Science.gov

Sample records for continuous morphological evolution

  1. Morphological evolution of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Heap, Sara R.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Hill, Robert S.; Smith, Eric P.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies of the Hubble Deep Field (Abraham et al. 1996) [1] and Medium Deep Survey (Driver, Windhorst & Griffiths 1995) [6] find that the frequency of irregular/peculiar/merger systems rises with increasing redshift. However, this finding must be carefully interpreted in light of UV images of low-redshift galaxies obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (Stecher et al. 1992) [9]. These UV images imply that K-correction effects may be at least partially responsible for the apparent increase in Irr galaxies with redshift. To assess the degree to which there is an overabundance of Irregular galaxies (relative to the present epoch), we must understand the degree to which the K-correction biases morphological studies. We demonstrate the importance of the morphological K-correction to the classification schemes used in the HDF. We find that high-redshift spiral galaxies are misclassified as Irr galaxies, while Elliptical/S0 galaxies, should not be affected substantially. We have been granted 40 orbits in Cycle 7 with STIS to place these conclusions on a statistical basis.

  2. In Vivo Continuous Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Ahmed H.; Liu, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of methods for the laboratory evolution of biomolecules has rapidly progressed over the last few decades. Advancements in continuous microbe culturing and selection design have facilitated the development of new technologies that enable the continuous directed evolution of proteins and nucleic acids. These technologies have the potential to support the extremely rapid evolution of biomolecules with tailor-made functional properties. Continuous evolution methods must support all of the key steps of laboratory evolution—translation of genes into gene products, selection or screening, replication of genes encoding the most fit gene products, and mutation of surviving genes—in a self-sustaining manner that requires little or no researcher intervention. Continuous laboratory evolution has been historically used to study problems including antibiotic resistance, organismal adaptation, phylogenetic reconstruction, and host-pathogen interactions, with more recent applications focusing on the rapid generation of proteins and nucleic acids with useful, tailor-made properties. The advent of increasingly general methods for continuous directed evolution should enable researchers to address increasingly complex questions and to access biomolecules with more novel or even unprecedented properties. PMID:25461718

  3. Evolution of the morphological innovations of feathers.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O

    2005-11-15

    Feathers are complex assemblages of multiple morphological innovations. Recent research on the development and evolution of feathers has produced new insights into the origin and diversification of the morphological innovations in feathers. In this article, I review and discuss the contribution of three different factors to the evolution of morphological innovations in feathers: feather tubularity, hierarchical morphological modularity, and the co-option molecular signaling modules. The developing feather germ is a tube of epidermis with a central dermal pulp. The tubular organization of the feather germ and follicle produces multiple axes over which morphological differentiation can be organized. Feather complexity is organized into a hierarchy of morphological modules. These morphological modules evolved through the innovative differentiation along multiple different morphological axes created by the tubular feather germ. Concurrently, many of the morphological innovations of feathers evolved through the evolutionary co-option of plesiomorphic molecular signaling modules. Gene co-option also reveals a role for contingency in the evolution of hierarchical morphological innovations. PMID:16208685

  4. Increased morphological asymmetry, evolvability and plasticity in human brain evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of hominin brain evolution relies mostly on evaluation of the endocranial morphology of fossil skulls. However, only some general features of external brain morphology are evident from endocasts, and many anatomical details can be difficult or impossible to examine. In this study, we use geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate inter- and intraspecific differences in cerebral morphology in a sample of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scans of chimpanzees and humans, with special emphasis on the study of asymmetric variation. Our study reveals that chimpanzee–human differences in cerebral morphology are mainly symmetric; by contrast, there is continuity in asymmetric variation between species, with humans showing an increased range of variation. Moreover, asymmetric variation does not appear to be the result of allometric scaling at intraspecific levels, whereas symmetric changes exhibit very slight allometric effects within each species. Our results emphasize two key properties of brain evolution in the hominine clade: first, evolution of chimpanzee and human brains (and probably their last common ancestor and related species) is not strongly morphologically constrained, thus making their brains highly evolvable and responsive to selective pressures; second, chimpanzee and, especially, human brains show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry indicative of pronounced developmental plasticity. We infer that these two characteristics can have a role in human cognitive evolution. PMID:23615289

  5. Evolution of Reproductive Morphology in Leaf Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Yang, Zhu L.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic lifestyle has played an important role in the evolution of the morphology of reproductive structures (body) in one of the most problematic groups in fungal classification, the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). Mapping fungal morphologies to two groups in the Leiotiomycetes, the Rhytismatales and Hemiphacidiaceae reveals significant divergence in body size, shape and complexity. Mapping ecological roles to these taxa reveals that the groups include endophytic fungi living on leaves and saprobic fungi living on duff or dead wood. Finally, mapping of the morphologies to ecological roles reveals that leaf endophytes produce small, highly reduced fruiting bodies covered with fungal tissue or dead host tissue, while saprobic species produce large and intricate fruiting bodies. Intriguingly, resemblance between asexual conidiomata and sexual ascomata in some leotiomycetes implicates some common developmental pathways for sexual and asexual development in these fungi. PMID:19158947

  6. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function.

    PubMed

    Wright, M C; Joyce, G F

    1997-04-25

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely. PMID:9110984

  7. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely.

  8. Digital morphology: modelling anatomy and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Bastir, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The morphology and anatomy of a biological structure can be seen as a structural and functional system, the final results of evolutionary pressures and stochastic processes related to the actual physical and physiological environment of its components. The current imaging techniques (digital anthropology) and the multivariate approaches to the study of geometric covariation (geometric morphometrics) provide a quantitative exploration of the extant and extinct human variability. Such tools allow the recognition of morphological relationships within anatomical systems, and their variation within phylogenetic processes. We apply these techniques and principles to the study of the cranial variability and integration, mostly within the framework of the evolution of the human genus. The craniofacial system is investigated in terms of modules and spatial relationships, along ontogenetic and phylogenetic trajectories. The reciprocal influences between the splanchnocranial, basicranial, and neurocranial components, as well as those between the hard (bones) and soft (brain, connectives, muscles) tissues are modelled using geometrical analyses and multivariate ordination methods, trying to localise adaptations and constraints. The main target is a dynamic and visualisation-based interpretation of the evolutionary changes, not grounded on the variation of single traits but on the covariation of the whole system. PMID:19934466

  9. Adapting Digital Libraries to Continual Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Finch, Melinda; Ferebee, Michelle; Mackey, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe five investment streams (data storage infrastructure, knowledge management, data production control, data transport and security, and personnel skill mix) that need to be balanced against short-term operating demands in order to maximize the probability of long-term viability of a digital library. Because of the rapid pace of information technology change, a digital library cannot be a static institution. Rather, it has to become a flexible organization adapted to continuous evolution of its infrastructure.

  10. Mechanisms and Morphology Evolution in Dealloying

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q; Sieradzki, K

    2013-03-08

    Historically, dealloying, the selective dissolution of elemental components from an alloy, has been studied most intensively for binary noble-metal alloys such as Ag-Au, Cu-Au and Zn-Cu. There have been three primacy "mechanisms" proposed to explain ambient temperature dealloying in such systems: "simultaneous" dissolution of both components/redeposition of the more-noble constituent, lattice diffusion-supported by a di-vacancy mechanism of the more reactive component to the alloy/electrolyte interface and percolation dissolution. Here, we briefly discuss each of these mechanisms and the corresponding dealloyed morphology. In order to examine the connection between a mechanism and morphology we examined dealloying of Mg from Mg-Cd alloys under conditions for which vacancy-mediated lattice diffusion occurs at significant rates. Depending on alloy composition and dealloying rate, we observed either "negative" dendrites or bi-continuous structures, each of which is directly associated with the operation of a particular mechanism. Our findings should be useful to researchers employing dealloying to obtain particular types nanostructured features for a variety of applications. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Size and shape in the evolution of ant worker morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tschá, Marcel K.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution in ants has been traditionally thought as being strongly influenced by selection for colony ergonomic efficiency. Although many studies have focused on the evolution of social characteristics in ants, little is known about the evolution of worker morphology at a macroevolutionary scale. In this study, we investigate the tempo and mode of the evolution of worker morphology, focusing on changes in size and shape. Our datasets included a large sample of species from different ant genera, as well as variation within the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, for a total of 1650 measurements. The rate of size evolution was at least five times faster than the rate of shape evolution. The fit of alternative models of morphological evolution indicated statistically significant phylogenetic signal in both size and shape and in all datasets. Finally, tests of rate heterogeneity in phenotypic evolution among lineages identified several shifts in rates of evolution in both datasets, although the timing of shifts in size and shape was usually not concordant. PMID:24255818

  12. Evolutionary morphology, platyrrhine evolution, and systematics.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2011-12-01

    This special volume of the Anatomical Record focuses on the evolutionary morphology of New World monkeys. The studies range from three-dimensional surface geometry of teeth to enamel ultrastructure; from cranioskeletal adaptations for eating leaves and seeds to the histology of taste bud proxies; from the architecture of its bones to the mechanoreceptors of the tail's skin; from the physical properties of wild foods to the feeding biomechanics of jaws and skull; from the shapes of claws and fingertips, and of elbows, to the diversity and morphology of positional behavior; from the vomeronasal organ and its biological roles to links between brains, guts, sociality, and feeding; from the gum-eating adaptations of the smallest platyrrhines to the methods used to infer how big the largest fossil platyrrhines were. They demonstrate the power of combining functional morphology, behavior, and phylogenetic thinking as an approach toward reconstructing the evolutionary history of platyrrhine primates. While contributing new findings pertaining to all the major clades and ecological guilds, these articles reinforce the view that platyrrhines are a coherent ecophylogenetic array that differentiated along niche dimensions definable principally by body size, positional behavior, and feeding strategies. In underlining the value of character analysis and derived morphological and behavioral patterns as tools for deciphering phylogenetic and adaptational history, doubts are raised about a competing small-bore morphological method, parsimony-based cladistic studies. Intentionally designed not to enlist the rich reservoir of platyrrhine evolutionary morphology, an empirical assessment of the costs incurred by this research stratagem reveals inconsistent, nonrepeatable, and often conflicting results. PMID:22042518

  13. The continuing evolution of ultrasocial economic organization.

    PubMed

    Farley, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasociality, as expressed in agricultural, monetary, and fossil fuel economies, has spurred exponential growth in population and in resource use that now threaten civilization. These threats take the form of prisoner's dilemmas. Avoiding collapse requires more cooperative economic organization that must be informed by knowledge of human behavior and cultural evolution. The evolution of a cooperative information economy is one possibility. PMID:27562419

  14. Controlling Morphological Instability of Zymomonas mobilis Strains in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Jared E.; Zawadzki, Bogdan C.; Lawford, Hugh G.; Lawford, G. Ross

    1983-01-01

    Growth of Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 and CP4 in a continuous stirred tank fermentor resulted in the selection of stable flocculating variants. Factors responsible for enhancing the system pressures selective for the morphological variants were identified. By incorporating some modifications into the design of the fermentor, it was possible to achieve steady-state operation of the chemostat with both wild-type and flocculating strains. Biochemical and microscopic studies were performed to elucidate the mechanism of flocculation in Z. mobilis. Images PMID:16346320

  15. Morphological change in machines accelerates the evolution of robust behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bongard, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Most animals exhibit significant neurological and morphological change throughout their lifetime. No robots to date, however, grow new morphological structure while behaving. This is due to technological limitations but also because it is unclear that morphological change provides a benefit to the acquisition of robust behavior in machines. Here I show that in evolving populations of simulated robots, if robots grow from anguilliform into legged robots during their lifetime in the early stages of evolution, and the anguilliform body plan is gradually lost during later stages of evolution, gaits are evolved for the final, legged form of the robot more rapidly—and the evolved gaits are more robust—compared to evolving populations of legged robots that do not transition through the anguilliform body plan. This suggests that morphological change, as well as the evolution of development, are two important processes that improve the automatic generation of robust behaviors for machines. It also provides an experimental platform for investigating the relationship between the evolution of development and robust behavior in biological organisms. PMID:21220304

  16. Morphology stabilization of co-continuous polymer blends through clay nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Rosaria; de Luna, Martina Salzano; Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    The influence of plate-like nanoparticles on the morphology evolution of co-continuous polymer blends during quiescent annealing is investigated thorugh viscoelastic analysis. Contextually, the effect of the molten polymer phases on the assembly dynamics and ultimate structure of the filler is also studied. A model co-continuous blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (45/55 wt/wt) has been selected, and different amount of clay nanoparticles preferentially adsorbing at the polymer-polymer interface are added to this system. The filler inhibits the typical phase coarsening of the co-continuous morphology during thermal treatments even at extremely low filler volume fractions (Φ=0.4 vol.%). In addition, the time evolution of the rheological response of the filled blends resembles that of homopolymer-based nanocomposites, suggesting that the fluid phases do not appreciably alter the nanoparticle dynamics. Exploiting a simple two-phase model, the main elastic features of the filler network that builds up at sufficiently high Φ were found to prescind from the multiphasic nature of the matrix. Nonetheless, the presence of a co-continuous polymer microstructure prevented the elastic and structural features of the network to be discerned through the use of fractal models.

  17. The Continuing Evolution of Land Surface Parameterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) play a critical role in the simulation of climate, for they determine the character of a large fraction of the atmosphere's lower boundary. The LSM partitions the net radiative energy at the land surface into sensible heat, latent heat, and energy storage, and it partitions incident precipitation water into evaporation, runoff, and water storage. Numerous modeling experiments and the existing (though very scant) observational evidence suggest that variations in these partitionings can feed back on the atmospheric processes that induce them. This land-atmosphere feedback can in turn have a significant impact on the generation of continental precipitation. For this and other reasons (including the role of the land surface in converting various atmospheric quantities, such as precipitation, into quantities of perhaps higher societal relevance, such as runoff), many modeling groups are placing a high emphasis on improving the treatment of land surface processes in their models. LSMs have evolved substantially from the original bucket model of Manabe et al. This evolution, which is still ongoing, has been documented considerably. The present paper also takes a look at the evolution of LSMs. The perspective here, though, is different - the evolution is considered strictly in terms of the 'balance' between the formulations of evaporation and runoff processes. The paper will argue that a proper balance is currently missing, largely due to difficulties in treating subgrid variability in soil moisture and its impact on the generation of runoff.

  18. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The fruiting bodies of homobasidiomycetes include some of the most complex forms that have evolved in the fungi, such as gilled mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs ('pileate-erect') forms. Homobasidiomycetes also include relatively simple crust-like 'resupinate' forms, however, which account for ca. 13-15% of the described species in the group. Resupinate homobasidiomycetes have been interpreted either as a paraphyletic grade of plesiomorphic forms or a polyphyletic assemblage of reduced forms. The former view suggests that morphological evolution in homobasidiomycetes has been marked by independent elaboration in many clades, whereas the latter view suggests that parallel simplification has been a common mode of evolution. To infer patterns of morphological evolution in homobasidiomycetes, we constructed phylogenetic trees from a dataset of 481 species and performed ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) using parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. ASR with both parsimony and ML implies that the ancestor of the homobasidiomycetes was resupinate, and that there have been multiple gains and losses of complex forms in the homobasidiomycetes. We also used ML to address whether there is an asymmetry in the rate of transformations between simple and complex forms. Models of morphological evolution inferred with ML indicate that the rate of transformations from simple to complex forms is about three to six times greater than the rate of transformations in the reverse direction. A null model of morphological evolution, in which there is no asymmetry in transformation rates, was rejected. These results suggest that there is a 'driven' trend towards the evolution of complex forms in homobasidiomycetes. PMID:12396494

  19. Evolution of morphology of bacterial cellulose scaffolds during early culture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Honglin; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Guangyao; Wan, Yizao

    2014-10-13

    Morphological characteristics of a fibrous tissue engineering (TE) scaffold are key parameters affecting cell behavior. However, no study regarding the evolution of morphology of bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffolds during the culture process has been reported to date. In this work, BC scaffolds cultured for different times starting from 0.5h were characterized. The results demonstrated that the formation of an integrated scaffold and its 3D network structure, porosity, fiber diameter, light transmittance, and the morphology of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-deposited BC scaffolds changed with culture time. However, the surface and crystal structure of BC fibers did not change with culture time and no difference was found in the crystal structure of HAp deposited on BC templates regardless of BC culture time. The findings presented herein suggest that proper selection of culture time can potentially enhance the biological function of BC TE scaffold by optimizing its morphological characteristics. PMID:25037408

  20. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  1. Understanding pool-riffle dynamics through continuous morphological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Adolfo Mazza; RodríGuez, José F.

    2011-01-01

    Pool-riffle dynamics is governed by complex time and spatial interactions between water and sediment flows. In the last few decades, significant advances have been made in characterizing and modeling the hydrodynamics of pool-riffle sequences, and this information has been extensively used as the basis of conceptual models to describe or infer pool-riffle morphodynamics. A lot less attention, however, has been paid to the coupled dynamics of flow and sediment, which is essential to fully understand these complex geomorphic systems. This paper uses an unsteady 1-D flow-morphology and bed-sorting model to analyze pool-riffle dynamics. The model is first applied to a pool-riffle sequence on a 1.1 km reach of the lower Bear Creek, Arkansas, United States. After showing the model's ability to describe the general reach hydrodynamics and morphological evolution over 1 year, the detailed sediment and flow information is used to investigate pool-riffle dynamics in terms of self-maintenance mechanisms. Two effects that have been only marginally explored in the past, i.e., bed sediment sorting and downstream riffle control, are explained and quantified with the help of the model's outputs. The results show that self-maintenance occurs more frequently than previously thought as a result of grain sorting and that erosion or deposition of contiguous riffles also constitutes a self-maintenance mechanism. These findings provide the support for a physically based, integral description of pool-riffle morphodynamics and highlight the importance of flow and sediment variability on pool-riffle self-maintenance. The morphodynamic analysis bridges the gap between observations and current theories based mainly on hydrodynamic information.

  2. Rates of morphological evolution are heterogeneous in Early Cretaceous birds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2016-04-13

    The Early Cretaceous is a critical interval in the early history of birds. Exceptional fossils indicate that important evolutionary novelties such as a pygostyle and a keeled sternum had already arisen in Early Cretaceous taxa, bridging much of the morphological gap betweenArchaeopteryxand crown birds. However, detailed features of basal bird evolution remain obscure because of both the small sample of fossil taxa previously considered and a lack of quantitative studies assessing rates of morphological evolution. Here we apply a recently available phylogenetic method and associated sensitivity tests to a large data matrix of morphological characters to quantify rates of morphological evolution in Early Cretaceous birds. Our results reveal that although rates were highly heterogeneous between different Early Cretaceous avian lineages, consistent patterns of significantly high or low rates were harder to pinpoint. Nevertheless, evidence for accelerated evolutionary rates is strongest at the point when Ornithuromorpha (the clade comprises all extant birds and descendants from their most recent common ancestors) split from Enantiornithes (a diverse clade that went extinct at the end-Cretaceous), consistent with the hypothesis that this key split opened up new niches and ultimately led to greater diversity for these two dominant clades of Mesozoic birds. PMID:27053742

  3. Modelling morphology evolution during solidification of IPP in processing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pantani, R. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; De Santis, F. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; Speranza, V. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; Titomanlio, G. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it

    2014-05-15

    During polymer processing, crystallization takes place during or soon after flow. In most of cases, the flow field dramatically influences both the crystallization kinetics and the crystal morphology. On their turn, crystallinity and morphology affect product properties. Consequently, in the last decade, researchers tried to identify the main parameters determining crystallinity and morphology evolution during solidification In processing conditions. In this work, we present an approach to model flow-induced crystallization with the aim of predicting the morphology after processing. The approach is based on: interpretation of the FIC as the effect of molecular stretch on the thermodynamic crystallization temperature; modeling the molecular stretch evolution by means of a model simple and easy to be implemented in polymer processing simulation codes; identification of the effect of flow on nucleation density and spherulites growth rate by means of simple experiments; determination of the condition under which fibers form instead of spherulites. Model predictions reproduce most of the features of final morphology observed in the samples after solidification.

  4. Sperm competition and the evolution of gamete morphology in frogs.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Phillip G; Simmons, Leigh W; Roberts, J Dale

    2003-10-01

    Despite detailed knowledge of the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, there is a paucity of information on the selective pressures that influence sperm form and function. Theoretical models for both internal and external fertilizers predict that sperm competition could favour the evolution of longer sperm. Empirical tests of the external-fertilization model have been restricted to just one group, the fishes, and these tests have proved equivocal. We investigated how sperm competition affects sperm morphology in externally fertilizing myobatrachid frogs. We also examined selection acting on egg size, and covariation between sperm and egg morphology. Species were ranked according to probability of group spawning and hence risk of sperm competition. Body size, testis size and oviposition environment may also influence gamete traits and were included in our analyses. After controlling for phylogenetic relationships between the species examined, we found that an increased risk of sperm competition was associated with increased sperm head and tail lengths. Path analysis showed that sperm competition had its greatest direct effect on sperm tail length, as might be expected under selection resulting from competitive fertilization. Sperm competition did not influence egg size. Oviposition location had a strong influence on egg size and a weak influence on sperm length, with terrestrial spawners having larger gametes than aquatic spawners. Our analysis revealed significant correlated evolution between egg morphology and sperm morphology. These data provide a conclusive demonstration that sperm competition selects for increased sperm length in frogs, and evidence for evolutionary covariance between aspects of male and female gamete morphology. PMID:14561298

  5. Morphological Perspectives on Galaxy Evolution since z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Michael

    Galaxies represent a fundamental catalyst in the "lifecycle'' of matter in the Universe, and the study of galaxy assembly and evolution provides unique insight into the physical processes governing the transformation of matter from atoms to gas to stars. With the Hubble Space Telescope, the astrophysical community is able to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, at an unrivaled spatial resolution, over more than 90% of cosmic time. Here, I present results from two complementary studies of galaxy evolution in the local and intermediate redshift Universe which used new and archival HST images. First, I use archival broad-band HST WFPC2 optical images of local (d < 63 Mpc) Seyfert-type galaxies to test the observed correlation between visually-classified host galaxy dust morphology and AGN class. Using quantitative parameters for classifying galaxy morphology, I do not measure a strong correlation between the galaxy morphology and AGN class. This result could imply that the Unified Model of AGN provides a sufficient model for the observed diversity of AGN, but this result could also indicate the quantitative techniques are insufficient for characterizing the dust morphology of local galaxies. To address the latter, I develop a new automated method using an inverse unsharp masking technique coupled to Source Extractor to detect and measure dust morphology. I measure no strong trends with dust-morphology and AGN class using this method, and conclude that the Unified Model remains sufficient to explain the diversity of AGN. Second, I use new UV-optical-near IR broad-band images obtained with the HST WFC3 in the Early Release Science (ERS) program to study the evolution of massive, early-type galaxies. These galaxies were once considered to be "red and dead'', as a class uniformly devoid of recent star formation, but observations of these galaxies in the local Universe at UV wavelengths have revealed a significant fraction (30%) of ETGs to have recently formed a

  6. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C.; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  7. Developmental dissociation in morphological evolution of the stickleback opercle

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Charles B.; Ullmann, Bonnie; Currey, Mark; Hohenlohe, Paul A.; Cresko, William A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Oceanic threespine sticklebacks have repeatedly and independently evolved new morphologies upon invasions of freshwater habitats. A consistent derived feature of the freshwater form across populations and geography is a shape change of the opercle, a large early developing facial bone. We show that the principal multivariate axis describing opercle shape development from the young larva to the full adult stage of oceanic fish matches the principal axis of evolutionary change associated with relocation from the oceanic to freshwater habitat. The opercle phenotype of freshwater adults closely resembles the phenotype of the bone in juveniles. Thus evolution to the freshwater condition is in large part by truncation of development; the freshwater fish do not achieve the full ancestral adult bone shape. Additionally, the derived state includes dissociated ontogenetic changes. Dissociability may reflect an underlying modular pattern of opercle development, and facilitate flexibility of morphological evolution. PMID:22765204

  8. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  9. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1–0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. PMID:26272507

  10. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology.

    PubMed

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-11-01

    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1-0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. PMID:26272507

  11. River bed morphology evolution following a streamside landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copertino, Vito; Fortunato Dal Sasso, Silvano; Giosa, Luciana; Scavone, Giuseppina; Sole, Aurelia; Telesca, Vito

    2010-05-01

    with predictions of mathematical models and software simulations of river bed altimetric evolution in different morphologic scenarios. (This work was supported by Dipartimento Infrastrutture, OO. PP. e Mobilità - Basilicata Region - Italy).

  12. Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a cladogram (branches or entire clades) that are characterized by significantly high or low rates of change. These methods include a randomization approach that identifies branches with significantly high rates and likelihood ratio tests that pinpoint either branches or clades that have significantly higher or lower rates than the pooled rate of the remainder of the tree. As a test case for these methods, we analyze a discrete character dataset of lungfish, which have long been regarded as "living fossils" due to an apparent slowdown in rates since the Devonian. We find that morphological rates are highly heterogeneous across the phylogeny and recover a general pattern of decreasing rates along the phylogenetic backbone toward living taxa, from the Devonian until the present. Compared with previous work, we are able to report a more nuanced picture of lungfish evolution using these new methods. PMID:22276532

  13. Deja vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2007-07-01

    The fossil record of the order Carnivora extends back at least 60 million years and documents a remarkable history of adaptive radiation characterized by the repeated, independent evolution of similar feeding morphologies in distinct clades. Within the order, convergence is apparent in the iterative appearance of a variety of ecomorphs, including cat-like, hyena-like, and wolf-like hypercarnivores, as well as a variety of less carnivorous forms, such as foxes, raccoons, and ursids. The iteration of similar forms has multiple causes. First, there are a limited number of ways to ecologically partition the carnivore niche, and second, the material properties of animal tissues (muscle, skin, bone) have not changed over the Cenozoic. Consequently, similar craniodental adaptations for feeding on different proportions of animal versus plant tissues evolve repeatedly. The extent of convergence in craniodental form can be striking, affecting skull proportions and overall shape, as well as dental morphology. The tendency to evolve highly convergent ecomorphs is most apparent among feeding extremes, such as sabertooths and bone-crackers where performance requirements tend to be more acute. A survey of the fossil record indicates that large hypercarnivores evolve frequently, often in response to ecological opportunity afforded by the decline or extinction of previously dominant hypercarnivorous taxa. While the evolution of large size and carnivory may be favored at the individual level, it can lead to a macroevolutionary ratchet, wherein dietary specialization and reduced population densities result in a greater vulnerability to extinction. As a result of these opposing forces, the fossil record of Carnivora is dominated by successive clades of hypercarnivores that diversify and decline, only to be replaced by new hypercarnivorous clades. This has produced a marvelous set of natural experiments in the evolution of similar ecomorphs, each of which start from phylogenetically

  14. Evolution of morphological and climatic adaptations in Veronica L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Pan, Bo-Rong; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-01-01

    Perennials and annuals apply different strategies to adapt to the adverse environment, based on 'tolerance' and 'avoidance', respectively. To understand lifespan evolution and its impact on plant adaptability, we carried out a comparative study of perennials and annuals in the genus Veronica from a phylogenetic perspective. The results showed that ancestors of the genus Veronicawere likely to be perennial plants. Annual life history of Veronica has evolved multiple times and subtrees with more annual species have a higher substitution rate. Annuals can adapt to more xeric habitats than perennials. This indicates that annuals are more drought-resistant than their perennial relatives. Due to adaptation to similar selective pressures, parallel evolution occurs in morphological characters among annual species of Veronica. PMID:27602296

  15. Evolution of Mound Morphology in Reversible Homoepitaxy on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, J.; Wendelken, J.

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of mound morphology in reversible homoepitaxy on Cu(100) was studied via spot-profile-analysis (SPA) LEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The mound separation shows coarsening vs growth time with L(t){approximately}t{sup 1/4}, in support of theory based on capillarity between mounds. The growth ultimately reaches a steady state characterized by a selected mound angle of {approximately}5.6{degree}. We suggest that this results from a downhill current driven by step edge line tension in balance with an uphill current due to the Schwoebel barrier effect. Also, we have clarified the interpretation for the evolution of the SPA-LEED profile from a ring structure to a single time-invariant peak. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Evolution of morphological and climatic adaptations in Veronica L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Perennials and annuals apply different strategies to adapt to the adverse environment, based on ‘tolerance’ and ‘avoidance’, respectively. To understand lifespan evolution and its impact on plant adaptability, we carried out a comparative study of perennials and annuals in the genus Veronica from a phylogenetic perspective. The results showed that ancestors of the genus Veronicawere likely to be perennial plants. Annual life history of Veronica has evolved multiple times and subtrees with more annual species have a higher substitution rate. Annuals can adapt to more xeric habitats than perennials. This indicates that annuals are more drought-resistant than their perennial relatives. Due to adaptation to similar selective pressures, parallel evolution occurs in morphological characters among annual species of Veronica. PMID:27602296

  17. Morphological evolution in oxygen-induced faceting of Re(1231)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hao; Chen Wenhua; Madey, Theodore E.

    2006-11-15

    We have studied oxygen-induced faceting of the atomically rough Re(1231) surface by means of Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In contrast to previous faceting studies on other refractory metal surfaces, where simple morphologies of the facets were reported, we find a coverage-dependent morphological evolution of the facets ranging from long sawtooth ridges to complex structures exposing four different facets. The faceting occurs only when oxygen coverage ({theta}) exceeds 0.5 monolayer (ML) and the surface is annealed at {>=}700 K. At low oxygen coverage (0.5 ML{<=}{theta}<0.7 ML), the O/Re(1231) surface becomes partially faceted upon annealing; further increasing of oxygen coverage (0.7 ML{<=}{theta}<0.9 ML) causes the surface to become completely faceted, forming long sawtooth ridges along the [2113] direction with typical dimensions of {approx}8 nm in width and >50 nm in length upon annealing at 1000 K. The size of the ridges grows with annealing temperature and annealing time, and the distance between the ridges is quite uniform. The two sides of each ridge have (0110) and (1121) orientations, and atomic-resolution STM images reveal that the edge of the ridge is atomically sharp. For 0.9 ML{<=}{theta}<1 ML, a third set of facets, identified as (1010), emerges and truncates the original ridges. With the surface fully covered by oxygen ({theta}=1 ML), a fourth facet (0111) also becomes prominent upon annealing. This morphological evolution is accompanied by a reduction of the average ridge length along [2113], indicating that the (1121) facet is metastable. Our work demonstrates that even in a simple adsorbate/substrate system, the adsorbate-induced modification of the anisotropy of surface free energy can induce a complex sequence of changes in the surface morphology. The faceted Re surfaces may be model systems to study structure sensitivity in catalytic reactions, and may also provide

  18. Probing the evolution and morphology of hard carbon spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Vilas G.; Wen, Jianguo; Lau, Kah Chun; Callear, Samantha; Bowron, Daniel T.; Lin, Chi-Kai; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Curtiss, Larry A.; David, William; Miller, Dean J.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2014-03-01

    Monodispersed hard carbon spheres can be synthesized quickly and reproducibly by autogenic reactions of hydrocarbon precursors, notably polyethylene (including plastic waste), at high temperature and pressure. The carbon microparticles formed by this reaction have a unique spherical architecture, with a dominant internal nanometer layered motif, and they exhibit diamond-like hardness and electrochemical properties similar to graphite. In the present study, in-situ monitoring by X-ray diffraction along with electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, neutron pair-distribution function analysis, and computational modeling has been used to elucidate the morphology and evolution of the carbon spheres that form from the autogenic reaction of polyethylene at high temperature and pressure. A mechanism is proposed on how polyethylene evolves from a linear chain-based material to a layered carbon motif. Heating the spheres to 2400-2800 °C under inert conditions increases their graphitic character, particularly at the surface, which enhances their electrochemical and tribological properties.

  19. Orrorin tugenensis femoral morphology and the evolution of hominin bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Brian G; Jungers, William L

    2008-03-21

    Bipedalism is a key human adaptation and a defining feature of the hominin clade. Fossil femora discovered in Kenya and attributed to Orrorin tugenensis, at 6 million years ago, purportedly provide the earliest postcranial evidence of hominin bipedalism, but their functional and phylogenetic affinities are controversial. We show that the O. tugenensis femur differs from those of apes and Homo and most strongly resembles those of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, indicating that O. tugenensis was bipedal but is not more closely related to Homo than to Australopithecus. Femoral morphology indicates that O. tugenensis shared distinctive hip biomechanics with australopiths, suggesting that this complex evolved early in human evolution and persisted for almost 4 million years until modifications of the hip appeared in the late Pliocene in early Homo. PMID:18356526

  20. Morphology and evolution of coronae and ovoids on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Janes, Daniel M.; Schubert, Gerald; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1991-01-01

    Coronae and ovoids on Venus were first identified in Venera 15/16 data. They are distinctive and apparently unique to the planet, and may be important indicators of processes operating in the Venusian mantle. Magellan images have provided the first high resolution views of coronae and ovoid morphology. Herein, the general geologic character is described of coronae and ovoids, and some inferences are drawn about their geologic evolution. Coronae are circular to elongate features surrounded by an annulus of deformational features, with a relatively raised or indistinct topographic signature and, commonly, a peripheral trough or moat. Ovoids are circular to elongate features other than coronae with either positive or negative topographic signatures, associated with tectonic deformation and volcanism. The relationship of these two geologic features to each other and to Venusian geology is briefly discussed.

  1. Plastic Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, L. Robert; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Winey, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide remarkable mechanical properties. Historically, correlating the hierarchical structure and the mechanical properties of these polymers has been challenging due to the random arrangements of the polar groups along the backbone, ex situ characterization and the difficulty in deconvolution the effects of crystalline and amorphous regions along with secondary interactions between polymer chains. We address these challenges through in situ deformation of precise acid copolymers and relate the structural evolution to bulk properties by considering a series of copolymers with 9, 15 or 21 carbons between acid groups. Simultaneous synchrotron X-ray scattering and room temperature uniaxial tensile experiments of these precise acid copolymers were conducted. The different deformation mechanisms are compared and the microstructural evolution during deformation is discussed. For example, the liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates within the bulk copolymer transitions into a layered structure concurrent to a dramatic increase in tensile strength. Overall, we evaluate the effect and control of introducing acid groups on mechanical deformation of the bulk copolymers.

  2. Post-eruptive morphological evolution of island volcanoes: Surtsey as a modern case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, C.; Jakobsson, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surtsey is a small volcanic island in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago, off the south coast of Iceland. The eruption leading to the island's emersion lasted for 3.5 yr (1963-1967) while destructive forces have been active for over 50 yr (1963-present-day) during which Surtsey has suffered rapid subaerial and submarine erosion and undergone major morphological changes. Surtsey is a well-documented modern example of the post-eruptive degradational stage of island volcanoes, and has provided the unique opportunity to continuously observe and quantify the effects of intense geomorphic processes. In this paper we focus on coastal and marine processes re-shaping the shoreline and shallow-water portions of the Surtsey complex since its formation and on the related geomorphological record. Analogies with the post-eruptive morphological evolution of recently active island volcanoes at the emerging stage, encompassing different climatic conditions, wave regimes and geological contexts, are discussed.

  3. Forelimb skeletal morphology and flight mode evolution in pelecaniform birds.

    PubMed

    Simons, Erin L R

    2010-01-01

    The total length and mid-shaft diameters of wing elements of 50 species of pelecaniform birds were examined to investigate how forelimb skeletal morphology varies with body size and flight mode within this group. Pelecaniforms were assigned to flight mode categories based on primary habitual behaviors (soar, flap-glide, continuous flap). Allometric and discriminant function analyses were conducted on wing element variables in both historical (using independent contrasts) and ahistorical contexts. Results of this study indicate that when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account, only the length of the ulna scales with positive allometry, whereas all other variables exhibit isometry. These results differ from the ahistorical allometric analysis. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) significantly separated the flight mode groups (Wilk's lambda=0.002, p<0.00001), with only six individuals from two species (out of n=284) misclassified. Results of historical canonical variates analysis supported the ahistorical DFA and identified two carpometacarpal (CMC) variables as important for separating the flight mode groups: dorsoventral CMC diameter and total CMC length. The carpometacarpus is that portion of the forelimb skeleton that serves as the attachment point for the primary flight feathers, and thus, that portion of the airfoil surface that mediates detailed flight control. Its morphology, more than any other element, reflects differences in flight mode in pelecaniforms. Results of this study indicate that, in pelecaniforms, wing bones generally exhibit isometry (with the exception of the ulna) and do possess specific morphologies reflective of the demands associated with different types of aerial locomotor specialization. PMID:20071157

  4. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  5. Functional and morphological studies of protein transcytosis in continuous endothelia.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Dan; Vogel, Stephen M; Malik, Asrar B

    2004-11-01

    Continuous microvascular endothelium constitutively transfers protein from vessel lumen to interstitial space. Compelling recent biochemical, ultrastructural, and physiological evidence reviewed herein demonstrates that protein transport is not the result of barrier "leakiness" but, rather, is an active process occurring primarily in a transendothelial vesicular pathway. Protein accesses the vesicular pathway by means of caveolae open to the vessel lumen. Vascular tracer proteins appear in free cytoplasmic vesicles within minutes; contents of transport vesicles are rapidly deposited into the subendothelial matrix by exocytosis. Caveolin-1 deficiency eliminates caveolae and abolishes vesicular protein transport; interestingly, exchange vessels develop a compensatory transport mode through the opening of a paracellular permeability pathway. The evidence supports the transcytosis hypothesis and the concept that transcytosis is a fundamental component of transendothelial permeability of macromolecules. PMID:15475492

  6. Morphologic Evolution of the Mount St. Helens Crater Area, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The large rockslide-avalanche that preceded the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 removed approximately 2.8 cubic km of material from the summit and north flank of the volcano, forming a horseshoe-shaped crater 2.0 km wide and 3.9 km long. A variety of erosional and depositional processes, notably mass wasting and gully development, acted to modify the topographic configuration of the crater area. To document this morphologic evolution, a series of annual large-scale topographic maps is being produced as a base for comparitive geomorphic analysis. Four topographic maps of the Mount St. Helens crater area at a scale of 1:4000 were produced by the National Mapping Division of the U. S. Geological Survey. Stereo aerial photography for the maps was obtained on 23 October 1980, 10 September 1981, 1 September 1982, and 17 August 1983. To quantify topographic changes in the study area, each topographic map is being digitized and corresponding X, Y, and Z values from successive maps are being computer-compared.

  7. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace. PMID:23658467

  8. Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes. PMID:22079804

  9. Morphological evolution of silver nanoparticles and its effect on metal-induced chemical etching of silicon.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2013-05-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated the morphological evolution of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by controlling the growth conditions and its effect on morphology of silicon (Si) during metal-induced electroless etching (MICE). Self-organized AgNPs with peculiarly shape were synthesized by an electroless plating method in a conventional aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. AgNP nuclei were densely created on Si wafer surface, and they had a strong tendency to merge and form continuous metal films with increasing AgNO3 concentrations. Also, we have demonstrated that the fabrication of aligned Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays in large area of p-Si (111) substrates by MICE in a mixture of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. We have found that the morphology of the initial AgNPs and oxidant concentration (H2O2) greatly influence on the shape of the SiNW etching profile. The morphological results showed that AgNP shapes were closely related to the etching direction of SiNWs, that is, the spherical AgNPs preferred to move vertical to the Si substrate, whereas non-spherical AgNPs changed their movement to the [100] directions. In addition, as the etching activity was increased at higher H2O2 concentrations, AgNPs had a tendency to move from the original [111] direction to the energetically preferred [100] direction. PMID:23858934

  10. Morphological evolution in the variable resin-producing Detarieae (Fabaceae): do morphological characters retain a phylogenetic signal?

    PubMed Central

    Fougère-Danezan, Marie; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Maumont, Stéphan; Bruneau, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous molecular phylogenetic studies disagree with the informal generic-level taxonomic groups based on morphology. In this study morphological characters in the caesalpinioid clade Detarieae are evaluated within a phylogenetic framework as a means of better understanding phylogenetic relationships and morphological evolution. Methods Morphological characters were observed and scored for representative species of Detarieae focusing on the resin-producing genera. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with morphological characters alone and then combined with DNA sequences. Key Results Despite a high level of homoplasy, morphological data support several clades corresponding to those recovered in molecular phylogenetic analyses. The more strongly supported clades are each defined by at least one morphological synapomorphy. Several characters (e.g. apetaly) previously used to define informal generic groups evolved several times independently, leading to the differences observed with the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although floral evolution is complex in Detarieae some patterns are recovered. Conclusions New informal taxonomic groupings are proposed based on the present findings. Floral evolution in the diverse Detarieae clade is characterized by a repeated tendency toward zygomorphy through the reduction of lateral petals and toward complete loss of petals. PMID:19939978

  11. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2014-09-20

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  12. Kinematic Morphology of Large-scale Structure: Evolution from Potential to Rotational Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2014-09-01

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  13. Morphology and evolution of the jaw suspension in lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Wilga, C D

    2005-07-01

    The morphology of the jaw suspension and jaw protrusion mechanism in lamniform sharks is described and mapped onto a cladogram to investigate how changes in jaw suspension and protrusion have evolved. This has revealed that several evolutionary modifications in the musculoskeletal apparatus of the jaws have taken place among lamniform sharks. Galeomorph sharks (Carcharhiniformes, Lamniformes, Orectolobiformes, and Heterodontiformes) have paired ethmopalatine ligaments connecting the ethmoid process of the upper jaw to the ethmoid region of the cranium. Basal lamniform sharks also acquired a novel single palatonasal ligament connecting the symphysis of the upper jaw to the cranium mid-ventral to the nasal capsule. Sharks in the family Lamnidae subsequently lost the original paired ethmopalatine ligament while retaining the novel palatonasal ligament. Thus, basal lamniform taxa (Mitsukurina owstoni, Carcharius taurus, Alopias vulpinnis) have increased ligamentous support of the lateral region of the upper jaw while derived species (Lamnidae) have lost this lateral support but gained anterior support. In previous studies the morphology of the jaw suspension has been shown to play a major role in the mechanism of upper jaw protrusion in elasmobranchs. The preorbitalis is the primary muscle effecting upper jaw protrusion in squalean (sister group to galeomorphs) and carcharhiniform (sister group to lamniforms) sharks. The preorbitalis originates from the quadratomandibularis muscle and inserts onto the nasal capsule in squalean and carcharhiniform sharks. Carcharhiniform sharks have evolved a subdivided preorbitalis muscle with the new division inserting near the ethmoid process of the palatoquadrate (upper jaw). Alopid sharks have also independently evolved a partially subdivided preorbitalis with the new division inserting at the base of the ethmoid process and surrounding connective tissue. Lamnid sharks have retained the two preorbitalis divisions but have modified

  14. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  15. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  16. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs?the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution.

  17. Continuous evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins overcomes insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Badran, Ahmed H; Guzov, Victor M; Huai, Qing; Kemp, Melissa M; Vishwanath, Prashanth; Kain, Wendy; Nance, Autumn M; Evdokimov, Artem; Moshiri, Farhad; Turner, Keith H; Wang, Ping; Malvar, Thomas; Liu, David R

    2016-05-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins (Bt toxins) are widely used insecticidal proteins in engineered crops that provide agricultural, economic, and environmental benefits. The development of insect resistance to Bt toxins endangers their long-term effectiveness. Here we have developed a phage-assisted continuous evolution selection that rapidly evolves high-affinity protein-protein interactions, and applied this system to evolve variants of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that bind a cadherin-like receptor from the insect pest Trichoplusia ni (TnCAD) that is not natively bound by wild-type Cry1Ac. The resulting evolved Cry1Ac variants bind TnCAD with high affinity (dissociation constant Kd = 11-41 nM), kill TnCAD-expressing insect cells that are not susceptible to wild-type Cry1Ac, and kill Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni insects up to 335-fold more potently than wild-type Cry1Ac. Our findings establish that the evolution of Bt toxins with novel insect cell receptor affinity can overcome insect Bt toxin resistance and confer lethality approaching that of the wild-type Bt toxin against non-resistant insects. PMID:27120167

  18. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  19. Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2016-05-01

    We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  20. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  1. RPAS Monitoring of the Morphological Evolution of Coastal Foredunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, Yuri; Corbau, Corinne; Elena, Zambello; Russo, Valentina; Pellegrinelli, Alberto; Simeoni, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    The coastal environment is in rapid and continuous evolution and it is easily affected by many natural and antropic factors. Beaches are often backed by vegetated dunes and fulfill many different valuable ecosystem functions. They act as protective buffers against storm surge, wave attack and erosion, providing a unique habitat for flora and fauna. Coastal embryo dunes, found above mean high water, are dynamic landform being able to supply sand to the beach when needed. They may form rapidly and may be rapidly destructed due to high tides and storm waves or human interferences. The southern part (3 km long) of Rosolina (Adriatic Sea, Italy) is characterized by a wide beach bordered by a complex dune system. The geomorphological characteristics of embryo dunes have been identified by using an RPAS in order to develop a fast and low-cost surveying technique. The aircraft has flown at a 50 meters altitude, taking photos with a 12Mpix RGB camera and a GSD of about 1 cm. The images overlap of 80% in the flight direction and 60% laterally. Fourteen targets have been collocated in the area as ground control points and were surveyed using Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) GNSS. Images and GCPs were elaborated in Agisoft PhotoScan to generate the model. A similar NRTK survey has been performed to integrate the wrong data (due to vegetation) for the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM) in a first step and finally to validate the model obtained through UAV photogrammetry through a comparison with specially surveyed points. The creation of a DEM from photos is one of main tasks and its accuracy is critical. A challenge in this work was to recognize the vegetation in the sand dunes area to exclude all the points not belonging to the ground. This was possible through a classification process based on slope detection. Finally, the suitable elevation accuracy has been reached and the survey has revealed a complex dune system characterized by: • on the upper part of the

  2. Morphological evolution of growing crystals - A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The combined effects of nutrient diffusion and surface kinetics on the crystal morphology were investigated using a Monte Carlo model to simulate the evolving morphology of a crystal growing from a two-component gaseous nutrient phase. The model combines nutrient diffusion, based on a modified diffusion-limited aggregation process, with anisotropic surface-attachment kinetics and surface diffusion. A variety of conditions, ranging from kinetic-controlled to diffusion-controlled growth, were examined. Successive transitions from compact faceted (dominant surface kinetics) to open dendritic morphologies (dominant volume diffusion) were obtained.

  3. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Shanna; Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C. G.; Djordjević, Milena; Cerović, Radosav; Houston, Libby; Harris, Stephen A.; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are key processes in plant evolution and are responsible for ongoing genetic diversification in the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). The Avon Gorge, Bristol, UK, is a world ‘hotspot’ for Sorbus diversity and home to diploid sexual species and polyploid apomictic species. This research investigated how mating system variation, hybridization and polyploidy interact to generate this biological diversity. Methods Mating systems of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Sorbus taxa were analysed using pollen tube growth and seed set assays from controlled pollinations, and parent–offspring genotyping of progeny from open and manual pollinations. Key Results Diploid Sorbus are outcrossing and self-incompatible (SI). Triploid taxa are pseudogamous apomicts and genetically invariable, but because they also display self-incompatibility, apomictic seed set requires pollen from other Sorbus taxa – a phenomenon which offers direct opportunities for hybridization. In contrast tetraploid taxa are pseudogamous but self-compatible, so do not have the same obligate requirement for intertaxon pollination. Conclusions The mating inter-relationships among Avon Gorge Sorbus taxa are complex and are the driving force for hybridization and ongoing genetic diversification. In particular, the presence of self-incompatibility in triploid pseudogamous apomicts imposes a requirement for interspecific cross-pollination, thereby facilitating continuing diversification and evolution through rare sexual hybridization events. This is the first report of naturally occurring pseudogamous apomictic SI plant populations, and we suggest that interspecific pollination, in combination with a relaxed endosperm balance requirement, is the most likely route to the persistence of these populations. We propose that Avon Gorge Sorbus represents a model system for studying the establishment and persistence of SI apomicts in natural populations. PMID

  4. Applications of Physical Modeling to the Evolution of Slot Canyon Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, C. L.; Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    Abrasion-dominated fluvial erosion generates slot canyons with intricately undulating wall morphology. Flows in slot canyons are unique in that the walls comprise a significant portion of the wetted perimeter of the flow. Wire Pass, UT incises through massive cross-bedded Navajo Sandstone. The canyon ranges in width from <1 m to ˜5 m in the slotted sections, and in depth from ˜5 m to ˜25 m. Incision in Wire Pass and related slots is limited to ephemeral flash floods; paleoflood debris indicates that the depth-to-width ratios of these flows are at least 1:1. Sub-meter resolution field mapping of a 20 m length of Wire Pass shows that the wall morphology is a complicated combination of both in-phase (meander-like), and out-of-phase (pinch and swell) type undulations. In order to understand the evolution of slot canyon wallforms, and the influence of these shapes on flow dynamics, we recorded the evolution of four distinct canyon wall morphologies in a 2.4 m flume box at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. In a substrate consisting of approximately 3:2 mixtures of F110 sand and plaster of Paris, we molded in-phase and out-of-phase undulations, and wide (6.5 cm) and narrow (4 cm) straight initial wall profiles. Sediment-laden water flowed through each canyon at discharges ranging from 2.6 L/s to 4.2 L/s. We made velocity measurements in three dimensions in sections of each canyon. At 5 hr intervals we documented wall and bed morphology at 0.5 cm resolution using a Keyance LK-500 laser mounted on a moving cart. Initial results show that wall faces in both undulating canyons evolve at different rates, and their flow fields are strongly asymmetric. Upstream-facing walls in undulating canyons eroded most rapidly. In the straight-walled canyons, small perturbations developed in the walls. Each canyon incised downward and headward from a knickpoint generated by a consistent lower boundary. Incision depths averaged ˜6 cm. Incision generally propagated around small cracks in

  5. CONTINUOUS, AUTOMATED AND SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN UPTAKE AND CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial respirometers are capable of continuously and automatically measuring oxygen uptake in bioreactors. A method for continuously and automatically measuring carbon dioxide evolution can be retrofitted to commercial respirometers. Continuous and automatic measurements of...

  6. The endoskeletal structures in arthropods: cytology, morphology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bitsch, Colette; Bitsch, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The paper proposes an overview of the endoskeletal structures of the head and trunk in the different arthropod groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Hexapoda (=Insecta s.l.). Two major endoskeletal systems are reported with their cytological characteristics: those made up of connective tissue derived from muscular tendons, and those consisting of cuticular rods or plates arising from integumentary ingrowths. The morphological value of the various endoskeletal structures, their possible homologies in different groups, and their presumed evolutionary changes are discussed. This survey may be considered as a first step to use morphological characteristics of the endoskeleton in future cladistic analyses to assess the phylogeny of arthropods. PMID:18088953

  7. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  8. The morphology and evolution of coronae on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Janes, D. M.; Baer, Gidon; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Schubert, Gerald; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and morphometry of a number of coronae and related features on Venus are discussed with reference to new data from the Magellan spacecraft. The specific features discussed are concentrated in the portion of Venus imaged during about the first three months of Magellan mapping. Sequences of events and basic geophysical processes involved in the formation of these features are inferred.

  9. Exploring the Relationship Between Hydrograph Characteristics and the Time Evolution of Sand Bed Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockelford, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Hardy, R. J.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.

    2015-12-01

    The development of sand bed morphology in response to steady flow is adequately described in most bedform phase diagrams. This includes the prediction of bedform wavelength, height and shape, all important parameters in estimating flow resistance. However, during time-varying flow, such as that experienced during the passage of a flood wave, the implicit assumption that bedform adjustment tracks changes in flow depth and velocity does not hold true due to bedform hysteresis. Consequently, there is a need to understand which characteristics of unsteady flow drive the disequilibrium dynamics between bedform geometry and hydraulic conditions. This paper describes a series of experiments designed to identify the impacts of hydrograph characteristics on the morphodynamic evolution of alluvial dunes. Mobile sand bed (D50 of 450μm) experiments were undertaken in a 16m long, 1.6m wide flume. Sediment was water worked under steady unidirectional flow until equilibrium bed conditions were achieved, after which a hydrograph was applied. At the end of the hydrograph, a period of steady flow was once again run until equilibrium conditions were attained. Hydrograph one consisted of steeply rising (80 minutes) and falling (65 minutes) limbs with hydrograph two characterised by longer rising (170 minutes) and falling (230 minutes) limbs. During the hydrograph discharge was changed in discrete steps. Bed morphology profiles were measured continuously along a 5m by 0.6m, centreline transect using twelve ultrasonic sensors. Three-dimensional flow was measured with a stack of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters downstream of the transect. Suspended sediment was quantified using a three-frequency set of Acoustic Backscatter Sensors. The impact of these differing hydrograph characteristics are discussed in terms of differences between equilibrium bed morphologies, evolving flow field characteristics and the dynamics of suspended sediment concentrations through the hydrographs.

  10. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  11. Morphology and evolution of a h-alpha eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okten, A.; Dermendjiev, V. N.; Petrov, N. I.; Ozisik, T.; Esenoglu, H. H.

    An eruptive prominence has been observed in H-alpha on 18 June 1989 at western solar limb (N10 degree;W90degree) in time interval 08:39-09:22 UT. The eruption started as expansion of the upper part of a filament channel crossing the equator. Several arches of erupting prominence material have been registered in more than 31 frames. All the frames have been processed and analyzed by means of microdensitometer and image processing technique for study the morphology of the eruptive event.

  12. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers, The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs - the oppositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  13. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  14. Evolution of the central sulcus morphology in primates.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier; Bogart, Stephanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Sherwood, Chet C; Grabowski, Mark W; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hof, Patrick R; Vauclair, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the pre- and postcentral gyri along the dorsal-ventral plane of which all motor and sensory functions are topographically organized. The motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus or KNOB has been described as the anatomical substrate of the hand in humans. Given the importance of the hand in primate evolution, here we examine the evolution of the motor-hand area by comparing the relative size and pattern of cortical folding of the CS surface area from magnetic resonance images in 131 primates, including Old World monkeys, apes and humans. We found that humans and great apes have a well-formed motor-hand area that can be seen in the variation in depth of the CS along the dorsal-ventral plane. We further found that great apes have relatively large CS surface areas compared to Old World monkeys. However, relative to great apes, humans have a small motor-hand area in terms of both adjusted and absolute surface areas. PMID:25139259

  15. Ontogenetic convergence and evolution of foot morphology in European cave salamanders (Family: Plethodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Both natural and sexual selection play a large role in generating phenotypic adaptations, with biomechanical requirements and developmental mechanisms mediating patterns of phenotypic evolution. For many traits, the relative importance of selective and developmental components remains understudied. Results We investigated ontogenetic trajectories of foot morphology in the eight species of European plethodontid cave salamander to test the hypothesis that adult foot morphology was adapted for climbing. Using geometric morphometrics and other approaches, we found that developmental patterns in five species displayed little morphological change during growth (isometry), where the extensive interdigital webbing in adults was best explained as the retention of the juvenile morphological state. By contrast, three species exhibited significant allometry, with an increase in interdigital webbing during growth. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that multiple evolutionary transitions between isometry and allometry of foot webbing have occurred in this lineage. Allometric parameters of foot growth were most similar to those of a tropical species previously shown to be adapted for climbing. Finally, interspecific variation in adult foot morphology was significantly reduced as compared to variation among juveniles, indicating that ontogenetic convergence had resulted in a common adult foot morphology across species. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence of a complex history of phenotypic evolution in this clade. The common adult phenotype exhibited among species reveals that selection plays an important part in generating patterns of foot diversity in the group. However, developmental trajectories arriving at this common morphology are distinct; with some species displaying developmental stasis (isometry), while others show an increase in foot webbing during

  16. Morphological evolution of a rural headwater stream after channelisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landemaine, Valentin; Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Rodrigues, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, stream valleys have been profoundly modified by the construction of weirs and dams and by channelisation. Channelisation modifies the morphology of streams and induces changes in their energy regime and sediment transport capacity. These types of changes in the channel morphology have to be quantified to allow the implementation of management strategies to regulate sediment transfer. However, studies over an entire stream using historical comparisons remain scarce, and the associated uncertainties have not yet been resolved. In this study, the sedimentary response to channelisation on a medium time scale (42 years) of a French river known as the Ligoire is investigated. This river is the main channel of a small rural headwater catchment that has been channelised over 21 km. We have used the historical cross sections before and after channelisation and the current ones, and the objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to develop a methodology of cross section superposition and the associated uncertainties; (2) to quantify the erosion and aggradation processes in the bed and on the banks along the bed profile; and (3) to calculate a sediment budget for the entire stream and determine the relative contributions of the banks and the streambed to this budget. A comparison of the cross sections before and after the channelisation shows that the morphology of the stream has been completely altered: the main channel length was reduced by 10%, the bankfull width was increased on average by 63%, and the slopes were smoothed. A total of 60,000 m3 of sediments was excavated during the channelisation works. Our results indicate that erosion is the dominant process: over 63% of its length, the streambed was incised by 0.41 m on average; and over 60% of its length, the banks were eroded by 0.20 m on average. The successive patterns of erosion and deposition along the stream are the result of the cumulative effects of channelisation and of the presence of

  17. Structural and Morphological Evolution of Lead Dendrites during Electrochemical Migration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minghua; Liao, Hong-Gang; Niu, Kaiyang; Zheng, Haimei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical deposition and dissolution of lead on gold electrodes immersed in an aqueous solution of lead nitrate were studied in situ using a biasing liquid cell by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigate in real time the growth mechanisms of lead dendrites as deposited on the electrodes under an applied potential. TEM images reveal that lead dendrites are developed by the fast protrusion of lead branches in the electrolyte and tip splitting. And, the fast growing tip of the dendritic branch is composed of polycrystalline nanograins and it develops into a single crystalline branch eventually. This study demonstrated unique electrochemical growth of single crystal dendrites through nucleation, aggregation, alignment and attachment of randomly oriented small grains. Additionally, we found the lead concentration in the electrolyte drastically influences the morphology of dendritic formation. PMID:24233151

  18. Morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in Fe-0.15C binary alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an in situ observation method, combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction, was used to investigate the morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in a Fe-0.15C binary alloy. The nucleation at a grain boundary and inclusions, sympathetic nucleation, and impingement event of bainitic ferrite were directly shown in real time. The variant evolution during bainite transformation and misorientation between bainitic ferrites were clarified. Strong variant selection was observed during sympathetic nucleation. PMID:19588518

  19. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-06-22

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  20. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  1. Ion-stimulated mass transport in nanoscale morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Henry Bola

    We observe temporal evolution of two distinct lateral length scales in surface topography following low energy, E, argon ion (Ar+) irradiation of Si(001). From real-space AFM topographs, we observe that the short-wavelength, lambda (high-wavenumber, q) evolve as nearly isotropic dots while the longer-lambda (low- q) features appear as isotropic "rings" at normal incidence and as anisotropic ripples at off-normal incidence with their wavevector orthogonal to the ion beam. We explain our results in terms of an interplay between smoothening by ion-enhanced viscous flow and roughening driven by ion sputtering (for high-q features) or elastic strain energy relief (for low- q features). Our proposed mechanisms also explain the weak temperature and flux dependence of both wavelengths. We also observe stable flat surfaces following irradiation at incidence angles greater than 20° from normal, E > 500 eV and temperature > 300°C. To explain non-diverging wavelengths as the smoothening boundary is approached, we present evidence that non-local terms are needed in the height evolution equation. We report the influence of pre-patterned boundaries in guiding ripples appearing during uniform irradiation at high temperatures. Compared to untemplated samples, we observe that the long-range order of the guided ripples is significantly enhanced. We develop a scalar figure of merit to characterize the degree of order of the patterns. We observe that templating is most efficient when the boundaries are separated by an integer multiple of the spontaneously arising wavelength. We report new observations following ion sculpting of nanopores. Among these are: (1) The formation of nanopores is not limited to insulators: we successfully close pores in other materials including silicon dioxide, amorphous silicon (semiconductor) and palladium silicide (metallic glass). (2) Pores retain "memory" of their initial radius: at the same instantaneous radius, pores that started off smaller require

  2. The Evolution of Dendrite Morphology during Isothermal Coarsening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jens; Mendoza, Roberto; Kammer, Dimitris; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Dendrite coarsening is a common phenomenon in casting processes. From the time dendrites are formed until the inter-dendritic liquid is completely solidified dendrites are changing shape driven by variations in interfacial curvature along the dendrite and resulting in a reduction of total interfacial area. During this process the typical length-scale of the dendrite can change by orders of magnitude and the final microstructure is in large part determined by the coarsening parameters. Dendrite coarsening is thus crucial in setting the materials parameters of ingots and of great commercial interest. This coarsening process is being studied in the Pb-Sn system with Sn-dendrites undergoing isothermal coarsening in a Pb-Sn liquid. Results are presented for samples of approximately 60% dendritic phase, which have been coarsened for different lengths of times. Presented are three-dimensional microstructures obtained by serial-sectioning and an analysis of these microstructures with regard to interface orientation and interfacial curvatures. These graphs reflect the evolution of not only the microstructure itself, but also of the underlying driving forces of the coarsening process. As a visualization of the link between the microstructure and the driving forces a three-dimensional microstructure with the interfaces colored according to the local interfacial mean curvature is shown.

  3. Phase-field model for compositional and morphological evolution studies in thin film heteroepitaxial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nitin

    A computational tool based on a diffuse-interface approach has been developed to simulate coupled evolution of film surface morphology and compositional evolution during thin film growth. It is well known from numerous experiments especially in Si/Ge and InGaAs/InP thin film systems that relaxation of elastic energy influences the surface morphology during growth. Strain relaxation via composition modulation is also of particular importance in the theory of spinodal decomposition. In this computational model, the influence of coherency stresses, both due to compositional strains (due to the atomic size mismatch of the constituent species) and epitaxial strains on the coupled evolution of composition and morphology of a thin film is considered. The model consists of a film on a substrate system which is in contact with vapor. The film-vapor interface and the compositional interfaces are diffuse in nature, so that it is not necessary to track these interfaces explicitly at each step during evolution. Using a modeling approach that eliminates the need to track sharp interfaces at each step during evolution, not only reduces the computational burden, but also allows for the incorporation of complex physical interaction in the model. The initial focus of the dissertation is on the development of a diffuse-interface model for simulating microstructural evolution in a InxGa 1-xAsySb1-y alloy thin film-substrate system. The regions of instability are mapped on the phase diagram using the regular solution model. The influence of compositional strain and epitaxial strains on microstructure evolution is investigated. The model is further extended to simulate surface morphological evolution and coupled morphology-composition effects. The strain energy in the system is calculated by solving the Cauchy-Navier equations for equilibrium using a linear multigrid method. Generalized nonlinear Cahn-Hilliard equations are used to describe the evolution of the phase-field variables

  4. Morphology and evolution of simulated and optical clusters: a comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nurur; Krywult, Janusz; Motl, Patrick M.; Flin, Piotr; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2006-04-01

    We have made a comparative study of morphological evolution in simulated dark matter (DM) haloes and X-ray brightness distribution, and in optical clusters. Samples of simulated clusters include star formation with supernovae feedback, radiative cooling and simulation in the adiabatic limit at three different redshifts, z= 0.0, 0.10 and 0.25. The optical sample contains 208 Abell, Corwin & Olowin (ACO) clusters within redshift, z<= 0.25. Cluster morphology, within 0.5 and 1.0 h-1 Mpc from cluster centre, is quantified by multiplicity and ellipticity. We find that the distribution of the DM haloes in the adiabatic simulation appears to be more elongated than the galaxy clusters. Radiative cooling brings halo shapes in excellent agreement with observed clusters; however, cooling along with feedback mechanism makes the haloes more flattened. Our results indicate relatively stronger structural evolution and more clumpy distributions in observed clusters than in the structure of simulated clusters, and slower increase in simulated cluster shapes compared to those in the observed one. Within z<= 0.1, we note an interesting agreement in the shapes of clusters obtained from the cooling simulations and observation. We also note that the different samples of observed clusters differ significantly in morphological evolution with redshift. We highlight a few possibilities responsible for the discrepancy in morphological evolution of simulated and observed clusters.

  5. Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of Cobalt Telluride Branched Nanostructures on Carbon Fiber Paper as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Ye, Zhiguo; Liu, Chenqi; Xi, Dan; Zhou, Chongjian; Shi, Zhongqi; Xia, Hongyan; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun

    2016-02-10

    Cobalt telluride branched nanostructures on carbon fiber paper (CFP) with two different morphologies were synthesized via solution-based conversion reaction. Both the CoTe2 with nanodendrite and CoTe with nanosheet morphologies on the CoTe2 nanotube (CoTe2 NDs/CoTe2 NTs and CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs) supported by CFP exhibit high activities toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Particularly, the CoTe NSs/CoTe2 NTs only require an overpotential of 230.0 mV to deliver the current density of 100 mA cm(-2) in acid solution. After cycling for 5000 cycles or 20 h continual electrolysis, only a small performance loss is observed. PMID:26809181

  6. Morphological Evolution and Weak Interface Development within CVD-Zirconia Coating Deposited on Hi-Nicalon Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hao; Lee, Jinil; Libera, Matthew R.; Lee, Woo Y.; Kebbede, Anteneh; Lance, Michael J.; Wang, Hongyu; Morscher, Gregory N.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The phase contents and morphology of a ZrO2 fiber coating deposited at 1050 C on Hi-Nicalon(Tm) by chemical vapor deposition were examined as a function of deposition time from 5 to 120 min. The morphological evolution in the ZrO2 coating was correlated to the development of delamination within the ZrO2 coating. The delamination appears to occur as a result of: (1) continuous formation of tetragonal ZrO2 nuclei on the deposition surface; (2) martensitic transformation of the tetragonal phase to a monoclinic phase upon reaching a critical grain size; and (3) development of significant compressive hoop stresses due to the volume dilation associated with the transformation. Our observations suggest that it will be of critical importance to further understand and eventually control the nucleation and grain growth behavior of CVD ZrO2 and its phase transformation behavior for its potential applications for composites.

  7. Reach-scale morphological adjustments and stages of channel evolution: The case of the Trebbia River (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollati, I. M.; Pellegrini, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Duci, G.; Pelfini, M.

    2014-09-01

    A multitemporal series of aerial photos and cross-section topographic surveys have been used to analyze reach-scale channel evolution along a segment (length of about 22 km) of the lower Trebbia River (Northern Italy) with the aims to investigate the relations between channel width vs. bed-level adjustments and to identify spatio-temporal patterns of stages of channel evolution. Dendrochronology was used to determine the age of tree establishment of riparian and island forests during channel evolution. We identified a first phase of major adjustments (1954-1992) following a series of disturbances, dominated by channel narrowing and bed incision. During the final stage of narrowing, woody vegetation establishment contributed to stabilize new floodplain or island surfaces. A period of partial morphological recovery occurred from 1992 to 2010, dominated by an inversion of trend of channel width. During the phase of partial recovery, a stage of widening combined with a continuation of bed incision was identified, and a last stage characterized by widening and initial aggradation was observed on the central portion of the study reaches. Suitability and differences of existing channel evolution models (CEMs) derived in other geographical contexts were discussed, and a specific conceptual model comprising four stages of channel evolution was developed for the lower Trebbia River.

  8. Morphology evolution of MoS2: From monodisperse nanoparticles to self-assembled nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ting; Luo, Xingfang; Han, Shuming; Cao, Yingjie; Yuan, Cailei; Yang, Yong; Li, Qinliang

    2016-02-01

    The MoS2 nanobelts were successfully synthesized on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase sulfurization process. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are employed to comprehensively study the morphology evolution of MoS2 from monodisperse nanoparticles to self-assembled nanobelts on the SiO2/Si substrates. A possible three-step morphology evolution process, which includes initial nucleation process, self-assembly process, and subsequent crystal growth process (Ostwald ripening), is proposed to explain the formation of MoS2. Moreover, MoS2 nanobelts are characterized by Raman spectroscopy and photo-luminescence (PL). These results provide the possibility to develop an easier-to-cooperate and morphology-controllable approach to fabricate novel architectures.

  9. Morphology evolution and gas adsorption of porous metal-organic framework microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhao-Peng; Yang, Ji-Min; Kang, Yan-Shang; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2015-10-14

    A facile and controllable synthesis of porous framework [Cu3(L)2(DABCO)] (1) (H3L = 1,1':3,1''-terphenyl]-4,4'',5'-tricarboxylic acid; DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) microcrystals was realized with morphology evolution from a tetragonal plate to an elongated tetragonal bipyramid, and the particle size changes by tuning the volume ratio of mixed solvents of DMF and H2O. Interestingly, the exposed high-energy {103} crystal facet can be easily tuned by controlling the supersaturation through the increase of the solution concentration, resulting in the formation of spindle microcrystals. It was found that both H2O and HCl play important roles in the morphology evolution process. The gas adsorption properties were found to be dependent on the morphology of microcrystals, and the elongated tetragonal bipyramidal microcrystals show the largest BET surface area. PMID:26352613

  10. Coral reefs promote the evolution of morphological diversity and ecological novelty in labrid fishes.

    PubMed

    Price, S A; Holzman, R; Near, T J; Wainwright, P C

    2011-05-01

    Although coral reefs are renowned biodiversity hotspots it is not known whether they also promote the evolution of exceptional ecomorphological diversity. We investigated this question by analysing a large functional morphological dataset of trophic characters within Labridae, a highly diverse group of fishes. Using an analysis that accounts for species relationships, the time available for diversification and model uncertainty we show that coral reef species have evolved functional morphological diversity twice as fast as non-reef species. In addition, coral reef species occupy 68.6% more trophic morphospace than non-reef species. Our results suggest that coral reef habitats promote the evolution of both trophic novelty and morphological diversity within fishes. Thus, the preservation of coral reefs is necessary, not only to safeguard current biological diversity but also to conserve the underlying mechanisms that can produce functional diversity in future. PMID:21385297

  11. Comparison of Simulation and Observation: Morphology and Evolution in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, N.; Krywult, J.; Motl, P.; Flin, P.; Shandarin, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have made a comparative study of morphological evolution in simulated DM halos and X-ray brightness distribution and in optical clusters. Samples of simulated clusters include star formation with supernovae feedback, radiative cooling, and simulation in the adiabatic limit at three different redshifts, z = 0.0, 0.10, and 0.25. The optical sample contains 208 ACO clusters within redshift, z ≤ 0.25. Cluster morphology, within 0.5 and 1.0 h-1 Mpc from cluster center, is quantified by multiplicity and ellipticity. In terms of multiplicity, our results indicate relatively stronger evolution in observed clusters than in the structure of simulated one. In terms of ellipticity, our results indicate slower increase in simulated cluster shapes with redshift compared to those in the observed one. We find that in some cases evolution in simulated clusters is consistent or even stronger than observed clusters, contrary to several recent studies. We notice that the different samples of observed clusters differ in morphological evolution with redshift. We highlight a few possibilities responsible for the discrepancy in the shape evolution of simulated and observed clusters.

  12. Cryptic variation in morphological evolution: HSP90 as a capacitor for loss of eyes in cavefish.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Nicolas; Jarosz, Dan F; Kowalko, Johanna E; Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R; Borowsky, Richard L; Lindquist, Susan; Tabin, Clifford J

    2013-12-13

    In the process of morphological evolution, the extent to which cryptic, preexisting variation provides a substrate for natural selection has been controversial. We provide evidence that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) phenotypically masks standing eye-size variation in surface populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. This variation is exposed by HSP90 inhibition and can be selected for, ultimately yielding a reduced-eye phenotype even in the presence of full HSP90 activity. Raising surface fish under conditions found in caves taxes the HSP90 system, unmasking the same phenotypic variation as does direct inhibition of HSP90. These results suggest that cryptic variation played a role in the evolution of eye loss in cavefish and provide the first evidence for HSP90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution in a natural setting. PMID:24337296

  13. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy

    PubMed Central

    Darda, David M.; Wake, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work. PMID:26060996

  14. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Darda, David M; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work. PMID:26060996

  15. Mechanical properties and morphology of crystalline polymers and their continuous fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, B.; Liu, C.W.; Wang, C.Z.; Shih, W.K.

    1988-07-01

    Neat-resin and continuous fiber-reinforced versions of the crystalline thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) and its rubber-toughened form are compared with respect to morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties. The rubber phase's addition to the PP matrix resin results in a uniform dispersion of rubber particles whose sizes increase with increasing rubber weight fraction. The maximum load tolerated by the laminates prior to delamination appears to be controlled by the resin yield strength and the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. A much lower degree of stress whitening is noted in the reinforced rubber-modified PP than its unreinforced counterparts. 60 references.

  16. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Jingqi; White, Glenn J.; Thompson, M. A.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2009-02-10

    A new radiative driven implosion (RDI) model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics technique is developed and applied to investigate the morphological evolutions of molecular clouds under the effect of ionizing radiation. This model self-consistently includes the self-gravity of the cloud in the hydrodynamical evolution, the UV radiation component in the radiation transferring equations, the relevant heating and cooling mechanisms in the energy evolution, and a comprehensive chemical network. The simulation results reveal that under the effect of ionizing radiation, a molecular cloud may evolve through different evolutionary sequences. Depending on its initial gravitational state, the evolution of a molecular cloud does not necessarily follow a complete morphological evolution sequence from type A{yields}B{yields}C, as described by previous RDI models. When confronted with observations, the simulation results provide satisfactory physical explanations for a series of puzzles derived from bright-rimmed clouds observations. The consistency of the modeling results with observations shows that the self-gravity of a molecular cloud should not be neglected in any investigation on the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds when they are exposed to ionizing radiation.

  17. Shear Induced Morphology Evolution and Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior of Binary and Ternary Elastomer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Wei; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin

    2015-03-01

    The morphology evolution and rheological response of a near-critical composition polybutadiene /polyisoprene blend and solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/silica ternary composites after various shear flow were in situ studied with the rheological and rheo-optical techniques. The relationship between the morphology of the blend during the relaxation after the cessation of steady shear with different shear rates and their corresponding rheological properties was successfully established. It was found that the different shear-induced morphologies under steady shear would relax to the equilibrium states via varied mechanisms after the shear cessation. The storage modulus G' increased significantly in the breakup process of the string-like phase. In long time scale, silica slowed down the succeeding breakup of the string-phase domains and simultaneous coalescence of broken droplets, and then effectively reduced the droplets size and stabilized the morphology. The authors thank the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51173195).

  18. Continuous detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using intracranial pulse morphological template matching.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Gonzalez, Nestor; Subudhi, Andrew W; Hamilton, Robert; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin; Roach, Robert C; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Although accurate and continuous assessment of cerebral vasculature status is highly desirable for managing cerebral vascular diseases, no such method exists for current clinical practice. The present work introduces a novel method for real-time detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using pulse morphological template matching. Templates consisting of morphological metrics of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) pulse, measured at middle cerebral artery using Transcranial Doppler, are obtained by applying a morphological clustering and analysis of intracranial pulse algorithm to the data collected during induced vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in a controlled setting. These templates were then employed to define a vasodilatation index (VDI) and a vasoconstriction index (VCI) for any inquiry data segment as the percentage of the metrics demonstrating a trend consistent with those obtained from the training dataset. The validation of the proposed method on a dataset of CBFV signals of 27 healthy subjects, collected with a similar protocol as that of training dataset, during hyperventilation (and CO₂ rebreathing tests) shows a sensitivity of 92% (and 82%) for detection of vasodilatation (and vasoconstriction) and the specificity of 90% (and 92%), respectively. Moreover, the proposed method of detection of vasodilatation (vasoconstriction) is capable of rejecting all the cases associated with vasoconstriction (vasodilatation) and outperforms other two conventional techniques by at least 7% for vasodilatation and 19% for vasoconstriction. PMID:23226385

  19. Continuous Detection of Cerebral Vasodilatation and Vasoconstriction Using Intracranial Pulse Morphological Template Matching

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Gonzalez, Nestor; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Hamilton, Robert; Vespa, Paul; Bergsneider, Marvin; Roach, Robert C.; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Although accurate and continuous assessment of cerebral vasculature status is highly desirable for managing cerebral vascular diseases, no such method exists for current clinical practice. The present work introduces a novel method for real-time detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using pulse morphological template matching. Templates consisting of morphological metrics of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) pulse, measured at middle cerebral artery using Transcranial Doppler, are obtained by applying a morphological clustering and analysis of intracranial pulse algorithm to the data collected during induced vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in a controlled setting. These templates were then employed to define a vasodilatation index (VDI) and a vasoconstriction index (VCI) for any inquiry data segment as the percentage of the metrics demonstrating a trend consistent with those obtained from the training dataset. The validation of the proposed method on a dataset of CBFV signals of 27 healthy subjects, collected with a similar protocol as that of training dataset, during hyperventilation (and CO2 rebreathing tests) shows a sensitivity of 92% (and 82%) for detection of vasodilatation (and vasoconstriction) and the specificity of 90% (and 92%), respectively. Moreover, the proposed method of detection of vasodilatation (vasoconstriction) is capable of rejecting all the cases associated with vasoconstriction (vasodilatation) and outperforms other two conventional techniques by at least 7% for vasodilatation and 19% for vasoconstriction. PMID:23226385

  20. Cation-containing Polymers with Co-continuous Microphase-Separated Morphologies for Rapid Transport Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Savage, Alice; Ren, Xiaoming; Pomerantz, Natalie; Zukas, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Cation-containing polymer membranes are the subject of renewed research for their potential to enable the use of alkaline fuel cells, and are also of interest for their water vapor transport properties. Charge and water vapor transport are both heavily dependent on membrane morphology and the development of hydrophilic channels throughout the material. Reaction induced phase separation has been shown to create such morphologies when used with uncharged copolymers and crosslinking monomers. Here we have applied this same technique but used ion-containing block copolymers of 4-vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride and styrene to create a cation-containing polymer membrane having a microphase-separated, co-continuous morphology, as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). These materials show excellent charge transport behavior and water vapor transport properties, surpassing commercially available materials. These results and efforts to improve other important physical characteristics for membrane applications will be presented.

  1. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  2. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  3. Toward a study of gene regulatory constraints to morphological evolution of the Drosophila ocellar region.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Becerra-Alonso, David; García-Morales, Diana; Casares, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and function of organs depend on coordinated changes in gene expression during development. These changes are controlled by transcription factors, signaling pathways, and their regulatory interactions, which are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Therefore, the structure of an organ GRN restricts the morphological and functional variations that the organ can experience-its potential morphospace. Therefore, two important questions arise when studying any GRN: what is the predicted available morphospace and what are the regulatory linkages that contribute the most to control morphological variation within this space. Here, we explore these questions by analyzing a small "three-node" GRN model that captures the Hh-driven regulatory interactions controlling a simple visual structure: the ocellar region of Drosophila. Analysis of the model predicts that random variation of model parameters results in a specific non-random distribution of morphological variants. Study of a limited sample of drosophilids and other dipterans finds a correspondence between the predicted phenotypic range and that found in nature. As an alternative to simulations, we apply Bayesian networks methods in order to identify the set of parameters with the largest contribution to morphological variation. Our results predict the potential morphological space of the ocellar complex and identify likely candidate processes to be responsible for ocellar morphological evolution using Bayesian networks. We further discuss the assumptions that the approach we have taken entails and their validity. PMID:27038024

  4. Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula Morphology: Probing Stellar Populations and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini; Shaw; Balick; Blades

    2000-05-10

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer the unique opportunity to study both the population and evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, by means of the morphological type of the nebula. Using observations from our LMC PN morphological survey, and including images available in the Hubble Space Telescope Data Archive and published chemical abundances, we find that asymmetry in PNe is strongly correlated with a younger stellar population, as indicated by the abundance of elements that are unaltered by stellar evolution (Ne, Ar, and S). While similar results have been obtained for Galactic PNe, this is the first demonstration of the relationship for extragalactic PNe. We also examine the relation between morphology and abundance of the products of stellar evolution. We found that asymmetric PNe have higher nitrogen and lower carbon abundances than symmetric PNe. Our two main results are broadly consistent with the predictions of stellar evolution if the progenitors of asymmetric PNe have on average larger masses than the progenitors of symmetric PNe. The results bear on the question of formation mechanisms for asymmetric PNe-specifically, that the genesis of PNe structure should relate strongly to the population type, and by inference the mass, of the progenitor star and less strongly on whether the central star is a member of a close binary system. PMID:10813674

  5. DNA sequence-dependent morphological evolution of silver nanoparticles and their optical and hybridization properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangjiexing; Tan, Li Huey; Hwang, Kevin; Xing, Hang; Wu, Peiwen; Li, Wei; Lu, Yi

    2014-10-29

    A systematic investigation of the effects of different DNA sequences on the morphologies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) grown from Ag nanocube seeds is reported. The presence of 10-mer oligo-A, -T, and -C directed AgNPs growth from cubic seeds into edge-truncated octahedra of different truncation extents and truncated tetrahedral AgNPs, while AgNPs in the presence of oligo-G remained cubic. The shape and morphological evolution of the nanoparticle growth for each system is investigated using SEM and TEM and correlated with UV-vis absorption kinetic studies. In addition, the roles of oligo-C and oligo-G secondary structures in modulating the morphologies of AgNPs are elucidated, and the morphological evolution for each condition of AgNPs growth is proposed. The shapes were found to be highly dependent on the binding affinity of each of the bases and the DNA secondary structures, favoring the stabilization of the Ag{111} facet. The AgNPs synthesized through this method have morphologies and optical properties that can be varied by using different DNA sequences, while the DNA molecules on these AgNPs are also stable against glutathione. The AgNP functionalization can be realized in a one-step synthesis while retaining the biorecognition ability of the DNA, which allows for programmable assembly. PMID:25243485

  6. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

  7. Craters and basins on Ganymede and Callisto - Morphological indicators of crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passey, Q. R.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The morphologic characteristics of craters and palimpsests on Ganymede and Callisto are surveyed, and the crustal properties of these satellites and the evolution of the properties are studied. The morphology of bowl-shaped craters, smooth-floored craters, craters without central peaks, craters with central pits, chain craters on Callisto, the Gilgamesh and Western Equatorial Basins on Ganymede, crater palimpsests and penepalimpsests, multiring structures on Callisto, and the Galileo Regio rimmed furrow system on Ganymede are described individually. The crustal evolution is addressed by examining the development of the Galileo Regio system, the distribution of crater retention ages, the record of ray clusters, the thermal history of the lithosphere of Ganymede, and the origin of the central pits. It is suggested that as the lithosphere of each satellite cooled and thickened, crater retentivity spread as a wave from the polar regions and the antapex toward the apex; at any given location, progressively larger craters were retained with the passage of time.

  8. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted. PMID:25261121

  9. Morphological Evolution and Sediment Partitioning Through a Large Confluence-Diffluence Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Confluence-diffluence units are key nodes in fluvial systems, controlling local bed morphology, the routing of sediment and water and ultimately defining channel stability and the larger-scale, planform dynamics. The Chaktomuk Junction on the Mekong River is the site of the confluence of the Tonlé Sap and Mekong rivers, as well as the diffluence of the Mekong and Bassac rivers. This junction defines the upstream apex of the Mekong delta. As such, the morphological evolution of this confluence-diffluence over single flood events, and larger temporal scales, determines the partitioning of water and sediment as it enters the Mekong delta, as well as to the critically important ecosystem that is the Tonlé Sap Lake. Here, we present data from a series of high spatial resolution topographic (Multibeam Echo Sounder), flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) and sub-bottom profiling (Parametric Echo Sounder) surveys undertaken on the Chaktomuk Junction, which reveal the temporal and spatial evolution of this critically important confluence-diffluence unit. We show spatial patterns of morphological change across a range of monsoonal flow stages and at various temporal scales, as well as sub-bottom profiling across the large bars present at the confluence. We also identify the response in the partitioning of the suspended and bedload portions of sediment transport through the confluence-diffluence, and elucidate the implications of this partitioning for the evolution of the downstream channel.

  10. Computational Examination of Orientation-Dependent Morphological Evolution during the Electrodeposition and Electrodissolution of Magnesium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    DeWitt, S.; Hahn, N.; Zavadil, K.; Thornton, K.

    2015-12-30

    Here a new model of electrodeposition and electrodissolution is developed and applied to the evolution of Mg deposits during anode cycling. The model captures Butler-Volmer kinetics, facet evolution, the spatially varying potential in the electrolyte, and the time-dependent electrolyte concentration. The model utilizes a diffuse interface approach, employing the phase field and smoothed boundary methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of magnesium deposited on a gold substrate show the formation of faceted deposits, often in the form of hexagonal prisms. Orientation-dependent reaction rate coefficients were parameterized using the experimental SEM images. Three-dimensional simulations of the growth of magnesium deposits yieldmore » deposit morphologies consistent with the experimental results. The simulations predict that the deposits become narrower and taller as the current density increases due to the depletion of the electrolyte concentration near the sides of the deposits. Increasing the distance between the deposits leads to increased depletion of the electrolyte surrounding the deposit. Two models relating the orientation-dependence of the deposition and dissolution reactions are presented. Finally, the morphology of the Mg deposit after one deposition-dissolution cycle is significantly different between the two orientation-dependence models, providing testable predictions that suggest the underlying physical mechanisms governing morphology evolution during deposition and dissolution.« less

  11. Computational Examination of Orientation-Dependent Morphological Evolution during the Electrodeposition and Electrodissolution of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, S.; Hahn, N.; Zavadil, K.; Thornton, K.

    2015-12-30

    Here a new model of electrodeposition and electrodissolution is developed and applied to the evolution of Mg deposits during anode cycling. The model captures Butler-Volmer kinetics, facet evolution, the spatially varying potential in the electrolyte, and the time-dependent electrolyte concentration. The model utilizes a diffuse interface approach, employing the phase field and smoothed boundary methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of magnesium deposited on a gold substrate show the formation of faceted deposits, often in the form of hexagonal prisms. Orientation-dependent reaction rate coefficients were parameterized using the experimental SEM images. Three-dimensional simulations of the growth of magnesium deposits yield deposit morphologies consistent with the experimental results. The simulations predict that the deposits become narrower and taller as the current density increases due to the depletion of the electrolyte concentration near the sides of the deposits. Increasing the distance between the deposits leads to increased depletion of the electrolyte surrounding the deposit. Two models relating the orientation-dependence of the deposition and dissolution reactions are presented. Finally, the morphology of the Mg deposit after one deposition-dissolution cycle is significantly different between the two orientation-dependence models, providing testable predictions that suggest the underlying physical mechanisms governing morphology evolution during deposition and dissolution.

  12. Morphological basis for the evolution of acoustic diversity in oscine songbirds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2014-03-22

    Acoustic properties of vocalizations arise through the interplay of neural control with the morphology and biomechanics of the sound generating organ, but in songbirds it is assumed that the main driver of acoustic diversity is variation in telencephalic motor control. Here we show, however, that variation in the composition of the vibrating tissues, the labia, underlies diversity in one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency (F0) range. Lateral asymmetry and arrangement of fibrous proteins in the labia into distinct layers is correlated with expanded F0 range of species. The composition of the vibrating tissues thus represents an important morphological foundation for the generation of a broad F0 range, indicating that morphological specialization lays the foundation for the evolution of complex acoustic repertoires. PMID:24500163

  13. Molecular mechanisms for the evolution of bacterial morphologies and growth modes

    PubMed Central

    Randich, Amelia M.; Brun, Yves V.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit a rich diversity of morphologies. Within this diversity, there is a uniformity of shape for each species that is replicated faithfully each generation, suggesting that bacterial shape is as selectable as any other biochemical adaptation. We describe the spatiotemporal mechanisms that target peptidoglycan synthesis to different subcellular zones to generate the rod-shape of model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We then demonstrate, using the related genera Caulobacter and Asticcacaulis as examples, how the modularity of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery permits repositioning of the machinery to achieve different growth modes and morphologies. Finally, we highlight cases in which the mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution are beginning to be understood, and how they depend upon the expansion and diversification of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery. PMID:26106381

  14. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor–liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. PMID:22938090

  15. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Tielin; Xi, Shuang; Lai, Wuxing; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Xiaoping; Tang, Zirong

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features.

  16. Evolution of nanodot morphology on polycarbonate (PC) surfaces by 40 keV Ar+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Meetika; Chawla, Mahak; Gupta, Divya; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 40 keV Ar+ ions irradiation on nanoscale surface morphology of Polycarbonate (PC) substrate. Specimens were sputtered at off normal incidences of 30°, 40° and 50° with the fluence of 1 × 1016 Ar+cm-2. The topographical behaviour of specimens was studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. AFM study demonstrates the evolution of nano dot morphology on PC specimens on irradiating with 1 × 1016 Ar+cm-2. Average size of dots varied from 37-95 nm in this specified range of incidence while density of dots varied from 0.17-3.0 × 107 dotscm-2. Such variations in morphological features have been supported by estimation of ion range and sputtering yield through SRIM simulations.

  17. Morphological and Molecular Evolution Are Not Linked in Lamellodiscus (Plathyhelminthes, Monogenea)

    PubMed Central

    Poisot, Timothée; Verneau, Olivier; Desdevises, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs 1922 (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) is a genus of common parasites on the gills of sparid fishes. Here we show that this genus is probably undergoing a fast molecular diversification, as reflected by the important genetic variability observed within three molecular markers (partial nuclear 18S rDNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 1, and mitonchondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I). Using an updated phylogeny of this genus, we show that molecular and morphological evolution are weakly correlated, and that most of the morphologically defined taxonomical units are not consistent with the molecular data. We suggest that Lamellodiscus morphology is probably constrained by strong environmental (host-induced) pressure, and discuss why this result can apply to other taxa. Genetic variability within nuclear 18S and mitochondrial COI genes are compared for several monogenean genera, as this measure may reflect the level of diversification within a genus. Overall our results suggest that cryptic speciation events may occur within Lamellodiscus, and discuss the links between morphological and molecular evolution. PMID:22022582

  18. BaTiO3 supercages: unusual oriented nanoparticle aggregation and continuous ordering transition in morphology.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hietala, Sami; Tian, Xuelin

    2015-01-27

    Here we report the organic-free mesocrystalline superstructured cages of BaTiO3, i.e., the BaTiO3 supercages, which are synthesized by a one-step templateless and additive-free route using molten hydrated salt as the reaction medium. An unusual three-dimensional oriented aggregation of primary BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the medium of high ionic strength, which normally favors random aggregation, is identified to take place at the early stage of the synthesis. The spherical BaTiO3 aggregates further experience a remarkable continuous ordering transition in morphology, consisting of nanoparticle faceting and nanosheet formation steps. This ordering transition in conjunction with Ostwald ripening-induced solid evacuation leads to the formation of unique supercage structure of BaTiO3. Benefiting from their structure, the BaTiO3 supercages exhibit improved microwave absorption property. PMID:25514033

  19. High-temperature morphological evolution of lithographically introduced cavities in silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Narushima, Takayuki; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2000-12-01

    Internal cavities of controlled geometry and crystallography were introduced in 6H silicon carbide single crystals by combining lithographic methods, ion beam etching, and solid-state diffusion bonding. The morphological evolution of these internal cavities (negative crystals) in response to anneals of up to 128 h duration at 1900 degrees C was examined using optical microscopy. Surface energy anisotropy and faceting have a strong influence on both the geometric and kinetic characteristics of evolution. Decomposition of 12{bar 1}0 cavity edges into 101{bar 0} facets was observed after 16 h anneals, indicating that 12{bar 1}0 faces are not components of the Wulff shape. The shape evolution kinetics of penny-shaped cavities were also investigated. Experimentally observed evolution rates decreased much more rapidly with those predicted by a model in which surface diffusion is assumed to be rate-limiting. This suggests that the development of facets, and the associated loss of ledges and terraces during the initial stages of evolution results in an evolution process limited by the nucleation rate of attachment/detachment sites (ledges) on the facets.

  20. Evolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hierarchical morphology during slow gelation process and its superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Zhou, Chong; Du, Runhong; Li, Nana; Han, Xutong; Zhang, Yufeng; An, Shulin; Xiao, Changfa

    2013-06-26

    In the paper, we proposed an evolution process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) macromolecular aggregation in a mixed solvent through the simple and slow gelation process at room temperature. The mixed solvent is prepared with a room-temperature solvent and a high-temperature solvent. The evolution process can be terminated by quenching and exchanging with nonsolvent in a nonsolvent coagulation bath properly, and then the vivid petal-like nanostructure and microspherulite is formed simultaneously. This hierarchical morphology endows PVDF with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties, which is useful to PVDF coating and membrane materials. The evolution processes are investigated through the measurements of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the rheological properties of solution, dry gel and wet gel, are explored. PMID:23725003

  1. Biogeography, phylogeny, and morphological evolution of central Texas cave and spring salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subterranean faunal radiations can result in complex patterns of morphological divergence involving both convergent or parallel phenotypic evolution and cryptic species diversity. Salamanders of the genus Eurycea in central Texas provide a particularly challenging example with respect to phylogeny reconstruction, biogeography and taxonomy. These predominantly aquatic species inhabit karst limestone aquifers and spring outflows, and exhibit a wide range of morphological and genetic variation. We extensively sampled spring and cave populations of six Eurycea species within this group (eastern Blepsimolge clade), to reconstruct their phylogenetic and biogeographic history using mtDNA and examine patterns and origins of cave- and surface-associated morphological variation. Results Genetic divergence is generally low, and many populations share ancestral haplotypes and/or show evidence of introgression. This pattern likely indicates a recent radiation coupled with a complex history of intermittent connections within the aquatic karst system. Cave populations that exhibit the most extreme troglobitic morphologies show no or very low divergence from surface populations and are geographically interspersed among them, suggesting multiple instances of rapid, parallel phenotypic evolution. Morphological variation is diffuse among cave populations; this is in contrast to surface populations, which form a tight cluster in morphospace. Unexpectedly, our analyses reveal two distinct and previously unrecognized morphological groups encompassing multiple species that are not correlated with spring or cave habitat, phylogeny or geography, and may be due to developmental plasticity. Conclusions The evolutionary history of this group of spring- and cave-dwelling salamanders reflects patterns of intermittent isolation and gene flow influenced by complex hydrogeologic dynamics that are characteristic of karst regions. Shallow genetic divergences among several species

  2. Role of Acid Functionality and Placement on Morphological Evolution and Strengthening of Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Luri Robert; Schwartz, Eric; Winey, Karen

    Functional polymers with specific interactions produce hierarchical morphologies that directly impact mechanical properties. We recently reported that the formation of acid-rich layered morphologies in precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers improves tensile strength. We now explore the generality of this phenomenon through variations in pendant acid chemistries, acid content and precision in placement of acid groups in polyethylene-based copolymers. In situ X-ray scattering measurements during tensile deformation reveal that the precision in acid group placement is critical to forming well-defined layered morphologies. This phenomenon was observed in both semi-crystalline and amorphous precise acid copolymers with varied acid chemistries (acrylic, geminal acrylic and phosphonic acids). Compositionally identical polymers but with pseudo random acid placement do not form layered morphologies. Acid chemistry and acid content influence morphological evolution predominately though modification of the copolymer Tg and crystallinity. Our results indicate that hierarchical layered structures, commensurate with improved mechanical properties, form in the presence of uniformity in chemical structure and sufficient chain mobility to strongly align during deformation.

  3. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

  4. Morphology Evolution and Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior of Ternary Elastomer Blends under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Xianggui; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin

    The influence of nanoparticle geometry, such as size and shape, on the phase morphology of partially miscible binary polymer blends under and after shear has been examined by rheological and rheo-optical techniques. The phase morphologies of the solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber and low vinyl content polyisoprene (SSBR/LPI) blend systems were affected by the dispersion status of fillers which were determined by filler shapes and shear strength. Under weak shear flow, the domain morphology of the OMMT filled blend was much thinner than that of the SiO2 filled blend. Under strong shear flow, the string-like phase interface of the OMMT filled blend was much blurred compared with that of the SiO2 filled blend. After shear cessation, the orientation status of OMMT sheets determined the orientation of newborn domains. Combined morphology observation and rheological analysis showed that the anisotropic structure and the unfavorable bending energy of OMMT sheets played important roles on phase morphology and its evolution process during or after shear. The authors thank the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51173195).

  5. Morphological changes in pedal phalanges through ornithopod dinosaur evolution: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Karen; Carrano, Matthew T; Snyder, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of ornithopod dinosaurs provides a well-documented example of the transition from digitigrady to subunguligrady. During this transition, the ornithopod pes was drastically altered from the plesiomorphic dinosaurian morphology (four digits, claw-shaped unguals, strongly concavo-convex joints, phalanges longer than wide, excavated collateral ligament fossae, presence of sagittal ridge, and prominent processes for the attachment of tendons) to a more derived condition (tridactyly, modification of the unguals into hooves, phalanges wider and thinner than long, lack of collateral ligament fossae, loss of sagittal ridge and tendon attachment processes, relatively flattened articular surfaces). These changes are particularly noteworthy given the overall conservatism in pedal morphology seen across Dinosauria. But what are the functional consequences of these specific morphological transitions? To study them, we examine a wide range of pedal morphologies in four non-avian dinosaurs and two birds. Our analyses of the external morphology, two-dimensional models (using Finite Element Analysis), and internal bone structure demonstrate that this evolutionary shift was accompanied by a loss of digit mobility and flexibility. In addition, pedal posture was modified to better align the pes with the main direction of the ground reaction force, thus becoming well suited to support high loads. These conclusions can be applied to other, parallel evolutionary changes (in both dinosaurs and mammals) that involved similar transitions to a subunguligrade posture. PMID:17146773

  6. Surfactant-directed synthesis of silver nanorods and characteristic spectral changes occurred by their morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Guansong; Zhang, Wanzhong; Qiao, Xueliang; Wu, Kai; Chen, Qingyuan; Cai, Yuchun

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanorods with different polydispersity were synthesized in the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) rod-shaped micelles by inducing the orientation growth of silver seeds and adjusting the volumes of CTAB. The reaction for the formation of silver nanorods had basically finished in 10 min. A suitable volume of CTAB (i.e., 15.0 mL of 0.1 M CTAB) is beneficial to obtain high-quality silver nanorods in the given reaction system. That is, the volume of added CTAB is a key factor to determine the polydispersity of the formed nanorods. The aging time plays a critical role in the morphology evolution of silver nanorods due to the oxidation of silver nanorods with Br-, O2 and the Ostwald ripening of the nanoparticles. As a result, the characteristic spectral changes occurred due to the morphology evolution of silver nanorods. The ablation in the top ends of the longer nanorods is often accompanied by the growth of some shorter nanorods and nanospheres. The size distribution of silver nanorods might be more uniform in the early aging stage. All the nanorods in the colloidal solution should turn into the near-spherical nanoparticles with larger sizes and thus the characteristic absorption should change to single peak centered at about 400 nm. Based on the research results, mathematical models are proposed for explaining the formation and morphology changes of silver nanorods. The morphology evolution of silver nanorods may be important and can be used as a reference for preparing silver nanorods, nanowires and other anisotropic nanomaterials.

  7. What explains patterns of species richness? The relative importance of climatic-niche evolution, morphological evolution, and ecological limits in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-08-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology and ecology is to understand why species richness varies among clades. Previous studies have suggested that variation in richness among clades might be related to variation in rates of morphological evolution among clades (e.g., body size and shape). Other studies have suggested that richness patterns might be related to variation in rates of climatic-niche evolution. However, few studies, if any, have tested the relative importance of these variables in explaining patterns of richness among clades. Here, we test their relative importance among major clades of Plethodontidae, the most species-rich family of salamanders. Earlier studies have suggested that climatic-niche evolution explains patterns of diversification among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. A subsequent study stated that rates of morphological evolution instead explained patterns of species richness among plethodontid clades (along with "ecological limits" on richness of clades, leading to saturation of clades with species, given limited resources). However, they did not consider climatic-niche evolution. Using phylogenetic multiple regression, we show that rates of climatic-niche evolution explain most variation in richness among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. We find little evidence that ecological limits explain patterns of richness among plethodontid clades. We also test whether rates of morphological and climatic-niche evolution are correlated, and find that they are not. Overall, our results help explain richness patterns in a major amphibian group and provide possibly the first test of the relative importance of climatic niches and morphological evolution in explaining diversity patterns. PMID:27547367

  8. High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy – where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations – is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Results Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. Conclusions In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our results further our

  9. History vs. snapshot: how slab morphology relates to slab age evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, Fanny; Goes, Saskia; Davies, Rhodri; Davies, Huw; Lallemand, Serge; Kramer, Stephan; Wilson, Cian

    2016-04-01

    The age of the subducting plate at the trench ("slab age") spans a wide range, from less than 10 Myr in Central and South America to 150 Myr in the Marianas. The morphology of subducting slab in the upper mantle is also very variable, from slabs stagnating at the top of the lower mantle to slabs penetrating well beyond 1000 km depth. People have looked rather unsucessfully for correlations between slab morphology and subduction parameters, including age at the trench, on the basic assumption that old (thick) plates are likely to generate a large slab pull force that would influence slab dip. Thermo-mechanical models reveal complex feedbacks between temperature, strain rate and rheology, and are able to reproduce the evolution of plate ages as a function of time, subducting plate velocity and trench velocity. In particular, we show how initially young subducting plates can rapidly age at the surface because of a slow sinking velocity. As a consequence, different slab morphologies can exhibit similar ages at the trench provided that subduction history is different. We illustrate how models provide insights into Earth subduction zones for which we have to consider their history (evolution of trench velocity, relative plate ages at time of initiation) in order to unravel their present-day geometry.

  10. Adaptive responses and invasion: the role of plasticity and evolution in snail shell morphology

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Erica J; Dybdahl, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often exhibit either evolved or plastic adaptations in response to spatially varying environmental conditions. We investigated whether evolved or plastic adaptation was driving variation in shell morphology among invasive populations of the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the western United States. We found that invasive populations exhibit considerable shell shape variation and inhabit a variety of flow velocity habitats. We investigated the importance of evolution and plasticity by examining variation in shell morphological traits 1) between the parental and F1 generations for each population and 2) among populations of the first lab generation (F1) in a common garden, full-sib design using Canonical Variate Analyses (CVA). We compared the F1 generation to the parental lineages and found significant differences in overall shell shape indicating a plastic response. However, when examining differences among the F1 populations, we found that they maintained among-population shell shape differences, indicating a genetic response. The F1 generation exhibited a smaller shell morph more suited to the low-flow common garden environment within a single generation. Our results suggest that phenotypic plasticity in conjunction with evolution may be driving variation in shell morphology of this widespread invasive snail. PMID:23467920

  11. Evolution of a morphological novelty occurred before genome compaction in a lineage of extreme parasites

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Karen L.; James, Timothy Y.; Pombert, Jean-François; Larsson, Ronny; Schaer, Tobias M. M.; Refardt, Dominik; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular parasitism results in extreme adaptations, whose evolutionary history is difficult to understand, because the parasites and their known free-living relatives are so divergent from one another. Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of humans and other animals, which evolved highly specialized morphological structures, but also extreme physiologic and genomic simplification. They are suggested to be an early-diverging branch on the fungal tree, but comparisons to other species are difficult because their rates of molecular evolution are exceptionally high. Mitochondria in microsporidia have degenerated into organelles called mitosomes, which have lost a genome and the ability to produce ATP. Here we describe a gut parasite of the crustacean Daphnia that despite having remarkable morphological similarity to the microsporidia, has retained genomic features of its fungal ancestors. This parasite, which we name Mitosporidium daphniae gen. et sp. nov., possesses a mitochondrial genome including genes for oxidative phosphorylation, yet a spore stage with a highly specialized infection apparatus—the polar tube—uniquely known only from microsporidia. Phylogenomics places M. daphniae at the root of the microsporidia. A comparative genomic analysis suggests that the reduction in energy metabolism, a prominent feature of microsporidian evolution, was preceded by a reduction in the machinery controlling cell cycle, DNA recombination, repair, and gene expression. These data show that the morphological features unique to M. daphniae and other microsporidia were already present before the lineage evolved the extreme host metabolic dependence and loss of mitochondrial respiration for which microsporidia are well known. PMID:25313038

  12. Morphological evolution in sea urchin development: hybrids provide insights into the pace of evolution.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Voltzow, Janice

    2004-04-01

    Hybridisations between related species with divergent ontogenies can provide insights into the bases for evolutionary change in development. One example of such hybridisations involves sea urchin species that exhibit either standard larval (pluteal) stages or those that develop directly from embryo to adult without an intervening feeding larval stage. In such crosses, pluteal features were found to be restored in fertilisations of the eggs of some direct developing sea urchins (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) with the sperm of closely (Heliocidaris tuberculata) and distantly (Pseudoboletia maculata) related species with feeding larvae. Such results can be argued to support the punctuated equilibrium model-conservation in pluteal regulatory systems and a comparatively rapid switch to direct development in evolution.1,2 Generation of hybrids between distantly related direct developers may, however, indicate evolutionary convergence. The 'rescue' of pluteal features by paternal genomes may require maternal factors from H. erythrogramma because the larva of this species has pluteal features. In contrast, pluteal features were not restored in hybridisations with the eggs of Holopneustes purpurescens, which lacks pluteal features. How much of pluteal development can be lost before it cannot be rescued in such crosses? The answer awaits hybridisations among indirect and direct developing sea urchins differing in developmental phenotype, in parallel with investigations of the genetic programs involved. PMID:15057932

  13. Morphology evolution of fused silica surface during ion beam figuring of high-slope optical components.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenlin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-precision and ultra-smooth surfaces are vitally important for some high performance optical systems. Ion beam figuring (IBF) is a well-established, highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of extremely high quality optical surfaces, whereas ion sputtering induced smoothing, or roughening for nanoscale surface morphology, strongly depends on the processing conditions. Usually, an improper machining method would arouse the production of nanoscale patterns leading to the coarsening of the optical surface. In this paper, the morphology evolution mechanism on a fused silica surface during IBF of high-slope optical components has been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy. Figuring experiments are implemented on two convex spherical surfaces by using different IBF methods. Both of their surface errors are rapidly reduced to 1.2 nm root mean square (RMS) after removing similar deep material, but their surfaces are characterized with obviously different nanoscale morphologies. The experimental results indicate that the ion incidence angle dominates the microscopic morphology during the IBF process. At near-normal incidence, fused silica achieves an ultra-smooth surface with an RMS roughness value R(q) down to 0.1 nm, whereas nanoscale ripple patterns are observed at a large incidence angle with an R(q) value increasing to more than 0.9 nm. Additionally, the difference of incidence angles on various machined areas would influence the uniformity of surface quality, resulting from the interplay between the smoothing and roughening effects induced by ion sputtering. PMID:23736325

  14. Inside the trap: gland morphologies, digestive enzymes, and the evolution of plant carnivory in the Caryophyllales⋆

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Tanya; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-01-01

    The digestion of prey by carnivorous plants is determined in part by suites of enzymes that are associated with morphologically and anatomically diverse trapping mechanisms. Chitinases represent a group of enzymes known to be integral to effective plant carnivory. In non-carnivorous plants, chitinases commonly act as pathogenesis-related proteins, which are either induced in response to insect herbivory and fungal elicitors, or constitutively expressed in tissues vulnerable to attack. In the Caryophyllales carnivorous plant lineage, multiple classes of chitinases are likely involved in both pathogenic response and digestion of prey items. We review what is currently known about trap morphologies, provide an examination of the diversity, roles, and evolution of chitinases, and examine how herbivore and pathogen defense mechanisms may have been coopted for plant carnivory in the Caryophyllales. PMID:23830995

  15. Ligand Controlled Morphology Evolution of Active Intermediates for the Syntheses of Gold Nanostars.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianghua; Baride, Aravind; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-07-01

    Gold nanostars have unique plasmonic properties that are related to the highly branched nanostructures. However, it is challenging to precisely control these branches. Here we studied the reaction kinetics on the seed-mediated growth process of gold nanostars using in situ UV-vis spectroscopy. The impact of hydroquinone ligands on the formation and evolution of active intermediates was systematically explored. In addition, we improved the classical seed-mediated method to achieve a much better control on the final morphology of gold nanostars by a sudden addition of a high concentration ligand solution. Our method can significantly advance the syntheses of gold nanostars and provide numerous opportunities to prepare nanomaterials with unique morphology and plasmonic properties. PMID:27291864

  16. Evolution of prolate molecular clouds at H II boundaries - II. Formation of BRCs of asymmetrical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnear, T. M.; Miao, J.; White, G. J.; Sugitani, K.; Goodwin, S.

    2015-06-01

    A systematic investigation on the evolution of a prolate cloud at an H II boundary is conducted using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in order to understand the mechanism for a variety of irregular morphological structures found at the boundaries of various H II regions. The prolate molecular clouds in this investigation are set with their semimajor axes at inclinations between 0° and 90° to a plane-parallel ionizing radiation flux. A set of four parameters, the number density n, the ratio of major to minor axis γ, the inclination angle ϕ and the incident flux FEUV, are used to define the initial state of the simulated clouds. The dependence of the evolution of a prolate cloud under radiation-driven implosion (RDI) on each of the four parameters is investigated. It is found that (i) in addition to the well-studied standard type A, B or C bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), many other types such as asymmetrical BRCs, filamentary structures and irregular horse-head structures could also be developed at H II boundaries with only simple initial conditions; (ii) the final morphological structures are very sensitive to the four initial parameters, especially to the initial density and the inclination; (iii) the previously defined ionizing radiation penetration depth can still be used as a good indicator of the final morphology. Based on the simulation results, the formation time-scales and masses of the early RDI-triggered star formation from clouds of different initial conditions are also estimated. Finally a unified mechanism for the various morphological structures found in many different H II boundaries is suggested.

  17. The Role of KNOX Genes in the Evolution of Morphological Novelty in StreptocarpusW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jill; Möller, Michael; Langdale, Jane; Cronk, Quentin; Hudson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The genus Streptocarpus comprises species with diverse body plans. Caulescent species produce leaves from a conventional shoot apical meristem (SAM), whereas acaulescent species lack a conventional SAM and produce only a single leaf (the unifoliate form) or clusters of leaves from the base of more mature leaves (the rosulate form). These distinct morphologies reflect fundamental differences in the role of the SAM and the process of leaf specification. A subfamily of KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) genes are known to be important in regulating meristem function and leaf development in model species with conventional morphologies. To test the involvement of KNOX genes in Streptocarpus evolution, two parologous KNOX genes (SSTM1 and SSTM2) were isolated from species with different growth forms. Their phylogenetic analysis suggested a gene duplication before the subgeneric split of Streptocarpus and resolved species relationships, supporting multiple evolutionary origins of the rosulate and unifoliate morphologies. In S. saxorum, a caulescent species with a conventional SAM, KNOX proteins were expressed in the SAM and transiently downregulated in incipient leaf primordia. The ability of acaulescent species to initiate leaves from existing leaves was found to correlate with SSTM1 expression and KNOX protein accumulation in leaves and to reflect genetic differences at two loci. Neither locus corresponded to SSTM1, suggesting that cis-acting differences in SSTM1 regulation were not responsible for evolution of the rosulate and unifoliate forms. However, the involvement of KNOX proteins in leaf formation in rosulate species suggests that they have played an indirect role in the development of morphological diversity in Streptocarpus. PMID:15659624

  18. Morphology and geotechnique of active-layer detachment failures in discontinuous and continuous permafrost, northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Harris, Charles

    2005-07-01

    Fifty active-layer detachment failures triggered after forest fire in the discontinuous permafrost zone (central Mackenzie Valley, 65° N.) are compared to several hundred others caused by summer meteorological triggers in continuous permafrost (Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, 80°N). Most failures fall into compact or elongated morphological categories. The compact type occur next to stream channels and have little internal disturbance of the displaced block, whereas the elongated types can develop on any part of the slope and exhibit greater internal deformation. Frequency distributions of length-to-width and length-to-depth ratios are similar at all sites. Positive pore pressures, expected theoretically, were measured in the field at the base of the thawing layer. Effective stress analysis could predict the instability of slopes in both areas, providing cohesion across the thaw plane was set to zero and/or residual strength parameters were employed. The location of the shear planes or zones in relation to the permafrost table and the degree of post-failure secondary movements (including headwall recession and thermokarst development within the failure track) differed between the localities, reflecting dissimilarity in the environmental triggers and in the degree of ground thermal disturbance.

  19. Topographic signatures of spatially-limited storm morphologies revealed from numerical landscape evolution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valters, Declan; Brocklehurst, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Landscape evolution models typically forsake realistic spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall, assuming spatially uniform rainfall input and steady-state runoff conditions. The implications of this assumption are explored, using extensions made to the CHILD numerical landscape evolution model. A variety of rainfall distribution patterns are tested - from isolated intense storm cells associated with convective precipitation, to more extensive rainfall patterns associated with frontal or stratiform types of precipitation. Several topographic metrics are used to quantify the imprint left by variations in dominant storm shape and size, including the channel steepness (ksn) and chi (χ) gradient indices. All else being equal, resultant landscape topography is shown to be sensitive to the dominant storm morphology and storm cell positioning at the range and catchment scales.

  20. Morphological Evolution of Physical Robots through Model-Free Phenotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Luzius; Hauser, Simon; Iida, Fumiya

    2015-01-01

    Artificial evolution of physical systems is a stochastic optimization method in which physical machines are iteratively adapted to a target function. The key for a meaningful design optimization is the capability to build variations of physical machines through the course of the evolutionary process. The optimization in turn no longer relies on complex physics models that are prone to the reality gap, a mismatch between simulated and real-world behavior. We report model-free development and evaluation of phenotypes in the artificial evolution of physical systems, in which a mother robot autonomously designs and assembles locomotion agents. The locomotion agents are automatically placed in the testing environment and their locomotion behavior is analyzed in the real world. This feedback is used for the design of the next iteration. Through experiments with a total of 500 autonomously built locomotion agents, this article shows diversification of morphology and behavior of physical robots for the improvement of functionality with limited resources. PMID:26091255

  1. Rates of speciation and morphological evolution are correlated across the largest vertebrate radiation.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Santini, Francesco; Eastman, Jonathan; Smith, Stephen A; Sidlauskas, Brian; Chang, Jonathan; Alfaro, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories predict that rates of morphological change should be positively associated with the rate at which new species arise. For example, the theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that phenotypic change typically occurs in rapid bursts associated with speciation events. However, recent phylogenetic studies have found little evidence linking these processes in nature. Here we demonstrate that rates of species diversification are highly correlated with the rate of body size evolution across the 30,000+ living species of ray-finned fishes that comprise the majority of vertebrate biological diversity. This coupling is a general feature of fish evolution and transcends vast differences in ecology and body-plan organization. Our results may reflect a widespread speciational mode of character change in living fishes. Alternatively, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic 'evolvability'-the capacity of organisms to evolve-shapes the dynamics of speciation through time at the largest phylogenetic scales. PMID:23739623

  2. The Morphology and Distribution of Submerged Reefs in the Maui Nui Complex, Hawaii: New Insights Into Their Evolution Since the Early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faichney, I. D.; Webster, J. M.; Clague, D. A.; Kelley, C.; Appelgate, B.; Moore, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work on submerged drowned reefs in Hawaii has provided insight into reef development within the Late Pleistocene but reefs of the Early Pleistocene remain largely unexplored. The Maui-Nui Complex (MNC) provides a natural laboratory to study reef evolution throughout this time period as new data indicate the reefs grew from 1.1 - 0.5 Ma. We use new high resolution bathymetric data combined with existing regional data and field observations from ROV and submersible dives to make a detailed analysis of reef morphology and structure around the MNC. We focus specifically on the south-central region of the complex which provide the best reef exposure and find that the morphology of the reefs varies both regionally and temporally within this region. Barrier and pinnacle features dominate the steeper margins in the north of the study area while wide, shallow backstepping occurs to the south. Additionally, the central part of the study area shows karst morphology and patch and lagoonal features between the islands. We propose that this variation in the morphology and structure of the reefs has been controlled by variations in three main factors; the subsidence rates of the complex, the amplitude and period of eustatic sea-level cycles and finally the slope and continuity of the substrate. We argue that the interaction of these three factors explains the observed variations in reef morphology within the MNC and finally we present a new model of reef evolution over the last 1.5 Ma.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Lévy Processes: Finding Jumps in the Evolution of Continuous Traits

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Michael J.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Liang, Mason

    2013-01-01

    Gaussian processes, a class of stochastic processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process, are widely used to model continuous trait evolution in statistical phylogenetics. Under such processes, observations at the tips of a phylogenetic tree have a multivariate Gaussian distribution, which may lead to suboptimal model specification under certain evolutionary conditions, as supposed in models of punctuated equilibrium or adaptive radiation. To consider non-normally distributed continuous trait evolution, we introduce a method to compute posterior probabilities when modeling continuous trait evolution as a Lévy process. Through data simulation and model testing, we establish that single-rate Brownian motion (BM) and Lévy processes with jumps generate distinct patterns in comparative data. We then analyzed body mass and endocranial volume measurements for 126 primates. We rejected single-rate BM in favor of a Lévy process with jumps for each trait, with the lineage leading to most recent common ancestor of great apes showing particularly strong evidence against single-rate BM. [Continuous traits; saltational evolution; Lévy processes; Bayesian inference.] PMID:23034385

  4. Decadal morphological evolution of the Yangtze Estuary in response to river input changes and estuarine engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Hua Long; Ding, Ping Xing; Wang, Zheng Bing; Ge, Jian Zhong; Yang, Shi Lun

    2016-07-01

    The Yangtze Estuary in China has been intensively influenced by human activities including altered river and sediment discharges in its catchment and local engineering projects in the estuary over the past half century. River sediment discharge has significantly decreased since the 1980s because of upstream dam construction and water-soil conservation. We analyzed bathymetric data from the Yangtze Estuary between 1958 and 2010 and divided the entire estuary into two sections: inner estuary and mouth bar area. The deposition and erosion pattern exhibited strong temporal and spatial variations. The inner estuary and mouth bar area underwent different changes. The inner estuary was altered from sedimentation to erosion primarily at an intermediate depth (5-15 m) along with river sediment decline. In contrast, the mouth bar area showed continued accretion throughout the study period. The frequent river floods during the 1990s and simultaneously decreasing river sediment probably induced the peak erosion of the inner estuary in 1986-1997. We conclude that both sediment discharge and river flood events played important roles in the decadal morphological evolution of the Yangtze Estuary. Regarding the dredged sediment, the highest net accretion rate occurred in the North Passage where jetties and groins were constructed to regulate the navigation channel in 1997-2010. In this period, the jetties induced enhanced deposition at the East Hengsha Mudflat and the high accretion rate within the mouth bar area was maintained. The impacts of estuarine engineering projects on morphological change extended beyond their sites.

  5. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae. PMID:26516094

  6. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liparoti, Sara; Sorrentino, Andrea; Guzman, Gustavo; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micro structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.

  7. The morphological evolution of the axial structure and the curved columnar grain in the weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rihong; Lu, Shanping; Dong, Wenchao; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2015-12-01

    The competitive growth of microstructures in the entire weld pool for both the Al-Cu alloy and the pure aluminum was simulated by the cellular automata method to comparatively investigate the micro-mechanisms for the morphological evolution of the axial structure and the curved columnar grain in the weld. The competitive mechanism of grains during the epitaxial growth and the morphological evolution of the grain structure in the weld with various welding speeds were studied. The results indicate that both the thermal conditions and the solidification characteristic of the weld metal exert an important influence on the grain competition and the resulting structure in the weld. For the Al-Cu alloy, the dendritic structure with a large S/L interface curvature appears during the epitaxial growth. The preferential orientation affects the competition result obviously. Owing to the anisotropic growth kinetics, the straight axial structure forms at low welding speeds. With the increase of the welding speed, the width of the axial region decreases and eventually disappears. For the pure aluminum, the S/L interface during the epitaxial growth is planar, and the grain competition is controlled by the thermal conditions completely. The columnar grains curve gradually to follow the highest temperature gradient direction at low welding speeds and become straight at high welding speeds.

  8. Imitation, Genetic Lineages, and Time Influenced the Morphological Evolution of the Violin

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness. PMID:25295734

  9. Imitation, genetic lineages, and time influenced the morphological evolution of the violin.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness. PMID:25295734

  10. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A.; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P.; Pires, J. Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene–Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae. PMID:26516094

  11. A liquid-like model for the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, L.; Lo Savio, R.; Šetina Batič, B.; Firpo, G.; Angeli, E.; Valbusa, U.

    2015-07-01

    Thin solid films exposed to ion irradiation exhibit a peculiar evolution that can differ substantially from what is observed for bulk samples. The phenomenology of the patterns that self-organize on the substrate is very rich, with morphologies that display several degrees of order upon the modification of initial film characteristics and irradiation parameters. This richness paves the way for the fabrication of novel functional surfaces, but it is also an indication of the complexity of the underlying driving mechanisms. A remarkable simplification for the comprehension of these phenomena can come from the noteworthy similarity of the obtained patterns with those showing up when liquids dewet from their substrates. Here, we analyze the possibility to apply a liquid-like model to explain the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films for the whole phenomenology showing up in experiments. In establishing this connection between liquids and ion bombarded thin films, we propose to use also for liquids the insight gained for our system with recent experiments that stress the importance of the substrate topography for the selection of the dewetting mechanism. If confirmed, this result would lead to a reconsideration of the importance of capillary waves in spinodal dewetting, and will help to understand the low reproducibility of the related experimental results.

  12. A gene fusion at a homeobox locus: alterations in leaf shape and implications for morphological evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Janssen, B J; Williams, A; Sinha, N

    1997-01-01

    Compound leaves are seen in many angiosperm genera and are thought to be either fundamentally different from simple leaves or elaborations of simple leaves. The knotted1-like homeobox (knox) genes are known to regulate plant development. When overexpressed in homologous or heterologous species, this family of genes can cause changes in leaf morphology, including excessive leaf compounding in tomato. We describe here an instance of a spontaneously arisen fusion between a gene encoding a metabolic enzyme and a homeodomain protein. We show that the fusion results in overexpression of the homeodomain protein and a change in morphology that approximates the changes caused by overexpression of the same gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic plants. Exon-shuffling events can account for the modularity of proteins. If the shuffled exons are associated with altered promoters, changes in gene expression patterns can result. Our results show that gene fusions of this nature can cause changes in expression patterns that lead to altered morphology. We suggest that such phenomena may have played a role in the evolution of form. PMID:9286107

  13. Morphological Evolution of Nanocluster Aggregates and Single Crystals in Alkaline Zinc Electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, D; Turney, DE; Anantharaman, B; Steingart, DA; Banerjee, S

    2014-04-24

    The morphology of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated transmission electron microscopy grids. At low over-potentials (eta = -50 mV), the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: similar to 5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form similar to 50 nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (00 (0) over bar2) growth above an overpotential of vertical bar eta(c)vertical bar > 125 mV leads to the formation of hexagonal single crystals up to 2 mu m in diameter. Potentiostatic current transients were used to calculate the nucleation rate from Scharifker et al.'s model. The exp(eta) dependence of the nucleation rates indicates that atomistic nucleation theory explains the nucleation process better than Volmer-Weber theory. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment.

  14. Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: Morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Collins, Clint E.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Russell, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations permit the diversification of lineages, but they may also impose functional constraints on behaviors such as locomotion. Thus, it is not surprising that secondary simplification of novel locomotory traits has occurred several times among vertebrates and could potentially lead to exceptional divergence when constraints are relaxed. For example, the gecko adhesive system is a remarkable innovation that permits locomotion on surfaces unavailable to other animals, but has been lost or simplified in species that have reverted to a terrestrial lifestyle. We examined the functional and morphological consequences of this adaptive simplification in the Pachydactylus radiation of geckos, which exhibits multiple unambiguous losses or bouts of simplification of the adhesive system. We found that the rates of morphological and 3D locomotor kinematic evolution are elevated in those species that have simplified or lost adhesive capabilities. This finding suggests that the constraints associated with adhesion have been circumvented, permitting these species to either run faster or burrow. The association between a terrestrial lifestyle and the loss/reduction of adhesion suggests a direct link between morphology, biomechanics, and ecology. PMID:25548182

  15. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The χ of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  16. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Morphological Evolution and Locomotor Performance of the Carnivoran Forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Serra, Alberto; Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for estimating the influence of phylogeny, allometry and locomotor performance on forelimb shape in living and extinct carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora). The main objective is to investigate morphological convergences towards similar locomotor strategies in the shape of the major forelimb bones. Results indicate that both size and phylogeny have strong effects on the anatomy of all forelimb bones. In contrast, bone shape does not correlate in the living taxa with maximum running speed or daily movement distance, two proxies closely related to locomotor performance. A phylomorphospace approach showed that shape variation in forelimb bones mainly relates to changes in bone robustness. This indicates the presence of biomechanical constraints resulting from opposite demands for energetic efficiency in locomotion –which would require a slender forelimb– and resistance to stress –which would be satisfied by a robust forelimb–. Thus, we interpret that the need of maintaining a trade-off between both functional demands would limit shape variability in forelimb bones. Given that different situations can lead to one or another morphological solution, depending on the specific ecology of taxa, the evolution of forelimb morphology represents a remarkable “one-to-many mapping” case between anatomy and ecology. PMID:24454891

  17. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  18. Morphology evolution and rheological properties of polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Dong, Xia; Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Dujin; Han, Charles C

    2013-09-21

    The morphology evolution and rheological response of a near-critical composition polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear was studied with an ARES rheometer and a shear light scattering photometer equipped with an optical microscope in this work. The relationship between the morphology of the blend during the relaxation after the cessation of steady shear with different shear rates and their corresponding rheological properties was successfully established. It was found that the different shear-induced morphologies under steady shear would relax to the equilibrium states via varied mechanisms after the shear cessation. The average size of the dispersed domains in the coarsening process was influenced by the pre-shear history. The results indicated that the pre-shear history could slow down the growth rate of phase domains during the coarsening process. It had effect on the coarsening mechanism on the early stage of relaxation after the cessation of very strong shear when the homogenization effects were strong, but no effect on the late stage. The storage modulus G' increased significantly in the breakup process of the string-like phase. After all the string-like structures were broken up into small ellipsoids, then G' gradually decreased and finally approached to an invariant value. The characteristic rheological behavior can be attributed to the different structure on the relaxation process. PMID:24070308

  19. Bulk Fabrication of WS2 Nanoplates: Investigation on the Morphology Evolution and Electrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Wang, Peilun; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional layered chalcogenide WS2, similar to graphene, is considered to be very interesting for materials scientists. However, to make it a useful material platform, it is necessary to develop sophisticated synthesis methods to control its morphology. In this paper, we present a simple approach to prepare various morphologies of WS2 nanostructures by direct thermal evaporation of WO3 and S powders onto Si substrates sputtered with W film without using any nanostructured W-contained precursors and highly toxic sulfide gases. This method can produce bulk quantities of pure hexagonal, horizontally grown WS2 nanoplates, vertically grown nanoplates, and nanoplate-formed flowers simply by tuning the distance between the substrate and source powders. The synthesis mechanism and morphology evolution model were proposed. Moreover, when employed as a thin-film anode material, the Li-ion battery with as-prepared, vertically grown WS2 nanoplates presented a rechargeable performance between 3 and 0.01 V with a discharge capacity of about 773 mAh/cm(3) after recycling three times, much better than its already-reported counterparts with randomly distributed WS2 nanosheet electrodes, but the battery with horizontally grown WS2 nanoplates could not show any charge-discharge cycling property, which could be attributed to the different structures of WS2 anodes for Li(+) ion intercalation or deintercalation. PMID:27295215

  20. Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).

    PubMed

    Regnault, Sophie; Jones, Marc E H; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    The patella (kneecap) is the largest and best-known of the sesamoid bones, postulated to confer biomechanical advantages including increasing joint leverage and reinforcing the tendon against compression. It has evolved several times independently in amniotes, but despite apparently widespread occurrence in lizards, the patella remains poorly characterised in this group and is, as yet, completely undescribed in their nearest extant relative Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia). Through radiography, osteological and fossil studies we examined patellar presence in diverse lizard and lepidosauromorph taxa, and using computed tomography, dissection and histology we investigated in greater depth the anatomy and morphology of the patella in 16 lizard species and 19 Sphenodon specimens. We have found the first unambiguous evidence of a mineralised patella in Sphenodon, which appears similar to the patella of lizards and shares several gross and microscopic anatomical features. Although there may be a common mature morphology, the squamate patella exhibits a great deal of variability in development (whether from a cartilage anlage or not, and in the number of mineralised centres) and composition (bone, mineralised cartilage or fibrotendinous tissue). Unlike in mammals and birds, the patella in certain lizards and Sphenodon appears to be a polymorphic trait. We have also explored the evolution of the patella through ancestral state reconstruction, finding that the patella is ancestral for lizards and possibly Lepidosauria as a whole. Clear evidence of the patella in rhynchocephalian or stem lepidosaurian fossil taxa would clarify the evolutionary origin(s) of the patella, but due to the small size of this bone and the opportunity for degradation or loss we could not definitively conclude presence or absence in the fossils examined. The pattern of evolution in lepidosaurs is unclear but our data suggest that the emergence of this sesamoid may be related to the evolution of secondary

  1. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of Cat Skulls: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Morphological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruta, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of biological shape evolution are greatly enhanced when framed in a phylogenetic perspective. Inclusion of fossils amplifies the scope of macroevolutionary research, offers a deep-time perspective on tempo and mode of radiations, and elucidates life-trait changes. We explore the evolution of skull shape in felids (cats) through morphometric analyses of linear variables, phylogenetic comparative methods, and a new cladistic study of saber-toothed cats. Methodology/Principal Findings A new phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) exclusive of Felinae and some basal felids, but does not support the monophyly of various saber-toothed tribes and genera. We quantified skull shape variation in 34 extant and 18 extinct species using size-adjusted linear variables. These distinguish taxonomic group membership with high accuracy. Patterns of morphospace occupation are consistent with previous analyses, for example, in showing a size gradient along the primary axis of shape variation and a separation between large and small-medium cats. By combining the new phylogeny with a molecular tree of extant Felinae, we built a chronophylomorphospace (a phylogeny superimposed onto a two-dimensional morphospace through time). The evolutionary history of cats was characterized by two major episodes of morphological divergence, one marking the separation between saber-toothed and modern cats, the other marking the split between large and small-medium cats. Conclusions/Significance Ancestors of large cats in the ‘Panthera’ lineage tend to occupy, at a much later stage, morphospace regions previously occupied by saber-toothed cats. The latter radiated out into new morphospace regions peripheral to those of extant large cats. The separation between large and small-medium cats was marked by considerable morphologically divergent trajectories early in feline evolution. A chronophylomorphospace has wider applications in

  2. Cure kinetics, morphologies, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic/MWCNT modified multifunctional glassy epoxies prepared via continuous reaction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaole

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop a novel continuous reactor method to prepare partially cured epoxy prepolymers for aerospace prepreg applications with the aim of replacing traditional batch reactors. Compared to batch reactors, the continuous reactor is capable of solubilizing and dispersing a broad range of additives including thermoplastic tougheners, stabilizers, nanoparticles and curatives and advancing epoxy molecular weights and viscosities while reducing energy consumption. In order to prove this concept, polyethersulfone (PES) modified 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (44DDS)/tetraglycidyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) epoxy prepolymers were firstly prepared using both continuous reactor and batch reactor methods. Kinetic studies confirmed the chain extension reaction in the continuous reactor is similar to the batch reactor, and the molecular weights and viscosities of prepolymers were readily controlled through reaction kinetics. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed similar cured network morphologies for formulations prepared from batch and continuous reactors. Additionally tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture toughness analyses concluded mechanical properties of cured epoxy matrices produced from both reactors were equivalent. Effects of multifunctional epoxy compositions on thermoplastics phase-separated morphologies were systematically studied using a combination of AFM with nanomechanical mapping, spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to provide new insights to tailor cured reaction induced phase separation (CRIPS) in multifunctional epoxy blend networks. Furthermore, how resultant crosslinked glassy polymer network and phase-separated morphologies correlated with mechanical properties are discussed in detail. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TGDDM epoxy prepolymers were further prepared by combining the successful strategies for advancing epoxy chemistries and dispersing nanotubes using the continuous reactor

  3. Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.

    PubMed

    Devries, P J; Penz, Carla M; Hill, Ryan I

    2010-09-01

    1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution

  4. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Tocheri, Matthew W; Plavcan, J Michael; Brown, Francis H; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  5. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol V.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Plavcan, J. Michael; Brown, Francis H.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  6. Evolution of the axial system in craniates: morphology and function of the perivertebral musculature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system represents the plesiomorphic locomotor engine of the vertebrate body, playing a central role in locomotion. In craniates, the evolution of the postcranial skeleton is characterized by two major transformations. First, the axial skeleton became increasingly functionally and morphologically regionalized. Second, the axial-based locomotion plesiomorphic for craniates became progressively appendage-based with the evolution of extremities in tetrapods. These changes, together with the transition to land, caused increased complexity in the planes in which axial movements occur and moments act on the body and were accompanied by profound changes in axial muscle function. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary transformations of the structure and function of the perivertebral musculature, this review integrates recent anatomical and physiological data (e.g., muscle fiber types, activation patterns) with gross-anatomical and kinematic findings for pivotal craniate taxa. This information is mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis to infer the putative character set of the last common ancestor of the respective taxa and to conjecture patterns of locomotor and muscular evolution. The increasing anatomical and functional complexity in the muscular arrangement during craniate evolution is associated with changes in fiber angulation and fiber-type distribution, i.e., increasing obliqueness in fiber orientation and segregation of fatigue-resistant fibers in deeper muscle regions. The loss of superficial fatigue-resistant fibers may be related to the profound gross anatomical reorganization of the axial musculature during the tetrapod evolution. The plesiomorphic function of the axial musculature -mobilization- is retained in all craniates. Along with the evolution of limbs and the subsequent transition to land, axial muscles additionally function to globally stabilize the trunk against inertial and extrinsic limb muscle forces as well as

  7. Effect of medium permeability anisotropy on the morphological evolution of two non-uniformities in a geochemical dissolution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Keng-Hsin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Steefel, Carl

    2016-02-01

    The morphological evolutions of chemical dissolution fronts have attracted increasing interest in the field of the geological sciences and in industrial applications. Extensive research based on numerical simulations has been conducted to understand how various mechanisms and processes influence the morphological evolution of chemical dissolution fronts within geological media. Most researchers in previous studies have assumed the medium permeability to be isotropic for developing numerical models, despite isotropic geological media being uncommon in the real world. This study investigates the effect of medium permeability anisotropy on the morphological evolutions of two non-uniformities with higher permeability in a geochemical dissolution system. A series of numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the effect of medium permeability anisotropy on the morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front. The simulation results indicate that the patterns of the dissolution reaction front are substantially affected by medium permeability anisotropy. An increase in the permeability anisotropy ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the permeability in the transverse direction to that in the longitudinal direction, enhances the dominance of the flow-focusing effect over the stabilizing or merging effect induced by diffusion/dispersion mechanism. Therefore, an increase in the permeability anisotropy ratio can increase the fingering length of the dissolution front or cause the dissolution front to have a more unstable pattern. By contrast, a reduction in the permeability anisotropy ratio will weaken the flow-focusing effect, thereby reducing the fingering length of the dissolution front or changing the front morphology such that it has a more stable status. The effect of the permeability anisotropy ratio on the morphological evolution tends to decrease when the Zhao number (negative dimensionless upstream pressure gradient) of the system increases. The

  8. Morphology and biomechanics of the pinniped jaw: mandibular evolution without mastication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katrina E; Ruff, Christopher B; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-07-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) underwent a shift in jaw function away from typical carnivoran mastication to more novel marine behaviors during the terrestrial-aquatic transition. Here we test the effect of aquatic prey capture and male-male combat on the morphological evolution of a mammal jaw that does not masticate. Nine three-dimensional landmarks were taken along the mandible for 25 species (N = 83), and corpus and symphysis external and cortical breadths for a subset of five species (N = 33). Principal components analysis was performed on size-corrected landmark data to assess variation in overall jaw morphology across pinnipeds. Corpus breadths were input to a beam model to calculate strength properties and estimated bite force of specific species with contrasting behaviors (filter feeding, suction feeding, grip-and-tear feeding, and male-male combat). Results indicate that, although phylogenetic signal in jaw shape is strong, function is also important in determining morphology. Filter feeders display an elongate symphysis and a long toothrow that may play a role in filtering krill. Grip-and-tear feeders have a long jaw and large estimated bite force relative to non-biting species. However, the largest estimated bite forces were observed in males of male-male combative species, likely due to the high selection pressure associated with male success in highly polygynous species. The suction feeding jaw is weak in biting but has a different morphology in the two suction feeding taxa. In conclusion, familial patterns of pinniped jaw shape due to phylogenetic relatedness have been modified by adaptations to specialized behavior of individual taxa. PMID:23653179

  9. Evidence for Tidal Interactions and Mergers as the Origin of Galaxy Morphology Evolution in Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of a morphological study based on NIR images of 25 galaxies, with different levels of nuclear activity (star formation or AGN), in eight compact groups (CGs) of galaxies. We independently perform two different analyses: a study of the deviations of the isophotal levels from pure ellipses and a study of morphological asymmetries. The results yielded by the two analyses are highly consistent. For the first time, it is possible to show that deviations from pure ellipses are produced by inhomogeneous stellar mass distributions related to galaxy interactions and mergers. We find evidence of mass asymmetries in 74% of the galaxies in our sample. In 59% of these cases, the asymmetries come in pairs and are consistent with tidal effects produced by the proximity of companion galaxies. The symmetric galaxies are generally small in size or mass and inactive, and have an early-type morphology. They may have already lost their gas and least-attached envelope of stars to their more massive companions. In 20% of the galaxies we find evidence for cannibalism: a big galaxy swallowing a smaller companion. In 36% of the early-type galaxies the color gradient is positive (blue nucleus) or flat. Summing up these results, as much as 52% of the galaxies in our sample could show evidence of an ongoing or past merger. Our observations also suggest that galaxies in CGs merge more frequently under ``dry'' conditions (that is, once they have lost most of their gas). The high frequency of interacting and merging galaxies observed in our study is consistent with the bias of our sample toward CGs of type B, which represent the most active phase in the evolution of the groups. In these groups we also find a strong correlation between asymmetries and nuclear activity in early-type galaxies. This correlation allows us to identify tidal interactions and mergers as the cause of galaxy morphology transformation in CGs.

  10. Evolution of calcite growth morphology in the presence of magnesium: Implications for the dolomite problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mina; Xu, Jie; Teng, Henry H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of magnesium on calcite growth morphology was known to occur as step rounding in some cases and surface segmentation in others. What remains unknown are the conditions for and the relations between the different effects, suggesting a lack of comprehensive understanding of the fundamental cause. Here we investigated the evolution of spiral hillock morphology on calcite cleavage surfaces in solutions with increasing Ca to Mg ratios and supersaturation levels using in situ atomic force microscopy. We isolated the effects of Mg and saturation by conducting experiments under conditions of constant pH, ionic strength, and Ca2+/CO32-. Our results revealed three types of morphological variations, ranging from step rounding in one direction (type I), to all directions (type II), and finally to a mosaic-like surface segmentation associated with monolayer buckling and step bunching (type III). These results suggest that the effect of magnesium on calcite growth depends upon multiple parameters including the concentration of Mg in solution, the step speed, as well as the extensiveness of Mg for Ca substitution in calcite lattice. We propose that the morphological variation may be understood by a model taken into consideration of (1) the lifespan and flux size of Mg ions at kinks in comparison to step kinetics, and (2) the diffusion and alignment of point defects created by the substitution of Mg for Ca in the crystal lattice. Stress calculations show that the maximum amount of Mg which calcite lattice can sustain before plastic deformation is ∼40%, suggesting that lattice stress due to the mismatch between MgCO3 and CaCO3 is likely the ultimate cause for the difficulty of ambient condition dolomite crystallization.

  11. Continuous directed evolution of DNA-binding proteins to improve TALEN specificity.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Basil P; Badran, Ahmed H; Zuris, John A; Guilinger, John P; Davis, Kevin M; Chen, Liwei; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith; Liu, David R

    2015-10-01

    Nucleases containing programmable DNA-binding domains can alter the genomes of model organisms and have the potential to become human therapeutics. Here we present DNA-binding phage-assisted continuous evolution (DB-PACE) as a general approach for the laboratory evolution of DNA-binding activity and specificity. We used this system to generate transcription activator-like effectors nucleases (TALENs) with broadly improved DNA cleavage specificity, establishing DB-PACE as a versatile approach for improving the accuracy of genome-editing agents. PMID:26258293

  12. Continuous directed evolution of DNA-binding proteins to improve TALEN specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Basil P.; Badran, Ahmed H.; Zuris, John A.; Guilinger, John P.; Davis, Kevin M.; Chen, Liwei; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Sander, Jeffry D.; Joung, J. Keith; Liu, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleases containing programmable DNA-binding domains can alter the genomes of model organisms and have the potential to become human therapeutics. Here we present DNA-binding phage-assisted continuous evolution (DB-PACE) as a general approach for the laboratory evolution of DNA-binding activity and specificity. We used this system to generate TALE nucleases with broadly improved DNA cleavage specificity, establishing DB-PACE as a versatile approach for improving the accuracy of genome-editing agents. PMID:26258293

  13. Modeling long-term morphological change and mixed bed sediment evolution in the Deschutes Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Lesser, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    estuary also accumulates outside of the estuary. The volume of sediment transported in the model varies by an order of magnitude between the lowest and highest erodibility values. The amount of erosion and degree of grain-size evolution through subsequent years depends greatly on the erodibility parameters. Direct field measurements of the sediment erodibility would assist in calibrating the model and reducing uncertainty. Regardless of the erodibility values, the evolving bed plays a primary role in determining the flow patterns and velocities, both of which affect the rate of morphological change.

  14. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-05-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  15. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-08-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  16. Continuous variable quantum optical simulation for time evolution of quantum harmonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Guo, Hong; Xie, Changde; Su, Xiaolong

    2016-03-01

    Quantum simulation enables one to mimic the evolution of other quantum systems using a controllable quantum system. Quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is one of the most important model systems in quantum physics. To observe the transient dynamics of a QHO with high oscillation frequency directly is difficult. We experimentally simulate the transient behaviors of QHO in an open system during time evolution with an optical mode and a logical operation system of continuous variable quantum computation. The time evolution of an atomic ensemble in the collective spontaneous emission is analytically simulated by mapping the atomic ensemble onto a QHO. The measured fidelity, which is used for quantifying the quality of the simulation, is higher than its classical limit. The presented simulation scheme provides a new tool for studying the dynamic behaviors of QHO.

  17. Continuous variable quantum optical simulation for time evolution of quantum harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Guo, Hong; Xie, Changde; Su, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Quantum simulation enables one to mimic the evolution of other quantum systems using a controllable quantum system. Quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is one of the most important model systems in quantum physics. To observe the transient dynamics of a QHO with high oscillation frequency directly is difficult. We experimentally simulate the transient behaviors of QHO in an open system during time evolution with an optical mode and a logical operation system of continuous variable quantum computation. The time evolution of an atomic ensemble in the collective spontaneous emission is analytically simulated by mapping the atomic ensemble onto a QHO. The measured fidelity, which is used for quantifying the quality of the simulation, is higher than its classical limit. The presented simulation scheme provides a new tool for studying the dynamic behaviors of QHO. PMID:26961962

  18. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2016-01-01

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen’s hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1–30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen’s analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870–880] a model for the Red Queen’s hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host–pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/− type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (−/−) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems. PMID:26831108

  19. Self-assembly of ABC miktoarm star peptides and kinetic evolution of the supramolecular morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-An; Ou, Yu-Chuan; Cheetham, Andrew; Cui, Honggang

    2013-03-01

    Amphiphilic peptides are versatile building blocks to engineer well-defined nanostructures. A great deal of work has shown the use of peptides to construct structures such as micelles, nanofibers, nanoribbons, or nanotubes through the rational design of peptide primary sequences. Despite amphiphilic peptides undergoing rapid self-assembly to form thermodynamically stable micellar structures, the resulting assembled morphologies are often found to slowly evolve over time. Here we report our rational design of an ABC miktoarm star peptide which comprises three immiscible domains: 1) a β-sheet adopting peptide segment with overall hydrophilicity 2) a hydrophobic hydrocarbon and 3) a hydrophobic and lipophobic fluorocarbon segment. In aqueous solution, this designed peptide can spontaneously associate into one-dimensional structures such as twisted-ribbons and helical ribbons. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to directly visualize the structural evolution with time from narrow structures into higher hierarchical large assemblies.

  20. Morphological Engineering of CVD-Grown Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingqing; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Jianping; Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-08-01

    2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have emerged as new possibilites beyond conventional particulate catalysts in facilitating efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution. This is mainly mediated by the ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio and the effective coupling of all active sites with supporting electrodes. Especially, the facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has enabled morphological engineering of monolayer TMDC catalysts toward development of abundant active edge sites within the 2D plane. Here, two pathways to achieve such purpose are highlighted, either by non-equilibrium growth of MoS2 dendrites or throughout high-density nucleation of MoS2 nanoflakes directly on the electrode materials. Furthermore, future research directions have also been proposed and discussed to further enhance the efficiency of such unique catalysts. PMID:26848711

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-Y.; Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2013-11-10

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORONAL MASS EJECTION CLOUD RECONSTRUCTED FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q.; Inhester, B.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, T. L.; Wang, M. Y.

    2012-05-20

    The propagation properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial to predict its geomagnetic effect. A newly developed three-dimensional (3D) mask fitting reconstruction method using coronagraph images from three viewpoints has been described and applied to the CME ejected on 2010 August 7. The CME's 3D localization, real shape, and morphological evolution are presented. Due to its interaction with the ambient solar wind, the morphology of this CME changed significantly in the early phase of evolution. Two hours after its initiation, it was expanding almost self-similarly. The CME's 3D localization is quite helpful to link remote sensing observations to in situ measurements. The investigated CME was propagating to Venus with its flank just touching STEREO B. Its corresponding interplanetary CME in the interplanetary space shows a possible signature of a magnetic cloud with a preceding shock in Venus Express (VEX) observations, while from STEREO B only a shock is observed. We have calculated three principal axes for the reconstructed 3D CME cloud. The orientation of the major axis is, in general, consistent with the orientation of a filament (polarity inversion line) observed by SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI. The flux rope axis derived by the Minimal Variance Analysis from VEX indicates a radial-directed axis orientation. It might be that locally only the leg of the flux rope passed through VEX. The height and speed profiles from the Sun to Venus are obtained. We find that the CME speed possibly had been adjusted to the speed of the ambient solar wind flow after leaving the COR2 field of view and before arriving at Venus. A southward deflection of the CME from the source region is found from the trajectory of the CME geometric center. We attribute it to the influence of the coronal hole where the fast solar wind emanated from.

  3. Investigating Lithologic Controls on the Morphology and Evolution of Bedrock Streams, Ouachita Mountains, Central Arkansas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, C. D., II; Gasparini, N. M.

    2014-12-01

    The incision of bedrock streams largely controls the topographic evolution of mountainous areas, and patterns of incision into bedrock hold information critical to unraveling past climate and tectonic uplift patterns. A popular tool in studying patterns of incision in bedrock streams is the channel steepness index, or channel gradient normalized by drainage area. The three main factors that are thought to affect channel steepness index are uplift rate, climate, and lithology. The Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas provide a study site with currently uniform uplift (essentially zero) and climate, allowing us to explore how changes in lithology affect local channel steepness values. The Ouachita Mountains are an intensely folded and faulted highland region, structurally related to the Appalachian Mountains to the east. Folding and faulting of this region occurred during the Paleozoic, and is no longer active. The trellised morphology of the stream network is controlled by past folding, as stream channels in the region generally flow along fold hinges. Bedrock in the area consists of Arkansas Novaculite, a massive chert that is highly resistant to erosion, and less resistant shale and sandstone members of the Bigfork and Mississippi Mountain Formation. Sense of bedding of geologic units is generally steep, although local folding causes high variation in bedding orientation.Where bedrock channels transition from novaculite to shale, knickpoints and high channel steepness index values are observed in some streams, while others seem unaffected by this lithologic boundary. We explore 5 bedrock streams that flow over the novaculite/shale boundary to determine what lithologic factors have the largest impact on incision of bedrock channels. Analysis consists of measurements of channel morphology, detailed local geologic mapping of bedding and fold orientation, and measurements of rock strength along stream channels. Understanding how lithologic differences affect local

  4. Discrete layers of interacting growing protein seeds: convective and morphological stages of evolution.

    PubMed

    Lappa, Marcello

    2005-03-01

    The growth of several macromolecular seeds uniformly distributed on the bottom of a protein reactor (i.e., a discrete layer of N crystals embedded within a horizontal layer of liquid with no-slip boundaries) under microgravity conditions is investigated for different values of N and for two values of the geometrical aspect ratio of the container. The fluid dynamics of the growth reactor and the morphological (shape-change) evolution of the crystals are analyzed by means of a recently developed moving boundary method based on differential equations coming from the protein "surface incorporation kinetics." The face growth rates are found to depend on the complex multicellular structure of the convective field and on associated "pluming phenomena." This correspondence is indirect evidence of the fact that mass transport in the bulk and surface attachment kinetics are competitive as rate-limiting steps for growth. Significant adjustments in the roll pattern take place as time passes. The convective field undergoes an interesting sequence of transitions to different values of the mode and to different numbers of rising solutal jets. The structure of the velocity field and the solutal effects, in turn, exhibit sensitivity to the number of interacting crystals if this number is small. In the opposite case, a certain degree of periodicity can be highlighted for a core zone not affected by edge effects. The results with no-slip lateral walls are compared with those for periodic boundary conditions to assess the role played by geometrical constraints in determining edge effects and the wavelength selection process. The numerical method provides "microscopic" and "morphological" details as well as general rules and trends about the macroscopic evolution (i.e., "ensemble behaviors") of the system. PMID:15903456

  5. Evolution of Soot Particle Morphology and Mixing State in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Sharma, N.; Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M.; Aiken, A. C.; Zaveri, R. A.; Salvadori, N.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Moosmuller, H.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S.; Williams, L. R.; Liu, S.; Dzepina, K.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Fialho, P. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; kumar, S.; Dziobak, M.; Wright, K.

    2013-12-01

    Soot particles (aka black carbon) impact the environment and climate by affecting Earth's radiation balance, cloud microphysics, and atmospheric chemistry. The complex morphology and mixing state of soot particles influence their optical properties and therefore their radiative forcing, the particles' transport, lifecycle, and heterogeneous chemistry. How soot morphology and mixing state alter during transport from the source to remote areas is still not well understood. While aging, soot particles can change shape, oxidize and mix, and become coated by organic and inorganic materials. In this study, we investigate the morphological and mixing state evolution of single soot particles in different stages of their 'life' in the atmosphere. This analysis will include an overview of several samples collected in various locations and atmospheric conditions: 1) particles freshly emitted near freeway on-ramps in Southern Michigan (USA); 2) particles emitted in two biomass burning events in New Mexico (USA), one close to the sampling location and another hundreds of miles away; 3) particles in the urban atmosphere of Mexico City and in the uplifted boundary layer captured on the top of the Pico de Tres Padres Mountain (on the north edge of Mexico City); 4) particles collected in the Sacramento urban area and the Sierra Nevada foothills (CA, USA); 5) particles collected in Detling (UK), and mostly transported from London, and 6) long-range transported particles in the free troposphere and collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory, located near the top of the Pico Volcano in the Azores (Portugal). We analyzed a large number of individual particles using electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy followed by image analysis. The projected structural properties of soot particles were characterized using size (maximum length, maximum width, and area equivalent diameter) and shape descriptors (e.g., aspect ratio, roundness, and convexity). The particle mass-fractal dimensions

  6. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Hamilton, Brett R; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F; Venter, Deon J

    2015-03-31

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought. PMID:25775536

  7. Artificial evolution of the morphology and kinematics in a flapping-wing mini-UAV.

    PubMed

    de Margerie, E; Mouret, J B; Doncieux, S; Meyer, J-A

    2007-12-01

    Birds demonstrate that flapping-wing flight (FWF) is a versatile flight mode, compatible with hovering, forward flight and gliding to save energy. This extended flight domain would be especially useful on mini-UAVs. However, design is challenging because aerodynamic efficiency is conditioned by complex movements of the wings, and because many interactions exist between morphological (wing area, aspect ratio) and kinematic parameters (flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, wing unfolding). Here we used artificial evolution to optimize these morpho-kinematic features on a simulated 1 kg UAV, equipped with wings articulated at the shoulder and wrist. Flight tests were conducted in a dedicated steady aerodynamics simulator. Parameters generating horizontal flight for minimal mechanical power were retained. Results showed that flight at medium speed (10-12 m s(-1)) can be obtained for reasonable mechanical power (20 W kg(-1)), while flight at higher speed (16-20 m s(-1)) implied increased power (30-50 W kg(-1)). Flight at low speed (6-8 m s(-1)) necessitated unrealistic power levels (70-500 W kg(-1)), probably because our simulator neglected unsteady aerodynamics. The underlying adaptation of morphology and kinematics to varying flight speed were compared to available biological data on the flight of birds. PMID:18037730

  8. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: Evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Hamilton, Brett R.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W.; Merritt, David J.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.; Venter, Deon J.

    2015-01-01

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought. PMID:25775536

  9. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism. PMID:26923325

  10. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism.

  11. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    PubMed

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity. PMID:26429581

  12. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism. PMID:26923325

  13. Phylogenetic analysis using Lévy processes: finding jumps in the evolution of continuous traits.

    PubMed

    Landis, Michael J; Schraiber, Joshua G; Liang, Mason

    2013-03-01

    Gaussian processes, a class of stochastic processes including Brownian motion and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, are widely used to model continuous trait evolution in statistical phylogenetics. Under such processes, observations at the tips of a phylogenetic tree have a multivariate Gaussian distribution, which may lead to suboptimal model specification under certain evolutionary conditions, as supposed in models of punctuated equilibrium or adaptive radiation. To consider non-normally distributed continuous trait evolution, we introduce a method to compute posterior probabilities when modeling continuous trait evolution as a Lévy process. Through data simulation and model testing, we establish that single-rate Brownian motion (BM) and Lévy processes with jumps generate distinct patterns in comparative data. We then analyzed body mass and endocranial volume measurements for 126 primates. We rejected single-rate BM in favor of a Lévy process with jumps for each trait, with the lineage leading to most recent common ancestor of great apes showing particularly strong evidence against single-rate BM. PMID:23034385

  14. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, A.; Goswami, N.; Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.

    2014-10-28

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1–10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and rhombohedric Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  15. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027525

  16. Morphological evolution of an ephemeral tidal inlet from opening to closure: The Albufeira inlet, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, André B.; Nahon, Alphonse; Dodet, Guillaume; Rita Pires, Ana; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Bruneau, Nicolas; Azevedo, Alberto; Bertin, Xavier; Benevides, Pedro; Andrade, César; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-02-01

    Like other similar coastal systems, the Albufeira lagoon is artificially opened every year to promote water renewal and closes naturally within a few months. The evolution of the Albufeira Lagoon Inlet from its opening in April 2010 to its closure 8 months later is qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed through a combination of monthly field surveys and the application of a process-based morphodynamic model. Field data alone would not cover the whole space-time domain of the morphology of the inlet during its life time, whereas the morphodynamic model alone cannot reliably simulate the morphological development. Using a nudging technique introduced herein, this problem is overcome and a reliable and complete data set is generated for describing the morphological development of the tidal inlet. The new technique is shown to be a good alternative to extensive model calibration, as it can drastically improve the model performance. Results reveal that the lagoon imported sediments during its life span. However, the whole system (lagoon plus littoral barrier) actually lost sediments to the sea. This behavior is partly attributed to the modulation of tidal asymmetry by the spring-neap cycle, which reduces flood dominance on spring tides. Results also allowed the assessment of the relationship between the spring tidal prism and the cross-section of tidal inlets (the PA relationship). While this relationship is well established from empirical, theoretical and numerical evidences, its validity in inlets that are small or away from equilibrium was unclear. Results for the Albufeira lagoon reveal an excellent match between the new data and the empirical PA relationship derived for larger inlets and equilibrium conditions, supporting the validity of the relationship beyond its original scope.

  17. Anti-predator defence drives parallel morphological evolution in flea beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Chesters, Douglas; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Xingke; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2011-01-01

    Complex morphological or functional traits are frequently considered evolutionarily unique and hence useful for taxonomic classification. Flea beetles (Alticinae) are characterized by an extraordinary jumping apparatus in the usually greatly expanded femur of their hind legs that separates them from the related Galerucinae. Here, we examine the evolution of this trait using phylogenetic analysis and a time-calibrated tree from mitochondrial (rrnL and cox1) and nuclear (small subunits and large subunits) genes, as well as morphometrics of femora using elliptic Fourier analysis. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple independent origins of the metafemoral spring and therefore rejects the monophyly of Alticinae, as defined by this trait. Geometric outline analysis of femora shows the great plasticity of this structure and its correlation with the type and diversity of the metafemoral springs. The recognition of convergence in jumping apparatus now resolves the long-standing difficulties of Galerucinae–Alticinae classification, and cautions against the value of trait complexity as a measure of taxonomic significance. The lineage also shows accelerated species diversification rates relative to other leaf beetles, which may be promoted by the same ecological factors that also favour the repeated evolution of jumping as an anti-predation mechanism. PMID:21159678

  18. Female reproductive tract form drives the evolution of complex sperm morphology.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Dawn M; Miller, Kelly B; Segraves, Kari A; Pitnick, Scott

    2012-03-20

    The coevolution of female mate preferences and exaggerated male traits is a fundamental prediction of many sexual selection models, but has largely defied testing due to the challenges of quantifying the sensory and cognitive bases of female preferences. We overcome this difficulty by focusing on postcopulatory sexual selection, where readily quantifiable female reproductive tract structures are capable of biasing paternity in favor of preferred sperm morphologies and thus represent a proximate mechanism of female mate choice when ejaculates from multiple males overlap within the tract. Here, we use phylogenetically controlled generalized least squares and logistic regression to test whether the evolution of female reproductive tract design might have driven the evolution of complex, multivariate sperm form in a family of aquatic beetles. The results indicate that female reproductive tracts have undergone extensive diversification in diving beetles, with remodeling of size and shape of several organs and structures being significantly associated with changes in sperm size, head shape, gains/losses of conjugation and conjugate size. Further, results of Bayesian analyses suggest that the loss of sperm conjugation is driven by elongation of the female reproductive tract. Behavioral and ultrastructural examination of sperm conjugates stored in the female tract indicates that conjugates anchor in optimal positions for fertilization. The results underscore the importance of postcopulatory sexual selection as an agent of diversification. PMID:22323584

  19. Sexual selection and the evolution of behavior, morphology, neuroanatomy and genes in humans and other primates.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, Roscoe; Bigoni, Francesca

    2014-10-14

    Explaining human evolution means developing hypotheses about the occurrence of sex differences in the brain. Neuroanatomy is significantly influenced by sexual selection, involving the cognitive domain through competition for mates and mate choice. Male neuroanatomy emphasizes subcortical brain areas and visual-spatial skills whereas that of females emphasizes the neocortex and social cognitive areas. In primate species with high degrees of male competition, areas of the brain dealing with aggression are emphasized. Females have higher mirror neuron activity scores than males. Hundreds of genes differ in expression profiles between males and females. Sexually selected differences in gene expression can produce neuroanatomical sex differences. A feedback system links genes, gene expression, hormones, morphology, social structure and behavior. Sex differences, often through female choice, can be rapidly modulated by socialization. Human evolution is a dramatic case of how a trend toward pair bonding and monogamy lowered male competition and increased female choice as a necessary step in releasing the cognitive potential of our species. PMID:25445181

  20. Induced star formation and morphological evolution in very high redshift radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Near-infrared, sub-arcsecond seeing images obtained with the W M Keck I Telescope of show strong evolution at rest-frame optical wavelengths in the morphologies of high redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) with 1 9 < z < 4 4 The structures change from large-scale low surface brightness regions surrounding bright, multiple component and often radio-aligned features at z > 3, to much more compact and symmetrical shapes at z < 3 The linear sizes ({approximately} 10 kpc) and luminosities (M{sub B} {approximately} -20 to -22) of the individual components in the z > 3 HzRGs are similar to the total sizes and luminosities of normal, radio-quiet, star forming galaxies seen at z = 3 - 4 `R`-band, 0 1`` resolution images with the Hubble Space Telescope of one of these HzRGs, 4C41 17 at z = 3 800, show that at rest-frame UV wavelengths the galaxy morphology breaks up in even smaller, {approximately} 1 kpc-sized components embedded in a large halo of low suface brightness emission The brightest UV emission is from a radio-aligned, edge-brightened feature (4C41 17.North) downstream from a bright radio knot A narrow-band Ly-{alpha} image, also obtained with HST, shows an arc-shaped Ly-{alpha} feature at this same location, suggestive of a strong jet/cloud collision Deep spectropolarimetric observations with the W M Keck II Telescope of 4C41 17 show that the radio-aligned UV continuum is unpolarized Instead the total light spectrum shows ahsorption lines and P-Cygni type features that are similar to the radio-quiet z = 3 - 4 star forming galaxies This shows that the rest-frame UV light in 4C41 17 is dominated by starlight, not scattered light from a hidden AGN The combined HST and Keck data suggest that the radio--aligned rest-frame UV continuum is probably caused by jet-induced star formation The strong morphological evolution suggests that we see the first evidence for the assemblage of massive ellipticals, the parent population of very powerful radio sources at much lower redshifts

  1. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  2. Evolution of channel morphology in a large river subject to rectification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Proto, Matteo; Zen, Simone; Bertoldi, Walter; Prà, Elena Dai; Comiti, Francesco; Surian, Nicola; Zolezzi, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Many large rivers in Europe have been subject to heavy modifications for land reclamation and flood mitigation through centuries. As a consequence, the study of the pre-alteration morphological patterns and of the related channel evolution following the anthropic modifications is rather challenging. The Adige River is the second longest river in Italy and drains 12,100 km2 of the Eastern Italian Alps. Currently, it features a straight to sinuous pattern and an average channel width of 40-60 m. A massive rectification scheme aiming at land reclamation of the Adige valley bottom was planned in the late 18th century, and implemented starting in the first decades of 19th century. Nowadays, it can be considered one of the most altered rivers in Italy, not only due to channelization but also to the presence of many hydropower reservoirs and check-dams along its tributaries. This study aims to the reconstruction of the Adige River's evolutionary trajectory over the last 250 years, and comprehension of key control factors driving channel evolution. A multi-temporal analysis of historical maps and orthophotos from 1776, to 2006 was performed in order to assess channel modifications. In addition, land use changes at the basin scale, years of occurrence of most relevant flood events, and climate variability over the investigated period were analyzed. The detailed topographical map surveyed in 1803 was taken as a reference, and the study sector (115 km long) was divided into 39 reaches. Active channel, bars, riparian vegetation and channel control works were geo-processed. Results show that the Adige River suffered the most intense alteration from 1803 to 1855, and especially from 1847 to 1855. During this period channel narrowing ranged from 14% to 70%, coupled with pattern changes and decreases in the braiding, sinuosity and anabrancing indices. Most important alterations occurred in the reaches presenting a multi-thread morphology in 1803, as their average width declined

  3. Evolution of terrace risers along the upper Rhine graben inferred from morphologic dating methods: evidence of climatic and tectonic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivière, B.; Marquis, Guy

    2000-06-01

    We show that morphologic dating techniques that have been applied successfully in arid and semi-arid areas are also suitable for slowly evolving scarps that are usually found in temperate climate environments. We have attempted two morphologic approaches, based on diffusion, to relate the present-day shape of an abandoned terrace riser to its age. The first assumes a model of scarp degradation based on a diffusive process (the D method). The second evaluates the state of scarp degradation using the slope distribution (the SD method) along a topographic profile. By using a manmade scarp of known age, we have obtained a mass diffusivity close to 1.4m2ka-1 when the area experiences a temperate climate characterized by a continuous vegetation cover. However, this value decreases during glacial episodes, probably on account of the permafrost. Even though the SD method requires an age correction that can be easily computed, only this method reveals that at several profiles a later scarp reactivation event has occurred. Indeed, along several profiles, the slope distribution was best fitted by two offset Gaussian curves, suggesting that some scarps have undergone a complex evolution that cannot be modelled with a single diffusive process. This scarp reactivation may correspond to a new incisive episode and allows one to estimate the vertical incision rate along the terrace riser. Applied to a Wurmian terrace riser of the upper Rhine valley (NE France), this approach reveals that the vertical incision rate ranges from 0.2 to 0.85mmyr-1 between 35 and 15ka and that the terrace bevelling occurred during two episodes related to climatic forcing. Moreover, we can identify a component of tectonic forcing evidenced by an increase to the north of vertical incision rate and Rhine stream-power. Another major result is showing that this terrace riser is not isochronous along its strike and that younger portions result from lateral incision of a 30ka pre-existing scarp.

  4. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  5. Impact constraints on the environment for chemical evolution and the continuity of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1990-01-01

    The moon and the earth were bombarded heavily by planetesimals and asteroids that were capable of interfering with chemical evolution and the origin of life. This paper explores the frequency of giant terrestrial impacts able to stop prebiotic chemistry in the probable regions of chemical evolution. The limited time available between impacts disruptive to prebiotic chemistry at the time of the oldest evidence of life suggests the need for a rapid process for chemical evolution of life. On the other hand, rapid chemical evolution in cloud systems and lakes or other shallow evaporating water bodies would have been possible because reactants could have been concentrated and polymerized rapidly in this environment. Thus life probably could have originated near the surface between frequent surface-sterilizing impacts. There may not have been continuity of life depending on sunlight because there is evidence that life, existing as early as 3.8 Gyr ago, may have been destroyed by giant impacts. The first such organisms on earth were probably not the ancestors of present life.

  6. A New LC-MS-based Strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economically valuable giant genus Solanum, containing dozens of functional food species such as eggplant and tomato, affords an excellent system to compare and correlate metabolic chemistry with species morphology and evolution. Here, we devised a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-T...

  7. Phylogenetic Relationships and Morphological Character Evolution of Photosynthetic Euglenids (Excavata) Inferred from Taxon-rich Analyses of Five Genes.

    PubMed

    Karnkowska, Anna; Bennett, Matthew S; Watza, Donovan; Kim, Jong Im; Zakryś, Bożena; Triemer, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic euglenids acquired chloroplasts by secondary endosymbiosis, which resulted in changes to their mode of nutrition and affected the evolution of their morphological characters. Mapping morphological characters onto a reliable molecular tree could elucidate major trends of those changes. We analyzed nucleotide sequence data from regions of three nuclear-encoded genes (nSSU, nLSU, hsp90), one chloroplast-encoded gene (cpSSU) and one nuclear-encoded chloroplast gene (psbO) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 59 photosynthetic euglenid species. Our results were consistent with previous works; most genera were monophyletic, except for the polyphyletic genus Euglena, and the paraphyletic genus Phacus. We also analyzed character evolution in photosynthetic euglenids using our phylogenetic tree and eight morphological traits commonly used for generic and species diagnoses, including: characters corresponding to well-defined clades, apomorphies like presence of lorica and mucilaginous stalks, and homoplastic characters like rigid cells and presence of large paramylon grains. This research indicated that pyrenoids were lost twice during the evolution of phototrophic euglenids, and that mucocysts, which only occur in the genus Euglena, evolved independently at least twice. In contrast, the evolution of cell shape and chloroplast morphology was difficult to elucidate, and could not be unambiguously reconstructed in our analyses. PMID:25377266

  8. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  9. Density changes of iron during morphological healing evolution of internal fatigue microcracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. L.; Sun, J.; Gao, L.

    2003-12-01

    Plastic-strain-controlled fatigue was performed on pure iron specimens with uniaxial symmetric tension-compression loadings at room temperature. The as-fatigued specimens were then annealed in vacuum at 1173 K from 1 to 7 hours. The morphologies of internal fatigue microcracks were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the as-fatigued and as-annealed specimens. The density of the specimens was measured with an electronic analytical balance. The density of the as-fatigued specimens decreased continuously as the fractional fatigue life increased, and was nearly constant when the specimens were annealed up to 2 hours at 1173 K, but increased gradually after 2 hours of annealing time. The density of some specimens eventually approximates to the value of ρ 0, the initial density, at 7 hours of annealing time. This suggests that the initial decrease in density is due to crack initiation and propagation in the as-fatigued specimens. At the early stage of annealing, the specimen density is nearly constant because the crack morphological change is controlled by surface diffusion. At the later stages, the density increases and finally returns to the initial density because the spherical voids evolved from the parent crack are reduced by volume diffusion coupled with grain-boundary diffusion. A combined model is presented to predict the shrinkage of the spherical voids within the specimens, and is in broad agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Phylogeny, ecology, morphological evolution, and reclassification of the diatom orders Surirellales and Rhopalodiales.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Nakov, Teofil; Alverson, Andrew J; Theriot, Edward C

    2016-10-01

    The Surirellales and Rhopalodiales are large, widespread, and morphologically diverse groups of raphid pennate diatoms (Bacillariphyta) whose raphe, a structure that facilitates active motility, opens internally into a siliceous canal. We collected 202 representatives of the lineage and sequenced genes from the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes to infer phylogenetic relationships as a basis for comparative study of ecology and morphological evolution as well as reclassification. The lineage was ancestrally marine, and we report the first evidence for a 'stepping stone' model of marine-freshwater transitions in which freshwater invasions were preceded by adaptation to intermediate brackish habitats. Phylogenetic comparative analyses also showed that the shift from an apical (e.g., Entomoneis) to transapical major axis of development (e.g., Surirella) did not have to proceed through subcircular intermediate forms (i.e., Campylodiscus). Rather, subcircular forms evolved both within lineages with longer apical axis or longer transapical axis. We also used the inferred phylogeny as a basis for genus-level reclassification of the lineage. Campylodiscus now includes the fastuosoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus, but excludes other marine Campylodiscus which are now classified as Coronia. Surirella includes the Surirella striatula clade, Surirella Pinnatae group, and species formerly classified as Cymatopleura. We resurrected the genus Iconella to accommodate Stenopterobia and the robustoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus. We broadened Epithemia to include members of the paraphyletic genus Rhopalodia. Finally, we discuss the challenges of constructing a classification that best leverages available phylogenetic data, while minimizing disruption to the research community and recognizing practical considerations stemming from the slow rate of progress on systematic studies of understudied organisms. PMID:27456747

  11. The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Caroline B; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z Yan; Pungor, Judit R; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-08-13

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are active, resourceful predators with a rich behavioural repertoire. They have the largest nervous systems among the invertebrates and present other striking morphological innovations including camera-like eyes, prehensile arms, a highly derived early embryogenesis and a remarkably sophisticated adaptive colouration system. To investigate the molecular bases of cephalopod brain and body innovations, we sequenced the genome and multiple transcriptomes of the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides. We found no evidence for hypothesized whole-genome duplications in the octopus lineage. The core developmental and neuronal gene repertoire of the octopus is broadly similar to that found across invertebrate bilaterians, except for massive expansions in two gene families previously thought to be uniquely enlarged in vertebrates: the protocadherins, which regulate neuronal development, and the C2H2 superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors. Extensive messenger RNA editing generates transcript and protein diversity in genes involved in neural excitability, as previously described, as well as in genes participating in a broad range of other cellular functions. We identified hundreds of cephalopod-specific genes, many of which showed elevated expression levels in such specialized structures as the skin, the suckers and the nervous system. Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodelling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems. PMID:26268193

  12. Phenotypic evolution of human craniofacial morphology after admixture: a geometric morphometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; González-José, Rolando; González-Martín, Antonio; Van der Molen, Silvina; Talavera, Arturo; Hernández, Patricia; Hernández, Miquel

    2006-03-01

    An evolutionary, diachronic approach to the phenotypic craniofacial pattern arisen in a human population after high levels of admixture and gene flow was achieved by means of geometric morphometrics. Admixture has long been studied after molecular data. Nevertheless, few efforts have been made to explain the morphological outcome in human craniofacial samples. The Spanish-Amerindian contact can be considered a good scenario for such an analysis. Here we present a comparative analysis of craniofacial shape changes observed between two putative ancestor groups, Spanish and precontact Aztecs, and two diachronic admixed groups, corresponding to early and late colonial periods from the Mexico's Central Valley. Quantitative shape comparisons of Amerindian, Spanish, and admixed groups were used to test the expectations of quantitative genetics for admixture events. In its simplest form, this prediction states that an admixed group will present phenotypic values falling between those of both parental groups. Results show that, in general terms, although the human skull is a complex, integrated structure, the craniofacial morphology observed fits the theoretical expectations of quantitative genetics. Thus, it is predictive of population structure and history. In fact, results obtained after the craniofacial analysis are in accordance with previous molecular and historical interpretations, providing evidence that admixture is a main microevolutionary agent influencing modern Mexican gene pool. However, expectations are not straightforward when moderate shape changes are considered. Deviations detected at localized structures, such as the upper and lower face, highlight the evolution of a craniofacial pattern exclusively inherent to the admixed groups, indicating that quantitative characters might respond to admixture in a complicated, nondirectional way. PMID:16323202

  13. A Real Time Investigation of Morphological Evolution During Solidification of Different Alloy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification phenomenon which occur at the solid/liquid (s/I) interface play a major role in the determination of structure and hence the technologically important properties of a casting. However, metals being opaque, conclusions related to several important phenomenon such as boundary layer thickness, morphological evolution, and eutectic and cell spacing are deduced from quenching experiments and subsequent post solidification metallographic analysis. Consequently, limited information is obtained about the dynamics of the process. This paper will discuss the recent efforts at the Space Science Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, to view and quantify in-situ and in real time the dynamics of the solidification process and to measure interfacial undercooling. First, a high resolution x-ray transmission microscope (XTM) has been developed to monitor fundamental interfacial phenomena during directional solidification of metals and alloys. The XTM operates in the range of 10-100 KeV and through projection is capable of achieving magnification of up to 16OX. Secondly, an innovative collapsible furnace has been designed to quantify interfacial undercooling by measuring the temperature of a moving s/I interface in reference to a fixed s/l interface. This measurement technique is non-intrusive in nature and is based on the Seebeck principle. In this paper real time results obtained to characterize the dynamics of irregular eutectic spacing will be presented. As an example fiber to lamella or plate transition in the Al-Al2Au eutectic system will be discussed. Further, a resolution limit of 25 micron has permitted viewing in real time morphological instability and cellular growth in Al-Au and Al-Ag systems. Simultaneously, a systematic investigation has been carried out to measure interfacial undercooling for Pb-1 wt.% Sn at and near the marginal stability regime. In conjunction with the XTM observations this study attempts to validate existing relationships

  14. The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z. Yan; Pungor, Judit R.; Edsinger-Gonzalez, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) are active, resourceful predators with a rich behavioral repertoire1. They have the largest nervous systems among the invertebrates2 and present other striking morphological innovations including camera-like eyes, prehensile arms, a highly derived early embryogenesis, and the most sophisticated adaptive coloration system among all animals1,3. To investigate the molecular bases of cephalopod brain and body innovations we sequenced the genome and multiple transcriptomes of the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides. We found no evidence for hypothesized whole genome duplications in the octopus lineage4–6. The core developmental and neuronal gene repertoire of the octopus is broadly similar to that found across invertebrate bilaterians, except for massive expansions in two gene families formerly thought to be uniquely enlarged in vertebrates: the protocadherins, which regulate neuronal development, and the C2H2 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors. Extensive mRNA editing generates transcript and protein diversity in genes involved in neural excitability, as previously described7, as well as in genes participating in a broad range of other cellular functions. We identified hundreds of cephalopod-specific genes, many of which showed elevated expression levels in such specialized structures as the skin, the suckers, and the nervous system. Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodeling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems. PMID:26268193

  15. Evolution of unusual morphologies in Lentibulariaceae (bladderworts and allies) and Podostemaceae (river-weeds): a pictorial report at the interface of developmental biology and morphological diversification

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Background Various groups of flowering plants reveal profound (‘saltational’) changes of their bauplans (architectural rules) as compared with related taxa. These plants are known as morphological misfits that appear as rather large morphological deviations from the norm. Some of them emerged as morphological key innovations (perhaps ‘hopeful monsters’) that gave rise to new evolutionary lines of organisms, based on (major) genetic changes. Scope This pictorial report places emphasis on released bauplans as typical for bladderworts (Utricularia, approx. 230 secies, Lentibulariaceae) and river-weeds (Podostemaceae, three subfamilies, approx. 54 genera, approx. 310 species). Bladderworts (Utricularia) are carnivorous, possessing sucking traps. They live as submerged aquatics (except for their flowers), as humid terrestrials or as epiphytes. Most Podostemaceae are restricted to rocks in tropical river-rapids and waterfalls. They survive as submerged haptophytes in these extreme habitats during the rainy season, emerging with their flowers afterwards. The recent scientific progress in developmental biology and evolutionary history of both Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is summarized. Conclusions Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae follow structural rules that are different from but related to those of more typical flowering plants. The roots, stems and leaves – as still distinguishable in related flowering plants – are blurred (‘fuzzy’). However, both families have stable floral bauplans. The developmental switches to unusual vegetative morphologies facilitated rather than prevented the evolution of species diversity in both families. The lack of one-to-one correspondence between structural categories and gene expression may have arisen from the re-use of existing genetic resources in novel contexts. Understanding what developmental patterns are followed in Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is a necessary prerequisite to discover the genetic

  16. Effect of film thickness on morphological evolution in dewetting and crystallization of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend films.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2011-11-01

    In this Article, the morphological evolution in the blend thin film of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated via mainly AFM. It was found that an enriched two-layer structure with PS at the upper layer and PCL at the bottom layer was formed during spinning coating. By changing the solution concentration, different kinds of crystal morphologies, such as finger-like, dendritic, and spherulitic-like, could be obtained at the bottom PCL layer. These different initial states led to the morphological evolution processes to be quite different from each other, so the phase separation, dewetting, and crystalline morphology of PS/PCL blend films as a function of time were studied. It was interesting to find that the morphological evolution of PS at the upper layer was largely dependent on the film thickness. For the ultrathin (15 nm) blend film, a liquid-solid/liquid-liquid dewetting-wetting process was observed, forming ribbons that rupture into discrete circular PS islands on voronoi finger-like PCL crystal. For the thick (30 nm) blend film, the liquid-liquid dewetting of the upper PS layer from the underlying adsorbed PCL layer was found, forming interconnected rim structures that rupture into discrete circular PS islands embedded in the single lamellar PCL dendritic crystal due to Rayleigh instability. For the thicker (60 nm) blend film, a two-step liquid-liquid dewetting process with regular holes decorated with dendritic PCL crystal at early annealing stage and small holes decorated with spherulite-like PCL crystal among the early dewetting holes at later annealing stage was observed. The mechanism of this unusual morphological evolution process was discussed on the basis of the entropy effect and annealing-induced phase separation. PMID:21936570

  17. Morphological Evolution of Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Chloroform: Mechanism of Switching on/off by Protic Species

    PubMed Central

    Douglas-Gallardo, O. A.; Gomez, C. G.; Macchione, M. A.; Cometto, F. P.; Coronado, E. A.; Macagno, V. A.; Pérez, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The morphological stability/morphological reshaping of noble metal nanoparticles are studied experimentally in order to unravel the chemical mechanisms lying beneath. Gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs, respectively) formed in chloroformic environment are used, as model synthetic systems, to study phenomena of morphological change. The morphological evolution of NPs that follows their formation, is characterized by spectroscopy (UV-Visible, Raman and FTIR) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The change of NP morphology involves the increase of the average NP size and the broadening of size distribution, in a close resemblance with the effect characteristically obtained from the Ostwald ripening. The effect of the poor solvating properties of chloroform in stabilizing small charged species (H+, Ag+, Au+) as well as the principle of electroneutrality of matter are analyzed in order to formulate a feasible reaction scheme consisting of a three-step processes: the generation of soluble intermediary species by corrosion of nanoparticles, the diffusion of intermediary species from one nanoparticle to another, and the re-deposition process involving the reduction of intermediary species. This basic reaction scheme is used as hypothesis to plan and perform experiments, which reveal that molecular oxygen dissolved in the dispersive medium can drive NP corrosion, however, protic species are also required as co-reactant. The polarity of the hydrogen bond and the ligand properties of the anions produced by deprotonation are feature of the protic species that enable/disable the corrosion and, in turn, the NP morphological evolution. PMID:26889378

  18. Multiple sexual selection pressures drive the rapid evolution of complex morphology in a male secondary genital structure.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Stephen R; Masly, John P

    2015-10-01

    The genitalia of internally fertilizing taxa represent a striking example of rapid morphological evolution. Although sexual selection can shape variation in genital morphology, it has been difficult to test whether multiple sexual selection pressures combine to drive the rapid evolution of individual genital structures. Here, we test the hypothesis that both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection can act in concert to shape complex structural variation in secondary genital morphology. We genetically modified the size and shape of the posterior lobes of Drosophila melanogaster males and tested the consequences of morphological variation on several reproductive measures. We found that the posterior lobes are necessary for genital coupling and that they are also the targets of multiple postcopulatory processes that shape quantitative variation in morphology, even though these structures make no direct contact with the external female genitalia or internal reproductive organs during mating. We also found that males with smaller and less structurally complex posterior lobes suffer substantial fitness costs in competitive fertilization experiments. Our results show that sexual selection mechanisms can combine to shape the morphology of a single genital structure and that the posterior lobes of D. melanogaster are the targets of multiple postcopulatory selection pressures. PMID:26664690

  19. Evolution of galaxy structure using visual morphologies in CANDELS and Hydro-ART simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozena, Mark W.

    2013-08-01

    The general properties, morphologies, and classes of galaxies in the local Universe are well studied. Most local galaxies are morphologically members of the Hubble sequence and can be crudely separated into elliptical red quiescent galaxies or disky blue star-forming galaxies. This Hubble sequence of relaxed structures has been shown to dominate galaxy populations out to a redshift of z~1. The description of galaxies at earlier times is not well known nor is it understood how and at what epoch the Hubble sequence formed. Of particular interest is the structure of galaxies at z~2. This epoch was an active time for galaxy growth and was the peak epoch for star formation rate, active galactic nuclei activity, and mergers between galaxies. With the installation of the near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2009, large area photometric surveys of galaxies were able to be performed for the first time at moderate redshifts (z~2) in wavebands that effectively trace the older stellar populations and stellar mass of the galaxies rather than the clumpy star-forming regions. Using WFC3 HST images, an in-depth morphology classification system was developed to probe the galaxy populations at higher redshifts (focusing on z~2). These visual classifications were used with other galaxy parameters (stellar mass, color, star formation rate, radius, Sersic profiles, etc) to identify and quantify the moderate redshift galaxy populations and study how these populations changed with time to form the relaxed Hubble sequence Universe we observe today. Additionally, these same tools that were used to probe galaxy populations at z~2 in the observed Universe were also used on simulated galaxy images produced from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. These Hydro-ART simulations build artificial galaxies that are compared to observations so as to shed light on the relevant mechanisms in galaxy evolution. By classifying and comparing the populations

  20. Sediment transport dynamics linked to morphological evolution of the Selenga River delta, Lake Baikal, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, T. Y.; Nittrouer, J.; McElroy, B. J.; Czapiga, M. J.; Il'icheva, E.; Pavolv, M.; Parker, G.

    2014-12-01

    for all lobes, and that the delta is undergoing an active phase of erosion, characterized by channel incision and extensive lateral erosion of terraces; this process of delta 'self-cannibalization' contributes to the downstream sediment flux and morphological evolution of the delta.

  1. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-02-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  2. Monitoring the Continuing Spectral Evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 (V339 Del) with Low Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, H. D.; Wiethoff, W. S.; Evich, A.

    2016-06-01

    The continuing spectral evolution of Nova Delphini 2013 is presented with low-resolution spectroscopy collected with a 100 line per millimeter diffraction grating. Spectra were collected on 3 July, 2014 and 14 September, 2015, +321 and +759 days after peak visible brightness on 16 August, 2013. Imaging system was mounted on an equatorially-mounted, 14-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The continuum is no longer visible in the spectra, however, Oiii (5007 Å) and Ha (6563 Å) are prominent and Nii (5755), Hg (4340 Å) and Ciii/Niii (4640 Å) can still be discerned at +759 days.

  3. Cladistic analysis of continuous modularized traits provides phylogenetic signals in Homo evolution.

    PubMed

    González-José, Rolando; Escapa, Ignacio; Neves, Walter A; Cúneo, Rubén; Pucciarelli, Héctor M

    2008-06-01

    Evolutionary novelties in the skeleton are usually expressed as changes in the timing of growth of features intrinsically integrated at different hierarchical levels of development. As a consequence, most of the shape-traits observed across species do vary quantitatively rather than qualitatively, in a multivariate space and in a modularized way. Because most phylogenetic analyses normally use discrete, hypothetically independent characters, previous attempts have disregarded the phylogenetic signals potentially enclosed in the shape of morphological structures. When analysing low taxonomic levels, where most variation is quantitative in nature, solving basic requirements like the choice of characters and the capacity of using continuous, integrated traits is of crucial importance in recovering wider phylogenetic information. This is particularly relevant when analysing extinct lineages, where available data are limited to fossilized structures. Here we show that when continuous, multivariant and modularized characters are treated as such, cladistic analysis successfully solves relationships among main Homo taxa. Our attempt is based on a combination of cladistics, evolutionary-development-derived selection of characters, and geometric morphometrics methods. In contrast with previous cladistic analyses of hominid phylogeny, our method accounts for the quantitative nature of the traits, and respects their morphological integration patterns. Because complex phenotypes are observable across different taxonomic groups and are potentially informative about phylogenetic relationships, future analyses should point strongly to the incorporation of these types of trait. PMID:18454137

  4. The damage morphology of momocrystal silicon irradiated by continuous wave fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Zewen; Zhang, Hongchao; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of CW fiber laser and monocrystal silicon <100> is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the damage morphologies are detected by a CCD and an optical microscope. The damaged silicon appears an evident molten pool within the laser spot and several cracks on the surface and slip damage, which indicate that the damage mechanism includes melting and thermal stress damage. The damage morphologies show two types of cracks including radial crack and circumferential crack. Otherwise, an obvious central hillock is found in the molten pool, which may be produced by the fluctuation of the thermal-stress filed and resolidification of the central molten silicon after irradiation. In the numerical simulation, a two-dimensional axisymmetric physical model is established based on the thermo elastic-plastic and classical heat transfer theory and Von Mises yield criterion. The simulation results indicate that the temperature and the stress in the irradiation center are always the highest on the specific condition, which may contribute to the occurrence of the central hillock. The gradient of hoop stress is bigger than the radial stress, thus, it can be inferred that the appearances of the radial cracks in the experiment were closely related to the hoop stress.

  5. Evolution of grain size and morphology of Si thin films fabricated on lunar regolith glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, C.; Williams, L.; Feltrin, A.; Alemu, A.; Freundlich, A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical requirement for space colonization and in particular for its lunar exploration component is the availability of large amounts of electric energy. Novel architectures which involve the in situ manufacture of solar cells on the Moon using indigenous lunar materials have been proposed to meet this need [1]. In support of this effort, this study delves on several aspects of interest starting from the fabrication of a glass substrate from lunar regolith, to the deposition of Si films and the effects of thermal processing induced changes on the properties of these films. The experiments were implemented using several types of commercially available glasses as well as in-house fabricated regolith glass. In particular, the study provides valuable information on the effect of temperature on the interactions between Si and the substrates, and also the interaction between metallic contact layers and Si, which could affect regions beyond their common interface. This insight sheds a light on the evolution of grain size and morphology of Si thin films grown on lunar regolith.

  6. The evolution of the plant genome-to-morphology auxin circuit.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2016-09-01

    In his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866), 150 years ago, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) combined developmental patterns in animals with the concept of organismic evolution, and 50 years ago, a new era of plant research started when focus shifted from crop species (sunflower, maize etc.) to thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model organism. In this contribution, we outline the general principles of developmental evolutionary biology sensu Haeckel and describe the evolutionary genome-to-morphology-plant hormone auxin (IAA, indole-3-acetic acid)-circuit with reference to other phytohormones and a focus on land plants (embryophytes) plus associated epiphytic microbes. Our primary conclusion is that a system-wide approach is required to truly understand the ontogeny of any organism, because development proceeds according to signal pathways that integrate and respond to external as well as internal stimuli. We also discuss IAA-regulated embryology in A. thaliana and epigenetic phenomena in the gametophyte development, and outline how these processes are connected to the seminal work of Ernst Haeckel. PMID:27333773

  7. Morphological evolution, growth mechanism, and magneto-transport properties of silver telluride one-dimensional nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of silver telluride (Ag2Te) with well-controlled shapes and sizes were synthesized via the hydrothermal reduction of sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3) in a mixed solution. The morphological evolution of various 1D nanostructures was mainly determined by properly controlling the nucleation and growth process of Ag2Te in different reaction times. Based on the transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies, the formation mechanism for these 1D nanostructures was rationally interpreted. In addition, the current–voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of magnetic field of the highly single crystal Ag2Te nanowires were systematically measured. From the investigation of I-V characteristics, we have observed a rapid change of the current in low magnetic field, which can be used as the magnetic field sensor. The magneto-resistance behavior of the Ag2Te nanowires with monoclinic structure was also investigated. Comparing to the bulk and thin film materials, we found that there is generally a larger change in R (T) as the sample size is reduced, which indicates that the size of the sample has a certain impact on magneto-transport properties. Simultaneously, some possible reasons resulting in the observed large positive magneto-resistance behavior are discussed. PMID:23958372

  8. Mechanisms of morphological evolution on faceted core-shell nanowire surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Aqua, Jean-Noël; Voorhees, Peter W.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2016-06-01

    Core-shell nanowires with radial heterostructures hold great promise in photonic and electronic applications and controlling the formation of these heterostructures in the core-shell conguration remains a challenge. Recently, GaAs nanowires have been used as substrates to create AlGaAs shells. The deposition of the AlGaAs layer leads to the spontaneous formation of Al-rich stripes along certain crystallographic directions and quantum dots near the apexes of the shell. A general two-dimensional model has been developed for the motion of the faceted solid-vapor interfaces for pure materials that accounts for capillarity and deposition. With this model, the growth processes and morphological evolution of shells of nanowires around hexagonal cores (six small facets {112} in the corners of six equivalent facets {110}) are investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. It is found that deposition can yield facets that are not present on the Wulff shape. These small facets can have slowly time-varying sizes that can lead to stripe structures and quantum dots depending on the balances between diffusion and deposition. The effects of deposition rates and polarity (or asymmetry) on planes {112} on the development of the configurations of nanowires are discussed. The numerical results are compared with experimental results giving almost quantitative agreement, despite the fact that only pure materials are treated herein whereas the experiments deal with alloys.

  9. Correlation Between Surface Morphology Evolution and Grain Structure: Whisker/Hillock Formation in Sn-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fei; Jadhav, Nitin; Chason, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Sn whisker and hillock formation is a reliability risk that has become increasingly important as the electronics industry has moved toward Pb-free manufacturing. To prevent them, we would like to understand what makes specific sites susceptible to deform into whiskers. We have used in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) to monitor simultaneously the evolution of surface morphology and grain orientation in Sn surfaces in order to correlate whisker/hillock initiation with the underlying microstructure. Because rough films are difficult to measure with EBSD, we developed a unique procedure to make Sn-Cu samples with ultra-flat surfaces so that a large fraction of Sn grains can be indexed over repeated scans. We find that whiskers/hillocks grow from existing grains (not re-nucleated grains) with orientations close to (001). They often rotate from the as-deposited structure so that the orientation after growth does not indicate the orientation from which the whisker initiated. We measured the interface structure after removal of the Sn layer by chemical etching and found that there is no excessive accumulation of intermetallic compound around the whisker/hillock roots. Cross-sectional measurements revealed that a large fraction of the whiskers/hillocks have oblique boundaries underneath the surface, supporting the idea that these allow whiskers/hillocks to grow with lower stress.

  10. Phylogenetic estimation and morphological evolution of Arundinarieae (Bambusoideae: Poaceae) based on plastome phylogenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Attigala, Lakshmi; Wysocki, William P; Duvall, Melvin R; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-08-01

    We explored phylogenetic relationships among the twelve lineages of the temperate woody bamboo clade (tribe Arundinarieae) based on plastid genome (plastome) sequence data. A representative sample of 28 taxa was used and maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses were conducted to estimate the Arundinarieae phylogeny. All the previously recognized clades of Arundinarieae were supported, with Ampelocalamus calcareus (Clade XI) as sister to the rest of the temperate woody bamboos. Well supported sister relationships between Bergbambos tessellata (Clade I) and Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Clade VII) and between Kuruna (Clade XII) and Chimonocalmus (Clade III) were revealed by the current study. The plastome topology was tested by taxon removal experiments and alternative hypothesis testing and the results supported the current plastome phylogeny as robust. Neighbor-net analyses showed few phylogenetic signal conflicts, but suggested some potentially complex relationships among these taxa. Analyses of morphological character evolution of rhizomes and reproductive structures revealed that pachymorph rhizomes were most likely the ancestral state in Arundinarieae. In contrast leptomorph rhizomes either evolved once with reversions to the pachymorph condition or multiple times in Arundinarieae. Further, pseudospikelets evolved independently at least twice in the Arundinarieae, but the ancestral state is ambiguous. PMID:27164472

  11. Morphological evolution and heritability estimates for some biometric traits in the Murgese horse breed.

    PubMed

    Dario, C; Carnicella, D; Dario, M; Bufano, G

    2006-01-01

    A data set concerning 1,816 subjects entered in the Italian Horse Registry from 1925 to 2002 was analyzed to investigate the morphological evolution of the Murgese horse and to obtain useful elements to enhance breeding practices. Three basic body measurements (height at withers, chest girth, and cannon bone circumference) were considered for each subject. Heritabilities were calculated for each parameter to infer the growth and development traits of this breed. Over the past 20 years the Murgese horse has undergone considerable changes, passing from a typical mesomorphic structure (height at withers: 156.30 and 151.04 cm; chest girth: 185.80 and 176.11 cm; cannon bone: 21.10 and 19.82 cm for males and females, respectively) to a mesodolichomorphic structure (height at withers: 160.31 and 156.44 cm; chest girth: 187.89 and 182.48 cm; cannon bone: 21.07 and 20.37 cm, for males and females, respectively). Due to these changes and to its characteristic strength and power, the Murgese, which was once used in agriculture and for meat production (at the end of its life), is now involved in sports, mainly in trekking and equestrian tourism. The heritability estimates for the three body measurements were found to be 0.24, 0.39 and 0.44. PMID:16819710

  12. Morphological Evolution of Semi-crystalline Poly(ethylene terephthalate) During Large Scale Simple Shear Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhiyong; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2001-03-01

    In this study, the morphological evolution of semi-crystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) under large scale simple shear is investigated. The equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) process is used to induce the simple shear deformation. The deformation of semi-crystalline PET at different length scales is studied. At the spherulite scale, optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Lamellar scale information is obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Molecular chains in the crystalline lamellae are obtained by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and the molecular chains in the amorphous phase are studied by annealing the sample at temperatures above glass transition but below melting point. Structural characterization shows that PET spherulites are highly elongated into macrofibrils after ECAE. Within the macrofibrils, a "V-type" of crystalline lamellar orientation is induced. Molecular chains in the crystalline lamellae are tilted to the lamellar surface, whereas the molecular chains in the amorphous phase are highly stretched.

  13. TRIBUTE: In Goethe's Wake: Marvalee Wake's conceptual contributions to the development and evolution of a science of morphology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2005-01-01

    De-crying the typological approach in much of the teaching of morphology, from the outset of her career Marvalee Wake advocated a synthetic, mechanistic and pluralistic developmental and evolutionary morphology. In this short essay, I do not evaluate Wake's contributions to our knowledge of the morphology of caecilians, nor her contributions to viviparity, both of which are seminal and substantive, nor do I examine her role as mentor, supervisor and collaborator, but assess her broader conceptual contributions to the development and evolution of morphology as a science. One of the earliest morphologists to take on board the concept of constraint, she viewed constraint explicitly in relation to adaptation and diversity. Her approach to morphology as a science was hierarchical - measure form and function in a phylogenetic context; seek explanations at developmental, functional, ecological, evolutionary levels of the biological hierarchy; integrate those explanations to the other levels. The explanatory power of morphology thus practised allows morphology to inform evolutionary biology and evolutionary theory, and paves the way for the integrative biology Wake has long championed. PMID:16351975

  14. Quantum measurements in continuous time, non-Markovian evolutions and feedback.

    PubMed

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo

    2012-11-28

    In this article, we reconsider a version of quantum trajectory theory based on the stochastic Schrödinger equation with stochastic coefficients, which was mathematically introduced in the 1990s, and we develop it in order to describe the non-Markovian evolution of a quantum system continuously measured and controlled, thanks to a measurement-based feedback. Indeed, realistic descriptions of a feedback loop have to include delay and thus need a non-Markovian theory. The theory allows us to put together non-Markovian evolutions and measurements in continuous time, in agreement with the modern axiomatic formulation of quantum mechanics. To illustrate the possibilities of such a theory, we apply it to a two-level atom stimulated by a laser. We introduce closed loop control too, via the stimulating laser, with the aim of enhancing the 'squeezing' of the emitted light, or other typical quantum properties. Note that here we change the point of view with respect to the usual applications of control theory. In our model, the 'system' is the two-level atom, but we do not want to control its state, to bring the atom to a final target state. Our aim is to control the 'Mandel Q-parameter' and the spectrum of the emitted light; in particular, the spectrum is not a property at a single time, but involves a long interval of times (a Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the observed output is needed). PMID:23091214

  15. Modeling study on the surface morphology evolution during removing the optics surface/subsurface damage using atmospheric pressure plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qiang; Su, Xing; Wang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Plasma processing has been widely reported as an effective tool in relieving or removing surface/subsurface damage induced by previous mechanical machining process. However, the surface morphology evolution during removing the damage using plasma processing is rarely reported. In this research, this procedure is studied based on experiments and robust numerical models developed on the basis of Level Set Method (LSM). Even if some unique properties of plasma etching are observed, such as particle redistribution, the dominant role of isotropic etching of plasma processing is verified based on experiments and 2D LSM simulations. With 2D LSM models, the damage removal process under various damage characteristics is explored in detail. Corresponding peak-to-valley roughness evolution is investigated as well. Study on morphology evolution is also conducted through the comparison between experiments and 3D LSM computations. The modeling results and experiments show good agreement with each other. The trends of simulated roughness evolution agree with the experiments as well. It is revealed that the plasma processing may end up with a planar surface depending on the damage characteristics. The planarization procedure can be divided into four parts: crack opening and pit formation; pit coalescing and shallow pits subsumed by deep ones; morphology duplicate etching; and finally a planar and damage free surface.

  16. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Results Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. Conclusion The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust “morphological bipolarity” found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this “one-to-many mapping” pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the “many-to-one mapping” pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular

  17. What factors shape rates of phenotypic evolution? A comparative study of cranial morphology of four mammalian clades.

    PubMed

    Cooper, N; Purvis, A

    2009-05-01

    Understanding why rates of morphological evolution vary is a major goal in evolutionary biology. Classical work suggests that body size, interspecific competition, geographic range size and specialization may all be important, and each may increase or decrease rates of evolution. Here, we investigate correlates of proportional evolutionary rates in phalangeriform possums, phyllostomid bats, platyrrhine monkeys and marmotine squirrels, using phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that the most important correlate is body size. Large species evolve the fastest in all four clades, and there is a nonlinear relationship in platyrrhines and phalangeriformes, with the slowest evolution in species of intermediate size. We also find significant increases in rate with high environmental temperature in phyllostomids, and low mass-specific metabolic rate in marmotine squirrels. The mechanisms underlying these correlations are uncertain and appear to be size specific. We conclude that there is significant variation in rates of evolution, but that its meaning is not yet clear. PMID:21462402

  18. Post-Seismic Strain and Stress Evolution from Continuous GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbenko, Gina Nicole

    Strain evolution and stress evolution following the 4 April 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake are modeled using an adaptation of the strain transient detection tool developed by Holt and Shcherbenko 2013. The evolution of stress is calculated from postseismic strains, which are modeled from continuous GPS horizontal displacements. Strain fields are modeled in 2 ways; the total strain field based on total observed cGPS displacements, and the residual strain field, which subtracts a reference field from the total model. The residual shows anomalous strains resulting from the postseismic relaxation of the 2010 event. Anomalous and total strains are modeled in 0.1 year epochs for 2.4 years following the event. Both total and anomalous strains are converted into stress changes over time, assuming elastic incompressible behavior. Following the El Mayor event, the GPS constrained strain evolution shows the following: (1) The Southern San Andreas experiences a reduced rate of right-lateral strike slip strain accumulation between 3 July 2010 and 7 August 2012 (Figure 16a-d). (2) The San Jacinto Fault has normal rate of right-lateral strike-slip strain accumulation during this time. (3) Before the Brawley swarm of 26 August 2012, the state of strain evolves to enable unclamping of a left-lateral fault zone in the Brawley Seismic Zone (Figure 16a-d). (4) Large shear strains accumulate on the Laguna Salada Fault (northernmost segment)/southern Elsinore FZ (Figure 16a-d). We converted the strain changes into Coulomb stress changes on existing faults (both right-lateral and left-lateral). Several regions show increased Coulomb stress changes throughout the postseismic process. Furthermore, the Coulomb stress changes on the faults in the region progressively increase toward failure up to the time of the Brawley swarm.

  19. Dynamical Evolution and High-Energy Radiation of Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takafumi

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of a supernova remnant (SNR) without an active neutron star is basically described by probation of shock waves. The shock waves accelerate charged particles. The particles accelerated to GeV radiate synchrotron radio emission, which appears to be shelllike morphology. The shock waves heat matter up to keV, and heated-electrons ionize ions. Compared with a time-scale of shock-heating of electrons by the shock, a time-scale of ionization of ions by electron collisions in the shock down stream region is longer. Hence an ionization state of SNR plasma is thought to be under-ionized state in which the ionization temperature is lower than the electron temperature, or collisional ionization equilibrium state at late time. In fact, X-ray spectra of many SNRs are explained by such plasma state model. SNRs that exhibit shell-like morphology in thermal X-ray as well as radio are categorized into shell-like SNRs. In contrast to shell-like SNRs, some SNRs exhibit shell-like radio but center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Such SNRs are categorized into mixed-morphology SNRs (MM SNRs). Many MM SNRs interact with molecular clouds, suggested by OH maser and near infrared observations, and hence are thought to be remnants of core-collapse supernova of massive stars. Interestingly, recombination radiation X-rays, which are evidence that X-ray emitting plasmas are over-ionized states in which the ionization temperature is higher than the electron temperature, are detected from six MM SNRs. The center-filled X-rays with recombination radiation can not be explained by a picture of shock-wave propagation that explains the X-rays of shell-like SNRs. As well as X-rays, MM SNRs are characteristic in γ-ray emission. Several MM SNRs and shell-like SNRs are detected in the GeV γ-ray band by Fermi. The 1 - 100 GeV γ-ray luminosities of MM SNRs are ˜ 1034-1036 erg s-1, which are systematically higher than those of shell-like SNRs of ˜ 1033-1035 erg s-1. Such high luminosities

  20. Kinetically Trapped Co-Continuous Polymer Morphologies through Intraphase Gelation of Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Le; Miesch, Caroline; Sudeep, P. K.; Balazs, Anna C.; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P.; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2011-05-11

    We describe an approach to prepare co-continuous microstructured blends of polymers and nanoparticles by formation of a percolating network of particles within one phase of a polymer mixture undergoing spinodal decomposition. Nanorods or nanospheres of CdSe were added to near-critical blends of polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether) quenched to above their lower critical solution temperature. Beyond a critical loading of nanoparticles, phase separation is arrested due to the aggregation of particles into a network (or colloidal gel) within the poly(vinyl methyl ether) phase, yielding a co-continuous spinodal-like structure with a characteristic length scale of several micrometers. The critical concentration of nanorods to achieve kinetic arrest is found to be smaller than for nanospheres, which is in qualitative agreement with the expected dependence of the nanoparticle percolation threshold on aspect ratio. Compared to structural arrest by interfacial jamming, our approach avoids the necessity for neutral wetting of particles by the two phases, providing a general pathway to co-continuous micro- and nanoscopic structures.

  1. Martian groundwater outflow processes and morphology; reconstruction of paleohydrology using landscape evolution experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; de Jong, Steven M.; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater played an important role in the aqueous history of Mars but how, how long, and with what intensity remains unclear. Two types of fluvial landforms related to groundwater emergence are the giant outflow channels and the disputed sapping valleys. Understanding of the relation between subsurface and surface processes is slim, which limits inferences of climate implications from the observable morphology. We aim to increase this understanding and to apply this knowledge to Martian cases to reconstruct former hydrological conditions. Using a series of sandbox experiments, we investigated formative processes of valleys formed by groundwater. These experiments showed the morphology and processes of groundwater sapping and pressurized groundwater outflow (see Marra et al, 2014, Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.12.026) and further focused on landscape characteristics of groundwater sapping sourced locally or distally, and identified various processes linked to pressurized groundwater outbursts including the formation and eruption of subsurface reservoirs that can explain the high reconstructed discharges of large outflow valleys (see Marra et al, 2014, JGR doi:10.1002/2014JE004701). Based on the experiments, we identified novel morphological indicators for groundwater outflow in the outflow channel region of Lunae and Ophir Plana. These, in combination with the classic outflow features, show a clear trend of increasing outflow magnitude with decreasing elevation to the northeast, indicating a head from a common aquifer. The putative aquifer we identified was likely recharged by infiltration over the Tharsis region. Outflow channel activity peaked in the Hesperian, but continued in the Amazonian at a lower magnitude. Our results agree well with groundwater recharge in the Noachian and Early Hesperian, corresponding to a climate that sustained an active hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the large outflow events require a confining layer to build up enough pressure

  2. Continuous "in vitro" Evolution of a Ribozyme Ligase: A Model Experiment for the Evolution of a Biomolecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Michael P.; Hwang, Tony W.; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution is a defining criterion of life and is central to understanding biological systems. However, the timescale of evolutionary shifts in phenotype limits most classroom evolution experiments to simple probability simulations. "In vitro" directed evolution (IVDE) frequently serves as a model system for the study of Darwinian…

  3. Diamond Morphology: Link to Metasomatic Events in the Mantle or Record of Evolution of Kimberlitic Fluid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedortchouk, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Morphology and surface features on diamonds show tremendous variation even within a single kimberlite body reflecting a complex history of growth and dissolution. But does the diamond surface record the conditions in the several mantle sources sampled by the rising kimberlite magma, or evolution of the fluid system in the kimberlite magma itself? To address this question I revised morphological classification of diamonds from several kimberlite pipes from EKATI Mine property, N.W.T., Canada. The novelty of the approach, compared to the existing classifications, is in utilizing a random but large dataset of diamond dissolution experiments accumulated by several researchers including myself. These experiments have shown that similar forms (e.g. trigon etch pits) can be produced in a variety of conditions and environments, whereas their shape and size would depend on the reactant. Similarly, different types of resorption features always form together and can be used for deriving the composition of oxidizing fluid. The proposed classification method is focused on relating various types of diamond surfaces to the composition and conditions of oxidizing media. The study uses parcels of micro-and macro-diamonds (total of 125 carats) from Misery, Grizzly, Leslie and Koala kimberlites, EKATI Mine property, Northwest Territories, Canada. Only octahedron and hexoctahedron diamonds were selected (total ~600 stones). Diamond surfaces were studied using an optical and Field- Emission Scanning Electron Microscope to define resorption elements - simple surface features. These elements were identified for each of the three categories: 1) present on octahedral faces (well-preserved diamonds), 2) present on hexoctahedral faces (rounded resorbed diamonds), and 3) frosting (micro-features). Consistent associations of several elements define Resorption Types of diamonds, which form during a single oxidizing event. We further relate these types to the composition of the C-H-O + chlorides

  4. Morphology and evolution of the respiratory apparatus in the family Eubelidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Pasquino; Ferrara, Franco; Taiti, Stefano

    2002-09-01

    The morphology of the respiratory apparatus in the pleopodal lungs of the family Eubelidae was investigated. The family is a monophyletic group including more than 240 species in 53 genera (three of which are nomina dubia), mostly distributed in the Afrotropical Region (tropical Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In all the Eubelidae, except for the monospecific genus Parelumoides and two species of the genus Elumoides, the exopods of pleopods have lungs. All the pulmonary morphologies present in the entire suborder Oniscidea are found: 1) uncovered lungs, composed of a pleated respiratory surface, directly exposed to the air (Atracheodillo-type) or partially enclosed within the appendage (Synarmadilloides-type); 2) covered lungs with several spiracles and respiratory trees, housed within the appendages, with spiracles surrounded by a specialized, nonrespiratory, structure (perispiracular area) (Eubelum- and Somaloniscus-types); 3) covered lungs with only one spiracle, with or without perispiracular area, and one respiratory tree (Aethiopopactes- and Periscyphis-types), which in taxa with Periscyphis-type lung crosses the insertion of the appendage and penetrates into the pleon with bundles of respiratory tubules. The evolution of the various types of lungs is discussed. It is concluded that the two main evolutionary lines, i.e., uncovered lungs and covered lungs, originated independently from an ancestral respiratory structure-the semilunar area. A first mechanism of development of the semilunar area by folding of its surface produced the Atracheodillo-type (all folds coplanar with the surface of the exopod) and Synarmadilloides-type (folds partly coplanar and partly intraflexed inside the exopod) uncovered lungs. A second mechanism of development by tubular invagination of the cuticle of the semilunar area produced the polyspiracular Eubelum-type lungs (numerous arborescent invaginations) and the monospiracular Aethiopopactes-type lungs (only one arborescent

  5. Organic tissues in rotating bioreactors: fluid-mechanical aspects, dynamic growth models, and morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lappa, Marcello

    2003-12-01

    This analysis deals with advances in tissue-engineering models and computational methods as well as with novel results on the relative importance of "controlling forces" in the growth of organic constructs. Specifically, attention is focused on the rotary culture system, because this technique has proven to be the most practical solution for providing a suitable culture environment supporting three-dimensional tissue assemblies. From a numerical point of view, the growing biological specimen gives rise to a moving boundary problem. A "volume-of-fraction" method is specifically and carefully developed according to the complex properties and mechanisms of organic tissue growth and, in particular, taking into account the sensitivity of the construct/liquid interface to the effect of the fluid-dynamic shear stress (it induces changes in tissue metabolism and function that elicit a physiological response from the biological cells). The present study uses available data to introduce a set of growth models. The surface conditions are coupled to the transfer of mass and momentum at the specimen/culture-medium interface and lead to the introduction of a group of differential equations for the nutrient concentration around the sample and for the evolution of tissue mass displacement. The models are then used to show how the proposed surface kinetic laws can predict (through sophisticated numerical simulations) many of the known characteristics of biological tissues grown using rotating-wall perfused vessel bioreactors. This procedure provides a validation of the models and associated numerical method and also gives insight into the mechanisms of the phenomena. The interplay between the increasing size of the tissue and the structure of the convective field is investigated. It is shown that this interaction is essential in determining the time evolution of the tissue shape. The size of the growing specimen plays a critical role with regard to the intensity of convection and

  6. Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2

  7. The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Hünefeld, Frank; Missbach, Christine; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-07-01

    In the present article homology issues, character evolution and phylogenetic implications related to the female postabdomen of the holometabolan insects are discussed, based on an earlier analysis of a comprehensive morphological data set. Hymenoptera, the sistergroup of the remaining Holometabola, are the only group where the females have retained a fully developed primary ovipositor of the lepismatid type. There are no characters of the female abdomen supporting a clade Coleopterida + Neuropterida. The invagination of the terminal segments is an autapomorphy of Coleoptera. The ovipositor is substantially modified in Raphidioptera and distinctly reduced in Megaloptera and Neuroptera. The entire female abdomen is extremely simplified in Strepsiptera. The postabdomen is tapering posteriorly in Mecopterida and retractile in a telescopic manner (oviscapt). The paired ventral sclerites of segments VIII and IX are preserved, but valvifers and valvulae are not distinguishable. In Amphiesmenoptera sclerotizations derived from the ventral appendages VIII are fused ventromedially, forming a solid plate, and the appendages IX are reduced. The terminal segments are fused and form a terminal unit which bears the genital opening subapically. The presence of two pairs of apophyses and the related protraction of the terminal unit by muscle force are additional autapomorphies, as is the fusion of the rectum with the posterior part of the genital chamber (cloaca). Antliophora are supported by the presence of a transverse muscle between the ventral sclerites of segment VIII. Secondary egg laying tubes have evolved independently within Boreidae (absent in Caurinus) and in Tipulomorpha. The loss of two muscle associated with the genital chamber are likely autapomorphies of Diptera. The secondary loss of the telescopic retractability of the postabdomen is one of many autapomorphies of Siphonaptera. PMID:22583791

  8. Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair.

    PubMed

    Hickman, C S

    2001-01-01

    The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine-tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary-developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton. PMID:11256430

  9. Dynamical patterning modules: physico-genetic determinants of morphological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stuart A.; Bhat, Ramray

    2008-03-01

    The shapes and forms of multicellular organisms arise by the generation of new cell states and types and changes in the numbers and rearrangements of the various kinds of cells. While morphogenesis and pattern formation in all animal species are widely recognized to be mediated by the gene products of an evolutionarily conserved 'developmental-genetic toolkit', the link between these molecular players and the physics underlying these processes has been generally ignored. This paper introduces the concept of 'dynamical patterning modules' (DPMs), units consisting of one or more products of the 'toolkit' genes that mobilize physical processes characteristic of chemically and mechanically excitable meso- to macroscopic systems such as cell aggregates: cohesion, viscoelasticity, diffusion, spatiotemporal heterogeneity based on lateral inhibition and multistable and oscillatory dynamics. We suggest that ancient toolkit gene products, most predating the emergence of multicellularity, assumed novel morphogenetic functions due to change in the scale and context inherent to multicellularity. We show that DPMs, acting individually and in concert with each other, constitute a 'pattern language' capable of generating all metazoan body plans and organ forms. The physical dimension of developmental causation implies that multicellular forms during the explosive radiation of animal body plans in the middle Cambrian, approximately 530 million years ago, could have explored an extensive morphospace without concomitant genotypic change or selection for adaptation. The morphologically plastic body plans and organ forms generated by DPMs, and their ontogenetic trajectories, would subsequently have been stabilized and consolidated by natural selection and genetic drift. This perspective also solves the apparent 'molecular homology-analogy paradox', whereby widely divergent modern animal types utilize the same molecular toolkit during development by proposing, in contrast to the Neo

  10. Morphology and phase evolution in microwave synthesized Al/FeO4 system.

    PubMed

    Chuan, Lee Chang; Yoshikawaa, Noboru; Taniguchia, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Thermite reaction between Al/Fe3O4 raised by microwave (MW) heating under N2 atmosphere has been investigated, and compared with that by the electric furnace. In addition to the stoichiometric ratio for the production of metallic iron and alumina, mixture with slightly Lower in Al content is also studied. As thermite reaction is highly exothermic, melting of reaction product and destruction of microstructure may occur, which corresponds to the enthalpy and adiabatic temperature of the reaction. Hence, to avoid this problem, reaction coupled with a smaller driving force by controlling the MW ignition condition at low temperature exotherm has been investigated. The phase and microstructure evolution during the reaction were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogram of the DTA analysis, irrespective of their mole ratio, recorded two exothermic peaks, one at - 1310 degrees C and another one at - 1370 degrees C. When heated by microwave at 955 degrees C, the main products were identified as Al, FeO and Fe, minor amount of Fe3O4 and some Fe and alumina were detected. When heating to 1155 degrees C, Al and Fe3O4 peaks disappeared, formation of Fe-Al alloy was observed. For sample heated at 1265 degrees C, a porous body was obtained. Micron sized metal particles with complex morphology, irregular in size and shapes were formed, uniformly distributed within the spinel hercynite and/or alumina matrix. In contrast, conventional heating produced no porous products. Formation of alumina is also observed around the metal particles. Controlling of the reaction progress was possible while heating the sample by MW around the low temperature exotherm region, whereas the combustion wave could not be self-propagated. PMID:24427878