airway inflammation using a portable nitric oxide analyzer (NIOX MINO). Design: In consecutive adult nonsmokers with suspected OSA, FENO was measured immediately before and after polysomnographic studies, and within 1-3 months following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Measurement and Results: FENO levels were increased in the 75 patients with OSA compared to the 29 controls, both before sleep (13.4 ± 6.5 ppb vs. 6.5 ± 3.5; p < 0.001) and after sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 6.9 ± 3.7; p < 0.001). Furthermore, in patients with OSA, FENO levels were significantly higher post-sleep than pre-sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 13.4 ± 6.5; p < 0.001), while there was no significant overnight change in patients without OSA. The rise in FENO correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), nadir oxygen saturation (r = 0.54, p < 0.001), and arousal index (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Thirty-seven of these patients underwent CPAP titration and treatment. Successful titration was associated with a lower overnight increase in FENO (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 11.0 ± 4.3, p = 0.02). FENO levels declined after 1-3 months of CPAP therapy (11.7 ± 4.4 ppb, p < 0.001). Conclusions: FENO levels are elevated in OSA, correlate with severity, and decrease after positive pressure therapy. This study supports the role of upper airway inflammation in OSA pathogenesis and a possible role for FENO in monitoring CPAP therapy. Citation: Chua AP; Aboussouan LS; Minai OA; Paschke K; Laskowski D; Dweik RA. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy normalizes high exhaled nitric oxide levels in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):529-535. PMID:23772184

  13. Continuous, Long-term, Cyclic, Varied Eruptive Activity Observed at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, B.; Dziak, R. P.; Baker, E. T.; Cashman, K. V.; Embley, R. W.; Ferrini, V.; de Ronde, C. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Deardorff, N.; Haxel, J. H.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M. J.; Walker, S. L.; Bobbitt, A. M.; Merle, S. G.

    2009-12-01

    the slow extrusion in 2009, a portable hydrophone recorded rhythmic sounds similar to those recorded during explosive activity in 2006 but at lower sound levels. The burst-and-pause pattern in the acoustic data indicates that cyclic magmatic gas build-up and release is the dominant driver of the long-term eruptive activity at NW Rota-1 over a wide range of eruption rates.

  14. Long-term continuous monitoring of mercury in the Russian arctic: winter increase of atmospheric mercury depletion events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Fidel; Mahura, Alexander; Popov, Valentin; Katz, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    Among pollutants mercury is a major environmental concern due to its ecological hazard. The mercury can reside in the atmosphere for a long time high, and it is a reason of its global propagation in the Northern Hemisphere and elevated mercury concentrations are reported in the Arctic environment. First time, in 1995, the effect of atmospheric mercury depletion in the troposphere was found at the Canadian station Alert. This phenomenon (called the Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Event - AMDE) is observed during April-June, when the Polar sunrise starts till the end of the snowmelt. The same effect was reported for other polar stations situated to the north of 60° N. Long-term continuous monitoring of gaseous elemental mercury in the surface air at the polar station Amderma (69,720N; 61,620E) using the analyzer Tekran 2537A has been conducted from Jun 2001 to date. Individual measurements were collected every thirty minutes. It has been shown, that during eleven years of observations the AMDEs were observed every year, from the end of March till early June. For the winter period (Dec-Feb) these events of the atmospheric mercury depletion were registered from 2010 to 2013, which had not been observed before. A large number of hours during the day, when the concentration of mercury was recorded at level of below 1 ng/m3, was registered during Dec-Feb. The sun declination above the horizon is negative, and solar activity is still not enough to trigger the photochemical reactions. The these last 3 years confirmed a tendency to displacement of AMDEs to the winter season, which leads to an additional factor entry of mercury in various biological objects, due to the additional deposition of various forms of mercury on the snowpack. At the same time, especially during the winter seasons, there is a substantial increase (up to 8 times) of AMDEs, compared with the previous years. In particular, in winter 2013 the maximum number of AMDs reached 31 cases. The explanation can be

  15. Developing suppressive soil for root diseases of soybean with continuous long-term cropping of soybean in black soil of northeast China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were set up in northeast China in 1991 to test if suppressive soil to soybean root diseases could be developed with continuous long-term soybean cropping. Based on the field observation in 2007, 2009, and 2011, soybean root growth was promoted and the severities of root disease wer...

  16. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  17. Long-term anti-FVIII antibody response in Bethesda-negative haemophilia A patients receiving continuous replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Klintman, Jenny; Hillarp, Andreas; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan

    2013-11-01

    It has previously been shown that patients with haemophilia A may develop non-neutralizing anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies (NNA) that escape detection by the Bethesda assay, but are detected using immune-based assays. We and others found NNAs to be directed not only towards non-functional parts of the protein, but towards all regions of the FVIII protein. We also showed a heterogeneous antibody response towards different FVIII products. However, the clinical relevance and the natural history of NNA remain unclear. Therefore, we followed a cohort of unrelated subjects with haemophilia A for 4 years with the goal of exploring the long-term development of NNA using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ten of 78 subjects (12·8%) exhibited an immune response that was transient and heterogeneous, and none of the subjects developed an FVIII inhibitor. The result of the ELISA was examined in relation to clinical variables and no significant associations between a positive ELISA and age, F8 mutation, port-à-cath implantation and HCV infection were shown. Interestingly, patients with NNA had significantly fewer bleeding episodes (P = 0·048) compared with NNA-negative subjects. The results indicate that the immune response to FVIII products within an individual may vary over time. However, the clinical impact of NNA remains unclear. PMID:24032553

  18. Evaluation of different nitrous oxide production models with four continuous long-term wastewater treatment process data series.

    PubMed

    Spérandio, Mathieu; Pocquet, Mathieu; Guo, Lisha; Ni, Bing-Jie; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-03-01

    Five activated sludge models describing N2O production by ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) were compared to four different long-term process data sets. Each model considers one of the two known N2O production pathways by AOB, namely the AOB denitrification pathway and the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway, with specific kinetic expressions. Satisfactory calibration could be obtained in most cases, but none of the models was able to describe all the N2O data obtained in the different systems with a similar parameter set. Variability of the parameters can be related to difficulties related to undescribed local concentration heterogeneities, physiological adaptation of micro-organisms, a microbial population switch, or regulation between multiple AOB pathways. This variability could be due to a dependence of the N2O production pathways on the nitrite (or free nitrous acid-FNA) concentrations and other operational conditions in different systems. This work gives an overview of the potentialities and limits of single AOB pathway models. Indicating in which condition each single pathway model is likely to explain the experimental observations, this work will also facilitate future work on models in which the two main N2O pathways active in AOB are represented together. PMID:26803653

  19. Bacterial response to a continuous long-term exposure of silver nanoparticles at sub-ppm silver concentrations in a membrane bioreactor activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chiqian; Liang, Zhihua; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nanosilver or AgNPs) have excellent antimicrobial properties. Because of their increasing use, there is a concern about the potential impact of AgNPs in wastewater treatment systems. This study investigated the long-term effects of AgNPs (continuous loading for more than 60 days) on membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated sludge performance. At the influent AgNP concentration of 0.10 mg Ag/L, there was no significant difference in effluent water quality or bacterial activities before and after AgNP exposure. Nitrifying bacterial community structure was relatively stable before and after the long-term AgNP loading. Both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrosospira spp. were present while Nitrospira spp. was the dominant nitrite-oxidizing bacterial species throughout this study. Abundance of silver resistance gene silE in the MBR, however, increased by 50-fold 41 days after the AgNP exposure, and then decreased with continuous AgNP exposure. The long-term nanosilver exposure did not change the membrane fouling rate although extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration increased significantly after nanosilver dosing. The results suggest that AgNPs at the influent concentrations of 0.10 mg/L and below have almost no impact on activated sludge wastewater treatment performance, as activated sludge can effectively reduce nanosilver toxicity by adsorbing or precipitating AgNPs and silver ions (Ag(+)) released from the dissolution of AgNPs. PMID:24210505

  20. Twenty-five years of continuous borehole tilt and vertical displacement data at Mount Etna: Insights on long-term volcanic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Bonforte, A.; Gambino, S.

    2015-12-01

    We report a 25 year-long data set (1990-2014) of combined continuous tilt and GPS vertical displacement series recorded at Etna volcano. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a data set on an active volcano has been presented. We show the coherence of the two series, which help draw new insights on how the volcano, characterized by frequent flank eruptions, works in the long-term (tens of years). This data set provides evidence that after the 1992-1993 flank eruption (the biggest in the last three centuries) and the following major recharging phase (1994-2001), all the ensuing eruptions fall within a single long-term reequilibrium phase (2001-2014).

  1. Long-term preservation of cone photoreceptors and visual acuity in rd10 mutant mice exposed to continuous environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Strettoi, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In human patients and animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a gradual loss of rod photoreceptors and decline in scotopic vision are the primary manifestations of the disease. Secondary death of cones and gradual, regressive remodeling of the inner retina follow and progress at different speeds according to the underlying genetic defect. In any case, the final outcome is near-blindness without a conclusive cure yet. We recently reported that environmental enrichment (EE), an experimental manipulation based on exposure to enhanced motor, sensory, and social stimulation, when started at birth, exerts clear beneficial effects on a mouse model of RP, by slowing vision loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate in the same mouse the long-term effects of chronic exposure to an EE and assess the outcome of this manipulation on cone survival, inner retinal preservation, and visual behavior. Methods Two groups of rd10 mutant mice were maintained in an EE or standard (ST) laboratory conditions up to 1 year of age. Then, retinal preservation was assessed with immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy examination, cone counts, and electron microscopy of the photoreceptor layer, while visual acuity was tested behaviorally with a Prusky water maze. Results rd10 mice are a model of autosomal recessive RP with a typical rod-cone, center to the periphery pattern of photoreceptor degeneration. They carry a mutation of the rod-specific phosphodiesterase gene and undergo rod death that peaks at around P24, while cone electroretinogram (ERG) is extinct by P60. We previously showed that early exposure to an EE efficiently delays photoreceptor degeneration in these mutants, extending the time window of cone viability and cone-mediated vision well beyond the phase of maximum rod death. Here we find that a maintained EE can delay the degeneration of cones even in the long term. Confocal and electron microscopy examination of the retinas of the rd10 EE and ST mice at 1

  2. Ultrafine particles in four European urban environments: Results from a new continuous long-term monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, J.; Staelens, J.; Cordell, R.; Stroobants, C.; Zikova, N.; Hama, S. M. L.; Wyche, K. P.; Kos, G. P. A.; Van Der Zee, S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, P. S.; Roekens, E.

    2016-07-01

    To gain a better understanding on the spatiotemporal variation of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments, this study reports on the first results of a long-term UFP monitoring network, set up in Amsterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE), Leicester (UK) and London (UK). Total number concentrations and size distributions were assessed during 1-2 years at four fixed urban background sites, supplemented with mobile trailer measurements for co-location monitoring and additional short-term monitoring sites. Intra- and interurban spatiotemporal UFP variation, associations with commonly-monitored pollutants (PM, NOx and BC) and impacts of wind fields were evaluated. Although comparable size distributions were observed between the four cities, source-related differences were demonstrated within specific particle size classes. Total and size-resolved particle number concentrations showed clear traffic-related temporal variation, confirming road traffic as the major UFP contributor in urban environments. New particle formation events were observed in all cities. Correlations with typical traffic-related pollutants (BC and NOx) were obtained for all monitoring stations, except for Amsterdam, which might be attributable to UFP emissions from Schiphol airport. The temporal variation in particle number concentration correlated fairly weakly between the four cities (rs = 0.28-0.50, COD = 0.28-0.37), yet improved significantly inside individual cities (rs = 0.59-0.77). Nevertheless, considerable differences were still obtained in terms of particle numbers (20-38% for total particle numbers and up to 49% for size-resolved particle numbers), confirming the importance of local source contributions and the need for careful consideration when allocating UFP monitoring stations in heterogeneous urban environments.

  3. Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) - Long-term Tropospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling for Satellite Continuity and Process Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, M.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Alvarez, R. J.; Burris, J.; Cantrell, W.; Chen, G.; De Young, R.; Hardesty, R.; Hoff, R. M.; Kaye, J. A.; kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; LeBlanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Pierce, R.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Szykman, J.; Tonnesen, G.; Wang, L.

    2012-12-01

    An interagency research initiative for ground-based ozone and aerosol lidar profiling recently funded by NASA has important applications to air-quality studies in addition to the goal of serving the GEO-CAPE and other air-quality missions. Ozone is a key trace-gas species, a greenhouse gas, and an important pollutant in the troposphere. High spatial and temporal variability of ozone affected by various physical and photochemical processes motivates the high spatio-temporal lidar profiling of tropospheric ozone for improving the simulation and forecasting capability of the photochemical/air-quality models, especially in the boundary layer where the resolution and precision of satellite retrievals are fundamentally limited. It is well known that there are large discrepancies between the surface and upper-air ozone due to titration, surface deposition, diurnal processes, free-tropospheric transport, and other processes. Near-ground ozone profiling has been technically challenging for lidars due to some engineering difficulties, such as near-range saturation, field-of-view overlap, and signal processing issues. This initiative provides an opportunity for us to solve those engineering issues and redesign the lidars aimed at long-term, routine ozone/aerosol observations from the near surface to the top of the troposphere at multiple stations (i.e., NASA/GSFC, NASA/LaRC, NASA/JPL, NOAA/ESRL, UAHuntsville) for addressing the needs of NASA, NOAA, EPA and State/local AQ agencies. We will present the details of the science investigations, current status of the instrumentation development, data access/protocol, and the future goals of this lidar network. Ozone lidar/RAQMS comparison of laminar structures.

  4. Microbial communities in rice rhizosphere altered by intermittent and continuous flooding in fields with long-term arsenic application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice cultivated on arsenic -contaminated soils can, under some conditions, accumulate high concentrations in the grain, particularly continuous flooding practices are used. Intermittent flooding, as opposed to continuous flooding, could be a means to reduce soluble arsenic concentrations in the rice...

  5. Cross-sectional Survey and Retrospective Analysis of a Large Cohort of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes With Long-Term Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Julia; Vicente, Angel; Rod, Anne; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Reznik, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Background. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an established modality for intensive insulin treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but long-term data concerning satisfaction, CSII function use, safety, and efficacy in real-life conditions are scarce. Methods. We analyzed a cohort of adult patients with T1D treated with CSII for more than 1 year in a single diabetes center. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2010 (tolerance/satisfaction and behavior forms) and a retrospective analysis of medical records (including HbA1c level, hospitalization, and catheter infections). The primary objective was to assess long-term tolerance/satisfaction, and secondary objectives were safety and efficacy. Results. There were 295 patients analyzed. After a median duration of CSII use of 5 years, overall satisfaction was high for about 90% of patients. Mean CSII-related discomfort scores were low for work, recreation, and sleep and moderate for sport and sexual activity (2.5 ± 1.9, 2.6 ± 1.8, 2.6 ± 2.1, 3.4 ± 2.3, and 4.0 ± 2.9 of 10, respectively). Despite a high level of diabetes education, only one third of patients were using advanced CSII functions. During long-term follow-up, the safety of CSII treatment was good; the hospitalization rate was 0.18 patients/year, and catheter infections were scarce. The HbA1c level dropped about −0.5% independently from CSII duration (P < .05). Conclusions. In this adult cohort, satisfaction and tolerance, together with safety, of CSII were maintained at long-term follow up. The sole basic functions of CSII were currently used by patients. A 0.5% decrease in the HbA1c level was maintained during the study period. PMID:24876454

  6. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution.

    PubMed

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  7. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  8. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  9. New therapy, new challenges: The effects of long-term continuous flow left ventricular assist device on inflammation.

    PubMed

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Billia, Filio; Fuks, Avi; Jacobs, Ira; A McDonald, Michael; Cherney, David Z; Rao, Vivek

    2016-07-15

    Surgically implanted continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) are currently used in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF). However, CF-LVAD therapy introduces a new set of complications and adverse events in these patients. Major adverse events with the CF-LVAD include right heart failure, vascular dysfunction, stroke, hepatic failure, and multi-organ failure, complications that may have inflammation as a common etiology. Our aim was to review the current evidence showing a relationship between these adverse events and elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers in CF-LVAD recipients. PMID:27131263

  10. Long-term Continuous EEG Monitoring in Small Rodent Models of Human Disease Using the Epoch Wireless Transmitter System

    PubMed Central

    Zayachkivsky, Andrew; Lehmkuhle, Mark J.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Many progressive neurologic diseases in humans, such as epilepsy, require pre-clinical animal models that slowly develop the disease in order to test interventions at various stages of the disease process. These animal models are particularly difficult to implement in immature rodents, a classic model organism for laboratory study of these disorders. Recording continuous EEG in young animal models of seizures and other neurological disorders presents a technical challenge due to the small physical size of young rodents and their dependence on the dam prior to weaning. Therefore, there is not only a clear need for improving pre-clinical research that will better identify those therapies suitable for translation to the clinic but also a need for new devices capable of recording continuous EEG in immature rodents. Here, we describe the technology behind and demonstrate the use of a novel miniature telemetry system, specifically engineered for use in immature rats or mice, which is also effective for use in adult animals. PMID:26274779

  11. Long-term Continuous EEG Monitoring in Small Rodent Models of Human Disease Using the Epoch Wireless Transmitter System.

    PubMed

    Zayachkivsky, Andrew; Lehmkuhle, Mark J; Dudek, F Edward

    2015-01-01

    Many progressive neurologic diseases in humans, such as epilepsy, require pre-clinical animal models that slowly develop the disease in order to test interventions at various stages of the disease process. These animal models are particularly difficult to implement in immature rodents, a classic model organism for laboratory study of these disorders. Recording continuous EEG in young animal models of seizures and other neurological disorders presents a technical challenge due to the small physical size of young rodents and their dependence on the dam prior to weaning. Therefore, there is not only a clear need for improving pre-clinical research that will better identify those therapies suitable for translation to the clinic but also a need for new devices capable of recording continuous EEG in immature rodents. Here, we describe the technology behind and demonstrate the use of a novel miniature telemetry system, specifically engineered for use in immature rats or mice, which is also effective for use in adult animals. PMID:26274779

  12. Long-term continuous production of H2 in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) treating saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Martínez, Alessandro A; Trably, Eric; Milferstedt, Kim; Lacroix, Rémy; Etcheverry, Luc; Bernet, Nicolas

    2015-09-15

    A biofilm-based 4 L two chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was continuously fed with acetate under saline conditions (35 g/L NaCl) for more than 100 days. The MEC produced a biogas highly enriched in H2 (≥90%). Both current (10.6 ± 0.2 A/m(2)Anode or 199.1 ± 4.0 A/m(3)MEC) and H2 production (201.1 ± 7.5 LH2/m(2)Cathode·d or 0.9 ± 0.0 m(3)H2/m(3)MEC·d) rates were highly significant when considering the saline operating conditions. A microbial analysis revealed an important enrichment in the anodic biofilm with five main bacterial groups: 44% Proteobacteria, 32% Bacteroidetes, 18% Firmicutes and 5% Spirochaetes and 1% Actinobacteria. Of special interest is the emergence within the Proteobacteria phylum of the recently described halophilic anode-respiring bacteria Geoalkalibacter (unk. species), with a relative abundance up to 14%. These results provide for the first time a noteworthy alternative for the treatment of saline effluents and continuous production of H2. PMID:26057262

  13. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. PMID:27295254

  14. Continued Study of the Long-Term Evolution of the Correlated Spectral and Timing Properties of CIR X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert

    Our previous RXTE results demonstrate that at the baseline intensity level of 1.0 Crab, Cir X-1 exhibits Z-source behavior, but with QPOs which shift to lower than usual frequencies. In contrast, EXOSAT observations at lower intensity (as low as 0.1 Crab) showed behavior that resembled that of atoll sources. In 2001, we carried out RXTE TOO observations across a cycle during which the source intensity gradually decreased from 1.5 Crab to 0.5 Crab. In order to study the continued evolution of the temporal-spectral properties of Cir X-1 and to search for type-1 bursts as its baseline intensity decreases to historical lows, we propose observations at additional faint intensity levels. We also propose observations if radio flares (which are now faint) return to previously high intensities.

  15. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  16. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  17. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing "replant problem" in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  18. Continuous-release beads of natural allelochemicals for the long-term control of cyanobacterial growth: Preparation, release dynamics and inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Lin, Fang; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Nie, Zeyu; Sun, Lijuan; Xu, Chen; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-15

    The effects of allelochemicals on cyanobacterial blooms have been observed for more than 20 years; however, the use of these compounds, usually involving a "direct-added" mode, has clear disadvantages, such as a short activity period or temporarily excessive localized concentration. Here, a simulated-allelopathy mode to facilitate the application of allelochemicals was proposed and tested on Microcystis aeruginosa. The continuous-release beads of 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) were constitutive of a polymer matrix and showed a high drug-loading rate (47.18%) and encapsulation efficiency (67.65%) with a theoretical release time of approximately 120 d. Cyanobacterial growth tests showed that the DHF beads had long-term inhibition effects (>30 d), whereas those of "direct-added" DHF to cells lasted a maximum of 10 d. The beads also continuously affected the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effects of DHF beads on cyanobacterial growth increased as initial cell densities of M. aeruginosa decreased, suggesting that the beads inhibit cyanobacterial activity more effectively in the early bloom phase. Consequently, the anti-cyanobacterial beads represent a novel application mode of allelochemicals with long-term inhibitory effects on cyanobacterial growth. Our study demonstrates that the successful application of allelochemicals offers great potential to control harmful cyanobacterial blooms, especially at the initial stage of development. PMID:26986500

  19. Incubator-independent cell-culture perfusion platform for continuous long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, Dirk; Konduri, Anil Krishna; Latifi, Shahrzad; Habibey, Rouhollah; Golabchi, Asiyeh; Martiniuc, Aurel Vasile; Knoll, Alois; Ingebrandt, Sven; Blau, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Most in vitro electrophysiology studies extract information and draw conclusions from representative, temporally limited snapshot experiments. This approach bears the risk of missing decisive moments that may make a difference in our understanding of physiological events. This feasibility study presents a simple benchtop cell-culture perfusion system adapted to commercial microelectrode arrays (MEAs), multichannel electrophysiology equipment and common inverted microscopy stages for simultaneous and uninterrupted extracellular electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging at ambient CO2 levels. The concept relies on a transparent, replica-casted polydimethylsiloxane perfusion cap, gravity- or syringe-pump-driven perfusion and preconditioning of pH-buffered serum-free cell-culture medium to ambient CO2 levels at physiological temperatures. The low-cost microfluidic in vitro enabling platform, which allows us to image cultures immediately after cell plating, is easy to reproduce and is adaptable to the geometries of different cell-culture containers. It permits the continuous and simultaneous multimodal long-term acquisition or manipulation of optical and electrophysiological parameter sets, thereby considerably widening the range of experimental possibilities. Two exemplary proof-of-concept long-term MEA studies on hippocampal networks illustrate system performance. Continuous extracellular recordings over a period of up to 70 days revealed details on both sudden and gradual neural activity changes in maturing cell ensembles with large intra-day fluctuations. Correlated time-lapse imaging unveiled rather static macroscopic network architectures with previously unreported local morphological oscillations on the timescale of minutes. PMID:26543581

  20. Incubator-independent cell-culture perfusion platform for continuous long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Dirk; Konduri, Anil Krishna; Latifi, Shahrzad; Habibey, Rouhollah; Golabchi, Asiyeh; Martiniuc, Aurel Vasile; Knoll, Alois; Ingebrandt, Sven; Blau, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Most in vitro electrophysiology studies extract information and draw conclusions from representative, temporally limited snapshot experiments. This approach bears the risk of missing decisive moments that may make a difference in our understanding of physiological events. This feasibility study presents a simple benchtop cell-culture perfusion system adapted to commercial microelectrode arrays (MEAs), multichannel electrophysiology equipment and common inverted microscopy stages for simultaneous and uninterrupted extracellular electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging at ambient CO2 levels. The concept relies on a transparent, replica-casted polydimethylsiloxane perfusion cap, gravity- or syringe-pump-driven perfusion and preconditioning of pH-buffered serum-free cell-culture medium to ambient CO2 levels at physiological temperatures. The low-cost microfluidic in vitro enabling platform, which allows us to image cultures immediately after cell plating, is easy to reproduce and is adaptable to the geometries of different cell-culture containers. It permits the continuous and simultaneous multimodal long-term acquisition or manipulation of optical and electrophysiological parameter sets, thereby considerably widening the range of experimental possibilities. Two exemplary proof-of-concept long-term MEA studies on hippocampal networks illustrate system performance. Continuous extracellular recordings over a period of up to 70 days revealed details on both sudden and gradual neural activity changes in maturing cell ensembles with large intra-day fluctuations. Correlated time-lapse imaging unveiled rather static macroscopic network architectures with previously unreported local morphological oscillations on the timescale of minutes. PMID:26543581

  1. Higher statistical moments and an outlier detection technique as two alternative methods that capture long-term changes in continuous environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismendi, I.; Johnson, S. L.; Dunham, J. B.

    2014-05-01

    Central tendency statistics may not capture relevant or desired characteristics about the variability of continuous phenomena and thus, they may not completely track temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches to identify long-term changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal scale. Second, we adapt an outlier detection procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability, patterns in variability through time, and spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal a differentiated vulnerability to both the climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  2. The Practice of Continuous Palliative Sedation in Long-Term Care for Frail Patients with Existential Suffering.

    PubMed

    van Deijck, Rogier H P D; Hasselaar, Jeroen G J; Krijnsen, Petrus J Cc; Gloudemans, Amadea J M; Verhagen, Stans C A H H V M; Vissers, Kris C P; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2015-01-01

    Some guidelines and recommendations identify existential suffering as a potential refractory symptom for which continuous palliative sedation (CPS) can be administered under certain conditions. However, there has been little research on the characteristics of patients with existential suffering treated with CPS and the degree to which the preconditions are fulfilled. The aim of this study was to provide insight into this specific indication for CPS. Questionnaires were sent to nursing home physicians in The Netherlands, who described 314 patients. Existential suffering was a refractory symptom in 83 of the patients. For most of the patients with refractory existential suffering, other refractory symptoms were also reported, and life expectancy was seven days or less; informed consent for initiating CPS had been obtained in all cases. Consultation and intermittent sedation before the start of CPS were far less frequently reported than one would expect based on the guidelines. Multivariate analysis showed that being male, having previously requested euthanasia, having a nervous system disease, or having an other diagnosis were positively correlated with the administration of CPS for existential suffering. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the suggested preconditions and to the presence of existential suffering in male patients or patients with a nervous system disease. PMID:26514019

  3. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

  4. Long-term continuous complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia in a Jehovah's witness treated without blood support.

    PubMed

    Broccia, G

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of a young female patient, a Jehovah's witness, affected by peroxidase-positive acute leukemia. The patient, completely aware of the risks both of the disease and of the usual treatment for acute myeloid leukemia, refused any transfusional support. An atypical treatment plan with low hematological toxicity but also with reduced probability of positive results was therefore proposed and accepted. Initial treatment with vincristine and prednisone induced remission; therapy was then continued for 32 months with monthly cycles of aracytin and 6-thioguanine, at accurately tailored dosages to avoid excessive hematological toxicity. The patient never needed blood support and never suffered infectious or hemorrhagic events. She is still in remission, 11 years off-therapy. The ethical and legal aspects of treatment decisions in such situations are discussed. In the author's opinion, neither withholding all treatment nor insisting on standard measures is correct: on the contrary, as always, treatment in such cases must be tailored on the patient's needs, which include not only his physical condition but his religious beliefs as well. PMID:8063269

  5. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants. PMID:23417984

  6. [The subcapsular blastema of the adrenal cortex of the swine after continuous long-term infusion of exogenous ACTH].

    PubMed

    Zintzsch, I; Gutte, G

    1976-01-01

    After long time application of homologous ACTH the morphokinesis of the adrenal cortex of the pig was investigated experimentally. Following results were obtained: 1. In view of the controls the absolute and relative weight of the adrenals is raised considerably. 2. The progressive transformation is followed by the disappearance of the zonal structure of the adrenal cortex, and the parenchyma get the picture of fasciculata cells generally. 3. Nearly exclusive the zona fasciculata consists of great, pale activated spongiocytes with 2 nucleoli frequently. Topochemically glycogen and the lipids are inconstant, however the histochemical activity of succinodehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase are considerable raised in regard of the controls. 4. The zona fasciculata contains degenerated cells isolated only. Signs of extensive regressive changes are not present. 5. The zona glomerulosa is dissolving or eliminating respectively. The consequences for the synthesis of the adrenal steroid hormones are discussed. 6. A large, spongy subcapsular blastema with several cell layers and a rich capillary network develop between the fibrous capsula of the adrenal and the zona fasiculata. The fasciculata cells are the direct continuation of the subcapsular blastema. The blastema contains neither glycogen nor lipids and histochemical activities of the enzymes are absent, too. The significance of the subcapsular blastema for the morphological and functional adaptation of the adrenal cortex in stress are discussed. Under the conditions of the closed hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal control system the new origin of cells (hyperplasia) is not significant for the morphokinetic adaptive reactions of the adrenal cortex. Rather the subcapsular blastema represents a reserve area which after the destruction of the endocrine parenchyma through specific pathogens the organism enabled to the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. PMID:188714

  7. Nitrate sources and sinks in Elkhorn Slough, California: Results from long-term continuous in situ nitrate analyzers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, T.P.; Caffrey, J.M.; Jannasch, H.W.; Coletti, L.J.; Haskins, J.C.; Johnson, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate and water quality parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and depth) were measured continuously with in situ NO 3 analyzers and water quality sondes at two sites in Elkhorn Slough in Central California. The Main Channel site near the mouth of Elkhorn Slough was sampled from February to September 2001. Azevedo Pond, a shallow tidal pond bordering agricultural fields further inland, was sampled from December 1999 to July 2001. Nitrate concentrations were recorded hourly while salinity, temperature, depth, oxygen, and turbidity were recorded every 30 min. Nitrate concentrations at the Main Channel site ranged from 5 to 65 ??M. The propagation of an internal wave carrying water from ???100 m depth up the Monterey Submarine Canyon and into the lower section of Elkhorn Slough on every rising tide was a major source of nitrate, accounting for 80-90% of the nitrogen load during the dry summer period. Nitrate concentrations in Azevedo Pond ranged from 0-20 ??M during the dry summer months. Nitrate in Azevedo Pond increased to over 450 ??M during a heavy winter precipitation event, and interannual variability driven by differences in precipitation was observed. At both sites, tidal cycling was the dominant forcing, often changing nitrate concentrations by 5-fold or more within a few hours. Water volume flux estimates were combined with observed nitrate concentrations to obtain nitrate fluxes. Nitrate flux calculations indicated a loss of 4 mmol NO3 m -2 d-1 for the entire Elkhorn Slough and 1 mmol NO 3 m-2 d-1 at Azevedo Pond. These results suggested that the waters of Elkhorn Slough were not a major source of nitrate to Monterey Bay but actually a nitrate sink during the dry season. The limited winter data at the Main Channel site suggest that nitrate was exported from Elkhorn Slough during the wet season. Export of ammonium or dissolved organic nitrogen, which we did not monitor, may balance some or all of the NO 3 flux.

  8. Predictors of Long-Term Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in the SAVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Antic, Nick A.; Zhang, Xi-Long; Chen, Bao-Yuan; He, Quan-Ying; Heeley, Emma; Huang, Shao-Guang; Anderson, Craig; Zhong, Nan-Shan; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the clinical variables that best predict long- term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence among patients with cardiovascular disease who have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: 12-mo prospective within-trial observational study. Setting: Centers in China, Australia, and New Zealand participating in the Sleep Apnea cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) study. Patients: There were 275 patients age 45-70 y with cardiovascular disease (i.e., previously documented transient ischemic attack, stroke, or coronary artery disease) and OSA (4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) > 12) who were randomized into the CPAP arm of the SAVE trial prior to July 1, 2010. Methods: Age, sex, country of residence, type of cardiovascular disease, baseline ODI, severity of sleepiness, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores plus CPAP side effects and adherence at 1 mo were entered in univariate analyses in an attempt to identify factors predictive of CPAP adherence at 12 mo. Variables with P < 0.2 were then included in a multivariate analysis using a linear mixed model with sites as a random effect and 12-mo CPAP use as the dependent outcome variable. Measurements and Results: CPAP adherence at 1, 6, and 12 mo was (mean ± standard deviation) 4.4 ± 2.0, 3.8 ± 2.3, and 3.3 ± 2.4 h/night, respectively. CPAP use at 1 mo (effect estimate ± standard error, 0.65 ± 0.07 per h increase, P < 0.001) and side effects at 1 mo (-0.24 ± 0.092 per additional side effect, P = 0.009) were the only independent predictors of 12- mo CPAP adherence. Conclusion: Continuous positive airway pressure use in patients with coexisting cardiovascular disease and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea decreases significantly over 12 months. This decline can be predicted by early patient experiences with continuous positive airway pressure (i.e., adherence and side effects at 1 month), raising the possibility that intensive early interventions could

  9. Long-term performance and stability of a continuous granular airlift reactor treating a high-strength wastewater containing a mixture of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Carrera, Julián

    2016-02-13

    Continuous feeding operation of an airlift reactor and its inoculation with mature aerobic granules allowed the successful treatment of a mixture of aromatic compounds (p-nitrophenol, o-cresol and phenol). Complete biodegradation of p-nitrophenol, o-cresol, phenol and their metabolic intermediates was achieved at an organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Stable granulation was obtained throughout the long-term operation (400 days) achieving an average granule size of 2.0 ± 1 mm and a sludge volumetric index of 26 ± 1 mL g(-1) TSS. The identified genera in the aerobic granular biomass were heterotrophic bacteria able to consume aromatic compounds. Therefore, the continuous feeding regimen and the exposure of aerobic granules to a mixture of aromatic compounds make possible to obtain good granulation and high removal efficiency. PMID:26530892

  10. Does the "sleeping Dragon" Really Sleep?: the Case for Continuous Long-Term Monitoring at a Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Lutken, C.; MacDonald, I. R.; Macelloni, L.; Riedel, M.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous porewater monitoring indicates that the methane flux away from exposed hydrate mounds can vary considerably over time. Recently, we retrieved a Pore Fluid Array instrument pack from a hydrate outcrop adjacent to a NEPTUNE Canada observatory node. The sampler was designed to continuously collect and store sediment pore fluids over the course of 9 months. On analysis, we observed a 35mM variation in methane concentrations corresponding with an abrupt shift in current direction at the site. Video and resistivity data have led to previous speculation that hydrate growth and dissolution/dissociation may be seasonally variable. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that the persistence of hydrate outcrops may be extremely dynamic, driven by fluctuations in physical conditions on short time scales. Short-term monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico within Mississippi Canyon lease block 118 (MC118), a known hydrate-bearing site, indicates that physical conditions even at these depths (~540-890m) may be highly variable. Pressure can vary within hours, and recorded temperature changes of ~1.5°C have been associated with passing storms. Moreover, increased particle abundance was observed at the site in 2007 suggesting that organic matter flux to the sediments may vary on the scale of months to years. These inputs have the potential to alter the chemical environment surrounding the hydrate, thereby affecting dissolution rates. Continuous, long-term observations of physical conditions at MC118 could provide information about the potential for natural perturbations to impact hydrate dynamics on the scale of weeks or even days necessary for assessing the long-term persistence of hydrate outcrops. Sleeping Dragon is a massive hydrate outcrop at MC118 that has been monitored since 2006. Three years ago, researchers returning to the site found it visibly diminished relative to previous observations. This apparent shift toward net dissolution of the mound may have been

  11. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Stewart, William N; Savage, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6-8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood-EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  12. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  13. Online Continuous Flow Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry with a Realistic Battery Setup for High-Precision, Long-Term Cycling Tests.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Balázs B; Jozwiuk, Anna; Vračar, Miloš; Sommer, Heino; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-06-16

    We describe the benefits of an online continuous flow differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) method that allows for realistic battery cycling conditions. We provide a detailed description on the buildup and the role of the different components in the system. Special emphasis is given on the cell design. The retention time and response characteristics of the system are tested with the electrolysis of Li2O2. Finally, we show a practical application in which a Li-ion battery is examined. The value of long-term DEMS measurements for the proper evaluation of electrolyte decomposition is demonstrated by an experiment where a Li(1+x)Ni(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 (NMC 532)/graphite cell is cycled over 20 charge/discharge cycles. PMID:25965095

  14. Long-term Risedronate Treatment Normalizes Mineralization and Continues to Preserve Trabecular Architecture: Sequential Triple Biopsy Studies with Micro-Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Borah,B.; Dufresne, T.; Ritman, E.; Jorgensen, S.; Liu, S.; Chmielewski, P.; Phipps, R.; Zhou, X.; Sibonga, J.; Turner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the time course of changes in bone mineralization and architecture using sequential triple biopsies from women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) who received long-term treatment with risedronate. Transiliac biopsies were obtained from the same subjects (n = 7) at baseline and after 3 and 5 years of treatment with 5 mg daily risedronate. Mineralization was measured using 3-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (CT) with synchrotron radiation and was compared to levels in healthy premenopausal women (n = 12). Compared to the untreated PMO women at baseline, the premenopausal women had higher average mineralization (Avg-MIN) and peak mineralization (Peak-MIN) by 5.8% (P = 0.003) and 8.0% (P = 0.003), respectively, and lower ratio of low to high-mineralized bone volume (BMR-V) and surface area (BMR-S) by 73.3% (P = 0.005) and 61.7% (P = 0.003), respectively. Relative to baseline, 3 years of risedronate treatment significantly increased Avg-MIN (4.9 {+-} 1.1%, P = 0.016) and Peak-MIN (6.2 {+-} 1.5%, P = 0.016), and significantly decreased BMR-V (-68.4 {+-} 7.3%, P = 0.016) and BMR-S (-50.2 {+-} 5.7%, P = 0.016) in the PMO women. The changes were maintained at the same level when treatment was continued up to 5 years. These results are consistent with the significant reduction of turnover observed after 3 years of treatment and which was similarly maintained through 5 years of treatment. Risedronate restored the degree of mineralization and the ratios of low- to high-mineralized bone to premenopausal levels after 3 years of treatment, suggesting that treatment reduced bone turnover in PMO women to healthy premenopausal levels. Conventional micro-CT analysis further demonstrated that bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular architecture did not change from baseline up to 5 years of treatment, suggesting that risedronate provided long-term preservation of trabecular architecture in the PMO women. Overall, risedronate provided

  15. Establishing a Long-term 30 Year Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Perez, R.; Schlemmer, J.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    As renewable energy system become more prevalent, improved global long-term, up-to-date records are needed to better understand and quantify the solar resource and variability. Toward this end, a project involving NASA, DOE NREL, SUNY-Albany and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) was initiated to provide NREL with a solar resource mapping production system for improved depiction of global long-term solar resources that provides the capacity for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983 at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY and NCDC, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will yield an operational production system for NREL to continually update the Earth's solar resource. In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. Here, a three-year prototype of the anticipated ISCCP data set called GridSat is used to assess the algorithms and demonstrate the production system. GridSat maps together cross-calibrated visible and IR reflectances from all the world's geosynchronous satellites at 10 km and 3-hourly respectively. The results are shown and discussed in comparison to existing solar data products. Additionally, the solar irradiance values are compared to various Baseline Surface Radiation Network surface site measurements and other high quality surface measurements. The statistics of the agreement between the measurements and new satellite estimates are also reviewed. The team is now testing a beta release of the revised ISCCP data set through the NOAA

  16. Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Neurocognitive Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES)

    PubMed Central

    Kushida, Clete A.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Quan, Stuart F.; Walsh, James K.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Simon, Richard D.; Guilleminault, Christian; White, David P.; Goodwin, James L.; Schweitzer, Paula K.; Leary, Eileen B.; Hyde, Pamela R.; Hirshkowitz, Max; Green, Sylvan; McEvoy, Linda K.; Chan, Cynthia; Gevins, Alan; Kay, Gary G.; Bloch, Daniel A.; Crabtree, Tami; Dement, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the neurocognitive effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES) was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, 2-arm, sham-controlled, multicenter trial conducted at 5 U.S. university, hospital, or private practices. Of 1,516 participants enrolled, 1,105 were randomized, and 1,098 participants diagnosed with OSA contributed to the analysis of the primary outcome measures. Intervention: Active or sham CPAP Measurements: Three neurocognitive variables, each representing a neurocognitive domain: Pathfinder Number Test-Total Time (attention and psychomotor function [A/P]), Buschke Selective Reminding Test-Sum Recall (learning and memory [L/M]), and Sustained Working Memory Test-Overall Mid-Day Score (executive and frontal-lobe function [E/F]) Results: The primary neurocognitive analyses showed a difference between groups for only the E/F variable at the 2 month CPAP visit, but no difference at the 6 month CPAP visit or for the A/P or L/M variables at either the 2 or 6 month visits. When stratified by measures of OSA severity (AHI or oxygen saturation parameters), the primary E/F variable and one secondary E/F neurocognitive variable revealed transient differences between study arms for those with the most severe OSA. Participants in the active CPAP group had a significantly greater ability to remain awake whether measured subjectively by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale or objectively by the maintenance of wakefulness test. Conclusions: CPAP treatment improved both subjectively and objectively measured sleepiness, especially in individuals with severe OSA (AHI > 30). CPAP use resulted in mild, transient improvement in the most sensitive measures of executive and frontal-lobe function for those with severe disease, which suggests the existence of a complex OSA-neurocognitive relationship

  17. Continuous and Long-Term Measurement of Reticuloruminal pH in Grazing Dairy Cows by an Indwelling and Wireless Data Transmitting Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiner, J.; Guggenberger, T.; Häusler, J.; Steinwidder, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the continuous measurement of ruminal pH in grazing dairy cows to monitor the diets effects on ruminal pH value. A novel indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system was given to 6 multiparous cows orally. Ruminal pH was measured every 600 sec over a 40 d period. After barn feeding and changeover to pasture, the following 3 treatments (2 cows/treatment) were included in the measurement period: continuous grazing (G), continuous grazing plus 4 kg/d of hay fed twice daily (GH), and continuous grazing plus 4 kg/d of concentrate (GC). Ruminal pH decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 6.58 ± 0.15 to pH 6.19 ± 0.19 during feed changeover to pasture. Mean ruminal pH for G, GH, and GC was 6.36, 6.56, and 6.01. Mean 24-h minimum pH was 5.95, 6.20 and, 5.58. The time pH was below 6.3, 6.0, 5.8, and 5.5, for G it was 583, 91, 26, and 3 min/d, for GH it was 97, 12, 0, and 0 min/d and for GC it was 1126, 621, 347, and 101 min/d, respectively. Results were significantly influenced by the diet. The indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system is a very useful and proper tool for long-term measurement of ruminal pH in cows. PMID:23213627

  18. Survival and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depend on glucose to overcome exposure to long-term, severe and continuous hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Deschepper, M; Oudina, K; David, B; Myrtil, V; Collet, C; Bensidhoum, M; Logeart-Avramoglou, D; Petite, H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a potential new treatment for various diseases but has generated marginally successful results. A consistent finding of most studies is massive death of transplanted cells. The present study examined the respective roles of glucose and continuous severe hypoxia on MSC viability and function with respect to bone tissue engineering. We hereby demonstrate for the first time that MSCs survive exposure to long-term (12 days), severe (pO2 < 1.5 mmHg) hypoxia, provided glucose is available. To this end, an in vitro model that mimics the hypoxic environment and cell-driven metabolic changes encountered by grafted sheep cells was established. In this model, the hallmarks of hypoxia (low pO2, hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression and anaerobic metabolism) were present. When conditions switched from hypoxic (low pO2) to ischemic (low pO2 and glucose depletion), MSCs exhibited shrinking, decreased cell viability and ATP content due to complete exhaustion of glucose at day 6; these results provided evidence that ischemia led to the observed massive cell death. Moreover, MSCs exposed to severe, continuous hypoxia, but without any glucose shortage, remained viable and maintained both their in vitro proliferative ability after simulation with blood reperfusion at day 12 and their in vivo osteogenic ability. These findings challenge the traditional view according to which severe hypoxia per se is responsible for the massive MSC death observed upon transplantation of these cells and provide evidence that MSCs are able to withstand exposure to severe, continuous hypoxia provided that a glucose supply is available. PMID:20716129

  19. Biodegradation of natural organic matter in long-term, continuous-flow experiments simulating artificial ground water recharge for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Reija E; Kortelainen, Nina M; Langwaldt, Jörg H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2009-01-01

    The role of biodegradation in the attenuation of natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in long-term experiments that simulate artificial ground water recharge (AGR) for drinking water production. Lake water containing 5.8 mg L(-1) total organic carbon (TOC) was continuously fed into an 18.5-m-long sand column. During the 941 d of operation, on average 76 and 81% of TOC was removed within the first 0.6 m and the entire column length, respectively. Large molecular size fractions (approximately 1800-2200 Da) of NOM were removed more efficiently than smaller ones (approximately 250-1400 Da). The biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within the first 0.6 m, measured by the stable inorganic carbon isotope (delta13C) method, depended on temperature and hydraulic load: The extent of mineralization was 32% at 6 degrees C (Day 442) and 38% at 23 degrees C (Day 708) with a 0.3 m3 (m2d)(-1) hydraulic load and 52% at 5.5 degrees C (Day 883) with a 3.1 m3 (m2d) (-1) hydraulic load. The rest of the DOC removal was likely due to entrapment or sorption onto the sand particles. Decreases in DOC and the total cell counts in the water along the column were positively correlated (r = 0.99; P = 0.001). The accumulation of biomass was minor, with the highest concentration amounting to 7.2 mg g(-1) dw of sand. In summary, this study demonstrated that biodegradation has a key role in NOM removal in AGR and is dependent on temperature. PMID:19141794

  20. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jung; Lu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug

  1. Pituitary and ovarian responses of post-partum acyclic beef cows to continuous long-term GnRH and GnRH agonist treatment.

    PubMed

    D'Occhio, M J; Gifford, D R; Earl, C R; Weatherly, T; von Rechenberg, W

    1989-03-01

    Post-partum acyclic beef cows received continuous long-term treatment with GnRH (200 or 400 ng/kg body wt/h) or the GnRH agonist buserelin (5.5 or 11 ng/kg body wt/h) using s.c. osmotic minipumps which were designed to remain active for 28 days. All treatments increased circulating LH concentrations whereas FSH remained unchanged. Ovulation and corpus luteum (CL) formation as judged by progesterone concentrations greater than or equal to 1 ng/ml occurred in 0/5 control, 4/5 200 ng GnRH, 4/4 400 ng GnRH, 4/5 5.5 ng buserelin and 3/5 11 ng buserelin cows. The outstanding features of the progesterone profiles were the synchrony, both within and across groups, in values greater than or equal to 1 ng/ml around Day 6, and the fact that most CL were short-lived (4-6 days). Only 3 cows, one each from the 400 ng GnRH, 5.5 ng buserelin and 11 ng buserelin groups, showed evidence of extended CL function. Cows failed to show a second ovulation which was anticipated around Day 10 and this could have been due to insufficient FSH to stimulate early follicular development, or the absence of an endogenously driven LH surge. The highest LH concentrations for the respective groups were observed on Days 2 and 6 and by Day 10 LH was declining, although concentrations did remain higher than in controls up to Day 20.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2495359

  2. Long-Term Fate Mapping Using Conditional Lentiviral Vectors Reveals a Continuous Contribution of Radial Glia-Like Cells to Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Pascual-Brazo, Jesus; Libbrecht, Sarah; Reumers, Veerle; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-01-01

    Newborn neurons are generated throughout life in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Stimulation of adult neurogenesis is considered as an attractive endogenous repair mechanism to treat different neurological disorders. Although tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, important questions remain unanswered, regarding the identity and the behavior of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus. We previously showed that conditional Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors can be used to label neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and to track the migration of their progeny with non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Here, we applied these Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors to study neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus with bioluminescence imaging and histological techniques. Stereotactic injection of the Cre-Flex vectors into the dentate gyrus of transgenic Nestin-Cre mice resulted in specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells. The labeled cell population could be detected with bioluminescence imaging until 9 months post injection, but no significant increase in the number of labeled cells over time was observed with this imaging technique. Nevertheless, the specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells, combined with histological analysis at different time points, allowed detailed analysis of their neurogenic potential. This long-term fate mapping revealed that a stable pool of labeled nestin-positive neural stem cells continuously contributes to the generation of newborn neurons in the mouse brain until 9 months post injection. In conclusion, the Cre-Flex technology is a valuable tool to address remaining questions regarding neural stem cell identity and behavior in the dentate gyrus. PMID:26600383

  3. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Jung; Lu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug

  4. Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the

  5. Long-term investigations of summertime chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and continuously observations of vertical particle flux in Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Salter, Ian; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    patterns for the summertime show slightly different results than chlorophyll a. POC flux rates were at least one order of magnitude lower in the CAO than in eastern Fram Strait. Whereas in the CAO ice algae dominate the recognizable flux fraction, fecal material prevailed in eastern Fram Strait traps, pointing towards different systems of organic matter production and modification. These results were also confirmed by the biomarker composition pattern. Since 2014, investigations continue within a greater framework of the Arctic long-term observatory 'Frontiers of Arctic Marine Monitoring' (FRAM) that is established to improve our knowledge by using new developments and proven technologies to enable the recording of environmental and biological data in high temporal and spatial resolution.

  6. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants – including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...

  7. Future Flight Opportunities and Calibration Protocols for CERES: Continuation of Observations in Support of the Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, George L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is to provide a long-term record of radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface with consistent cloud and aerosol properties at climate accuracy. CERES consists of an integrated instrument-algorithm validation science team that provides development of higher-level products (Levels 1-3) and investigations. It involves a high level of data fusion, merging inputs from 25 unique input data sources to produce 18 CERES data products. Over 90% of the CERES data product volume involves two or more instruments. Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals . Five CERES instruments have flown on three different spacecraft: TRMM, EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS have agreed to fly the existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft in 2011 and to procure an additional CERES Sensor with modest upgrades for flight on the JPSS C1 spacecraft in 2014, followed by a CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018. CERES is a scanning broadband radiometer that measures filtered radiance in the SW (0.3-5 m), total (TOT) (0.3-200 m) and WN (8-12 m) regions. Pre-launch calibration is performed on each Flight Model to meet accuracy requirements of 1% for SW and 0.5% for outgoing LW observations. Ground to flight or in-flight changes are monitored using protocols employing onboard and vicarious calibration sources. Studies of flight data show that SW response can change dramatically due to optical contamination. with greatest impact in blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output. While science goals remain unchanged for ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood

  8. Online Dementia Care Training for Healthcare Teams in Continuing and Long-Term Care Homes: A Viable Solution for Improving Quality of Care and Quality of Life for Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Colla J.; Stodel, Emma J.; Casimiro, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, develop, deliver, and evaluate an online dementia care program aimed at enabling healthcare teams deliver better service to residents with dementia in continuing (CC) and long-term care (LTC) facilities. A Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) orientation (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003) was adopted…

  9. Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Fluid Chemistry and Flux at the Bush Hill Gas Hydrate Field, Gulf of Mexico Using a New Flow Meter, The MOSQUITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, E.; Kastner, M.; Jannasch, H.; Weinstein, Y.; Robertson, G.; Aubrey, A.

    2004-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of fluid, solute, and methane fluxes that influence marine gas hydrate formation and dissociation has important implications for the seafloor biochemical environment, ocean chemistry, and potentially the atmosphere. Four newly designed flux meters called the MOSQUITO (Multiple Orifice Sampler and Quantitative Injection Tracer Observer) and two temperature loggers were deployed adjacent to the Bush Hill hydrate mound in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GC185) in order to understand how chemistry, physics, biology, and subsurface hydrology dynamically influence the growth and dissociation of the hydrate mound. The MOSQUITO contains a network of osmotic samplers and a tracer injection device, each connected to a titanium capillary tube that penetrates the sediment. The tracer is injected as a point source, and fluid chemistry and tracer concentrations are continuously sampled simultaneously at multiple depths below the seafloor in a three dimensional array with respect to the tracer injection point. Bottom water chemistry is also sampled continuously. Vertical and horizontal flow rates as low as 1 cm/yr are determined by modeling the variability in tracer concentration at each depth over time. MOSQUITOs can be deployed at passive margins, ridge crests, ridge flanks, subduction zones, and lakes. MOSQUITOs were deployed over a period of 430 days from June 2002 to August 2003 and were sampled at weekly resolution. The temperature loggers were attached to the MOSQUITOs and recorded seafloor temperature every 40 minutes. Three MOSQUITOs were deployed within 3 m of the hydrate mound and ˜ 5 m apart, adjacent to transient methane seeps; in a mussel field, in a bacterial mat, and in a tubeworm field. The fourth MOSQUITO was placed ˜150 m southwest of the hydrate mound to monitor background fluid flow, geochemistry, and temperature. The average bottom water temperature over the 430-day deployment period was 7.94° C, with minimum temperatures occurring every

  10. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  11. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  12. Continuous real-time monitoring of chloride in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park: initial results from newly developed long-term in-situ chloride analyzers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, T.; Heasler, H.; Hurwitz, S.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride in the surface waters of Yellowstone National Park is primarily derived from magmatic/hydrothermal sources. Discrete chloride measurements, collected at weekly to monthly intervals, are a key component of the ongoing geothermal monitoring program conducted by Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and National Park Service scientists. Chloride flux, estimated from discrete chloride measurements and streamflow data, could potentially be used as a proxy for geothermal heat flux and volcanic-geothermal unrest in the Park. However, infrequent chloride sampling restricts our understanding of dynamic geothermal processes, and the lack of real- time chloride data limits our ability to provide early warning and timely response to geologic hazards in Yellowstone. We seek to combine real-time chloride and streamflow data to examine variations in chloride flux due to changes in the volcanic-geothermal system and to determine if real-time chloride flux data can be used as an early warning indicator of volcanic hazards in the park. To address these objectives, we have developed a low-cost instrument for long-term, real-time, in-situ chemical analysis, the Field Sequential Injection Analyzer (Field-SIA). The Field-SIA is self-calibrating, performs hourly analyses for over two months between service visits, and integrates with existing USGS streamflow gaging stations which provide solar power and satellite telemetry of real-time chloride data. The Field-SIA greatly increases chemical data collection while significantly decreasing the cost of sampling and analysis. We will present data from long-term, high-resolution, real-time chloride monitoring of: 1) Tantalus Creek which drains the Norris Geyser Basin; 2) the Firehole River which drains the Upper, Middle, and Lower Geyser Basins; and 3) the Yellowstone River near Gardiner, MT. Initial results suggest that chloride fluctuations at Tantalus Creek were linked to diel temperature cycling while chloride fluctuations at the

  13. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  14. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  15. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  16. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  17. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  18. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  19. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  20. Thresholds and gradients in a semi-arid grassland: long-term grazing treatments induce slow, continuous, and reversible vegetation change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiarid ecosystems can exhibit non-reversible shifts among alternative stable ecosystem states (thresholds and hysteresis), but can also be characterized by slow, continuous, and reversible changes in plant composition (successional gradients). Conceptual state-and-transition models (STMs) attempt ...

  1. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. PMID:26657371

  2. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  3. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  4. Long-term continuous monitor demonstration program: Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Company, Conesville Unit 6. Final report Dec 79-Mar 83

    SciTech Connect

    Peduto, E.F. Jr.; Porter, T.J.; Midgley, D.P.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of a continuous monitoring demonstration at the Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Company's Conesville Generating Station. The purpose of the demonstration was to determine the feasibility of the requirements for monitoring and control of SO2 emissions as specified in 40 CFR, Part 60, Subpart Da, which promulgates new source performance standards (NSPS) for new utility steam generators. A secondary objective was to adhere to the draft quality assurance requirements scheduled for promulgation as Appendix F. The report describes program activities and results of the field portion, during which data were collected for about 12 months of a 16-month period.

  5. Performance assessment of a commonly used "accumulation and wash-off" model from long-term continuous road runoff turbidity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Bonhomme, Céline; Al Ali, Saja; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    The suitability of a commonly used accumulation and wash-off model for continuous modelling of urban runoff contamination was evaluated based on 11-month turbidity and flow-rate records from an urban street. Calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed using a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling method for both suspended solids loads (discharge rates) and concentration modelling. Selected models failed at replicating suspended solids concentration over the complete monitoring period. The studied dataset indeed suggests that the accumulation process is rather unpredictable and cannot be satisfactorily represented with usual accumulation models unless short periods are considered. Regarding suspended solid loads modelling, noticeably better performance was achieved, but similar results could as well be obtained with much simpler constant concentration models. Unless providing very accurate estimates of concentrations in runoff, accounting for their temporal variability during rain events may therefore not always be necessary for pollutant loads modelling, as loads are in fact mostly explained by runoff volumes. PMID:25909578

  6. Long-term performance of side-stream deammonification in a continuous flow granular-activated sludge process for nitrogen removal from high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Donald S; Kelly, Harlan G

    2015-01-01

    An innovative granular sludge deammonification system was incorporated into a conventional-activated sludge process. The process incorporated an internal baffle in the bioreactor for continuous separation of granular biomass from flocculent biomass, which allowed for controlling the solids retention time of flocculent sludge. The process was evaluated for ammonium removal from municipal digested sludge dewatering centrate under various operating conditions lasting over 450 days. The process successfully removed, on average, 90% of the ammonium from centrate at various ammonium loading reaching 1.4 kg/m³d at 20 hours hydraulic retention time. Controlling the retention time of the flocculent biomass and maintaining low nitrite concentration were both found to be effective for nitrite oxidizing bacteria management, resulting in a low nitrate concentration (below 50 mg/L) over a wide range of flocculent biomass concentration in the bioreactor. PMID:25909736

  7. Effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on short-term weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; Pedersen, E; Petersen, K S; Clifton, P M

    2014-06-01

    Effective strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on weight loss after 8 weeks and weight loss maintenance after 12 months. Secondary aims were to determine changes in waist and hip measurements and diet quality. In a randomized parallel study, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg m(-2)) women were stratified by age and BMI before randomization. Participants undertook an 8-week intensive period with weight, waist and hip circumference measured every 2 weeks, followed by 44 weeks of independent dieting. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and 12 months, from which diet quality was determined. Weight loss was not significantly different between the two groups at 8 weeks (-3.2 ± 2.1 kg CER, n = 20, -2.0 ± 1.9 kg IER, n = 25; P = 0.06) or at 12 months (-4.2 ± 5.6 kg CER, n = 17 -2.1 ± 3.8 kg IER, n = 19; P = 0.19). Weight loss between 8 and 52 weeks was -0.7 ± 49 kg CER vs. -1 ± 1.1 kg IER; P = 0.6. Waist and hip circumference decreased significantly with time (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups. There was an increase in the Healthy Eating Index at 12 months in the CER compared with the IER group (CER 8.4 ± 9.1 vs. IER -0.3 ± 8.4, P = 0.006). This study indicates that intermittent dieting was as effective as continuous dieting over 8 weeks and for weight loss maintenance at 12 months. This may be useful for individuals who find CER too difficult to maintain. PMID:25826770

  8. Lentiviral-Mediated Gene Therapy in Fanconi Anemia-A Mice Reveals Long-Term Engraftment and Continuous Turnover of Corrected HSCs.

    PubMed

    Molina-Estevez, F Javier; Nowrouzi, Ali; Lozano, M Luz; Galy, Anne; Charrier, Sabine; von Kalle, Christof; Guenechea, Guillermo; Bueren, Juan A; Schmidt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a DNA repair-deficiency syndrome mainly characterized by cancer predisposition and bone marrow failure. Trying to restore the hematopoietic function in these patients, lentiviral vector-mediated gene therapy trials have recently been proposed. However, because no insertional oncogenesis studies have been conducted so far in DNA repair-deficiency syndromes such as Fanconi anemia, we have carried out a genome-wide screening of lentiviral insertion sites after the gene correction of Fanca(-/-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), using LAM-PCR and 454-pyrosequencing. Our studies first demonstrated that transduction of Fanca(-/-) HSCs with a lentiviral vector designed for clinical application efficiently corrects the phenotype of Fanconi anemia repopulating cells without any sign of toxicity. The identification of more than 6,500 insertion sites in primary and secondary recipients showed a polyclonal pattern of reconstitution, as well as a continuous turnover of corrected Fanca(-/-) HSC clones, without evidences of selection towards specific common integration sites. Taken together our data show, for the first time in a DNA repair-deficiency syndrome, that lentiviral vector-mediated gene therapy efficiently corrects the phenotype of affected HSCs and promotes a healthy pattern of clonal turnover in vivo. These studies will have a particular impact in the development of new gene therapy trials in patients affected by DNA repair syndromes, particularly in Fanconi anemia. PMID:26415575

  9. A Long-Term Cultivation of an Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Microbial Community from Deep-Sea Methane-Seep Sediment Using a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Masataka; Ehara, Masayuki; Saito, Yumi; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Saito, Yayoi; Miyashita, Ai; Kawakami, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is an important global methane sink, but the physiological characteristics of AOM-associated microorganisms remain poorly understood. Here we report the cultivation of an AOM microbial community from deep-sea methane-seep sediment using a continuous-flow bioreactor with polyurethane sponges, called the down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) bioreactor. We anaerobically incubated deep-sea methane-seep sediment collected from the Nankai Trough, Japan, for 2,013 days in the bioreactor at 10°C. Following incubation, an active AOM activity was confirmed by a tracer experiment using 13C-labeled methane. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that phylogenetically diverse Archaea and Bacteria grew in the bioreactor. After 2,013 days of incubation, the predominant archaeal components were anaerobic methanotroph (ANME)-2a, Deep-Sea Archaeal Group, and Marine Benthic Group-D, and Gammaproteobacteria was the dominant bacterial lineage. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that ANME-1 and -2a, and most ANME-2c cells occurred without close physical interaction with potential bacterial partners. Our data demonstrate that the DHS bioreactor system is a useful system for cultivating fastidious methane-seep-associated sedimentary microorganisms. PMID:25141130

  10. Immediate Epileptogenesis after Kainate-Induced Status Epilepticus in C57BL/6J Mice: Evidence from Long Term Continuous Video-EEG Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Sharma, Shaunik; Tse, Karen; Beamer, Edward; Sexton, Abby; Crutison, Joseph; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa

    2015-01-01

    The C57BL/6J mouse as a model of seizure/epilepsy is challenging due to high mortality and huge variability in response to kainate. We have recently demonstrated that repeated administration of a low dose of kainate by intraperitoneal route can induce severe status epilepticus (SE) with 94% survival rate. In the present study, based on continuous video-EEG recording for 4-18 weeks from epidurally implanted electrodes on the cortex, we demonstrate that this method also induces immediate epileptogenesis (<1-5 days post-SE). This finding was based on identification of two types of spontaneous recurrent seizures; behavioral convulsive seizures (CS) and electrographic nonconvulsive seizures (NCS). The identification of the spontaneous CS, stage 3-5 types, was based on the behaviors (video) that were associated with the EEG characteristics (stage 3-5 epileptiform spikes), the power spectrum, and the activity counts. The electrographic NCS identification was based on the stage 1-2 epileptiform spike clusters on the EEG and their associated power spectrum. Severe SE induced immediate epileptogenesis in all the mice. The maximum numbers of spontaneous CS were observed during the first 4-6 weeks of the SE and they decreased thereafter. Mild SE also induced immediate epileptogenesis in some mice but the CS were less frequent. In both the severe and the mild SE groups, the spontaneous electrographic NCS persisted throughout the 18 weeks observation period, and therefore this could serve as a chronic model for complex seizures. However, unlike rat kainate models, the C57BL/6J mouse kainate model is a unique regressive CS model of epilepsy. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of recovery from spontaneous CS in this model, which could reveal novel therapeutic targets for epilepsy. PMID:26161754

  11. Effect of lurasidone dose on cognition in patients with schizophrenia: post-hoc analysis of a long-term, double-blind continuation study.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Siu, Cynthia O; Ogasa, Masaaki; Loebel, Antony

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported that treatment with 160mg/d of lurasidone improved cognitive performance in a manner superior to placebo, quetiapine XR 600mg/d, and lurasidone 80mg/d, based on a 6-week randomized trial of patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to explore the cognitive and functional performance of patients whose final doses of lurasidone were 40/80mg/d, 120mg/d, and 160mg/d compared to quetiapine XR 200-800mg/d (QXR) during a 6-month, double-blind continuation study that followed a short-term trial. Subjects who received final doses of lurasidone 120mg/d (n=77) and 160mg/d (n=49) showed significantly greater improvement in overall cognitive performance compared to QXR (n=85) at week 32 (month 6 of the extension study), while those on last doses of 40/80mg/d (n=25) showed a trend towards significance at week 32. Mean changes in neurocognitive composite z-score from pre-treatment baseline were significant for the 3 lurasidone final dose groups at both weeks 19 and 32, with composite change scores of z=1.53, z=1.43, and z=1.34 for the lurasidone 40/80mg/d, 120mg/d, and 160mg/d, respectively, at week 32. In contrast, the composite change score was not statistically significant in the overall quetiapine group (z=0.46), with none of the individual quetiapine doses showing any significant improvement. Functional capacity scores improved in all treatment groups. Our findings indicate improved cognitive performance in patients treated with each of the flexible doses of lurasidone 40-160mg/d, compared to quetiapine XR 200-800mg/d. All doses of lurasidone were superior to all doses of quetiapine for cognitive performance. PMID:26117157

  12. Continuous accelerated 7-days-a-week radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Long-term results of Phase III clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Skladowski, Krzysztof . E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Golen, Maria; Tarnawski, Rafal; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Suwinski, Rafal; Sygula, Mariusz; Wygoda, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To update 5-year results of a previously published study on special 7-days-a-week fractionation continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR) for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in Stage T{sub 2-4}N{sub 0-1}M were randomized between two definitive radiation treatments: accelerated fractionation 7 days a week including weekends (CAIR) and conventional 5 days a week (control). Hence the overall treatment time was 2 weeks shorter in CAIR. Results: Five-year local tumor control was 75% in the CAIR group and 33% in the control arm (p < 0.00004). Tumor-cure benefit corresponded with significant improvement in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with the incidence significantly higher in CAIR patients than in control (respectively, 94% vs. 53%). When 2.0-Gy fractions were used, radiation necrosis developed in 5 patients (22%) in the CAIR group as a consequential late effect (CLE), but when fraction size was reduced to 1.8 Gy no more CLE occurred. Actuarial 5-year morbidity-free survival rate was similar for both treatments. Conclusions: Selected head-and-neck cancer patients could be treated very effectively with 7-days-a-week radiation schedule with no compromise of total dose and with slight 10% reduction of fraction dose (2 Gy-1.8 Gy), which article gives 1 week reduction of overall treatment time compared with standard 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 47-49 days. Although this report is based on the relatively small group of patients, its results have encouraged us to use CAIR fractionation in a standard radiation treatment for moderately advanced head-and-neck cancer patients.

  13. Precision intrauterine contraception may significantly increase continuation of use: a review of long-term clinical experience with frameless copper-releasing intrauterine contraception devices

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Pett, Ansgar; Jandi, Sohela; Hasskamp, Thomas; Rowe, Patrick; Vrijens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to review the experience with the frameless, anchored, GyneFix copper-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs/IUDs) (Contrel Europe, Belgium), and to demonstrate their high acceptability and low rate of discontinuation of use, which could contribute to current efforts that aim to reduce radically the high number of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions, particularly in young women. Materials and methods This paper is based on studies that examined the differences in uterine volume and cavity size, related to age and parity, and on original clinical research data and practical experience with frameless copper IUDs, as well as on literature data on the IUD–endometrial cavity relationship of conventional IUDs, with special reference to side effects and user discontinuation. Results The mean transverse diameter in nulliparous and parous women is significantly less than the length of the transverse arm of the TCu380A IUD (ParaGard, Duramed, NY, USA) or the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Bayer, Germany). Small, frameless, flexible, and unidimensional copper IUDs appear to be well tolerated, with less impact on menstrual bleeding, resulting in low discontinuation rates when compared with standard-size conventional IUDs, which often result in increased expulsion rates, complaints of pain and erratic or increased menstrual bleeding, and subsequent high rates of discontinuation, particularly in young women. Conclusion The unidimensional GyneFix IUDs fit the majority of uterine cavities. An IUD that fits is likely to result in increased tolerance and continued use of the method. As this would appeal to women, the logical result should be greater use of the method and fewer unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Recommending the standard TCu380A (ParaGard) IUD or the Mirena levonorgestrel intrauterine system, primarily developed for use in parous women, for general use in nulliparous and adolescent

  14. Geodynamical Processes between Antarctica and India as revealed by very long baselines between the continents estimated from continuous and long-term GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N, R.; Ec, M.; Akilan, A.

    2006-12-01

    To holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes in the south of Indian peninsula between India and Antarctica, two global networks have been chosen that geodetically connect the two continents, the IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) being the common station between the two networks. 8 years of data from 1997 to 2005 were used. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE to other chosen IGS stations in and around India including DGAR. Similarly in the other network, very long baselines have been estimated from Kerguelen to other stations in and around Antarctica again including DGAR. Since the baseline length between HYDE, India and MAITRI, Antarctica is more than 10,000 km, it is mandatory to form these two different networks to improve the accuracy of the baseline measurements by GPS. This is to circumvent the limitation in the estimation of maximum base line length by GPS is of 6,900 km only due to the availability of less number of double difference observables in the GPS data analysis. Our analysis and results show increase of baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and other common stations. By this global network analyses, the stations HYDE and MAITRI are geodetically tied through DGAR. With this geodetic tie up, having got the first geodetic signatures of the geodynamical processes between India and Antarctica, continuous monitoring and estimation would help enhancing the understanding the crustal deformation processes between these two continents despite many plates, micro plates and ridges in this study region.These estimations reveal clearly that the stations in the Australian plate are moving away from the Indian plate conforming to the recent Plate tectonic theory that India and Australia lie in two different plates with a diffuse boundary separating them. GPS derived velocity vectors for the Australian Plate also

  15. A Simple Microfluidic Platform for Long-Term Analysis and Continuous Dual-Imaging Detection of T-Cell Secreted IFN-γ and IL-2 on Antibody-Based Biochip

    PubMed Central

    Baganizi, Dieudonné R.; Leroy, Loïc; Laplatine, Loïc; Fairley, Stacie J.; Heidmann, Samuel; Menad, Samia; Livache, Thierry; Marche, Patrice N.; Roupioz, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    The identification and characterization, at the cellular level, of cytokine productions present a high interest for both fundamental research and clinical studies. However, the majority of techniques currently available (ELISA, ELISpot, flow cytometry, etc.) have several shortcomings including, notably, the assessment of several cytokines in relation to individual secreting cells and the monitoring of living cell responses for a long incubation time. In the present work, we describe a system composed of a microfluidic platform coupled with an antibody microarray chip for continuous SPR imaging and immunofluorescence analysis of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) secreted by T-Lymphocytes, specifically, and stably captured on the biochip under flow upon continued long-term on-chip culture (more than 24 h). PMID:26690235

  16. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  17. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  18. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. (Editor); Rossow, W. (Editor); Fung, I. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A workshop on Long-Term Monitoring of Global Climate Forcings and Feedbacks was held February 3-4, 1992, at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies to discuss the measurements required to interpret long-term global temperature changes, to critique the proposed contributions of a series of small satellites (Climsat), and to identify needed complementary monitoring. The workshop concluded that long-term (several decades) of continuous monitoring of the major climate forcings and feedbacks is essential for understanding long-term climate change.

  20. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  1. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  2. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  3. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  4. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term debt. 1773.44 Section 1773.44 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long... 691, Confirmation Schedule—Long-term Obligation to RUS as of; or RTB Form 12, Confirmation...

  5. Development of acquired von Willebrand syndrome during short-term micro axial pump support: implications for bleeding in a patient bridged to a long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mary E; Haglund, Nicholas A; Tricarico, Nicole M; Keebler, Mary E; Maltais, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous continuous-flow (CF) micro axial blood pumps, like the Impella 5.0, are commonly used for short-term (ST) mechanical circulatory support in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. The Impella device often serves as a bridge to implantation of a long-term (LT) CF left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), such as the centrifugal-flow HeartWare (HVAD). All patients supported with axial CF-LVADs develop acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) as a result of mechanical shear stress. Increased shear stress leads to excessive proteolysis of von Willebrand factor and loss of high molecular weight multimers, thus contributing to platelet dysfunction and increased gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events associated with AVWS have been reported in patients supported with LT CF-LVADs; however, the relation between early perioperative bleeding complications and AVWS remains poorly characterized in ST CF-LVADs. We sought to describe the relation between the development of AVWS and excessive intraoperative bleeding in a patient who was sequentially bridged with an ST micro axial device to a LT centrifugal CF-LVAD. This case highlights the importance of monitoring these hemostatic changes when bridging to LT CF-LVADs. PMID:24614358

  6. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  7. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract...

  8. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract...

  9. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract...

  10. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  11. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  12. What nursing diagnoses do nurses use in long term care?

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Maas, M; Buckwalter, K

    1995-01-01

    The results of this survey validate that the NANDA nursing diagnoses classification is appropriate for use in long term care. Although ninety three percent of the current NANDA nursing diagnoses are used in practice, there remains a need for the development and testing of additional nursing diagnoses to describe patient problems encountered in long term care. Nurses in education and practice settings must work collaboratively to continue to identify, refine and validate the nursing diagnoses that are most appropriate for frail, older and/or chronically ill residents of long term care facilities. PMID:7648273

  13. 7 CFR 1944.689 - Long-term monitoring by grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Long-term monitoring by grantee. 1944.689 Section 1944... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.689 Long-term monitoring by grantee. (a) The grantee is required to perform long-term monitoring on any...

  14. 7 CFR 1944.689 - Long-term monitoring by grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Long-term monitoring by grantee. 1944.689 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.689 Long-term monitoring by grantee. (a) The grantee is required to perform long-term monitoring on any...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.689 - Long-term monitoring by grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Long-term monitoring by grantee. 1944.689 Section 1944... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.689 Long-term monitoring by grantee. (a) The grantee is required to perform long-term monitoring on any...

  16. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract methods...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.689 - Long-term monitoring by grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Long-term monitoring by grantee. 1944.689 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.689 Long-term monitoring by grantee. (a) The grantee is required to perform long-term monitoring on any...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.689 - Long-term monitoring by grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Long-term monitoring by grantee. 1944.689 Section 1944... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.689 Long-term monitoring by grantee. (a) The grantee is required to perform long-term monitoring on any...

  19. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  20. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  1. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Christina; Pan, Hongchao; Godwin, Jon; Gray, Richard; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Raina, Vinod; Abraham, Mirta; Alencar, Victor Hugo Medeiros; Badran, Atef; Bonfill, Xavier; Bradbury, Joan; Clarke, Michael; Collins, Rory; Davis, Susan R; Delmestri, Antonella; Forbes, John F; Haddad, Peiman; Hou, Ming-Feng; Inbar, Moshe; Khaled, Hussein; Kielanowska, Joanna; Kwan, Wing-Hong; Mathew, Beela S; Müller, Bettina; Nicolucci, Antonio; Peralta, Octavio; Pernas, Fany; Petruzelka, Lubos; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Rajan, Balakrishnan; Rubach, Maryna T; Tort, Sera; Urrútia, Gerard; Valentini, Miriam; Wang, Yaochen; Peto, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background For women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer, treatment with tamoxifen for 5 years substantially reduces the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the first 15 years after diagnosis. We aimed to assess the further effects of continuing tamoxifen to 10 years instead of stopping at 5 years. Methods In the worldwide Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Longer Against Shorter (ATLAS) trial, 12 894 women with early breast cancer who had completed 5 years of treatment with tamoxifen were randomly allocated to continue tamoxifen to 10 years or stop at 5 years (open control). Allocation (1:1) was by central computer, using minimisation. After entry (between 1996 and 2005), yearly follow-up forms recorded any recurrence, second cancer, hospital admission, or death. We report effects on breast cancer outcomes among the 6846 women with ER-positive disease, and side-effects among all women (with positive, negative, or unknown ER status). Long-term follow-up still continues. This study is registered, number ISRCTN19652633. Findings Among women with ER-positive disease, allocation to continue tamoxifen reduced the risk of breast cancer recurrence (617 recurrences in 3428 women allocated to continue vs 711 in 3418 controls, p=0·002), reduced breast cancer mortality (331 deaths vs 397 deaths, p=0·01), and reduced overall mortality (639 deaths vs 722 deaths, p=0·01). The reductions in adverse breast cancer outcomes appeared to be less extreme before than after year 10 (recurrence rate ratio [RR] 0·90 [95% CI 0·79–1·02] during years 5–9 and 0·75 [0·62–0·90] in later years; breast cancer mortality RR 0·97 [0·79–1·18] during years 5–9 and 0·71 [0·58–0·88] in later years). The cumulative risk of recurrence during years 5–14 was 21·4% for women allocated to continue versus 25·1% for controls; breast cancer mortality during years 5–14 was 12·2% for women allocated to continue versus 15·0% for controls (absolute mortality

  2. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  3. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  4. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  5. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  6. 26 CFR 1.460-3 - Long-term construction contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term construction contracts. 1.460-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-3 Long-term... a long-term construction contract using the percentage-of-completion method described in §...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5610 - Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support. (a) Identification. A membrane lung for long-term pulmonary...

  11. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  12. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  13. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  14. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  15. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  16. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  17. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  18. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  19. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  20. 40 CFR 52.29 - Visibility long-term strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ascribed to them in the Clean Air Act, or in the protection of visibility program (40 CFR 51.301). (c) Long... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility long-term strategies. 52.29... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.29 Visibility...

  1. The Insider's Experience of Long-Term Peer Victimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Graham J.; Carey, Timothy A.; Stevens, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was…

  2. Fast and long term lipid droplet tracking with CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, Christian; Winterhalder, Martin J; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Photobleaching of organic fluorophores commonly used in fluorescence microscopy puts a limit to the number of images which can be acquired. Label-free imaging techniques therefore offer advantages both for rapid image acquisition and for long-term observations. CARS microscopy is a label-free imaging technique offering molecule specific contrast. Here we demonstrate that CARS microscopy allows video-rate tracking of intracellular transport of lipid droplets, but also continuous long-term observation of cells over several hours. PMID:21445955

  3. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  4. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  5. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  6. A long-term carrier of cholera: Cholera Dolores

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Kobari, Kazumine; Barua, D.; Alvero, M.; Gomez, C. Z.; Dizon, J. J.; Nakano, Ei-Ichi; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.

    1967-01-01

    The first known long-term carrier of cholera, found in the Philippines, is described. The carrier, Dolores M., who had suffered from El Tor cholera in August 1962, continued intermittently to excrete vibrios of the same characteristics as the original isolates until the date of reporting (1966). Duodenal intubation proved that the vibrios are lodged in her biliary tract. Her serum antibody titre continued to remain high in the absence of vaccination against cholera. PMID:5300877

  7. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  8. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  9. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  10. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  11. Long-term prognosis of depression in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data from a primary care sample to examine long-term prognosis of depression. A sample of 225 patients initiating antidepressant treatment in primary care completed assessments of clinical outcome (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR) 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months after initiating treatment. The proportion of patients continuing to meet criteria for major depression fell rapidly to approximately 10% and remained at approximately that level throughout follow-up. The proportion meeting criteria for remission (Hamilton Depression score of 7 or less) rose gradually to approximately 45%. Long-term prognosis (i.e. probability of remission at 6 months and beyond) was strongly related to remission status at 3 months (odds ratio 3.65; 95% confidence interval, 2.81-4.76) and only modestly related to various clinical characteristics assessed at baseline (e.g. prior history of recurrent depression, medical comorbidity, comorbid anxiety symptoms). The findings indicate that potentially modifiable risk factors influence the long-term prognosis of depression. This suggests that more systematic and effective depression treatment programmes might have an important effect on long-term course and reduce the overall burden of chronic and recurrent depression. PMID:10885162

  12. Coronal holes in the long-term cosmic rays modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    The present study of galactic CR modulation in the heliosphere through the 21-24 cycles continues the series of works, where long-term CR modulation was described using the multi-parametric model, including the solar activity (SA) characteristics. Initial data for modeling of CR variations are long-term observations of CR intensity, the characteristics of the solar global magnetic field and the short-time characteristic of SA (solar x-rays flares). Data of the CR intensity were obtained from the ground network of NM and stratospheric sounding. In order to improve the simulation of long-term CR variations we introduced into the model the characteristic of the regions with the open magnetic field - the coronal holes (CH). Location (latitude), the area and the magnetic flux of CHs were used. Modeling modulation is carried out for all period and separately for the periods with the same polarity of the global field of the Sun, taking into account the delay CR variations regarding changes of CA characteristics. The quality of the long-term variations description has been improved by including in the model the CH characteristics.

  13. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  14. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  15. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  16. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  17. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  18. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  19. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  20. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  1. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. PMID:23962591

  2. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    SciTech Connect

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  4. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  5. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  6. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  7. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  8. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  9. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  10. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  11. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  12. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  13. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  14. Long-term Tillage influences on soil carbon, nitrogen, physical, chemical, and biological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage no-till, spring till, and fall plus spring till under continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on s...

  15. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds... Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  16. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  17. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds...-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term water treatment trust funds. (a) The BLM may require the operator or lessee to establish a trust fund or other funding mechanism to ensure the continuation of...

  18. Long-term tillage frequency effects on dryland soil physical and hydraulic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 22 years) tillage frequency [no-till (NT), spring till (ST), and fall and spring till (FST)] under continuous spring whe...

  19. 34 CFR 386.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Rehabilitation Long-Term Training program? 386.1 Section 386.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION TRAINING: REHABILITATION LONG-TERM TRAINING General...

  20. 43 CFR 3904.40 - Long-term water treatment trust funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long-term water treatment trust funds. 3904.40 Section 3904.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Bonds and Trust Funds § 3904.40 Long-term...

  1. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

  2. Related Studies in Long Term Lithium Battery Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, R. J.; Chua, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The continuing growth of the use of lithium electrochemical systems in a wide variety of both military and industrial applications is primarily a result of the significant benefits associated with the technology such as high energy density, wide temperature operation and long term stability. The stability or long term storage capability of a battery is a function of several factors, each important to the overall storage life and, therefore, each potentially a problem area if not addressed during the design, development and evaluation phases of the product cycle. Design (e.g., reserve vs active), inherent material thermal stability, material compatibility and self-discharge characteristics are examples of factors key to the storability of a power source.

  3. Effects of continuous long-term testosterone therapy (TTh) on anthropometric, endocrine and metabolic parameters for up to 10 years in 115 hypogonadal elderly men: real-life experience from an observational registry study.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J; Almehmadi, Y; Salman, M; Saad, F

    2016-09-01

    Subnormal levels of testosterone are associated with significant negative health consequences, with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The numbers of studies reporting on the benefits of normalisation of testosterone is increasing but longer-term data on (elderly) men receiving testosterone treatment are almost nonexistent. In this single-centre, cumulative, prospective, registry study, 115 hypogonadal men (mean age 59.05 years) received injections with testosterone undecanoate in 12-week intervals for up to 10 years. Waist circumference, body weight and mean BMI dropped progressively with statistical significance versus previous year for 7 years and, respectively, 8 years for weight and body mass index. Similarly, fasting glucose displayed a significant decrease after the first year continuing to decrease thereafter. A decline in HbA1c , from 6.4% to 5.6% (mean <6%), was observed from year 2 on, together with a decrease in the ratio of triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with an increase in HDL levels. The total cholesterol:HDL ratio and non-HDL cholesterol declined significantly. A decrease was also observed in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with a decrease in levels of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein. No major adverse cardiovascular events were observed throughout the study. PMID:26762680

  4. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  5. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  6. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  7. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  8. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  9. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  10. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  11. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  12. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  13. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  14. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  15. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  16. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  17. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Parikh, Dakshesh H.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks) or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett's esophagus). The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett's changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life. PMID:27365900

  18. Long-term forecasting of internet backbone traffic.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaki, Konstantina; Taft, Nina; Zhang, Zhi-Li; Diot, Christophe

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a methodology to predict when and where link additions/upgrades have to take place in an Internet protocol (IP) backbone network. Using simple network management protocol (SNMP) statistics, collected continuously since 1999, we compute aggregate demand between any two adjacent points of presence (PoPs) and look at its evolution at time scales larger than 1 h. We show that IP backbone traffic exhibits visible long term trends, strong periodicities, and variability at multiple time scales. Our methodology relies on the wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA) and linear time series models. Using wavelet MRA, we smooth the collected measurements until we identify the overall long-term trend. The fluctuations around the obtained trend are further analyzed at multiple time scales. We show that the largest amount of variability in the original signal is due to its fluctuations at the 12-h time scale. We model inter-PoP aggregate demand as a multiple linear regression model, consisting of the two identified components. We show that this model accounts for 98% of the total energy in the original signal, while explaining 90% of its variance. Weekly approximations of those components can be accurately modeled with low-order autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. We show that forecasting the long term trend and the fluctuations of the traffic at the 12-h time scale yields accurate estimates for at least 6 months in the future. PMID:16252820

  19. Clinical issues in long-term treatment with antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zajecka, J M

    2000-01-01

    Historically, the emphasis in treating depression has been focused on the acute phase of treatment, with few published data on the continuation and maintenance phases of treatment. Yet the risk of depression increases with each episode, with a 50% to 90% chance of developing another episode after 1 or 2 prior episodes of depression. Moreover, subsequent episodes of depression are often of longer duration, more severe, and less responsive to treatment. Most patients with major depression require some form of long-term antidepressant treatment, and many need lifelong treatment. Optimizing efficacy and minimizing side effects are essential during both the acute and long-term phases of antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant side effects, including insomnia or somnolence, weight gain, asthenia, and sexual dysfunction, can significantly decrease patient compliance with long-term treatment for depression. Identification and management of side effects, combined with early and ongoing educational messages to the patient about treatment issues and the importance of sustaining illness remission, help improve compliance and reduce the potential for premature discontinuation of an otherwise optimal antidepressant. PMID:10714620

  20. Health reform: setting the agenda for long term care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E

    1993-06-01

    The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126659

  1. Health status in long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngiomas.

    PubMed

    Crom, Deborah B; Smith, Daniel; Xiong, Zang; Onar, Arzu; Hudson, Melissa M; Merchant, Thomas E; Morris, E Brannon

    2010-12-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor and most common pediatric suprasellar tumor. Contemporary treatment of craniopharyngiomas uses limited surgery and radiation in an effort to minimize morbidity, but the long-term health status of patients treated in this fashion has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status of long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngioma treated primarily with radiation and conservative surgical resection. Medical records of all long-term survivors of craniopharyngioma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and then transferred to the long-term follow-up clinic were reviewed. The initial cohort comprised 55 patients. Of these, 51 (93%) were alive at the time of this analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 7.1 years (range, 1.2-17.6 years), and 29 (57%) were male. At the time of analysis, the median survival was 7.6 years (range, 5.0-21.3 years). Diagnosis and treatment included surgical biopsy, resection (n = 50), and radiation therapy (n=48). Only 1 patient received chemotherapy. Polyendocrinopathy was the most common morbidity, with hypothyroidism (96%), adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (84%), and diabetes insipidus (53%) occurring most frequently. Half of the patients were hypogonadal, and 33 (65%) were overweight or obese. The most common neurologic problems included shunt dependence (37%), seizures (28%), and headaches (39%). Psychological and educational deficits were also identified in a significant number of these individuals. Despite efforts to reduce morbidity in these patients, many survivors remain burdened with significant medical complications. In a small percentage of patients, complications may result in death even during extended remission of craniopharyngioma. Because of the broad spectrum or morbidities experienced, survivors of craniopharyngioma continue to benefit from multidisciplinary care. PMID:21207770

  2. Long-term care as part of the continuum.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2011-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) is but one piece of a continuum of care that stretches from living at home completely independently to the 24-hour supervision and care provided in LTC facilities. People want to stay at home as long as possible and to retain as much independence as they can, and they are often aided in doing so with informal care provided by family and friends. These realities should inform the debates around the construction of the continuum of care. Canada's spending on facility-based long-term care puts us in the middle of the pack among OECD countries; if we consider the whole of continuing care, combining LTC, supportive housing/assisted living and home-based healthcare, Canada stands out as spending the highest proportion (among the 15 countries compared) on facility-based care. Predicting the number of new long-term care beds needed in the future is difficult because of shifting needs and changes in service delivery - new stops on the continuum of care. It is quite possible to organize a system of care that includes a continuum from home-based care to supportive housing and assisted living to LTC that de-emphasizes this last step. The increasing elderly population in Canada will not bring an apocalypse to the healthcare system, but caring for this population will require a redistribution of resources to increase the emphasis on home and community-based services. Our planning for just how many (if any) new long-term care beds are needed and our assessment of reasonable access to those beds need to rest on a vision for the full spectrum of care and attention to the desires of the population we are trying to serve. PMID:21593615

  3. Health Status in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric Craniopharyngiomas

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Smith, Daniel; Xiong, Zang; Onar, Arzu; Hudson, Melissa M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Morris, E. Brannon

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are the third most common pediatric brain tumor and most common pediatric suprasellar tumor. Contemporary treatment of craniopharyngiomas utilizes limited surgery and radiation in an effort to minimize morbidity, but the long-term health status of patients treated in this fashion has not been well described. The purpose of this study was to analyze the health status of long-term survivors of pediatric craniopharyngioma treated primarily with radiation and conservative surgical resection. Medical records of all long-term survivors of craniopharyngioma treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and then transferred to the long-term follow-up clinic were reviewed. The initial cohort comprised 55 patients. Of these, 51 (93%) were alive at the time of this analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 7.1 years (range, 1.2–17.6 years), and 29 (57%) were male. At the time of analysis, the median survival was 7.6 years (range, 5.0–21.3 years). Diagnosis and treatment included surgical biopsy, resection (n=50), and radiation therapy (n=48). Only one patient received chemotherapy. Polyendocrinopathy was the most common morbidity, with hypothyroidism (96%), adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (84%), and diabetes insipidus (53%) occurring most frequently. Half were hypogonadal, and 33 (65%) were overweight or obese. The most common neurologic problems included shunt dependence (37%), seizures (28%), and headaches (39%). Psychological and educational deficits were also identified in a significant number of these individuals. Despite efforts to reduce morbidity in these patients, many survivors remain burdened with significant medical complications. In a small percentage of patients, these may result in death even during extended remission of craniopharyngioma. Due to the broad spectrum or morbidities experienced, survivors of craniopharyngioma continue to benefit from multidisciplinary care. PMID:21207770

  4. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  5. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  6. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  7. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  8. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  9. Anesthesiology Devices; Reclassification of Membrane Lung for Long-Term Pulmonary Support; Redesignation as Extracorporeal Circuit and Accessories for Long-Term Respiratory/Cardiopulmonary Failure. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to redesignate membrane lung devices for long-term pulmonary support, a preamendments class III device, as extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure, and to reclassify the device to class II (special controls) in patients with acute respiratory failure or acute cardiopulmonary failure where other available treatment options have failed, and continued clinical deterioration is expected or the risk of death is imminent. A membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support (>6 hours) refers to the oxygenator in an extracorporeal circuit used during long-term procedures, commonly referred to as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Because a number of other devices and accessories are used with the oxygenator in the circuit, the title and identification of the regulation are revised to include extracorporeal circuit and accessories for long-term respiratory/cardiopulmonary failure. Although an individual device or accessory used in an ECMO circuit may already have its own classification regulation when the device or accessory is intended for short-term use (<=6 hours), such device or accessory will be subject to the same regulatory controls applied to the oxygenator (i.e., class II, special controls) when evaluated as part of the ECMO circuit for long-term use (>6 hours). On its own initiative, based on new information, FDA is revising the classification of the membrane lung device for long-term pulmonary support. PMID:26878739

  10. Long-term efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Conte, Carmine; Ricci, Caterina; Scambia, Giovanni; Capelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the published evidence about the long-term efficacy of the available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and their safety profile. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines – bivalent (bHPV) and quadrivalent (qHPV) – are now available, and vaccination programs are being widely implemented, primarily targeting adolescent girls. Efficacy has been widely demonstrated for both vaccines. Since the risk of HPV exposure potentially persists throughout a woman’s sexual life, vaccine duration of protection is critical to overall effectiveness. Interpreting the results of long-term efficacy studies for the two HPV vaccines can be puzzling, due to the heterogeneity of studies, different methods used in the assessment of immunogenicity, histopathological and virological end points, and statistical power issues. Moreover, an immunologic correlate of protection has not yet been established, and it is unknown whether higher antibody levels will really result in a longer duration of protection. Disease prevention remains the most important measure of long-term duration of vaccine efficacy. To date, the longest follow-up of an HPV vaccine has been 9.4 years for the bHPV vaccine. Long-term follow-up for qHPV vaccine goes up to 8 years. The vaccine continues to be immunogenic and well tolerated up to 9 years following vaccination. All randomized controlled clinical trials of the bHPV and the qHPV vaccines provide evidence of an excellent safety profile. The most common complaint reported is pain in the injection site, which is self-limiting and spontaneously resolved. The incidence of systemic adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and discontinuations due to a serious AE reported in clinical studies are similar between the two vaccines and their control groups. In particular, no increased risk of autoimmune disease has been shown among HPV-vaccinated subjects in long-term observation studies. As these are crucial topics in HPV vaccination, it is important to establish

  11. Arctic Report Card Underscores Continued Long-Term Warming Trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-12-01

    Although fewer record-setting snow and ice events occurred in the Arctic in 2013 compared to 2012, "the impacts of the persistent warming trend of over 30 years remain clearly evident," according to the 2013 Arctic Report Card issued by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at a 12 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

  12. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.; Yazici, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This project aims to identify the long-term endurance problems of the MCFC by investigating corrosion of stainless steel (310, 316L). This presentation focuses on results from SEM and cross-section analysis. Significant differences between immersed and film-wetted electrodes are summarized. Results suggest that pre-oxidation can be a solution to obtaining a compact oxide layer. Adding Al to alloy leads to a very stable oxide layer, but increases resistivity. Alloy behavior must be investigated under continuously polarized conditions. 4 figs.

  13. Home health, long-term care, and other compliance activities.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D; Sadoff, J W

    1999-04-01

    The Federal government continues to crack down on fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry with such initiatives and tools as Operation Restore Trust and intermediate tax sanctions. Home health and long-term care organizations are the latest entities under study by the Office of Inspector General, and the result of these studies likely will be more antifraud and abuse measures being taken against these entities. All healthcare organizations should pay particular attention to their tax risk exposure. Healthcare organizations that put effective compliance programs in place should be able to reduce the overall risk of challenges to their financial practices. PMID:10557979

  14. Long-term motor cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Moore, Tom; Moir, Liz; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-04-01

    We present the long-term course of motor cortex stimulation to relieve a case of severe burning phantom arm pain after brachial plexus injury and amputation. During 16-year follow-up the device continued to provide efficacious analgesia. However, several adjustments of stimulation parameters were required, as were multiple pulse generator changes, antibiotics for infection and one electrode revision due to lead migration. Steady increases in stimulation parameters over time were required. One of the longest follow-ups of motor cortex stimulation is described; the case illustrates challenges and pitfalls in neuromodulation for chronic pain, demonstrating strategies for maintaining analgesia and overcoming tolerance. PMID:25340991

  15. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  16. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  17. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  18. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  19. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  20. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  1. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  3. Managing Osteoporosis Patients after Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Robert A.; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj; Bauer, Douglas C.; Camacho, Pauline M.; Clarke, Bart L.; Clines, Gregory A.; Compston, Juliet E.; Drake, Matthew T.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Favus, Murray J.; Greenspan, Susan L.; McKinney, Ross; Pignolo, Robert J.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used medications for osteoporosis, but optimal duration of therapy is unknown. This ASBMR report provides guidance on BP therapy duration with a risk benefit perspective. Two trials provided evidence for long-term BP use. In the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX), postmenopausal women receiving alendronate for 10 years had fewer clinical vertebral fractures than those switched to placebo after 5 years. In the HORIZON extension, women who received 6 annual infusions of zoledronic acid had fewer morphometric vertebral fractures compared with those switched to placebo after 3 years. Low hip T-score between −2 and −2.5 in FLEX and below −2.5 in HORIZON extension predicted a beneficial response to continued therapy. Hence, the Task Force suggests that after 5 years of oral BP or 3 years of intravenous BP, women should be reassessed. Women with previous major osteoporotic fracture, those who fracture on therapy, or others at high risk should generally continue therapy for up to 10 years (oral) or 6 years (intravenous), with periodic risk-benefit evaluation. Older women, those with a low hip T-score or high fracture risk score are considered high risk. The risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture increases with BP therapy duration, but such rare events are far outweighed by fracture risk reduction with BPs in high risk patients. For women not at high fracture risk after 3–5 years of BP treatment, a drug holiday of 2–3 years can be considered, with periodic reassessment. The algorithm provided for long term BP use is based on limited evidence in mostly Caucasian postmenopausal women and only for vertebral fracture reduction. It is probably applicable to men and patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, with some adaptations. It is unlikely that future osteoporosis trials will provide data for formulating definitive recommendations. PMID:26350171

  4. Cervical cancer survivorship: Long-term quality of life and social support

    PubMed Central

    Pfaendler, Krista S.; Wenzel, Lari; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Penner, Kristine R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the mainstays of cervical cancer treatment. Many patients receive multiple treatment modalities, each with its own long-term effects. Given the high 5 year survival rate for cervical cancer patients, evaluation and improvement of long-term quality of life are essential. Methods Pertinent articles were identified through searches of PubMed for literature published from 1993-2014. We summarize quality of life data from long-term follow up studies of cervical cancer patients. We additionally summarize small group interviews of Hispanic and non-Hispanic cervical cancer survivors regarding social support and coping. Findings Data is varied in terms of the long term impact of treatment on quality of life but consistent in suggesting that patients who receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment have the highest risk of increased long term dysfunction of bladder and bowel, as well as sexual dysfunction and psychosocial consequences. Rigorous investigations regarding long-term consequences of treatment modalities are lacking. Implications Continued work to improve treatment outcomes and survival should also include a focus on reducing adverse long-term side effects. Providing supportive care during treatment, and evaluating the effects of supportive care, may reduce the prevalence and magnitude of long-term sequelae of cervical cancer, which will in turn improve quality of life and quality of care. PMID:25592090

  5. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  6. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  7. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  8. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  9. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  10. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  11. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  13. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  14. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  15. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  16. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  17. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  18. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  19. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  20. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  1. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  2. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  3. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  4. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  5. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  8. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  9. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  10. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  11. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  12. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  13. ATMOS: Long term atmospheric measurements for mission to planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A long-term, space-based measurement program, together with continued balloon and aircraft-borne investigations, is essential to monitor the predicted effects in the atmosphere, to determine to what extent the concentration measurements agree with current models of stratospheric chemistry, and to determine the condition of the ozone layer. The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment is currently making comprehensive, global measurements of Earth's atmosphere as part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) program on the Space Shuttle. Part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS is a continuing series of missions to study Earth and the Sun and provide a more fundamental understanding of the solar influences on Earth's atmosphere. The ATMOS program, instruments, and science results are presented.

  14. The use of long-term acid-suppression therapy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G P; Contractor, B; Bramble, M G

    1995-01-01

    Drug therapy to suppress gastric acid secretion is commonly used in the management of dyspepsia, many patients taking such therapy over long periods of time. An audit of patients on long-term (> 12 months) acid-suppression therapy was carried out in the two practices providing primary healthcare to a town in Northeast England. Patients on continuous therapy (> 10 months' supply in the previous year) and intermittent therapy (6-10 months' supply in the previous year) were identified through computerised prescribing records. Their written and computer records were scrutinised to determine diagnosis, duration of therapy, use of NSAIDs and other features. A total of 365 patients were identified (208 men, 157 women): 132 were on intermittent and 233 on continuous therapy. Of the total, 83% were over 45 years and one-fifth were taking NSAIDs. Of the 310 patients investigated for their dyspepsia, only 250 had a positive diagnosis, of which duodenal ulcer (154) was the most common. PMID:7779658

  15. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  16. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  17. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  18. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  19. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  20. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  1. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  2. The immunomodulatory oligodendrocyte.

    PubMed

    Zeis, Thomas; Enz, Lukas; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2016-06-15

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are due to their high specialization and metabolic needs highly vulnerable to various insults. This led to a general view that oligodendrocytes are defenseless victims during brain damage such as occurs in acute and chronic CNS inflammation. However, this view is challenged by increasing evidence that oligodendrocytes are capable of expressing a wide range of immunomodulatory molecules. They express various cytokines and chemokines (e.g. Il-1β, Il17A, CCL2, CXCL10), antigen presenting molecules (MHC class I and II) and co-stimulatory molecules (e.g. CD9, CD81), complement and complement receptor molecules (e.g. C1s, C2 and C3, C1R), complement regulatory molecules (e.g. CD46, CD55, CD59), tetraspanins (e.g. TSPAN2), neuroimmune regulatory proteins (e.g. CD200, CD47) as well as extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. VCAN) and many others. Their potential immunomodulatory properties can, at specific times and locations, influence ongoing immune processes as shown by numerous publications. Therefore, oligodendrocytes are well capable of immunomodulation, especially during the initiation or resolution of immune processes in which subtle signaling might tip the scale. A better understanding of the immunomodulatory oligodendrocyte can help to invent new, innovative therapeutic interventions in various diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26423932

  3. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  4. INL-Site Idaho Completion Project Long Term Stewardship Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olaveson, B.

    2007-09-17

    This Strategic Plan provides a brief historical overview of ICP long-term stewardship at the INL Site and the major goals and strategies that will drive the continued implementation of long-term stewardship in the future. The specific activities and processes that will be required to implement these goals should be outlined within an implementation plan and within implementing procedures and work plans.

  5. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dave

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  6. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models. PMID:25788097

  7. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienen, R. J. W.; Phillips, O. L.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T. R.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Lewis, S. L.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Alexiades, M.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Bánki, O. S.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Boot, R. G. A.; Camargo, J. L. C.; Castilho, C. V.; Chama, V.; Chao, K. J.; Chave, J.; Comiskey, J. A.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; da Costa, L.; de Oliveira, E. A.; di Fiore, A.; Erwin, T. L.; Fauset, S.; Forsthofer, M.; Galbraith, D. R.; Grahame, E. S.; Groot, N.; Hérault, B.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Keeling, H.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Laurance, S.; Licona, J.; Magnussen, W. E.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza, C.; Neill, D. A.; Nogueira, E. M.; Núñez, P.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Parada, A.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Claros, M.; Pickavance, G. C.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Poorter, L.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Restrepo, Z.; Roopsind, A.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Schwarz, M.; Silva, N.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Stropp, J.; Talbot, J.; Ter Steege, H.; Teran-Aguilar, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Toledo, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Umetsu, R. K.; van der Heijden, G. M. F.; van der Hout, P.; Guimarães Vieira, I. C.; Vieira, S. A.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.; Zagt, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  8. The importance of oral health in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Haumschild, Mary S; Haumschild, Ryan J

    2009-11-01

    Emerging evidence has shown a strong link between the effects of chronic oral inflammation and general health. The mouth is the visible gateway to the rest of the body and reflects what is happening deep inside. Periodontal disease has been linked to systemic disease; likewise, systemic disease can have an impact on oral health. In fact, there are over 100 systemic diseases that have oral manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, respiratory infections, pancreatic cancer, diabetes, and nutritional problems. This is a bidirectional relationship and the link is inflammation. Oral health problems can have an adverse effect on the quality of life and are more prevalent in older adults, but are not caused by aging. Approximately 75% of baby boomers will enter long-term care facilities with the majority of their natural teeth and this trend is expected to continue. Studies indicate that residents with good oral care require less health care dollar expenditures. Therefore, dental professionals, such as the dental hygienist, should be part of the multidisciplinary team to assist in providing expert regular dental care and training to caregivers and other health care professionals in long-term care facilities. PMID:19883892

  9. Long-term safety issues associated with mixer pump operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, W.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In this report, we examine several long-term issues: the effect of pump operation on future gas release events (GREs), uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion. Heat load in excess of the design limit, uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion have been shown not to be safety concerns. The effect of pump operation on future GREs could not be quantified. The problem with evaluating the long-term effects of pump operation on GREs is a lack of knowledge and uncertainty. In particular, the phenomena governing gas retention, particle size distribution, and settling are not well understood, nor are the interactions among these factors understood. There is a possibility that changes in these factors could increase the size of future GREs. Bounding estimates of the potential increase in size of GREs are not possible because of a lack of engineering data. Proper management of the hazards can reduce, but not eliminate, the possibility of undesirable changes. Maintaining temperature within the historical limits can reduce the possibility of undesirable changes. A monitoring program to detect changes in the gas composition and crust thickness will help detect slowly occurring changes. Because pump operation has be shown to eliminate GREs, continued pump operation can eliminate the hazards associated with future GREs.

  10. Medical constructions of long-term exhaustion, past and present.

    PubMed

    Lian, Olaug S; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-07-01

    Culture and history affect the ways in which medical knowledge is shaped, sustained and changed. The less knowledge we have, the larger the space for the cultural imprint becomes. Based on these assumptions, we ask: how have medical constructions of long-term exhaustion changed over time, and how are changing constructions related to societal change? To discuss these questions we conducted a comparative study of medical texts from two historical periods: 1860-1930 and 1970-2013. Our data are limited to two diagnoses: neurasthenia and encephalomyelitis. After comparing the two periods by identifying diverging and converging aspects, we interpreted observed continuities and interruptions in relation to historical developments. We found that in the medical literature, long-term exhaustion became transformed from a somatic ailment bred by modern civilisation to a self-inflicted psychiatric ailment. At the same time, it changed from being a male-connoted high-status condition to a female-connoted low-status condition. We interpret these changes as contingent upon culturally available modes of interpretations. Medical knowledge thereby becomes infused with cultural norms and values which give them a distinct cultural bias. The historical controversies surrounding this medically contested condition neatly display the socially contingent factors that govern the social construction of medical knowledge. PMID:25912053

  11. Immunomodulatory gene therapy in lysosomal storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koeberl, D.D.; Kishnani, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances in therapy for lysosomal storage disorders have occurred with an accelerating pace over the past decade. Although enzyme replacement therapy has improved the outcome of lysosomal storage disorders, antibody responses have occurred and sometimes prevented efficacy, especially in cross-reacting immune material negative patients with Pompe disease. Preclinical gene therapy experiments have revealed the relevance of immune responses to long-term efficacy. The choice of regulatory cassette played a critical role in evading humoral and cellular immune responses to gene therapy in knockout mouse models, at least in adult animals. Liver-specific regulatory cassettes prevented antibody formation and enhanced the efficacy of gene therapy. Regulatory T cells prevented transgene directed immune responses, as shown by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific immune tolerance to enzyme therapy. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a very low vector dose could enhance the efficacy of enzyme therapy in Pompe disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:19807648

  12. Immunomodulatory gene therapy in lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, Dwight D; Kishnani, Priya S

    2009-12-01

    Significant advances in therapy for lysosomal storage disorders have occurred with an accelerating pace over the past decade. Although enzyme replacement therapy has improved the outcome of lysosomal storage disorders, antibody responses have occurred and sometimes prevented efficacy, especially in cross-reacting immune material negative patients with Pompe disease. Preclinical gene therapy experiments have revealed the relevance of immune responses to long-term efficacy. The choice of regulatory cassette played a critical role in evading humoral and cellular immune responses to gene therapy in knockout mouse models, at least in adult animals. Liver-specific regulatory cassettes prevented antibody formation and enhanced the efficacy of gene therapy. Regulatory T cells prevented transgene directed immune responses, as shown by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific immune tolerance to enzyme therapy. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a very low vector dose could enhance the efficacy of enzyme therapy in Pompe disease and other lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:19807648

  13. 26 CFR 1.451-5 - Advance payments for goods and long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounting for tax purposes if such method results in including advance payments in gross receipts no later... the case of a taxpayer accounting for advance payments for tax purposes pursuant to a long-term... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross...

  14. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory. PMID:15892899

  15. The Long-Term Inflow and Structural Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,HERBERT J; JONES,PERRY L.; NEAL,BYRON A.

    2000-10-17

    The Long-term Inflow and Structural Test (LIST) program is collecting long-term, continuous inflow and structural response data to characterize the extreme loads on wind turbines. A heavily instrumented Micon 65/13M turbine with SERI 8-m blades is being used as the first test turbine for this test program. This turbine and its two sister turbines are located in Bushland, TX a test site that exposes the turbines to a wind regime that is representative of a Great Plains commercial site. The turbines and their inflow are being characterized with 60 measurements: 34 to characterize the inflow, 19 to characterize structural response, and 7 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. The primary characterization of the inflow into the LIST turbine relies upon an array of five sonic anemometers. These three-axis anemometers are placed approximately 2-diameters upstream of the turbine in a pattern designed to describe the inflow. Primary characterization of the structural response of the turbine uses several sets of strain gauges to measure bending loads on the blades and the tower and two accelerometers to measure the motion of the nacelle. Data from the various instruments are sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using a newly developed data acquisition system that features a time-synchronized continuous data stream that is telemetered from the turbine rotor. The data, taken continuously, are automatically divided into 10-minute segments and archived for analysis. Preliminary data are presented to illustrate the operation of the turbine and the data acquisition and analysis system.

  16. Long-term safety and efficacy of teriflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Comi, Giancarlo; Freedman, Mark S.; Miller, Aaron E.; Kappos, Ludwig; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Mares, Jan; Benamor, Myriam; Thangavelu, Karthinathan; Liang, Jinjun; Truffinet, Philippe; Lawson, Victoria J.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report safety and efficacy outcomes from up to 9 years of treatment with teriflunomide in an extension (NCT00803049) of the pivotal phase 3 Teriflunomide Multiple Sclerosis Oral (TEMSO) trial (NCT00134563). Methods: A total of 742 patients entered the extension. Teriflunomide-treated patients continued the original dose; those previously receiving placebo were randomized 1:1 to teriflunomide 14 mg or 7 mg. Results: By June 2013, median (maximum) teriflunomide exposure exceeded 190 (325) weeks per patient; 468 patients (63%) remained on treatment. Teriflunomide was well-tolerated with continued exposure. The most common adverse events (AEs) matched those in the core study. In extension year 1, first AEs of transient liver enzyme increases or reversible hair thinning were generally attributable to patients switching from placebo to teriflunomide. Approximately 11% of patients discontinued treatment owing to AEs. Twenty percent of patients experienced serious AEs. There were 3 deaths unrelated to teriflunomide. Soon after the extension started, annualized relapse rates and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesion counts fell in patients switching from placebo to teriflunomide, remaining low thereafter. Disability remained stable in all treatment groups (median Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤2.5; probability of 12-week disability progression ≤0.48). Conclusions: In the TEMSO extension, safety observations were consistent with the core trial, with no new or unexpected AEs in patients receiving teriflunomide for up to 9 years. Disease activity decreased in patients switching from placebo and remained low in patients continuing on teriflunomide. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that long-term treatment with teriflunomide is well-tolerated and efficacy of teriflunomide is maintained long-term. PMID:26865517

  17. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  18. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  19. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  20. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  1. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  2. Long-Term Multiwaveband Monitoring of Selected Blazars (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The investigators request RXTE time to continue their long-term monitoring of the blazars 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, BL Lac, and 3C 273 2-3 times per week at radio, mm, IR, optical, X-ray, and, with the advent of GLAST, gamma-ray wavelengths. These, plus an added 5th object, CTA102, include blazars bright enough to detect strongly with RXTE and GLAST as well as to measure polarization on 7 mm VLBA images and at optical bands. By matching polarized features on VLBA images with variable polarization at optical bands and by associating X-ray and gamma-ray flares with similar events at these longer wavelengths, the investigators will locate where in the jet the emission occurs at all these wavebands. The relative timing of flares as a function of wavelength will overconstrain emission models.

  3. Long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, James W.; Rummel, John D.

    1992-01-01

    The measures that can be taken to counteract the effect of long-term exposures to microgravity are discussed. It is noted that, although it was shown that specially designed exercise programs can counteract the effect of exposures of up to one year in space, is it questionable whether U.S. astronauts could or should have to maintain such regimes for extremely prolonged missions. The methods considered by NASA Life Sciences Division are to provide an artificial gravity environment by the generation of centrifugal forces by means of either the continuous rotation of the whole spacecraft or using a short-arm centrifuge on board a zero-g spacecraft. Results obtained in studies of these two methods are discussed, and the centrifuge research facility that is presently being developed by NASA is described.

  4. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  5. A long-term climate data record of scatterometer winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte Rivas, Maria; Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton; de Kloe, Jos; Verspeek, Jeroen; Vogelzang, Jur

    2015-04-01

    The ocean surface wind stress is a key element of the air-sea interaction, which refers to the transfer of energy, momentum and trace gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, both essential components of the Earth's climate system. We propose to create a global and continuous climate data record (CDR) of ocean stress-equivalent winds from satellite scatterometers from 1991 to present date. This will be done by reprocessing the entire backscatter archives from the ERS1 and ERS2, Quikscat SeaWinds, Metop-A ASCAT and Oceansat-2 OSCAT instruments using publicly available wind retrieval packages and special emphasis on sensor inter-calibration. Along with a consistent long-term record of scatterometer wind stress, this CDR will deliver wind curl/divergence and sea ice extents. This contribution reports on progress made, applications envisioned and current status of this activity.

  6. Implementing culture change in long-term dementia care settings.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The approach to nursing in long-term care settings for people living with dementia continues to evolve from a traditional, task-oriented culture to one that is person-centred. Such change can be difficult to manage and may encounter considerable opposition; having an understanding of change management and leadership styles may help to make this transition easier. This article discusses the differences between task-oriented and person-centred care, theories of management, motivation and leadership styles, and focuses on those that are most appropriate for this type of change. An improved understanding of these theories will enable nurses to support others in the delivery of person-centred care. PMID:26938420

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Long-term Measurements of Nighttime LF Radio Wave Reflection Heights over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, C.; Kürschner, D.

    2005-05-01

    The nighttime ionospheric absolute reflection height of low-frequency (LF) radio waves at oblique incidence has been measured continuously since late 1982 using 1.8kHz sideband phase comparisons between the sky wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177kHz LF transmitter. The dataset allows the analysis of long-term trends and other regular variations of the reflection height. Beside the clear signal of the 11-year solar cycle a quasi-biennial oscillation is visible in LF reflection heights, which is correlated to the equatorial stratospheric wind field. A long-term decreasing reflection height trend is found, confirming results from other measurements and theoretical estimations. The results can be interpreted as a long-term decrease of the height levels of fixed electron density in the lower E region, reflecting a long-term cooling trend of the middle atmosphere.

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  14. Strategic alliance: adapting to the business environment in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Mara, Cynthia Massie; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2002-01-01

    This article is addressed to long-term-care administrators and planners as well as purchasers of long-term care. Believing the current and future business environment will force continued adaptation in long-term-care organizations, the authors utilize nine categories to map pressures for change: cultural, technological, educational, political, legal, natural resource, demographic, sociologic, and economic. Long-term-care organizations, especially those that are not-for-profit, are becoming members of alliances as one way of addressing these pressures. This article describes and presents a case example of a composite alliance to demonstrate the advantages of membership in a strategic alliance. We also present examples of ways in which alliance members use strategic partnerships to improve their ability to manage these forces. PMID:12847938

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  16. Long-term prescribing of antidepressants in the older population: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rebecca; Knapp, Peter; House, Allan O; Dimri, Vandana; Zermansky, Arnold; Petty, Duncan; Holmes, John; Raynor, David K

    2010-01-01

    Background High rates of long-term antidepressant prescribing have been identified in the older population. Aims To explore the attitudes of older patients and their GPs to taking long-term antidepressant therapy, and their accounts of the influences on long-term antidepressant use. Design of study Qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Setting One primary care trust in North Bradford. Method Thirty-six patients aged ≥75 years and 10 GPs were interviewed. Patients were sampled to ensure diversity in age, sex, antidepressant type, and home circumstances. Results Participants perceived significant benefits and expressed little apprehension about taking long-term antidepressants, despite being aware of the psychological and social factors involved in onset and persistence of depression. Barriers to discontinuation were identified following four themes: pessimism about the course and curability of depression; negative expectations and experiences of ageing; medicine discontinuation perceived by patients as a threat to stability; and passive (therapeutic momentum) and active (therapeutic maintenance) decisions to accept the continuing need for medication. Conclusion There is concern at a public health level about high rates of long-term antidepressant prescribing, but no evidence was found of a drive for change either from the patients or the doctors interviewed. Any apprehension was more than balanced by attitudes and behaviours supporting continuation. These findings will need to be incorporated into the planning of interventions aimed at reducing long-term antidepressant prescribing in older people. PMID:20353660

  17. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    PubMed

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  18. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, G.; Roque, A. C.; Simoes-de-Souza, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca2+ induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca2+ signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca2+ thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  19. Shortcuts to Long-Term Career Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Cynthia W.; Nelson, Gary L.

    In the continuing search for skilled workers, employers are increasingly looking to community colleges as the primary training providers for welfare recipients, unemployed workers, and those seeking to increase skills and improve careers. Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) (North Carolina) provides individuals with the skills and education…

  20. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  1. Long-term sequelae of histiocytosis X.

    PubMed

    Komp, D M

    1981-01-01

    Residual disabilities are seen in more than half of children who survive histiocytosis. These problems are secondary to either continuously active disease or scarring of previously affected tissues. Fatal outcome from disabilities are particularly seen with pulmonary disease, either from progressive fibrosis or complicating opportunistic infections. "Second' tumors have been seen in association with radiation: brain tumors, osteosarcoma, and thyroid carcinoma. No cases of chemotherapy-related malignancy have been reported. PMID:6975581

  2. Long-term source monitoring with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Harmon, B. A.; Finger, M. H.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    The uncollimated Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) large area detectors (LADs) are well suited to nearly continuous monitoring of the stronger hard x-ray sources, and time series analysis for pulsars. An overview of the analysis techniques presently being applied to the data are discussed, including representative observations of the Crab Nebula, Crab pulsar, and summaries of the sources detected to data. Results of a search for variability in the Crab Pulsar pulse profile are presented.

  3. Coupling giant impacts and long-term evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Emsenhuber, A.; Jutzi, M.; Gerya, T. V.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The crustal dichotomy [1] is the dominant geological feature on planet Mars. The exogenic approach to the origin of the crustal dichotomy [2-6] assumes that the northern lowlands correspond to a giant impact basin formed after primordial crust formation. However these simulations only consider the impact phase without studying the long-term repercussions of such a collision. The endogenic approach [7], suggesting a degree-1 mantle upwelling underneath the southern highlands [8-11], relies on a high Rayleigh number and a particular viscosity profile to form a low degree convective pattern within the geological constraints for the dichotomy formation. Such vigorous convection, however, results in continuous magmatic resurfacing, destroying the initially dichotomous crustal structure in the long-term. A further option is a hybrid exogenic-endogenic approach [12-15], which proposes an impact-induced magma ocean and subsequent superplume in the southern hemisphere. However these models rely on simple scaling laws to impose the thermal effects of the collision. Here we present the first results of impact simulations performed with a SPH code [16,17] serially coupled with geodynamical computations performed using the code I3VIS [18] to improve the latter approach and test it against observations. We are exploring collisions varying the impactor velocities, impact angles and target body properties, and are gauging the sensitivity to the handoff from SPH to I3VIS. As expected, our first results indicate the formation of a transient hemispherical magma ocean in the impacted hemisphere, and the merging of the cores. We also find that impact angle and velocity have a strong effect on the post-impact temperature field [5] and on the timescale and nature of core merger.

  4. Analysis of Long-Term Precipitation Sequencing Pattern Changes in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque, S.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in long-term precipitation patterns in North America, focusing specifically on precipitation sequencing. Previous precipitation studies have explored changes in extreme precipitation events, intensity, and distribution, but sequencing changes and their effects are still largely not understood. Precipitation sequencing, or the overall temporal pattern of precipitation events, is a vital yet often overlooked part of developing long-term climate predictions; the assumption of long-term stationarity in climate variability, which suggests that past observed temporal patterns are likely to continue and can therefore be projected, weakens the robustness of climate models. Additionally, changes in sequencing could be a driver for fluctuations in the highly interconnected hydrologic cycle, meaning that tipping points and critical changes in the cycle could be better anticipated given a more complete picture of long-term temporal patterns. Analysis was based on precipitation data collected by the National Climatic Data Center for approximately 9000 stations in North America. Temporal patterns recorded at each station - the sequence of consecutive days with or without rain and the lengths of those increments - were reviewed and compared on a decadal and seasonal scale. Comparisons to date indicate that long-term precipitation patterns are non-stationary and therefore cannot be relied upon for long-term climate projections. It remains to be seen how exactly regional temporal patterns have fluctuated over time in North America, and results could provide interesting insight into observed hydrologic changes or serve to reinforce existing theories regarding regional hydrologic studies.

  5. Sensitivity Study for Long Term Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates using Markov models to establish system and maintenance requirements for small electronic controllers where the goal is a high probability of continuous service for a long period of time. The system and maintenance items considered are quality of components, various degrees of simple redundancy, redundancy with reconfiguration, diagnostic levels, periodic maintenance, and preventive maintenance. Markov models permit a quantitative investigation with comparison and contrast. An element of special interest is the use of conditional probability to study the combination of imperfect diagnostics and periodic maintenance.

  6. Ensuring climate information guides long-term development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lindsey; Dougill, Andrew; Jones, Richard G.; Steynor, Anna; Watkiss, Paul; Kane, Cheikh; Koelle, Bettina; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Padgham, Jon; Ranger, Nicola; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Suarez, Pablo; Tanner, Thomas; Vincent, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    Many sub-Saharan countries are failing to include climate information in long-term development planning. Ensuring climate-resilient development requires a step change in how medium- to long-term climate information is produced, communicated and utilized in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere.

  7. Long Term Agroecosystem Research in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at USDA-ARS’s Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita ...

  8. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  9. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  10. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  11. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  12. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.3 Long-term procurements. (a) Contracting activities are encouraged to investigate...

  13. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  14. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  15. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  16. LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES: A CORNUCOPIA OF VIRAL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study sought to determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in 33 Boston long term care facilities during a three year period and correlate rates of infection with serum zinc levels. Participants were residents of long term care that had previously participated in a tria...

  17. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  18. Long-term trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter shows long-term data and trends in precipitation and surface water chemistry for each site. It contains a brief introduction to the topic, and methods of measurements, selection of variables, and their data source. It consists primarily of a large number of figures showing long-term da...

  19. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  20. Long-term effects of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Paul; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Polman, Chris; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Ritter, Shannon; Schlosshauer, Rolf; von Rosenstiel, Philipp; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Francis, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: Patients completing FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in MS (FREEDOMS) were eligible for this dose-blinded, parallel-group extension study, continuing fingolimod 0.5 mg/day or 1.25 mg/day, or switching from placebo to either dose, randomized 1:1. Efficacy variables included annualized relapse rate (ARR), brain volume loss (BVL), and confirmed disability progression (CDP). Between-group analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population from FREEDOMS baseline to end of study. Within-group analyses compared years 0–2 (FREEDOMS) and years 2–4 (extension) in the extension ITT population. Results: Of 1,272 patients (FREEDOMS ITT population), 1,033 were eligible, and 920 enrolled in the extension study (continuous-fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 331], 1.25 mg [n = 289]; placebo–fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 155], 1.25 mg [n = 145]); 916 formed the extension ITT population (n = 330; n = 287; n = 154; n = 145) and 773 (84%) completed. In the continuous-fingolimod groups, ARR was lower (p < 0.0001), BVL was reduced (p < 0.05), and proportionately more patients were free from 3-month CDP (p < 0.05) than in a group comprising all placebo–fingolimod patients. Within each placebo–fingolimod group, ARR was lower (p < 0.001, both) and BVL was reduced after switching (p < 0.01, placebo–fingolimod 0.5 mg). Rates and types of adverse events were similar across groups; no new safety issues were reported. Conclusion: Efficacy benefits of fingolimod during FREEDOMS were sustained during the extension; ARR and BVL were reduced after switching. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term fingolimod treatment is well-tolerated and reduces relapse rates, disability progression, and MRI effects in patients with RRMS. PMID:25795646

  1. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  2. Long-term variation of energetic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    The long-term evolution of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) is of considerable interest, e.g., because of its atmospheric and climatic effects. However, the long-term evolution of EEP over several solar cycles has been problematic due to the lack of reliable long-term data. The NOAA/POES satellites have measured energetic particles for more than 35 years. This dataset has been used widely but it has been plagued by several instrumental problems, which have restricted its use for long-term studies. However, we have recently corrected and recalibrated the entire NOAA/POES energetic particle dataset. Using this unique dataset we present here an overview of the long-term evolution of EEP paying particular attention to the role of different types of solar wind disturbances in driving the EEP.

  3. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  4. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  5. Long-Term Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, C.; Harter, T.; Hou, L.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A.; Woodrow-Mumford, K.; Maldonado, S.

    2005-12-01

    The protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of waterborne disease. Subsurface transport and filtration in natural and artificial porous media are important components of the environmental pathway of this pathogen. It has been shown that the oocysts of C. parvum show distinct colloidal properties. We conducted a series of laboratory studies on sand columns (column length: 10 cm - 60 cm, flow rates: 0.7 m/d - 30 m/d, ionic strength: 0.01 - 100 mM, filter grain size: 0.2 - 2 mm, various solution chemistry). Breakthrough curves were measured over relatively long time-periods (hundreds to thousands of pore volumes). We show that classic colloid filtration theory is a reasonable tool for predicting the initial breakthrough, but it is inadequate to explain the significant tailing observed in the breakthrough of C. parvum oocyst through sand columns. We discuss the application of the Continuous Time Random Walk approach to account for the strong tailing that was observed in our experiments. The CTRW is generalized transport modeling framework, which includes the classic advection-dispersion equation (ADE), the fractional ADE, and the multi-rate mass transfer model as special cases. Within this conceptual framework, it is possible to distinguish between the contributions of pore-scale geometrical (physical) disorder and of pore-scale physico-chemical heterogeneities (e.g., of the filtration, sorption, desorption processes) to the transport of C. parvum oocysts.

  6. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed. PMID:1291700

  7. Long-term physiologic outcome after acute farmer's lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, Y.; Belanger, J.

    1985-06-01

    We performed a follow-up study of 61 patients who had an acute episode of farmer's lung (54 men and seven women). Twenty-four subjects had ceased all contact with the barn, while 37 had continued farming. Pulmonary function tests for all subjects showed an initial improvement after the acute episode: 92.4 percent of predicted for carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dco) after one year, compared to 61.5 percent at diagnosis; and 6.01 L for total lung capacity (TLC) after three years, compared to 5.35 L. Subsequently, pulmonary function decreased over time. Five years or more after the acute episode, pulmonary function tests in subjects who had continued farm work were not worse than those of subjects who had ceased contact for Dco (68.1 of predicted vs 80.6 percent, respectively and for TLC (5.55 L vs 5.90 L. This study shows that during a long-term follow-up, subjects with farmer's lung who stayed on the farm have subnormal values for pulmonary function but comparable values to those who left their farm.

  8. Estimated long-term health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, F.; Okeanov, A.E.; Likthariev, I.; Prisyazhniuk; Anspaugh, L.R.; Mabuchi, K.; Ivanov, V.K.

    1996-04-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact of the radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries. Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported, these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population to which they are compared. If the experience of atomic bomb survivors and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cancer and the total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the liquidators and among the residents of contaminated territories, of the order of 2,000 to 2,500. These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41,500 and 433,000 respectively (size of the exposed populations: 200,000 and 3,700,000, respectively). It is noted, however, that the exposures received by populations exposed as a result of Chernobyl are different (in type and pattern) from those of atomic bomb survivors. Predictions derived from these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, the extent of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence in persons exposed as children was not foreseen. In addition, only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential therefore that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if, apart from leukemia among liquidators, little detectable increase of cancers due to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is expected.

  9. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  10. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  11. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  12. Exploring views on long term rehabilitation for people with stroke in a developing country: findings from focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted involving 15 rehabilitation professionals and eight long term stroke survivors. All recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of qualitative research. Results Both groups agreed that people with stroke may benefit from more rehabilitation compared to the amount of rehabilitation services presently provided. Views regarding the unavailability of long term rehabilitation services due to multi-factorial barriers were recognised. The groups also highlighted the urgent need for the establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres. Family-assisted home therapy was viewed as a potential approach to continued rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors, given careful planning to overcome several family-related issues. Conclusions Barriers to the provision of long term stroke rehabilitation services are multi-factorial. Establishment of community-based stroke rehabilitation centres and training family members to conduct home-based therapy are two potential strategies to enable the continuation of rehabilitation for long term stroke survivors. PMID:24606911

  13. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  14. Long-term predictions of ecosystem acidification and recovery.

    PubMed

    Skeffington, Richard A; Cosby, B Jack; Whitehead, Paul G

    2016-10-15

    This paper considers the long-term (500year) consequences of continued acid deposition, using a small forested catchment in S. England as an example. The MAGIC acidification model was calibrated to the catchment using data for the year 2000, and run backwards in time for 200years, and forwards for 500. Validation data for model predictions were provided by various stream and soil measurements made between 1977 and 2013. The model hindcast suggests that pre-industrial stream conditions were very different from those measured in 2000. Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC) was +150μeqL(-1) and pH7.1: there was little nitrate (NO3). By the year 2000, acid deposition had reduced the pH to 4.2 and ANC to c. -100μeqL(-1), and NO3 was increasing in the stream. The future state of the catchment was modelled using actual deposition reductions up to 2013, and then based on current emission reduction commitments. This leads to substantial recovery, to pH6.1, ANC +43μeqL(-1), though it takes c. 250years. Then, however, steady acidification resumes, due to continued N accumulation in the catchment and leaching of NO3. Soil data collected using identical methods in 1978 and 2013 show that MAGIC correctly predicts the direction of change, but the observed data show more extreme changes - reasons for this are discussed. Three cycles of forest growth were modelled - this reduces NO3 output substantially during the active growth phase, and increases stream pH and ANC, but acidifies the soil which continues to accumulate nitrogen. The assumptions behind these results are discussed, and it is concluded that unmanaged ecosystems will not return to a pre-industrial state in the foreseeable future. PMID:27304372

  15. Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences of Peer Victimization: From Elementary to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, Thomas F.; Fireman, Gary D.; Asher, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that victims of peer victimization show reduced psychological adjustment, social adjustment, and physical well-being compared with nonvictims. However, little research has addressed whether this maladjustment continues over the long term. This study examined adjustment in 72 high school students who had participated…

  16. Addressing challenges in cross-site synthesis of long-term ecological data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term ecological datasets are becoming increasingly abundant on the internet, and are available both on websites hosted by the originating sites and/or in online repositories. While sites and networks are increasingly conforming to adopted metadata standards (which themselves continue to evolve ...

  17. Effects of a Long-Term Participatory Action Research Project on Science Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo; Markic, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of long-term co-operation between science educators and science teachers concerning the teachers' continuous professional development, based on Participatory Action Research in science education. The discussion is based on a six-year case study observing a group of about ten German chemistry teachers by chemistry…

  18. Addressing the Chronic Sorrow of Long-Term Spousal Caregivers: A Primer for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossheim, Beth N.; McAdams, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic sorrow is described as a distinct grief reaction that occurs when loss is not final but continues to be present in the life of the griever. It is characteristic of a growing number of older individuals who are providing long-term care at home for a spouse or primary partner with progressive disability. The unique presentations of grief,…

  19. 40 CFR 51.306 - Long-term strategy requirements for reasonably attributable visibility impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long-term strategy requirements for reasonably attributable visibility impairment. 51.306 Section 51.306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Protection...

  20. Explaining Long-Term Exercise Adherence in Women Who Complete a Structured Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Sidman, Cara; Flohr, Judith A.; Shultz, Barry; Grosshans, Onie; Durrant, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine factors related to physical activity adherence to understand why women continue to participate in long-term exercise after completing a structured exercise program. Data were collected from focus groups, interviews, and e-mails, and analysis used grounded theory. The central category related…

  1. Long-term data collection at USDA experimental sites for studies of ecohydrology 1955

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this review is to show the value of long-term, continuous data from the network of USDA experimental watersheds, forests and ranges for studying the interaction between ecology and hydrology, termed ecohydrology. We identified 81 USDA experimental sites with data records of more than 20...

  2. Long-term Tillage Influences on Soil Physical Properties under Dryland Conditions in Northeastern Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage [no-till (NT), spring till (ST), and fall and spring till (FST)] under continuous spring wheat on soil penetration resistance (PR), bulk density ('b), water content ('m) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) under dryland cropping systems. S...

  3. Herbicide transport in Goodwater Creek experimental watershed: I. long-term research on atrazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine [6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] continues to be the herbicide of greatest concern relative to contamination of surface waters in the United States. However, a lack of long-term data hampers the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and the detection ...

  4. Factors Affecting Long-Term-Care Residents' Decision-Making Processes as They Formulate Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Heather C.; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E. D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. Design and Methods: This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a…

  5. Measuring Worker Turnover in Long-Term Care: Lessons from the Better Jobs Better Care Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen Walsh, Ed.; Barry, Theresa; Kemper, Peter; Brannon, S. Diane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Turnover among direct-care workers (DCWs) continues to be a challenge in long-term care. Both policy makers and provider organizations recognize this issue as a major concern and are designing efforts to reduce turnover among these workers. However, there is currently no standardized method of measuring turnover to define the scope of the…

  6. Faculty Development in Higher Education: Long-Term Impact of a Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persellin, Diane; Goodrick, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Past participants of the Associated Colleges of the South Summer Teaching and Learning Workshop were surveyed to determine long-term impact of this type of professional development experience. Results indicate a large majority of participants across rank and academic discipline continued to view the workshop as effective and valued feedback from…

  7. Long-term tillage system in a cotton-peanut rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous long-term tillage studies have evaluated shifts in weed species composition, with only limited research in cotton-peanut rotations. A study was established in 2000 (continuing through 2008) in an area with a 15-year history of reduced tillage. Treatments included conventional tillage (CT, m...

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnosis, management, and long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bodzin, Adam S; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a common and lethal malignancy worldwide and arises in the setting of a host of diseases. The incidence continues to increase despite multiple vaccines and therapies for viruses such as the hepatitis B and C viruses. In addition, due to the growing incidence of obesity in Western society, there is anticipation that there will be a growing population with HCC due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Due to the growing frequency of this disease, screening is recommended using ultrasound with further imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and multi-detector computed tomography used for further characterization of masses. Great advances have been made to help with the early diagnosis of small lesions leading to potential curative resection or transplantation. Resection and transplantation maybe used in a variety of patients that are carefully selected based on underlying liver disease. Using certain guidelines and clinical acumen patients may have good outcomes with either resection or transplantation however many patients are inoperable at time of presentation. Fortunately, the use of new locoregional therapies has made down staging patients a potential option making them potential surgical candidates. Despite a growing population with HCC, new advances in viral therapies, chemotherapeutics, and an expanding population of surgical and transplant candidates might all contribute to improved long-term survival of these patients. PMID:26019732

  9. Conditions for Long-Term Culture of Cattle Undifferentiated Spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Melissa J; Kaucher, Amy V; Yang, Qi-En; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Oatley, Jon M

    2016-07-01

    Continual and robust spermatogenesis relies on the actions of an undifferentiated spermatogonial population that contains stem cells. A remarkable feature of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is the capacity to regenerate spermatogenesis following isolation from a donor testis and transplantation into a permissive recipient testis. This capacity has enormous potential as a tool for enhancing the reproductive capacity of livestock, which can improve production efficiency. Because SSCs are a rare subset of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population, a period of in vitro amplification in number following isolation from donor testicular tissue is essential. Here, we describe methodology for isolation of a cell fraction from prepubertal bull testes that is enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia and long-term maintenance of the cells in both the feeder cell coculture and the feeder-free format. To achieve this method, we derived bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFF) to serve as feeders for optimizing medium conditions that promote maintenance of bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 2 mo. In addition, we devised a feeder-free system with BFF-conditioned medium that sustained bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 1 mo in vitro. The methodologies described could be optimized to provide platforms for exponential expansion of bovine SSCs that will provide the numbers needed for transplantation into recipient testes. PMID:27251094

  10. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Potter, Andrew E.; Brophy, Brian P.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  11. LONG-TERM PERIODICITY VARIATIONS OF THE SOLAR RADIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the long-term periodicity variations of the solar radius, daily solar radius data from 1978 February to 2000 September at the Calern Observatory are used. Continuous observations of the solar radius are difficult due to the weather, seasonal effects, and instrument characteristics. Thus, to analyze these data, we first use the Dixon criterion to reject suspect values, then we measure the cross-correlation between the solar radius and sunspot numbers. The result indicates that the solar radius is in complete antiphase with the sunspot numbers and shows lead times of 74 months relative to the sunspot numbers. The Lomb-Scargle and date compensated discrete Fourier transform methods are also used to investigate the periodicity of the solar radius. Both methods yield similar significance periodicities around {approx}1 yr, {approx}2.6 yr, {approx}3.6 yr, and {approx}11 yr. Possible mechanisms for these periods are discussed. The possible physical cause of the {approx}11 yr period is the cyclic variation of the magnetic pressure of the concentrated flux tubes at the bottom of the solar convection zone.

  12. [Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect].

    PubMed

    Dumaret, Annick Camille; Tursz, Anne

    2011-05-01

    In the international scientific literature, data from birth cohorts clearly show the statistical relationships existing between abuse experienced in childhood and disorders in adulthood, in particular somatic, psychological (depression, suicide, anti-social behaviour, addiction, etc.), and cognitive problems, as well as difficulties in social integration. When abused children are cared for by Child Protective Services, the success or failure of placements is conditioned by a web of factors in which the severity of the initial trauma becomes intertwined with characteristics of the care given. Autonomy in adulthood is more likely to be achieved when placement is continuous and long-term, includes siblings and allows the creation of new bonds of attachment and identification with adult role models. Only these characteristics can attenuate the deleterious effects of the violence suffered in the past, one of the most disturbing consequences of which is the trans-generational transmission of violence. It is therefore important that physicians (general practitioners and paediatricians) who see foster children for vaccinations or childhood diseases are aware of their situation, enquire about the quality of care and know how to establish partnerships with those responsible for the education of these children (foster families, special educators). PMID:21698901

  13. Long-term lifetime prediction for RF-MEMS switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulloni, V.; Barbato, M.; Meneghesso, G.

    2016-07-01

    Time to failure estimations of RF-MEMS (radio-frequency microelectromechanical system) switches under prolonged actuation is particularly interesting for satellite applications, where the devices have to retain their functionality for years. At present, a well-assessed methodology to predict RF-MEMS lifetime is still lacking, probably because, in the case of MEMS, failure may originate from either electrical or mechanical sources. Temperature is the most common failure accelerating factor, but it accelerates all failure mechanisms at the same time. In this paper, we take into account the effect of temperature on three different failure mechanisms, namely charge trapping, mechanical creep, and contact degradation. Short-term and long-term continuous actuation measurements for an ohmic clamped–clamped switch are reported and analyzed, showing that failure is strongly accelerated by temperature in the range of temperatures investigated. The maximum temperature exploitable is, however, quite low, around 75 °C, because of structural modifications due to internal stress variations and buckling. Based on the experimental data, a prediction model is presented and discussed. While failure at 55 °C has been measured after a few days, the extrapolated lifetimes at 25 °C are around five years. Contact deterioration has been found to be the reason of failure, but the switch fails only when the spring constant has been sufficiently lowered by mechanical creep.

  14. Malignant external otitis: long-term (months) antimicrobial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, M.; Aber, R.C.; Conner, G.H.; Baum, S.

    1982-04-01

    Since Chandler's initial report in 1968 on malignant external otitis (MEO), this entity has been recognized in its earlier stages with increasing frequency. As a result of this, the availability of new antimicrobial agents, and the judicious use of surgery, there has been an improvement in the results of therapy. There remains, however, a subgroup of patients who continue to experience a significant mortality from this infection. A review and selected discussion of our experience with MEO from 1976 to 1979 is presented. Six patients have been diagnosed and successfully treated for MEO. They presented with problems ranging from severe otalgia to multiple cranial neuropathy. For the most part, therapy consisted of the now standard aminoglycoside and carbenicillin combination. Two of the patients were in the high mortality risk group. One of these patients developed an osteomyelitis which extended across the skull base resulting in bilateral cranial neuropathies. His therapy included surgery as well as long-term (months) outpatient treatment with tobramycin and carbenicillin with an excellent result. The second patient was treated similarly. The efficacy of this approach is discussed as well as the usefulness of radionuclide bone scanning in assessing the course and therapy of patients with MEO.

  15. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Bouma, Henri; Veerman, Henny E. T.; Benoist, Koen W.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to make this assessment with sensors (such as cameras) at a distance, to avoid costs of bringing an own asset closer to the ship for verification. The emphasis of the research presented in this paper, is on the use of several feature extraction and matching methods for recognizing ships from electro-optical imagery within different categories of vessels. We compared central moments, SIFT with localization and SIFT with Fisher Vectors. From the evaluation on imagery of ships, an indication of discriminative power is obtained between and within different categories of ships. This is used to assess the usefulness in persistent tracking, from short intervals (track improvement) to larger intervals (re-identifying ships). The result of this assessment on real data is used in a simulation environment to determine how track continuity is improved. The simulations showed that even limited recognition will improve tracking, connecting both tracks at short intervals as well as over several days.

  16. Condom use among women choosing long-term hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Cushman, L F; Romero, D; Kalmuss, D; Davidson, A R; Heartwell, S; Rulin, M

    1998-01-01

    Concerns have been raised that women who use long-term hormonal contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy will fail to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, through concomitant condom use. This possibility was investigated in a prospective (1993-94), multi-site US (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Dallas, Texas; and New York, New York) study of 1073 new users of either contraceptive implants or Depo-Provera. The mean age of study participants was 23 years; 63% were Hispanic, 24% Black, and 13% White. Overall, the proportion of women who always used condoms in the previous 3 months dropped from 21% at the time of method initiation to 11% at follow-up 6-12 months after enrollment. However, use increased from 25% to 31% among women with more than 1 sexual partner. Significant predictors of dual method use included previous condom use (odds ratio (OR), 2.5); receipt of AIDS-specific counseling (OR, 1.6); the perception, at baseline, of being at some risk of AIDS (OR, 1.4); and more than 1 sexual partner during the study period (OR, 5.4). In addition, injectable users, teenagers, and Black women were more likely than other women to use condoms with their hormonal method. These findings have important implications for family planning programs, especially the need for counseling on the continued importance of condom use for STD prevention when pregnancy is prevented by non-barrier methods. PMID:9782048

  17. Effectiveness of India ink as a long-term colonic mucosal marker.

    PubMed

    Fennerty, M B; Sampliner, R E; Hixson, L J; Garewal, H S

    1992-01-01

    We prospectively studied the use of India ink as a long-term or "permanent" mucosal marker as part of a study investigating the natural history of diminutive distal colorectal polyps. Twenty-six patients had 32 India ink tatoos implanted. The tatoo sites of the 19 patients who were followed at least 6 months continued to display intensely stained mucosa at the original sites. No side effects or complications were encountered. India ink appears to be a safe and effective long-term marker for colonic mucosal lesions. PMID:1370188

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  19. Soil pyrogenic carbon lacks long-term persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfalla, Suzanne; Abiven, Samuel; Barré, Pierre; Wiedemeier, Daniel; Christensen, Bent; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Fok; Chenu, Claire

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change, one mitigation technique currently investigated is the use of pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC) -which is biomass turned into charcoal- to sequester carbon in soils with the hypothesis that PyOC is persistent and will not be biodegraded (or mineralized). In this study, we use the unique opportunity offered by five long term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments across Europe (Askov in Denmark, Grignon and Versailles in France, Ultuna in Sweden and Rothamsted in the United Kingdom) to compare the dynamics of PyOC and soil organic carbon (SOC) in the same plots at the decadal time scale (from 25 to 80 years of bare fallow depending on the site). Bare fallow plots were regularly sampled throughout the bare fallow duration and these samples were carefully archived. In bare fallow plots, with negligible external carbon input and with continuing biodegradation, SOC is depleting. Using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid (BPCA) technique to estimate the PyOC quantity and quality in the soils at different sampling dates, we investigated if PyOC content was also decreasing and compared the rates of depletion of PyOC and SOC. We found that PyOC contents decreased rapidly in soils at all sites. The loss of PyOC between the first and the last soil sampling ranged from 19.8 to 57.3% of the initial PyOC content. Furthermore, PyOC quality exhibited a similar evolution at all sites, becoming more enriched in condensed material with time. We applied a one pool model with mono-exponential decay to our data and found an average mean residence time of native PyOC of 116 years across the different sites, with a standard deviation of 15 years, just 1.6 times longer than that of SOC. Our results show that, though having a longer residence time than total SOC, PyOC content can decrease rapidly in soils suggesting that the potential for long-term C storage in soil by PyOC amendments is less than currently anticipated. Our results therefore question the concept of

  20. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  1. Long-term impact of pesticides use on vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Ployon, Estelle; Wilhelm, Bruno; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide increase of pesticides uses in agriculture has been growing over the past decades but their long-term fate and effects on environment and ecosystem are poorly understood. Here, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment record to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long term impact of pesticides treatments on a vineyard catchment in Savoie (France). In this study, we combined sedimentological and geochemical analyses to reconstruct the recent history of wine practices. The sediment sequence chronology, based on short-live radionuclides (210Pb/137Cs), provides a well constrain continuous age-depth relationship covering to the last century. Over this period, we reconstruct the succession of fungicides, insecticides and herbicides in relation to the appearance of new chemical substances and the banning of old ones. The first use of fungicide began at the end of the 19th century with the Bordeaux mixture (Cu). After the World War II, we observed an intensification of fungicides treatment against mildew, powdery mildew, Botrytis fungi and black rot with specific molecules succession. Insecticides used in vineyard treatment against tetranychid and eriophyid mites were observed since 1940 with a main increase in 1970. Dicofol, Bromopropylate, Bifenthrin succeed to DDT banning in 1972, but a secondary source of DDT appeared at the early of 90's. The first herbicides use was observed between 1960 and 1970 with the presence of Triazine metabolite (pre-emergence herbicide) and high value of AMPA (Glyphosate metabolite, Roundup®), used as post-emergence herbicide, were found since 1990. Two sedimentation rate increases in 1973 and 1994 could be directly assigned to wine practices. In early 70's, heavy farm machinery associated to the first application of pre-emergence herbicide, induced a first increase of soil erosion. In early 90's, post-emergence herbicide (Roundup®) treatment had a stronger impact on soil erosion with a huge

  2. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study. PMID:27270189

  3. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  4. Earth's Long-Term Warming Trend, 1880-2015

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization illustrates Earth’s long-term warming trend, showing temperature changes from 1880 to 2015 as a rolling five-year average. Orange colors represent temperatures that are warmer th...

  5. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  6. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160606.html Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head ... 000 Swedes who suffered at least one traumatic brain injury (TBI) before age 25 with their unaffected ...

  7. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  8. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  9. The market for long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, David C

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature has established the importance of market and regulatory forces within the long-term care sector, current research in this field is limited by a series of data, measurement, and methodological issues. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these issues with an emphasis on identifying initiatives that will increase the volume and quality of long-term care research. Recommendations include: the construction of standard measures of long-term care market boundaries, the broader dissemination of market and regulatory data, the linkage of survey-based data with market measures, the encouragement of further market-based studies of noninstitutional long-term care settings, and the standardization of Medicaid cost data. PMID:18524292

  10. Long term combination treatment for severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Affuso, Flora; Cirillo, Plinio; Ruvolo, Antonio; Carlomagno, Guido; Fazio, Serafino

    2010-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of 3 cases of severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, in whom tadalafil plus sitaxentan combination therapy improved the clinical condition and exercise performance without any relevant adverse event. PMID:21160759

  11. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  12. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  13. Medical monitoring in long-term space missions.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Egorov, A D

    1997-01-01

    The following principles, derived from the experience of medical support during past spaceflights, can provide a basis for a system of health monitoring and diagnosis during long-term and interplanetary missions: a system of preflight medical screening; medical screening on a systemic basis, which may include purposeful diagnosis in subsystems following the method of hierarchic structure; use of an individual approach; correction of the medical program with respect to the space crew status; assessment of the interrelations of the entire complex of parameters; utilization of the methods of correlation, classification and identification to elicit interrelations between different functions; evaluation of shifts in body functions and their adequacy to ambient conditions; continuity of medical examinations during all pre-flight stages, during flight and after completion of flight; analysis of information and anamnestic data by means of data bases; confidentiality of medical conclusions. Discussed are a classification of unfavorable microgravity-related syndromes, possible impairments due to abnormal situations, and some approaches to the prediction of the risk of various diseases, in relation to the construction of a conceptual diagnostic model for interplanetary missions. In the interest of medical monitoring special significance is attributed to the knowledge of individual norms for each crew member and of his unique peculiarities. Such data can be compiled by means of statistical analysis (single and multidimensional analysis) of the results of medical examinations and of observations during selection, training and tests. Selection of necessary physiological parameters, functional loads and data processing techniques which can be used in combination with other data sources for inflight diagnosis should be based on the following principles: the use of informative, non-invasively registered parameters and functional tests to reveal adverse states or most probable

  14. Immunomodulatory properties of Cumaside.

    PubMed

    Aminin, D L; Pinegin, B V; Pichugina, L V; Zaporozhets, T S; Agafonova, I G; Boguslavski, V M; Silchenko, A S; Avilov, S A; Stonik, V A

    2006-07-01

    The medical lead, so-called Cumaside, was created on the basis of triterpene oligoglycosides from the Far-Eastern edible sea cucumber (holothurian) Cucumaria japonica and its immunomodulatory properties were studied. The haemolytic activity of Cumaside was significantly reduced in comparison with original glycosides due to the glycoside-cholesterol complex formation. The influence of Cumaside on mouse macrophages in low doses was accompanied by more then two-fold stimulation of lysosomal activity. This preparation was found to increase significantly the animal resistance against bacterial infections elicited by various pathogens. It stimulated phagocytosis, ROS formation, IL6 and TNF-alpha production in lymphocytes, increased the number of antibody producing cells and amplified the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8) preliminary cultured with hydrocortisone. At the same time the preparation did not affect the delayed-type hypersensitivity, proliferative activity of lymphocytes, cytotoxic activity of NK-cells and cytokine IFNgamma and IL12p70 release. The mechanism of Cumaside action is discussed. PMID:16714210

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  17. Closer to home (or home alone?) The British Columbia long-term care system in transition.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, B L; Simon, H J; Stadler, K L

    1997-01-01

    Finding ways to organize and deliver long-term care that provides for quality of life at an affordable price is of increasing importance as the population ages, family size decreases, and women enter the workforce. For the past 2 decades, British Columbia has provided a model system that has apparently avoided disruptive conflicts. Although formal users' complaints are rare, this study--based on focus groups and interviews with users, their families, and advocates--identified problems users encountered toward resolving concerns about the structure, process, and outcome of long-term care. We present these findings in the context of British Columbia's current devolution from provincial to regional control that aims to save costs and keep disabled elderly persons in the community. British Columbia may be continuing to lead the way in meeting the needs of its burgeoning elderly population for long-term care. Study findings have implications for the development of US long-term care policy by pointing to the value of obtaining users' views of long-term care to identify both obvious and more subtle trouble spots. PMID:9392982

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

  20. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  1. A Cohort Study on Long-Term Adverse Effects of Parental Drinking: Background and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bukten, Anne; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordfjærn, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have addressed adverse outcomes in children of parents with alcohol abuse/dependence, less is known about the possible long-term effects of more normative patterns of parental alcohol consumption, including drinking at lower risk levels and heavy episodic or binge drinking. The extent of harm from parental drinking may therefore be underestimated. With this research proposal, we describe a project that aims to assess possible long-term adverse effects of parental drinking by combining survey and nationwide registry data. Advantages of a longitudinal general population cohort design include that it allows for detailed information on parental drinking through survey data and identification of possible negative long-term health and social outcomes from exposure to parental drinking 1–19 years after exposure through continuously updated nationwide registers. The rich information available from combining survey and registry data allows us to take into account important confounders, mediators, and moderators. PMID:26688663

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out.

  3. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  4. Long-term trends in metals, PCBs, and pesticides in mussels from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Tjeerdema, R.S.; Taberski, K.; Thompson, B.; Hoenicke, R.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions and long-term trends of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have been short-lived because of economic cutbacks, providing limited information on long-term trends. The California State Mussel Watch program in conjunction with the San Francisco Estuary Institute (in the last 2 years) have provided continues funding for the past 15 years to mussel watch studies in San Francisco Bay. Long-term trends have been identified that describe declines in many organics and metals during the last 15 years. There are also some metals and organics that show no specific trends. The declines indicate that the banning or restriction of usage of some of these contaminants has resulted in substantial decreases of these substances in the environment.

  5. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:15238660

  6. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  7. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  8. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  9. Long-term effects of sludge application to land

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, W.S. ); Knocke, W.R.; Novak, J.T.; Dove, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term environmental effects of applying alum sludge to land. Investigations at the original field site included soil analysis, soil water monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and analysis of tissues from pine needles. No long-term (30 months) effects were observed, and the authors conclude that alum coagulant sludges can be applied to forest lands at loading rates of at least 1.5 to 2.5% by dry weight without adverse effect.

  10. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  11. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    PubMed

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation. PMID:27348841

  12. Long-term in vivo glucose monitoring using fluorescent hydrogel fibers.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun Jung; Shibata, Hideaki; Okitsu, Teru; Kawanishi, Tetsuro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2011-08-16

    The use of fluorescence-based sensors holds great promise for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo, allowing wireless transdermal transmission and long-lasting functionality in vivo. The ability to monitor glucose concentrations in vivo over the long term enables the sensors to be implanted and replaced less often, thereby bringing CGM closer to practical implementation. However, the full potential of long-term in vivo glucose monitoring has yet to be realized because current fluorescence-based sensors cannot remain at an implantation site and respond to blood glucose concentrations over an extended period. Here, we present a long-term in vivo glucose monitoring method using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel fibers. We fabricated glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogels in a fibrous structure because this structure enables the sensors to remain at the implantation site for a long period. Moreover, these fibers allow easy control of the amount of fluorescent sensors implanted, simply by cutting the fibers to the desired length, and facilitate sensor removal from the implantation site after use. We found that the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-bonded polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel fibers reduced inflammation compared with PAM hydrogel fibers, transdermally glowed, and continuously responded to blood glucose concentration changes for up to 140 days, showing their potential application for long-term in vivo continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:21808049

  13. Long-term in vivo glucose monitoring using fluorescent hydrogel fibers

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Yun Jung; Shibata, Hideaki; Okitsu, Teru; Kawanishi, Tetsuro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    The use of fluorescence-based sensors holds great promise for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in vivo, allowing wireless transdermal transmission and long-lasting functionality in vivo. The ability to monitor glucose concentrations in vivo over the long term enables the sensors to be implanted and replaced less often, thereby bringing CGM closer to practical implementation. However, the full potential of long-term in vivo glucose monitoring has yet to be realized because current fluorescence-based sensors cannot remain at an implantation site and respond to blood glucose concentrations over an extended period. Here, we present a long-term in vivo glucose monitoring method using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel fibers. We fabricated glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogels in a fibrous structure because this structure enables the sensors to remain at the implantation site for a long period. Moreover, these fibers allow easy control of the amount of fluorescent sensors implanted, simply by cutting the fibers to the desired length, and facilitate sensor removal from the implantation site after use. We found that the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-bonded polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel fibers reduced inflammation compared with PAM hydrogel fibers, transdermally glowed, and continuously responded to blood glucose concentration changes for up to 140 days, showing their potential application for long-term in vivo continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:21808049

  14. Skin self-examination and long-term melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Lisa E; Lu, Shou En; Bandera, Elisa V; Rhoads, George G; Fine, Judith; Paine, Susan; Barnhill, Raymond; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of skin self-examination (SSE) on melanoma mortality, we estimated the survival for individuals performing SSE compared with those who did not. Participants were from a previously carried out case-control study, who were newly diagnosed melanoma cases in 1987-1989. A 20-year survival analysis was carried out using death (event) and other causes of death (competing). Cumulative incidence functions were evaluated using Gray's test and proportional subdistribution hazards regression models were fitted to study the effect of SSE and other covariates on melanoma survival. Forty-five percent of patients died, with 48.4% melanoma deaths. Individuals who did not perform SSE experienced a continuous increase in the risk of melanoma death trending toward significance for nearly 20 years after diagnosis, whereas melanoma deaths in skin self-examiners plateaued before 10 years after diagnosis (P=0.32). Univariate analyses suggested a 25% lower risk of melanoma death for those who performed SSE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43-1.32, P=0.32]. After adjusting for competing risks, the multivariate risk estimate was above one (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.61-2.06, P=0.71). Skin awareness (HR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P≤0.01) was associated independently with a decreased risk of melanoma death. Although we did not find a significant association between melanoma mortality and SSE when adjusting for competing mortality and other covariates, we extended previous findings that increased skin awareness and tumor thickness are strongly inversely related to survival. Research is needed to continue developing best practices for melanoma screening and to further explore the components of SSE and long-term melanoma survival. PMID:26990272

  15. Ambient Tremor Triggered by Long-term Slow Slip Event in Bungo Channel, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, K.; Hirose, H.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, T.

    2014-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) is a stick-slip in the transition zone between locked and stable sliding zones on the plate interface in Southwest Japan and Cascadia. ETS episode with duration of several days usually recurs at interval of several months at each segment. On the other hand, in the Bungo channel region where is the western edge of the ETS zone in SW Japan, tremor activity continued for several months during the long-term slow slip event (SSE) in 2003 and 2010. In this paper, the relationship between long-term SSE and surrounded triggered tremor is discussed. Tremor triggered by the long-term SSE is spatially localized in the narrow width of about 10 km at the shallowest part of the tremor zone, and at the neighboring area just downdip from the source fault of the SSE. The frequency distribution of tremor along the dip direction during the SSE period is consistent with the spatial distribution of total slip estimated for 2010 SSE. Therefore, the slip of the long-term SSE penetrated in the ETS zone may generate tremor. The daily number of the activated tremor is 12-14 during the SSE; however, it is 40-50 for regular ETS episode during the inter-SSE period. On the other hand, slip rates of the long-term SSE and ETS are typically 1 mm/d and 3 mm/d, respectively. Therefore, tremor rate may be controlled by slip rate. After SSEs in 2003 and 2010, tremor activity seems to slightly increase in the east region within 50 km from the triggered tremor area. Such 7-year period variation in tremor activity is observed in only the shallower side of the tremor zone. Moreover, pattern of the long-term variation seems to slightly migrate to east during a few years. We interpret that a tiny transient slip after the long-term SSE slowly propagates between transition and locked zones. Tremor activity at the shallowest part of the tremor zone in the Bungo channel continued longer than that of regular ETS in the late 2006 during the inter-SSE period. Associated tiny GPS

  16. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  17. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  18. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  19. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  20. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  1. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  2. Short- and long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    There is long-term (trophic) purinergic signalling involving cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and death in the development and regeneration of most systems of the body, in addition to fast purinergic signalling in neurotransmission, neuromodulation and secretion. It is not always easy to distinguish between short- and long-term signalling. For example, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can sometimes act as a short-term trigger for long-term trophic events that become evident days or even weeks after the original challenge. Examples of short-term purinergic signalling during sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric neuromuscular transmission and in synaptic transmission in ganglia and in the central nervous system are described, as well as in neuromodulation and secretion. Long-term trophic signalling is described in the immune/defence system, stratified epithelia in visceral organs and skin, embryological development, bone formation and resorption and in cancer. It is likely that the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to both P2X and P2Y purinoceptor activation participates in many short- and long-term physiological effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377731

  3. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  4. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  5. The impact of injury severity on long-term social outcome following paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Muscara, Frank; Catroppa, Cathy; Eren, Senem; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-08-01

    Despite suggestions that paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts social skill development, few studies have investigated long-term social outcome following the transition into adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate long-term social outcome, in a sample of 36 survivors who suffered a mild, moderate or severe TBI between 8 and 12 years of age. At 7-10 years post-injury, the age of participants ranged between 16 and 22 years. Social outcome was assessed using a number of self-rated and parent-rated questionnaires, in order to obtain self- and other-rated accounts of the groups' current social functioning. Predictors of long-term social outcome were also explored, with findings suggesting that young people who suffered mild TBI during childhood tended to be functioning at a higher level on some measures of social functioning, compared to those that suffered a moderate and severe injury. Further, results suggested that pre-injury adaptive functioning and socio-economic status predicted long-term functioning for some measures of social outcome. Finally, social problem-solving skills predicted the success of social reintegration post-TBI. These preliminary findings indicate that there is a risk of social difficulties following paediatric TBI continuing into adulthood, and that a number of demographic, social, and neuropsychological variables continue to predict social outcome even at this late stage post-injury. PMID:18839384

  6. The role of spatial boundaries in shaping long-term event representations.

    PubMed

    Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Wang, Aijing; Bogus, Katrina; Burgess, Neil

    2016-09-01

    When remembering the past, we typically recall 'events' that are bounded in time and space. However, as we navigate our environment our senses receive a continuous stream of information. How do we create discrete long-term episodic memories from continuous input? Although previous research has provided evidence for a role of spatial boundaries in the online segmentation of our sensory experience within working memory, it is not known how this segmentation contributes to subsequent long-term episodic memory. Here we show that the presence of a spatial boundary at encoding (a doorway between two rooms) impairs participants' later ability to remember the order that objects were presented in. A sequence of two objects presented in the same room in a virtual reality environment is more accurately remembered than a sequence of two objects presented in adjoining rooms. The results are captured by a simple model in which items are associated to a context representation that changes gradually over time, and changes more rapidly when crossing a spatial boundary. We therefore provide the first evidence that the structure of long-term episodic memory is shaped by the presence of a spatial boundary and provide constraints on the nature of the interaction between working memory and long-term memory. PMID:27295330

  7. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  8. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-01-01

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere–hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three–decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61–65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12–15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8–12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of 15N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

  9. Long-term observations of tropospheric ozone: GAW Measurement Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, Oksana; Galbally, Ian E.; Schultz, Martin G.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) coordinates long-term observations of the chemical composition and physical properties of the atmosphere which are relevant for understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Atmospheric observations of reactive gases (tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides) coordinated by the GAW Programme complement local and regional scale air quality monitoring efforts. As part of the GAW quality assurance (QA) system detailed measurement guidelines for atmospheric trace species are developed by international expert teams at irregular intervals. The most recent report focuses on continuous in-situ measurements of ozone in the troposphere, performed in particular at continental or island sites with altitudes ranging from sea level to mountain tops. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are defined for different applications of the data (e.g. trend analysis and verification of global model forecasts). These DQOs include a thorough discussion of the tolerable level of measurement uncertainty and data completeness. The guidelines present the best practices and practical arrangements adopted by the GAW Programme in order to enable the GAW station network to approach or achieve the defined tropospheric ozone DQOs. The document includes information on the selection of station and measurement locations, required skills and training of staff, recommendations on the measurement technique and the necessary equipment to perform highest quality measurements, rules for conducting the measurements, preparing the data and archiving them, and more. Much emphasis is given to discussions about how to ensure the quality of the data through tracing calibrations back to primary standards, proper calibration and data analysis, etc. In the GAW Programme the QA system is implemented through Central Facilities (Central Calibration Laboratories, World and Regional

  10. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    PubMed

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. PMID:24178313

  11. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-11-01

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

  12. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  13. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  14. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  15. Data Analysis in the LOFAR Long Term Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holties, H. A.; van Diepen, G.; van Dok, D.; Dijkstra, F.; Loose, M.; Renting, G. A.; Schrijvers, C.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2012-09-01

    The LOFAR Long Term Archive (LTA) is a distributed information system that provides integrated services for data analysis as well as long term preservation of astronomical datasets and their provenance. The data analysis capabilities are provided by a federated system that integrates a central catalog and client user interfaces provided by Astro-Wise with processing pipelines running on Grid based and University HPC clusters. The framework used for data analysis ensures that proper authorization and access rules are applied and that generated data products are ingested into the storage part of the Long Term Archive. The ingest process includes information about data provenance. This paper presents the architecture of the processing framework of the LTA.

  16. Long-term survival following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Milner, Q J; Burchett, K R

    2000-05-01

    Survival following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains poor and is in stark contrast to that for elective repair. We have carried out a 5-year retrospective observational study to determine the long-term (5-year) survival of patients following emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at a district general hospital in East Anglia. A total of 99 patients presented to the operating theatre for emergency repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in this 5-year study period. In-hospital mortality was 70% and was unchanged over the 5 years. Overall long-term survival in those patients discharged from hospital was good. The ICU cost per long-term survivor was calculated to be pound sterling 36750. PMID:10792133

  17. Forecasting demand for long-term care services.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D; Uyeno, D; Stark, A; Kliewer, E; Gutman, G

    1985-01-01

    This article analyzes three methods used to forecast the transition of long-term care clients through a variety of possible home and facility placements and levels of care. The test population (N = 1,653) is derived from the larger population of clients admitted in 1978 to British Columbia's newly established Long-Term Care program. The investigators have accumulated 5 years of service-generated data on moves, discharges, and deaths of these clients. Results show that the first-order Markov chain with stationary transition probabilities yields a superior forecast to state-by-state moving average growth and state-by-state regression analyses. The results of these analyses indicate that the Markov method should receive serious consideration as a tool for resource planning and allocation in long-term care. PMID:3932260

  18. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  19. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  20. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-08-15

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  1. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  2. Long-term Use of Opioids for Complex Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147

  3. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  4. The long-term alteration of borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Brown, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the long-term durability of glass waste forms under potential disposal conditions is based on a mechanistic model of glass corrosion which has been derived from short-term laboratory tests. The model of glass reaction that has evolved identifies the hydrolysis of an Si-0 bond to release silicic acid as the step which controls the long-term glass reactivity. This reaction step is initially fast under dilute solution conditions, but slows as the silicic acid concentration in solution increases. An increase in the solution concentrations of glass components will occur with progressive glass corrosion, and so the solutions which contact waste glasses over long reaction times will have high concentrations of glass components. Therefore, the glass reactivity is usually expected to decrease with the reaction progress as the contacting solution becomes more concentrated. The corrosion behavior of glasses contacted by highly concentrated solutions must be characterized to assess the long-term glass stability.

  5. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  6. Can a physician predict the clinical response to first-line immunomodulatory treatment in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Mezei, Zsolt; Bereczki, Daniel; Racz, Lilla; Csiba, Laszlo; Csepany, Tünde

    2012-01-01

    Background Decreased relapse rate and slower disease progression have been reported with long-term use of immunomodulatory treatments (IMTs, interferon beta or glatiramer acetate) in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. There are, however, patients who do not respond to such treatments, and they can be potential candidates for alternative therapeutic approaches. Objective To identify clinical factors as possible predictors of poor long-term response. Methods A 9-year prospective, continuous follow-up at a single center in Hungary to assess clinical efficacy of IMT. Results In a patient group of 81 subjects with mean IMT duration of 54 ± 33 months, treatment efficacy expressed as annual relapse rate and change in clinical severity from baseline did not depend on the specific IMT (any of the interferon betas or glatiramer acetate), and on mono- or multifocal features of the initial appearance of the disease. Responders had shorter disease duration and milder clinical signs at the initiation of treatment. Relapse-rate reduction in the initial 2 years of treatment predicted clinical efficacy in subsequent years. Conclusion Based on these observations, we suggest that a 2-year trial period is sufficient to decide on the efficacy of a specific IMT. For those with insufficient relapse reduction in the first 2 years of treatment, a different IMT or other therapeutic approaches should be recommended. PMID:23118540

  7. [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar].

    PubMed

    Tihtonen, Kati; Nyberg, Reita

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades the cesarean delivery rate has been around 15% in Finland. It has remained moderate compared with USA where 30% of women deliver by cesarean section. Compared with vaginal delivery, cesarean section is associated with a three- to sixfold risk of severe complications. Furthermore, it increases also long term gynecological morbidity, including intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain and risk of secondary infertility. Scar pregnancy, uterine rupture, placenta previa and accrete are known risks after cesarean section. Because cesarean delivery is associated with increased long-term morbidity, the decision of performing cesarean section should always be carefully considered. PMID:24730196

  8. Leadership: the Winnipeg Community and Long-Term Care Authority.

    PubMed

    Suski, M; Hack, T; Heaman, M

    1999-01-01

    The Winnipeg Community and Long Term Care Authority (WCA) was established in 1998 under the Regional Health Authorities Act of the Province of Manitoba. The WCA's role is to provide for the successful integration of Winnipeg's community-based healthcare delivery services through its three main portfolios: Community Care and Public Health, Home Care and Mental Health, and Long Term Care and Specialized Services. The WCA is dedicated to building a quality health future for Winnipeg. Various initiatives undertaken in the pursuit of quality are described. PMID:10538544

  9. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  10. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  11. Long-term preservation of native arteriovenous dialysis fistulas.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Costanzo, Alessandro; Boura, Benoit; Combes, Myriam; Alomran, Faris; de Blic, Romain; Jennings, William C

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in the long term can be technically challenging. Various anatomic or functional problems can occur and multiple open and/or endovascular interventions may be required for extended preservation of native accesses. In this report, we review vascular access maintenance in a 72-year-old woman during a 5-year period. Multiple complications of her native radiocephalic AVF included recurrent occlusions, a central venous stent fracture and symptomatic venous outflow stenosis. We present this case to illustrate the various techniques and combination of approaches used in the long-term preservation of a native AVF. PMID:24360937

  12. Instrumentation of bridges for long-term performance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Maria Q.; Kim, Doo-Kie; Sheng, Li-Hong; Fiji, Leonard M.; Kim, Yoo J.

    2001-08-01

    As the state of the art in bridge design is advancing toward the performance-based design, it becomes increasingly important to monitor and evaluate the long-term structural performance of bridges, including strains in critical structural members, soil pressures on the abutment back walls and footings, accelerations on the decks and bents, etc. Such information is essential in developing new performance criteria for design. In this research, sensor systems for long-term structural performance monitoring have been installed on two new highway bridges on Orange County, California: the Jamboree Road Overcrossing and the West Street On-Ramp.

  13. Long-term noise statistics from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Anthony I.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.; Larue, James P.

    2003-04-01

    Long-term, omnidirectional acoustic noise measurements were conducted in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2001. These efforts were a part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center project, Phase I. Initial looks at the noise time series, processed in standard one-third-octave bands from 10 to 5000 Hz, show noise levels that differ substantially from customary deep-water noise spectra. Contributing factors to this highly dynamic noise environment are an abundance of marine mammal emissions and various industrial noises. Results presented here address long-term temporal variability, temporal coherence times, the fluctuation spectrum, and coherence of fluctuations across the frequency spectrum. [Research supported by ONR.

  14. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    PubMed

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  15. The assessment of long-term orbital debris models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonas, F. M.; Yates, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    Existing long-term orbital debris models are assessed as a first step in the Air Force's effort to develop an Air Force long-term orbital debris model which can perform the following functions: (1) operate with the necessary accuracy at the relevant altitudes and orbital parameters; (2) benefit from new Air Force and non-Air Force debris measurements; and (3) accommodate current and future Air Force space scenarios. Model assessment results are shown for the NASA engineering model. The status of the NASA EVOLVE model assessment is discussed.

  16. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  17. Long-term results of compartmental arthroplasties of the knee: Long term results of partial knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parratte, S; Ollivier, M; Lunebourg, A; Abdel, M P; Argenson, J-N

    2015-10-01

    Partial knee arthroplasty (PKA), either medial or lateral unicompartmental knee artroplasty (UKA) or patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) are a good option in suitable patients and have the advantages of reduced operative trauma, preservation of both cruciate ligaments and bone stock, and restoration of normal kinematics within the knee joint. However, questions remain concerning long-term survival. The goal of this review article was to present the long-term results of medial and lateral UKA, PFA and combined compartmental arthroplasty for multicompartmental disease. Medium- and long-term studies suggest reasonable outcomes at ten years with survival greater than 95% in UKA performed for medial osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis, and similarly for lateral UKA, particularly when fixed-bearing implants are used. Disappointing long-term outcomes have been observed with the first generation of patellofemoral implants, as well as early Bi-Uni (i.e., combined medial and lateral UKA) or Bicompartmental (combined UKA and PFA) implants due to design and fixation issues. Promising short- and med-term results with the newer generations of PFAs and bicompartmental arthroplasties will require long-term confirmation. PMID:26430081

  18. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  19. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  20. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  1. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  2. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that...

  3. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the western world, is continuously increasing in incidence in industrialized nations. Although breast cancer develops in women as the result of a combination of external and endogenous factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, diet, socioeconomic status, and endocrinologic, familial, or genetic factors, no specific etiologic agent(s) or the mechanisms responsible of the disease has been identified as yet. Thus, experimental models that exhibit the same complex interactions are needed for testing various mechanisms and for assessing the carcinogenic potential of given chemicals. Rodent mammary carcinomas represent such a model to a great extent because, in these species, mammary cancer is a multistep complex process that can be induced by either chemicals, radiation, viruses, or genetic factors. Long-term studies in rodent models have been particularly useful for dissecting the initiation, promotion, and progression steps of carcinogenesis. The susceptibility of the rodent mammary gland to develop neoplasms has made this organ a unique target for testing the carcinogenic potential of specific genotoxic chemicals and environmental agents. Mammary tumors induced by indirect- or direct-acting carcinogens such as 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea are, in general, hormone dependent adenocarcinomas whose incidence, number of tumors per animal, tumor latency, and tumor type are influenced by the age, reproductive history, and endocarinologic milieu of the host at the time of carcinogen exposure. Rodent models are informative in the absence of human data. They have provided valuable information on the dose and route of administration to be used and optimal host conditions for eliciting maximal tumorigenic response. Studies of the influence of normal gland development on the pathogenesis of chemically induced mammary carcinomas have clarified the role of differentiation

  4. A case study comparing a randomized withdrawal trial and a double-blind long-term trial for assessing the long-term efficacy of an antidepressant.

    PubMed

    Mallinckrodt, Craig; Chuang-Stein, Christy; McSorley, Paul; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Archibald, Donald G; Perahia, David G; Detke, Michael J; Alphs, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Assessing long-term efficacy in psychiatric drugs involves a number of complex questions, and the priaority of these questions is different for different disorders and for different stakeholders. Therefore, it is essential that we not adopt a one-method-fits-all approach, but rather adapt the specific details of the designs and analysis of data from long-term trials to individual disease states. Randomized withdrawal (RW) designs, even though addressing a specific question of particular interest, face some difficult methodological and ethical challenges. A less common alternative design, termed the double-blind long-term efficacy (DBLE) design, is logistically similar to traditional responder extension designs. However, use of an analytic approach that includes all randomized patients rather than only the selected subset that continued beyond acute treatment avoids the major criticism of the extender design. The present paper illustrates the attributes of the RW and DBLE designs by analyzing data from trials adopting these designs. The RW and DBLE designs address different questions, and are thus not directly comparable. Potential benefits of the DBLE design include: (1) the parsimonious use of patients and the resultant reduced exposure to placebo as each patient can contribute to multiple developmental objectives; (2) the results are generalizable to actual clinical practice as the design matches treatment guidelines; and, (3) results of safety assessments are meaningful as they involve all randomized patients. Our case study suggests that the DBLE design can provide definitive answers to important questions and may be a useful design for assessing long-term treatment effects. PMID:17238129

  5. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  6. 26 CFR 1.7702B-2 - Special rules for pre-1997 long-term care insurance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rules for pre-1997 long-term care insurance contracts. 1.7702B-2 Section 1.7702B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-2 Special rules for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.7702B-2 - Special rules for pre-1997 long-term care insurance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special rules for pre-1997 long-term care insurance contracts. 1.7702B-2 Section 1.7702B-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial...

  8. Dryland crop yields and soil organic matter as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term management practices are needed to sustain dryland crop yields and maintain soil organic matter in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of no-till continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (...

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  10. Long Term Trends in Carbon Dioxide Enhancements in an Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Pataki, D. E.; Strong, C.; Schauer, A. J.; Bares, R.; Bush, S. E.; Holland, L.; Mallia, D.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban regions are characterized by highly concentrated emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for an estimated ~70% of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions from energy usage. Traditional long-term measurement networks designed to constrain the global carbon budget have sites situated in remote regions far from urban centers, rendering such sites unable to resolve signatures of spatial and temporal variability from urban emissions. Here we present a unique, long-term record of CO2 concentrations at five locations ranging from rapidly growing to fully mature urban regions in Utah's Salt Lake Valley, based on continuous measurements since 2001. Trends in concentration enhancements above background levels were found to vary throughout the valley, with mature urban areas (Salt Lake City) exhibiting declining CO2 enhancements and previously rural areas undergoing urban growth, having increasing CO2 enhancements. Furthermore, divergent trends were observed at different times of the day, potentially indicating long-term changes in emissions from different contributing sources. Multiple hypotheses to explain the trends in CO2 enhancements will be discussed, including changes in socioeconomic (e.g., population, traffic, energy efficiency) and meteorological (e.g., atmospheric mixing heights, temperatures) factors. This spatially distributed long-term CO2 monitoring network also provides a case study for understanding factors relevant to the design of urban trace gas observatories.

  11. Stimulation of raphe (obscurus) nucleus causes long-term potentiation of phrenic nerve activity in cat.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E

    1986-12-01

    1. The respiratory response, measured as integrated phrenic nerve activity, during and for up to an hour following 10 min of continuous electrical stimulation of raphe obscurus was quantitated in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated cats whose carotid sinus nerves and vagus nerves had been cut. End-tidal PCO2 and body temperature were kept constant with servocontrollers. 2. Stimulation of raphe obscurus caused a significant increase in both phrenic tidal activity and respiratory frequency that persisted following cessation of the stimulus. This persistent facilitation is referred to as 'long-term potentiation' of respiration. 3. Control stimulations in the parenchyma of the medulla oblongata failed to stimulate respiration and cause the long-term potentiation. 4. Both the direct facilitatory effects of raphe obscurus stimulation on phrenic nerve activity and the long-term potentiation of respiration following the stimulus were prevented by pre-treating cats with methysergide, a serotonin receptor antagonist. 5. The results are discussed in terms of the raphe obscurus being the potential source of the long-term potentiation of respiration that occurs following stimulation of carotid body afferents (Millhorn, Eldridge & Waldrop, 1980a, b). PMID:3114470

  12. Long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit. Qualitative study of patients' views.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Dickie, I.; Brown, L.; Biehn, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors that contribute to patients' long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit. DESIGN: Qualitative method of focus groups. SETTING: A community-based family practice teaching unit in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had been coming to St Joseph's Family Medical Centre for more than 15 years were purposefully selected to participate. METHOD: Five focus groups composed of patients who had been affiliated with one of the three practices at the Centre for more than 15 years explored factors contributing to long-term attendance. MAIN FINDINGS: Four key themes were identified as the primary factors contributing to long-term attendance: the relationship context, the team concept, professional responsibility and attitudes, and comprehensive and convenient care. CONCLUSION: The resource-rich era of medical care, during which participants formulated their views and opinions about the factors contributing to their long-term attendance at a family practice teaching unit, has come to a close. The findings of this study provide important information that could help maintain one of the basic tenets of family medicine-continuity of care. PMID:9154362

  13. Evaluation of long-term bedload virtual velocity in gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Levecq, Yannick; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile; Petit, François

    2015-12-01

    In many gravel-bed rivers, bed material transfer has been interrupted or perturbed by anthropogenic activities. Currently, restoration projects are being conducted in many countries in order to re-establish bedload continuity. However, until now, few studies have provided indications of the velocity of bed material over the long-term (at least decade to century time-scale). In the context of river restoration projects (e.g. weir removal, addition of spawning gravel), these data are nevertheless crucial to predict the downstream propagation of the geomorphological and biological benefits (e.g. supply-transport equilibrium, morphological and substratum diversity). In our study, PIT-tag tracers were used in eight medium-sized gravel-bed rivers (Ardenne Region, Belgium) to propose a flow competence relationship based on specific stream power, on the one hand, and to determine the long-term virtual velocity of the bed material corresponding to the median diameter (D50) of the surface layer of riffles, on the other hand. After each flow event that exceeded the threshold for sediment entrainment, tagged particles were sought and located, even when they were buried in the subsurface layer. Afterwards, all of the data were used to estimate the virtual velocity of the bed material over the long-term using three approaches. Finally, the results were compared with long-term transport estimations based on iron slag dispersed by the rivers since the end of the middle ages.

  14. Current Perspectives on Long-term Obesity Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 4 adult Canadians are obese and, thus, are at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other conditions. Current treatment guidelines recommend that obese individuals lose 5% to 10% of their starting weights to minimize the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk for developing type 2 diabetes or hypertension. All obesity-management strategies involve lifestyle management, but few patients will lose a significant amount of weight and manage to keep it off over the long term using just this strategy. Bariatric surgery is associated with significant long-term weight loss but is restricted to subjects with very high body mass indices, who often wait many years to undergo the procedure. Recent breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of elevated body fat have led to the arrival of new obesity pharmacotherapies. These novel antiobesity therapies, which work by reducing energy intake or through increasing satiety, decreasing hunger, or reducing absorption of calories, may be used indefinitely once patients have demonstrated significant responses (usually defined as ≥5% weight loss) over the first 12 weeks of treatment. To date, 2 long-term obesity pharmacotherapies have been approved and are available in Canada: liraglutide and orlistat. Here, I summarize the mechanisms and clinical features of medications for long-term obesity management that are available in Canada, as well as those available in other jurisdictions or are currently in development. PMID:26507402

  15. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  16. Relating Granger causality to long-term causal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2015-10-01

    In estimation of causal couplings between observed processes, it is important to characterize coupling roles at various time scales. The widely used Granger causality reflects short-term effects: it shows how strongly perturbations of a current state of one process affect near future states of another process, and it quantifies that via prediction improvement (PI) in autoregressive models. However, it is often more important to evaluate the effects of coupling on long-term statistics, e.g., to find out how strongly the presence of coupling changes the variance of a driven process as compared to an uncoupled case. No general relationships between Granger causality and such long-term effects are known. Here, we pose the problem of relating these two types of coupling characteristics, and we solve it for a class of stochastic systems. Namely, for overdamped linear oscillators, we rigorously derive that the above long-term effect is proportional to the short-term effects, with the proportionality coefficient depending on the prediction interval and relaxation times. We reveal that this coefficient is typically considerably greater than unity so that small normalized PI values may well correspond to quite large long-term effects of coupling. The applicability of the derived relationship to wider classes of systems, its limitations, and its value for further research are discussed. To give a real-world example, we analyze couplings between large-scale climatic processes related to sea surface temperature variations in equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic regions.

  17. Long-Term Care: Common Issues and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Katherine; Miake, Naoko; Farag, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    All industrialized countries are grappling with a common problem--how to provide assistance of various kinds to their rapidly aging populations. The problem for countries searching for models of efficient and high-quality long-term care (LTC) policies is that fewer than a dozen countries have government-organized, formal LTC policies. Relatively…

  18. Long-Term Repetition Priming of Briefly Identified Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Andreas T.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide evidence that long-term memory encoding can occur for briefly viewed objects in a rapid serial visual presentation list, contrary to claims that the brief presentation and quick succession of objects prevent encoding by disrupting a memory consolidation process that requires hundreds of milliseconds of uninterrupted processing.…

  19. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…