Science.gov

Sample records for continuous no-till management

  1. Soil nitrogen conservation with continuous no-till management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage management is an important regulator of organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in agroecosystems. Tillage has resulted in the loss of substantial amounts of organic N from the surface soils. There is potential to rebuild and conserve substantial amounts of soil N where no-till man...

  2. Pennsylvania Manure Management in No-till Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefits of no-till such as reduced soil erosion, reduced P runoff, improved soil quality, greater carbon sequestration are well established. At the same time, incorporating manure has numerous benefits including: reduced ammonia volatilization, reduced soluble P loss, and reduced odor. Howeve...

  3. No-Till Soil Management and the New Vision for Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What can producers do to adapt their production practices to the changing vision of agriculture as well as the changing local climate? One such change that farmers could consider is no-till soil management. No-till improves water infiltration, decreases runoff, and may even increase the amount of ...

  4. Diverse No-Till Irrigated Cropping Systems Instead of Burning and Plowing Continuous Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of stubble has long been used as a management tool for irrigated wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Concerns about regional air quality and government regulations led growers and scientists to conduct a 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two cycles of a 3-year irrigated c...

  5. Soil Quality Changes with No-Till Management and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Take-out

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural producers in eastern Washington are adopting no-till farming in an effort to reduce soil erosion. In addition, lands returning to production after enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) must be managed in order to maintain improvements in soil quality. The soil character...

  6. No-Till Management Effects on Soil Water and Wind Erodibility Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which no-till management improves water and wind erodibility parameters is not well understood. This study assessed changes in aggregate resistance to raindrops, dry aggregate wettability, and dry aggregate stability as well as their relationships with changes in soil organic carbon co...

  7. Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  8. ECONOMICS OF IRRIGATED CONTINUOUS CORN UNDER CONVENTIONAL-TILL AND NO-TILL IN NORTHERN COLORADO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of irrigated cropland from conventional tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) could have several environmental benefits including reduced erosion potential, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and conservation of water. However NT must be economically viable if it is to be adopted. Costs of pro...

  9. Ten Years of Continuous Annual No-Till Cropping vs. Winter Wheat - Fallow in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-yr experiment was conducted to evaluate continuous annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hor...

  10. Contribution of macroporosity to infiltration into a continuous corn no-tilled watershed: Implications for contaminant movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. M.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Norton, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    Rainfall and runoff were measured for many years on small watersheds on 10-15% slopes in east-central Ohio. Surface runoff from watersheds used for corn ( Zea mays L.) production was high with conventional tillage and very low with no-tillage. A 50-year storm produced 15 times more runoff from a plowed watershed than from a mulch-covered no-till watershed. Reduced runoff from the no-till surface resulted in increased percolation and enhanced the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater. The mulched surface of the no-till watershed also created a favorable environment for the deep burrowing earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., whose burrows can transmit water rapidly downward through the soil profile, thus contributing to the high infiltration rates. Open biopores and smaller structural pores were counted and measured to characterize the major flow paths of water movement in the no-till soil. Photos of horizontal surfaces at 2.5-, 7.5-, 15-, and 30 - cm depths and vertical faces of impregnated samples from the 1- and 5-cm depths were evaluated by image analysis. Number of pores was inversely proportional to pore diameter, however pores in the 0.05-1.0-mm diameter range accounted for less porosity than did those in the 1.0-5.0-mm range. The large pores were nearly vertical earthworm burrows and were continuously open from near the surface to the bedrock. Surface applications of lime increased subsoil pH in the no-till watershed but had little effect below the plow sole in the tilled watershed, suggesting that rapid movement of water in large pores can enhance chemical migration into the subsoil.

  11. Continuous Cropping Systems Reduce Near-Surface Maximum Compaction in No-Till Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased concerns over compaction in NT soils, it is important to assess how continuous cropping systems influence risks of soil compaction across a range of soils and NT management systems. We quantified differences in maximum bulk density (BDmax) and critical water content (CWC) by the...

  12. SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES UNDER CONVENTIONAL-TILL AND NO-TILL CONTINUOUS COTTON SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices affect soil microbial communities, which in turn influence soil ecosystem processes. In this study, the effects of conventional- and no-tillage practices on soil microbial communities were examined under long-term continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) systems on a Deca...

  13. Effects of a custom cover crop residue manager in a no-till cotton system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an important part of no-till conservation agriculture, and these crops must produce optimum biomass amounts to effectively protect the soil surface from erosion and runoff, conserve soil water, and provide a physical barrier against weeds. Because of the large amount of residue produ...

  14. Rye and vetch management for no-till snap bean production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting no-till into cover crop residues left on the soil surface offers benefits of suppressing weeds, reducing soil erosion, and eliminating trips through the field. Adequate suppression of cover crops to prevent competition with the main crop can be challenging, particularly in organic systems w...

  15. Cover crop roller-crimper contributes to weed management in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Termination of cover crops prior to no-till planting of soybean is typically accomplished with a burndown herbicide. Recent advances in cover crop roller-crimper design offer the possibility of physical termination of cover crops without tillage. We hypothesized that 1) cover crop termination with a...

  16. Integrating multiple tactics for managing weeds in high residue no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolled cover crop mulches can suppress weeds in subsequent cash crops, reduce the need for herbicides and allow organic no-till cash crop establishment. This study investigated the weed suppressiveness of a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop mulch across varying weed seedbank density. Cereal ...

  17. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  18. Novel manure management technologies in no-till and forage introduction to the special series.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Rory O; Kleinman, Peter J A; Beegle, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of manures leaves nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) susceptible to being lost in runoff, and N can also be lost to the atmosphere through ammonia (IH3) volatilization. Tillage immediately after surface application of manure moves manure nutrients under the soil surface, where they are less vulnerable to runoff and volatilization loss. Tillage, however, destroys soil structure, can lead to soil erosion, and is incompatible with forage and no-till systems. A variety of technologies are now available to place manure nutrients under the soil surface, but these are not widely used as surface broadcasting is cheap and long established as the standard method for land application of manure. This collection of papers includes agronomic, environmental, and economic assessments of subsurface manure application technologies, many of which clearly show benefits when comparedwith surface broadcasting. However, there remain significant gaps in our current knowledge, some related to the site-specific nature of technological performance, others related to the nascent and incomplete nature of the assessment process. Thus, while we know that we can improve land application of manure and the sustainability of farming systems with alternatives to surface broadcasting, many questions remain concerning which technologies work best for particular soils, manure types, and farming and cropping systems. PMID:21520734

  19. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  20. Blending soil conservation with production: Assessment of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management for agronomic yield and soil C sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...

  1. Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the Eastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crop-based, organic rotational no-till soybean production has been gaining traction in the Eastern region of the United States because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic product...

  2. Weed Community Response to No-Till in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in Ukraine are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned about weed management. In North America, producers have used no-till systems for several decades without increasing weed community density in croplands. Initially, weed density escalated with no-till, ...

  3. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  5. No-till spring barley to control wind erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a major concern for growers and communities in the Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion not only degrades the soil resource which can affect the long-term productivity of agricultural lands, but it also degrades air quality in the region. Continuous no-till spring cereal cropping systems ...

  6. Biosolids application to no-till dryland agroecosytems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland agroecosystems are generally ideal environments for recycling biosolids. However, what is the efficacy of biosolids addition to a no-till dryland management agroecosystem? From 2000 to 2010, we studied application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO Wastewater Treatment Plant ver...

  7. Curve numbers for long-term no-till corn and agricultural practices with high watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number (CN) method is an engineering and land management tool for estimating surface runoff from rainstorms. There are few watershed runoff records available during which a no-till crop was growing and hence there are few field-measured CN values. We investigated CN under continuous long-...

  8. A 2-Year Small Grain Interval Reduces Need for Herbicides in No-Till Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured weed interference in soybean and corn as affected by residue management tactics following a sequence of oat and winter wheat. Residue management tactics compared were conventional tillage, no-till, and no-till plus cover crops. Treatments were split into weed-free and weed-infe...

  9. No-till: The Quiet Revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past several decades, an increasing number of farmers have been adopting no-till farming to capture efficiencies in crop production, saving money, time and energy; to stop the loss of valuable topsoil by erosion; and to curb the runoff of sediment, fertilizers, and pesticides into rivers, lak...

  10. Residue removal and climatic effects on soil carbon content of no-till soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While no-till management practices usually result in increased soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, the effect of residue removal with no-till is not well understood, especially in warmer climates. A multi-year study was conducted at six locations having a wide range of climatic conditions in centra...

  11. Effects of management type and timing on weed suppression in soybean no-till planted into rolled-crimped cereal rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed emergence periodicity can inform the timing and choice of weed management tactics. We tested the effects of weed management system (conventional = CNV and organic = ORG), timing of rye sowing (2 times), timing of soybean planting (5 times, 3 in each system), and supplemental contro...

  12. Soil carbon sequestration with continuous no-till management of grain cropping systems in the Virginia coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agroecosystems represents a significant opportunity to offset a portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climatic conditions in the Virginia coastal plain and modern production practices make it possible for high annual photosynthetic CO2 fixation. There is potential to seques...

  13. Application of manure to no-till soils: Phosphorus losses by sub-surface and surface pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the acceleration of eutrophication by agricultural runoff has focused attention on manure management in no-till. We evaluated losses of phosphorus (P) in sub-surface and surface flow as a function of dairy manure application to no-till soils on a dairy farm in north-central Pennsylvania...

  14. Effect of no-till farming on soil water intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall simulation and ponded infiltrometer methods were used to investigate the infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage farms. Seven pairs of no-till and conventional till farms under a corn-soybean rotation were selected on soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loam...

  15. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till systems have found that crop yields often exceed their expectation based on nutrient and water supply. For example, corn yields 7% higher in a no-till system in central South Dakota than in a tilled system in eastern South Dakota. This is surprising because rainfall is 5 in...

  16. Nitrogen fertilization effects on irrigated no-till corn production and soil carbon and nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting from conventional tillage (CT) to a no-till (NT) production system can affect N requirements for optimizing corn (Zea mays L.) yields while enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) and N levels. Nitrogen fertilization impacts on irrigated, NT continuous-corn grain, stalk, cob, and stover yiel...

  17. One-time tillage of no-till: Effects on nutrients, mycorrhizae, and phosphorus uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stratification of nutrient availability, especially of P, that develops with continuous no-till (NT) can affect runoff nutrient concentration and possibly nutrient uptake. The effects of composted manure application and one-time tillage of NT on the distribution of soil chemical properties, root co...

  18. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P) while incorporation by tillage increases erosion potential and particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat-poorly-drai...

  19. When does no-till produce more? A global meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a growing world population while protecting environmental quality and enhancing the natural resource base represents a major challenge for the agricultural research and development community. No-till agriculture is a widely adopted management system with the aims of reducing soil erosion, de...

  20. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  1. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level management practices for no-till and conventional tillage. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulation model, was used to determine impacts of alternative tilla...

  2. Rye termination by different rollers/crimpers developed for no-till small-scale farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expansion of fresh food production by local small vegetable farms must be associated with sustainable practices that include no-till systems with proper cover crop management. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue protects the soil from erosio...

  3. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  4. Seedling emergence of horseweed in no-till

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density of horseweed is increasing in no-till cropping systems because horseweed seed is transported by wind and seedlings can establish from seeds lying on the soil surface. Also, horseweed has developed resistance to commonly-used herbicides, thus control tactics are often ineffective. This repo...

  5. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  6. Chemical stabilization of organic carbon pools in particle size fractions in no-till and meadow soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and soil management affects soil organic carbon (SOC) pools associated with particle size fractions and their chemical stabilization. No-till (NT) production of corn (Zea mays L.) is a recommended management practice that reduces erosion and increases SOC concentration, but the knowledge a...

  7. Evaluating new manure application technologies to balance environmental and agronomic objectives in no-till crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure is one of the most challenging issues facing farmers. Changing policies, demographics and management priorities must be balanced. A critical issue is the balance between manure incorporation for optimum nutrient management and use of no-till crop production systems. This p...

  8. Biogeophysical benefits of no-till agriculture for mitigating heat wave impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change[1]. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming[1]. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface[2]. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heatwaves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate engineering measures targeting high impact events rather than mean climate properties. References: [1] Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko (2007): Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds

  9. A Multi-Year Comparison of No-Till Versus Conventional-Till Effects on the Carbon Balance in a Corn/Soybean Agro-Ecosystem Using Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Slattery, R.; Meyers, T. P.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the industrial revolution are in large part due to the release of carbon previously stored in the soil. No-till strategies have been proposed as a means to mitigate agricultural contributions to atmospheric carbon by decreasing emissions and sequestering carbon in agricultural soils while increasing water use efficiency and soil quality. However, the effects of no-till versus conventional-till practices on carbon sequestration often vary due to difficulty in quantifying soil carbon as soil properties change with management. Eddy covariance (EC) offers a more accurate method of continuously measuring the total carbon budget and does so without relying on physical soil carbon measurements. The majority of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States is farmed using the corn/soybean rotation, making it an ideal agro-ecosystem to examine the potential of adopting no-till practices on carbon and water balances. In this study, we use EC to compare carbon and water fluxes between continuous no-till and conventional-till corn/soybean sites over several years in east central Illinois. This allows the determination and comparison of 1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NEE after accounting for grain usage); 2) water use efficiency; and 3) response to climatic variation, both at short and long time scales, between the two tillage systems. We hypothesize that both carbon uptake and water use efficiency will improve with no-till practices, which in turn will improve crop responses to environmental factors such as drought and heat stress.

  10. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated strip-till and no-till corn production ystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from strip-till (ST) and no-till (NT), irrigated continuous corn fields were evaluated in 2011 near Fort Collins, CO on a clay loam soil. Emissions were monitored from plots receiving urea, ESN®1, SuperU®, and liquid UA...

  11. Cropping Intensity Effects on Organic Carbon, Aggregate Stability, and Hydraulic Properties of a No-till Loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved no-till management techniques have allowed greater cropping intensity in the central Great Plains. Organic carbon (OC) contents in the soil have increased because of greater plant biomass production and less carbon loss from oxidation. Increased OC in the soil leads to improved soil physica...

  12. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  13. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  14. Infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage in Indiana and Illinois farm fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall simulation and ponded infiltrometer methods were used to investigate the infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage farms. Seven pairs of no-till and conventional till farms under a corn-soybean rotation were selected on soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loa...

  15. No-till drill planting of Texas bluegrass on the Southern Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the use of a flail-vac harvester, a hammer mill, and the WW2000 cleaner, Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr. [Poaceae]) seed was harvested, cleaned, and planted with a no-till drill at Woodward OK, USDA-ARS. Seeds were no-till drilled into clear ground or herbicide killed wheat stubble...

  16. Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

    2012-02-07

    Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

  17. Increased Use of No-till Cropping Systems Improves Stream Ecosystem Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, A. G.; Bailey, R. C.; Schwindt, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Release of sediments to streams from tilled lands has been a significant stressor to streams in agro-ecosystems for decades and has been shown to impact aquatic biota in a variety of ways. To limit soil erosion from cultivated lands, conservation tillage techniques, including the use of no-till systems, have been developed and widely adopted throughout the region. However, there haves been no tests of the effects of no-till systems on stream quality at a watershed scale. We measured habitat and water quality and sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) and fish communities in 32 small (100-1400 ha) subwatersheds along a gradient of the proportion of land under no-till cropping systems to determine relationships between the use of no-till and stream quality. Our results demonstrate that with increasing proportions of no-till, habitat scores improve, the quantities of sediment and sediment associated stressors in the water decline, the BMI community exhibits reduced dominance by Oligocheata and Sphaeriidae, as well as improved Family Biotic Index (FBI) scores, and fish species richness increases. We concluded that increased use of no-till cropping systems by farmers does contribute to improved quality of streams in agro-ecosystems.

  18. Biosolids application to no-till dryland crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids recycling on dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can supply a reliable, slow-release source of nitrogen (N) and organic. Our past research found that continuous application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO wastewater treatment facility to dryland winter wheat-fallow r...

  19. Production of N2O and CO2 in Tillage and no Till Dryland and Irrigated Wheat Systems in Response to Additions of Water and N Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyanovsky, K.; Huggins, D.; Stockle, C.; Smith, J. L.; Morrow, J.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; Waldo, S.; Brown, D. J.; Pan, W.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall, irrigation and soil N fertilization are significant processes which drive emissions of highly potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, the major contributor to climate change from agriculture. Changing climate is likely to result in shifting of agroecozones due to increased temperatures, and expansion of irrigated agriculture as well as increase in irrigation requirements. An accurate assessment of N2O in irrigation and dryland scenarios is required for predicting the effects of these agricultural management practices on global climate change. The effects of N application and water additions on CO2 and N2O emissions were evaluated on long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage sites of dryland and irrigated wheat cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. We implemented the system of Li-Cor 8100A automatic chambers coupled with LGR 23r N2O analyzer for continuous IRGA monitoring of CO2 and N2O emissions in the short term microplot study with the following treatments: 1) no water; 2) water added to 80% water filled pore space and amended with 150 kg NH4NO3-N ha-1; 3) water added to 80% water filled pore space. Application of N and water took place at 9:00 and the measurements continued from that time until 7:00 the following day for 22 hrs. The study was conducted in the summer and repeated in fall, which are most likely to be affected by increased temperatures. Nitrogen and water treatments resulted in higher N2O peaks than water only treatments. Both N plus water and only water treatments had higher N2O emissions than the no water treatments. Conventional tillage treatments resulted in N2O emissions 30-40% than no-till treatments. Emissions of CO2 tended to be increased in the fertilized and water added treatments compared to just water added treatments, and both of these treatments had higher CO2 emissions than treatments without water added. Tillage treatments also tended to have higher CO2 emissions than no-till treatments. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were

  20. Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powlson, David S.; Stirling, Clare M.; Jat, M. L.; Gerard, Bruno G.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The Emissions Gap Report 2013 from the United Nations Environment Programme restates the claim that changing to no-till practices in agriculture, as an alternative to conventional tillage, causes an accumulation of organic carbon in soil, thus mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. But these claims ignore a large body of experimental evidence showing that the quantity of additional organic carbon in soil under no-till is relatively small: in large part apparent increases result from an altered depth distribution. The larger concentration near the surface in no-till is generally beneficial for soil properties that often, though not always, translate into improved crop growth. In many regions where no-till is practised it is common for soil to be cultivated conventionally every few years for a range of agronomic reasons, so any soil carbon benefit is then lost. We argue that no-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

  1. Impact of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris living sites on the greenhouse gas balance of no-till arable soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32 % higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13 % higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2 % of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  2. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    PubMed

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels. PMID:18948459

  3. Simulating the impact of no-till systems on field water fluxes and maize productivity under semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, W.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Crop output from the smallholder farming sector in sub-Saharan Africa is trailing population growth leading to widespread household food insecurity. It is therefore imperative that crop production in semi-arid areas be improved in order to meet the food demand of the ever increasing human population. No-till farming practices have the potential to increase crop productivity in smallholder production systems of sub-Saharan Africa, but rarely do because of the constraints experienced by these farmers. One of the most significant of these is the consumption of mulch by livestock. In the absence of long term on-farm assessment of the no-till system under smallholder conditions, simulation modelling is a tool that provides an insight into the potential benefits and can highlight shortcomings of the system under existing soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Thus, this study was designed to better understand the long term impact of no-till system without mulch cover on field water fluxes and maize productivity under a highly variable rainfall pattern typical of semi-arid South Africa. The simulated on-farm experiment consisted of two tillage treatments namely oxen-drawn conventional ploughing (CT) and ripping (NT). The APSIM model was applied for a 95 year period after first being calibrated and validated using measured runoff and maize yield data. The predicted results showed significantly higher surface runoff from the conventional system compared to the no-till system. Predicted deep drainage losses were higher from the NT system compared to the CT system regardless of the rainfall pattern. However, the APSIM model predicted 62% of the annual rainfall being lost through soil evaporation from both tillage systems. The predicted yields from the two systems were within 50 kg ha -1 difference in 74% of the years used in the simulation. In only 9% of the years, the model predicted higher grain yield in the NT system compared to the CT system. It is suggested that

  4. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  5. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr field study was conducted on an Atwood silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalfs) marginal upland soil to evaluate if incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface in a no-till cotton affect runoff nutrient concentrations. The treatments consisted of 7.8 Mg ha-1 broiler l...

  6. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes broiler litter to the atmosphere and rain events, enhances the potential loss of nutrients to the air and surface runoff water and may limit benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A 2-...

  7. Nutrient dynamics from broiler litter applied to no-till cotton in an upland soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface-applying broiler litter to a no-till cotton field increases the potential for loss of manure nutrients from the fields in runoff events and volitization of the NH4-N. An experiment was conducted on an upland Atwood silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleududalfs) at the Pontoto...

  8. Evaporation from high residue no-till versus tilled fallow in a dry summer climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the low-precipitation (< 300 mm annual) region of the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States practice summer fallow to produce winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a 2-yr rotation. No-till fallow (NTF) is ideal for control of wind erosion but is not widely practiced because of se...

  9. Curve numbers for no-till: field data versus standard tables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number procedure developed by Soil Conservation Service (Now Natural Resources Conservation Service) in the mid-1950s for estimating direct runoff from rainstorms has not been extensively tested in cropping systems under no-till. Analysis of CNs using the frequency matching and asymptotic ...

  10. Impact of different cover crop residues and shank types on no-till tomato yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year experiment with no-till tomatoes was conducted in Cullman, AL (2006 to 2008) to determine the effect of plastic mulch (control), rye and crimson clover cover crops, and different subsoiler shanks on no–till tomato yield. In 2006 and 2008, plastic cover provided higher yield compared wit...

  11. Phosphorus Fertilization of Late-Planted Winter Wheat into No-Till Summer Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted in low precipitation (< 300 mm) areas of north-central Oregon and east-central Washington after 14 months of tilled fallow. No-till fallow (NTF) is an alternative to the tillage-based method. The disadvantage of NTF is the loss of seed-zone moisture a...

  12. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  13. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  14. Irrigated, No-Till Corn and Barley Response to Nitrogen in Northern Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting irrigated, conventional till (CT) systems to no-till (NT) production systems can potentially reduce soil erosion, fossil fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen fertilization (6 N rates) effects on irrigated, corn (Zea mays L.) and malting barley (Hordeum distichon L.)...

  15. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  16. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  17. GPFARM Evaluation Across a No-Till Dryland Agroecosystem Landscape Catena

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Title: GPFARM Evaluation Across a No-Till Dryland Agroecosystem Landscape Catena Authors: James C. Ascough II, Allan A. Andales, Gregory S. McMaster, and Lajpat R. Ahuja Address: USDA-ARS, ASRU, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg. D, Suite 200, Fort Collins, CO 80526 GPFARM is a USDA-ARS decision support syst...

  18. Cropping Intensity Effects on Physical Properties of a No-till Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems in the semi-arid west have the potential to increase organic carbon in the soil profile and improve soil physical properties by increasing cropping intensity and crop diversity. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing cropping intensity will improve sele...

  19. Long-Term No-Till and Conventional-Till Soybean Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual crop yields of long-term no-till soybean (Glycine max) and conventional-till soybean at Holly Springs, Mississippi were summarized for a 16-year period, 1984 through 1999. This research report provides a complete data set of crop yields, cultural practices, and chemical applications used for...

  20. Addition of cover crops enhances no-till potential for improving soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the use of cover crops (CC) is growing. Inclusion of CC may be a potential strategy to boost no-till performance by improving soil physical properties. To assess this potential, we utilized a wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)]-grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] rotation, four N rate...

  1. No-Till Corn after Bromegrass: Effect on Soil C and Soil Aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A different 13C/12C isotope signature is imparted to SOC by C4 plants versus C3 plants. We measured changes in C isotope ratios in SOC during ~ 6½ yrs of no-till corn (Zea mays L) planted into 13yr old bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) sod for a C3 ' C4 plant switch to identify SOC isotope changes ...

  2. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  3. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  4. Organic no-till production for grain crops in Iowa: Effects on crop productivity and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-state, long-term organic experiment was established in 6 states in 2008 to examine effects of organic no-till production on crop productivity, yields, soil quality, and economic performance. Tillage treatments included conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT), with cover crop planted in th...

  5. Cover crop residue and organic mulches provide weed control during limited-input no-till collard production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited input producers may adopt no-till if sufficient weed suppression can be achieved. High-biomass producing cover crops used in conjunction with organic mulches may provide sufficient weed control in no-till vegetable production. Our objective was to quantify weed suppression from a summer co...

  6. Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia Bare Patch in a Long-Term No-Till Cropping Systems Experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major concern for farmers who practice no-till in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. Bare patches caused by Rhizoctonia first appeared in 1999 during year 3 of a 15-year no-till cropping systems experiment near Ritzville, WA (269 mm annual precipit...

  7. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  8. Forces and Straw Cutting Performance of Double Disc Furrow Opener in No-Till Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an “impossible to achieve” task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  9. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  10. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting. PMID:23673763

  11. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  12. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya; Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L; Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cougui

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions were monitored using a soil CO₂ flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH₄ emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO₂ and N₂O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO₂ and N₂O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p<0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3. PMID:25461105

  13. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  14. Changes of Soil Aggregate C Isotopes in No-Till Corn Following Bromegrass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. F.; Varvel, G.; Vogel, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    This field study is near Ithaca, Nebraska, USA (lat. 41.151, long. 96.401) on a Filbert silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argialboll). The site was in bromegrass since 1986. Corn was no-till seeded into the bromegrass sod in spring 1999. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. No-till corn was the main treatment with nitrogen (N) as subplots. N was broadcast at the start of each growing season at 60 or 120 kg N/ha as NH4NO3. Total biomass was measured by weighing 4.4 m of row in each plot. Soil samples were obtained in May 1999 (baseline sampling), Sept 1999, June 2000, Oct 2000, Sept 2001, Nov 2002, Sept 2003, and Oct 2005 from pre-selected areas by removal of plant material from the soil surface and removing the 0-5, 5- 10, and at 4 of the 8 harvests also sampling the 10-30 cm depths with a flat-bladed shovel. Soil bulk densities were determined on clods from each layer. The moist soil was passed through an 8 mm sieve before air drying and storing. Aggregate size fractions were obtained with a Yoder wet-aggregate method. Soil size fractions obtained were > 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.045 and < 0.045 mm. Detritus was floated to the surface and skimmed off for transfer to a separate container. Aggregates were dried at 55°C, weighed, ground, and analyzed for total C and N and 13C:12C isotope ratio. Because soil organic carbon (SOC) was labeled with the bromegrass (C3 plant) isotope signature, then during the 77 months of this experiment the re-labeling of each fraction and the total SOC with the corn (C4 plant) isotope signature and the amounts of SOC lost from aggregate size fractions with conversion of the bromegrass sod to no-till corn was measured. During 6.5 years, total SOC decreased from 21.1, 17.0, and 55.8 t/ha in the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-30 cm depths to 20.1, 16.7, and 55.5 t/ha, respectively. However the SOC in the < 2, 0.5-2, and < 0.5 mm fractions of the 0 - 5 cm depth changed from 62, 21, and 16 % of the total SOC at the

  15. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Shankle, M W; Tewolde, H; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K R; McLaughlin, M R; Rowe, D E

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of broiler litter to no-till cotton could lead to degradation of water quality. Incorporation of broiler litter into the top surface soil (0.05 m) could alleviate this risk. A 2-yr field study was conducted on a silt loam upland soil to determine the effect of incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface on nutrient and bacterial transport in runoff. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments and three replications. Treatments were (i) unfertilized control; (ii) surface-appliedbroiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) without incorporation; (iii) surface-applied broiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) with immediate incorporation; and (iv) inorganic fertilizer N (urea ammonium nitrate, 32% N) and inorganic fertilizer P (triple superphosphate) at the recommended rate. Phosphorus was surface appliedat 25 kg ha(-1) and N was injected at 101 kg ha(-1) into the soil using a commercial liquid fertilizer applicator. Runoff was collected from small runoff plots (2.4 m by 1.6 m) established at the bottom side of main plots (13.7 m by 6.0 m). Incorporation of broiler litter reduced total N (TN), NO3-N, water soluble P (WSP), and total P (TP) concentrations in runoffby 35, 25, 61, and 64%, respectively, and litter-associated bacteria by two to three orders of magnitude compared with unincorporated treatment. No significant difference in total suspended solids (TSS) in runoffwas obtained between incorporated and unincorporated treatments. Incorporation of broiler litter into the surface soil in the no-till system immediately after application minimized the potential risk for surface nutrient losses and bacteria transport in runoff. PMID:21520764

  16. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  17. On-farm effects of no-till versus occasional tillage on soil quality and crop yields in eastern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide interest in conservation tillage is increasing, because conventional tillage adversely impacts the long-term fertility of the soil and its vulnerability to erosion. No-till (NT) agriculture minimizes adverse impacts of an intensive arable land use. In some cases, rotational till-NT practic...

  18. Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT No-till planting cotton into small grain cover crops has many benefits including reducing soil erosion and allelopathic suppression of weeds. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche...

  19. No-till and conventional-till cotton response to broiler litter fertilization in an upland soil: lint yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of poultry litter as cotton fertilizer is not well documented for upland soils in the southeastern USA where cotton may be grown under no-till and other soil conservation practices. The objective of this research was to measure the response of cotton to broiler litter fertilization...

  20. Fourteen Years of Diverse Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed the 14th year of a cropping systems experiment to evaluate diverse annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spri...

  1. Long-term Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tillage-based winter wheat – summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system has dominated dryland farming in the Pacific Northwest for 125 years. We conducted a large-scale multidisciplinary 8-year study of annual no-till cropping systems as an alternative to WW-SF. Soft white and hard white classes of w...

  2. Conservation tillage issues: cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production in the mid-atlantic region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers in the mid-Atlantic region are interested in reducing tillage, labor, and time requirements for grain production. Cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production is one approach to accomplishing these goals. Advancements in a system for planting crops into a mat of cov...

  3. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  5. No-till and cover crop impacts on soil carbon and associated properties on Pennsylvania dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of conservation practices in crop production, especially no-till planting, is generally expected to result in sequestration of C as soil organic matter and contribute to the reduction of CO2 inputs to the atmosphere. However, expectations are almost exclusively based on findings from plot-s...

  6. Monitoring and APEX modeling of no-till and reduced-till in tile drained agricultural landscapes for water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of agricultural practices through monitoring and modeling is necessary for the development of more effective conservation programs and policies. No-till and reduced-till are both agricultural conservation practices widely promoted for their proven ability to conserve water and reduce ...

  7. Site-Specific N Management in an Intensified No-till Dryland Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional uniform N application is inefficient. Nitrogen is over-applied in low-producing parts of a field and under-applied in areas with high-production potential. The result is lost income for farmers, diminished carbon sequestration, and negative environmental impact (soil acidification, tox...

  8. Gypsum soil amendment as a management practice in no-till to improve water quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage agriculture has been promoted as a viable means of controlling soil erosion in many regions of the USA. In no-tillage, manures are largely surface applied and soluble forms of nutrients can easily be removed by water during a runoff event. Gypsum has been shown to improve infiltration i...

  9. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  10. Sunflower response to irrigation from limited water supplies with no-till management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited irrigation necessitates maximizing economic returns by rotating crops, so we conducted a field study during 2005-2009 in southwest Kansas to determine the yield response of sunflower to irrigation and evapotranspiration (ETc) and to measure plant growth parameters and soil water use. Sunflow...

  11. Elevated carbon dioxide alters chemical management of Canada thistle in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differential responses of crops and weeds to anthropogenic climatic change may alter competition and crop yields. Here we examine the role of current and projected increases in carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], on soybean growth and seed yield with and without competition from Canada thistle (Cir...

  12. Novel manure management technologies in no-till and forage systems: introduction to the special series

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface application of manures leaves nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) susceptible to losses in runoff and N can also be lost to the atmosphere through ammonia volatilization. Tillage immediately after surface application of manure moves manure nutrients under the soil surface where they are less vul...

  13. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions under no-till farming in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Sheng-Li; Pu, Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Yu-Qiao; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2016-04-01

    No-till (NT) practices are among promising options toward adaptation and mitigation of climate change. However, the mitigation effectiveness of NT depends not only on its carbon sequestration potential but also on soil-derived CH4 and N2O emissions. A meta-analysis was conducted, using a dataset involving 136 comparisons from 39 studies in China, to identify site-specific factors which influence CH4 emission, CH4 uptake, and N2O emission under NT. Comparative treatments involved NT without residue retention (NT0), NT with residue retention (NTR), compared to plow tillage (PT) with residue removed (PT0). Overall, NT0 significantly decreased CH4 emission by ~30% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 with an average emission 218.8 kg ha(-1) for rice paddies. However, the increase in N2O emission could partly offset the benefits of the decrease in CH4 emission under NT compared to PT0. NTR significantly enhanced N2O emission by 82.1%, 25.5%, and 20.8% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 for rice paddies, acid soils, and the first 5 years of the experiments, respectively. The results from categorical meta-analysis indicated that the higher N2O emission could be mitigated by adopting NT within alkaline soils, for long-term duration, and with less N fertilization input when compared to PT0. In addition, the natural log (lnR) of response ratio of CH4 and N2O emissions under NT correlated positively (enhancing emission) with climate factors (temperature and precipitation) and negatively (reducing emission) with experimental duration, suggesting that avoiding excess soil wetness and using NT for a long term could enhance the benefits of NT. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the conditions favoring greenhouse gas(es) reductions is essential to achieving climate change mitigation and advancing food security in China. PMID:26661415

  14. Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) source comparison study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of inorganic N source and placement on growing-season and non-crop period soil nitrous oxide (NO). Commercially available controlled-release N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn ( L.) production system. Controlled-release N fertilizers evaluated were: a polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea (SuperU), and UAN+AgrotainPlus (SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain nitrification and urease inhibitors). Each N source was surface band applied (202 kg N ha) near the corn row at emergence and watered into the soil the next day. Subsurface banded ESN (ESNssb) and check (no N applied) treatments were included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons and after harvest using static, vented chambers. All N sources had significantly lower growing-season NO emissions than granular urea (0.7% of applied N), with UAN+AgrotainPlus (0.2% of applied N) and ESN (0.3% of applied N) having lower emissions than UAN (0.4% of applied N). Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but were greater than the check. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in NT, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. In our study, UAN+AgrotainPlus consistently had the lowest level of NO emissions with no yield loss. PMID:23099926

  15. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Francesco, Alluvione

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing crop yields; however, it may potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The study objective was to assess the ability of commercially available enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers to reduce N2O emissions following their application in comparison with conventional dry granular urea and liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn (Zea mays L.) production system. Four enhanced-efficiency fertilizers were evaluated: two polymer-coated urea products (ESN and Duration III) and two fertilizers containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers significantly reduced growing-season N2O-N emissions in comparison with urea, including UAN. SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus had significantly lower N2O-N emissions than UAN. Compared with urea, SuperU reduced N2O-N emissions 48%, ESN 34%, Duration III 31%, UAN 27%, and UAN+AgrotainPlus 53% averaged over 2 yr. Compared with UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus reduced N2O emissions 35% and SuperU 29% averaged over 2 yr. The N2O-N loss as a percentage of N applied was 0.3% for urea, with all other N sources having significantly lower losses. Grain production was not reduced by the use of alternative N sources. This work shows that enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers can potentially reduce N2O-N emissions without affecting yields from irrigated NT corn systems in the semiarid central Great Plains. PMID:21043261

  16. Comparing carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between no-till and conventional tillage agriculture in Lesotho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices can either sequester or emit carbon (C). Feeding seven billion people mandates that soils be used intensively for food production, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the lack of CO2 flux measurements on African subs...

  17. Simulating landscape catena effects in no-till dryland agroecosystems using GPFARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative agricultural management systems in the semi-arid Great Plains are receiving increasing attention. GPFARM is a farm/ranch decision support system (DSS) designed to assist in strategic management planning for land units from the field to the whole-farm level. This study evaluated the site...

  18. Continuous Risk Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

  19. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five management systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...

  20. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  1. Soil sorptivity enhancement with crop residue accumulation in simiarid dryland no-till agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water capture and precipitation use efficiency are of great importance in dryland cropping systems because the world’s dependence on food produced in dryland areas continues to increase. Growing season evapotranspiration potential greatly exceeds growing season precipitation rates in dryland areas,...

  2. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  3. Soil CO2 flux in response to wheel traffic in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of soil CO2 flux in the absence of living plants can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of soil management practices for C sequestration, but field CO2 flux is spatially variable and may be affected by soil compaction and percentage of total pore space filled with water (%WFPS). The ...

  4. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  5. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate. PMID:25744820

  6. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  7. A Marketing Management Approach for Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a marketing management model to the revitalization, or remarketing, of continuing education. Assesses the potential of continuing education as a higher education market. Suggests surveying present students, developing and quantifying hypotheses, applying new technology, promoting selected benefits, approaching areas of opportunity, and…

  8. COMPARISON OF RUNOFF, SOIL EROSION, AND WINTER WHEAT YIELDS FROM NO-TILL AND INVERSION TILLAGE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparisons of yields and conservation effectiveness in no-till and inversion tillage systems is typically confined to small plot research. Results from this type of research are often criticized for being site specific with results that do not transfer to production field scales, for crop yield or ...

  9. Roller type and operating speed effects on rye kill rates, soil moisture and irrigated sweet corn yield in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted in Cullman, Alabama to evaluate the effects of three different roller/crimpers on terminating a rye (Secale cereale L) cover crop, soil moisture, and sweet corn yield in a no-till system. A straight bar roller, a smooth roller with crimper, and a two-stage roller ope...

  10. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  11. SEX HORMONES FROM POULTRY LITTER-THEIR FATE AND TRANSPORT IN RUNOFF AND DRAINAGE FROM CROPPED TILL- AND NO-TILL PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of tons of poultry litter that are applied to agricultural fields annually are a source of the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone. Our objective was to determine if the concentrations of these two sex hormones in runoff and drainage from till and no-till soils receiving broiler lit...

  12. Effects of different roller/crimper designs and rolling speed on rye cover crop termination and seedcotton yield in A no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rollers/crimpers have been utilized in no-till systems to mechanically terminate cover crops as a substitute for chemical termination; however, excessive vibration generated by the original straight bar roller adopted from Brazil has delayed its adoption in the U.S. To reduce excessive vibration, pr...

  13. Roller type and operating speed effects on rye termination rates, soil moisture and yield of sweet corn in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted in Cullman, Alabama to evaluate the effects of three different rollers/crimpers on the termination of a rye (Secale cereale L) winter cover crop, soil moisture, and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) in a no-till system. The following roller types were tested: a strai...

  14. Cotton population and yield following rye and crimson clover termination with roller/crimper and herbicides in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an essential part of no-till systems because of important benefits such as improved soil quality, weed control and moisture conservation. Typically, under optimal weather conditions, a three week time period, after rolling, is required to achieve termination rates above 90%. A common...

  15. In-Crop and Autumn-Applied Glyphosate Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)Density in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of in-crop and fall-applied glyphosate on purple nutsedge density and yield of no-till glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and GR soybean. Separate experiments were conducted in GR corn and GR soybean in areas main...

  16. Enhancing management of fall-applied poultry litter with cover crop and subsurface band placement in no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether yield reduction risk of cotton fertilized with fall-applied poultry litter in regions with warm fall or winter months can be minimized by applying the litter in subsurface bands in conjunction with winter cover crop is unknown. A field study was conducted in Mississippi to test whether litte...

  17. Water use and yields of no-till managed dryland grasspea and yellow pea under different planting configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus) is a drought-tolerant legume that can be grown for forage and grain. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in dryland rotations with non-legume grain crops. However, the agronomics of GP for the Central Great Plains region have not been investi...

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT ROLLER DESIGNS ON MANAGING RYE AS A COVER CROP IN NO-TILL COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of speed on cover crop (rye, Secale cereale L.) termination rate, vibration level and cotton yield was tested for two roller designs during the 2004-2005 growing season. In 2004, two roller designs, a triple-section straight bar roller (4.1 m wide) and a smooth roller/crimper, were evalua...

  19. Examination of curve numbers from a small piedmont catechment under 33 years of no-till crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number (CN) method for estimating direct runoff from storm rainfall developed in the 1950’s by the USDA Soil Conservation Service has been adopted by large groups of users across the world. This has helped to gradually expose its strengths and weaknesses. Recently users have identified the...

  20. Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

    2006-01-01

    The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT

  1. Initial nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Leilei; Philip Robertson, G

    2013-08-01

    Around 4.4 million ha of land in USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts will expire between 2013 and 2018 and some will likely return to crop production. No-till (NT) management offers the potential to reduce the global warming costs of CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O emissions during CRP conversion, but to date there have been no CRP conversion tillage comparisons. In 2009, we converted portions of three 9-21 ha CRP fields in Michigan to conventional tillage (CT) or NT soybean production and reserved a fourth field for reference. Both CO2 and N2 O fluxes increased following herbicide application in all converted fields, but in the CT treatment substantial and immediate N2 O and CO2 fluxes occurred after tillage. For the initial 201-day conversion period, average daily N2 O fluxes (g N2 O-N ha(-1)  d(-1) ) were significantly different in the order: CT (47.5 ± 6.31, n = 6) ≫ NT (16.7 ± 2.45, n = 6) ≫ reference (2.51 ± 0.73, n = 4). Similarly, soil CO2 fluxes in CT were 1.2 times those in NT and 3.1 times those in the unconverted CRP reference field. All treatments were minor sinks for CH4 (-0.69 ± 0.42 to -1.86 ± 0.37 g CH4 -C ha(-1)  d(-1) ) with no significant differences among treatments. The positive global warming impact (GWI) of converted soybean fields under both CT (11.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) and NT (2.87 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) was in contrast to the negative GWI of the unconverted reference field (-3.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) with on-going greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. N2 O contributed 39.3% and 55.0% of the GWI under CT and NT systems with the remainder contributed by CO2 (60.7% and 45.0%, respectively). Including foregone mitigation, we conclude that NT management can reduce GHG costs by ~60% compared to CT during initial CRP conversion. PMID:23553929

  2. Initial nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Leilei; Philip Robertson, G

    2013-01-01

    Around 4.4 million ha of land in USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts will expire between 2013 and 2018 and some will likely return to crop production. No-till (NT) management offers the potential to reduce the global warming costs of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions during CRP conversion, but to date there have been no CRP conversion tillage comparisons. In 2009, we converted portions of three 9–21 ha CRP fields in Michigan to conventional tillage (CT) or NT soybean production and reserved a fourth field for reference. Both CO2 and N2O fluxes increased following herbicide application in all converted fields, but in the CT treatment substantial and immediate N2O and CO2 fluxes occurred after tillage. For the initial 201-day conversion period, average daily N2O fluxes (g N2O-N ha−1 d−1) were significantly different in the order: CT (47.5 ± 6.31, n = 6) ≫ NT (16.7 ± 2.45, n = 6) ≫ reference (2.51 ± 0.73, n = 4). Similarly, soil CO2 fluxes in CT were 1.2 times those in NT and 3.1 times those in the unconverted CRP reference field. All treatments were minor sinks for CH4 (−0.69 ± 0.42 to −1.86 ± 0.37 g CH4–C ha−1 d−1) with no significant differences among treatments. The positive global warming impact (GWI) of converted soybean fields under both CT (11.5 Mg CO2e ha−1) and NT (2.87 Mg CO2e ha−1) was in contrast to the negative GWI of the unconverted reference field (−3.5 Mg CO2e ha−1) with on-going greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. N2O contributed 39.3% and 55.0% of the GWI under CT and NT systems with the remainder contributed by CO2 (60.7% and 45.0%, respectively). Including foregone mitigation, we conclude that NT management can reduce GHG costs by ∼60% compared to CT during initial CRP conversion. PMID:23553929

  3. Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

    2014-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic

  4. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  5. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 782 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1977. The citations, and abstracts when available, are reproduced exactly as they appeared originally in IAA and STAR, including the original accession numbers from the respective announcement journals. Topics cover the management of research and development contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control citations. Includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  6. Continuing Education - A Management Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Peter F.

    The approach to continuing education at the Shell Oil Company is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods of instruction and different formats for continuing education are described. The impact of continuing education is assessed in relation to the following: hiring policies, career development, staff upgrading, promotional…

  7. Title V continuous compliance data management

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, J.; Takacs, J.F.; Conover, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. (MBI) has realized that the hardest part about compliance with Title V requirements is not the initial permit application, but the ongoing compliance and certification process. In late 1995, the Phillipsburg New Jersey plant elected to begin the development of an Air Compliance Module. This Air Module is a component of the overall Environmental Information Management System (EIMS). The purpose of this module is to meet the needs for continuous compliance and certification of that compliance. The Air Module meets three functional needs. The first need is to verify permit compliance. The permit limitations for each emission unit are contained in this module. These limitations do not just include emissions, but also include operational limitations such as, hours of operation and product throughputs. The second need is to calculate and track emissions. The emissions from each emission unit are calculated and compared to the annual limitations. Reports are generated for total emissions and for emission units that are approaching permit limits. The third need is for production tracking. This system tracks production, hours of operation, scrubber parameters and most of the information required by the compliance plan. In addition, specific business information such as quality parameters and safety inspections is recorded. This is where this module becomes a business system, providing data accumulation, tracking and reporting not possible using the current manual systems. Data from all of the operations at the plant are captured by the production tracking system. This information is fed into the emission calculator to calculate the emissions for each emission unit. The emission data and other operating parameters are then compared to the requirements of the compliance plan stored in the permit limitations. This is then used to produce the semi-annual compliance report.

  8. Responses of rice cultivars and elite lines to diseases in no-till organic production system, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was established in a field of League-type soil (3% sand, 32% silt, and 64% clay) under organic management for many years at the Texas A&M University System's Agrilife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont. Twenty rice cultivars and lines were arranged in a randomized complete block ...

  9. Dairy Slurry Application Method Effects On NH3 Emission, and NO3 Leaching in No-till Corn Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most losses of ammonia N from dairy farms occurs during periods of manure land application. To reduce odors and conserve manure N for subsequent crop use, various manure application techniques have been tested. Reduction in ammonia N loss due to manure injection or other soil management techniques m...

  10. Long-Term Crop Residue Dynamics in No-Till Cropping Systems Under Semi-Arid Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of crop residue is an important component of dryland cropping systems management in the semiarid environment where soil erosion by wind is a major soil degradation process. Residue also affects precipitation capture and runoff. Long-term residue quantity dynamics of different cropping s...

  11. Dairy Slurry Application Method Effects on Ammonia Emission and Nitrate Leaching in No-till Corn Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce odors and conserve dairy slurry nitrogen (N) for subsequent crop use, various slurry application techniques have been tested. Reductions in ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may, however, increase nitrate (NO3) leaching. Possible trade...

  12. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  13. A new perspective with weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management in no-till, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Producers are seeking a broader perspective with weed management. One approach is to disrupt weed...

  14. Continuing Education -- A Management Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. D.

    The needs for continuing engineering education to avoid technical obsolescence and the programs offered by one company to fill this need are discussed. Ten educational alternative programs of the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico) are described. (CP)

  15. Implementing Continuous Improvement Management (CIM) in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgers, William E.; Thompson, Tommy A.

    This book traces the restructuring of a Texas school district that moved from management by coercion to continuous improvement for quality. In 1990, the Dickinson Independent School District (Texas) began implementation of Continuous Improvement Management (CIM), based on the teachings of W. Edwards Deming, William Glasser, and J. M. Juran.…

  16. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience. PMID:26642170

  17. Business continuity management and pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B

    2006-01-01

    Pandemic influenza planning presents challenges for both government and businesses. Effective cooperation and communication before and during a pandemic will help mitigate the major threats to societal function. The major challenges for government include communicating a realistic estimate of pandemic risk, managing community anxiety, communicating the need for rationing of vaccines and antiviral medications, setting standards for preparedness, and gaining the trust of essential service workers. For businesses the challenges are tailoring generic planning guides to local use, and making links with local and regional partners in pandemic planning. PMID:17293894

  18. Managing weeds with a population dynamics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. A critical aspect of no-till is controlling weeds. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Scientists and producers are seeking a broader perspectiv...

  19. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed. PMID:20378494

  20. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  1. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, Cerruti R. R.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed. PMID:23430284

  2. Effects of Cover Crops to Offset Soil Carbon Changes Under No-till on an Ohio farm when Biomass is Harvested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, J. M.; Everett, L. R.; Richards, W.

    2003-12-01

    The results of a long term experiment to look at the use of cover crops and there effect on soil organic carbon. No-till has been shown to increase SOC and improve the overall soil quality under conditions where the biomass has been returned to the field. However, biomass may be removed as silage or for use in biofuels. The removal will reduce the inputs to the field so to overcome the amount of biomass not returned to the soil different cover crops were used. This experiment was done on a working farm where the corn biomass was being removed as silage. Four cover crops were planted in early September of 2002: rye, oats, clover, and canola with two controls, one with no cover crop and one where corn stubble was left on the field. The soils were sampled soon after the crops were planted and again in the spring of 2003 before the cover crops were killed just prior to planting. The first results indicate that the most root biomass was produced by the rye followed by oats then canola and then clover.

  3. Red to Black: A Primer for Continuing Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Armand; White, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Traces the efforts of the Division of Continuing Studies at a large northeastern state university to regain fiscal solvency through business and leadership techniques including management by objectives, section management, and a course confirmation formula. Warns program administrators about potential problems with break-even registration…

  4. Anger in School Managers: Continuity, Direction, Control and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Iskender, Murat; Cardak, Mehmet; Dusunceli, Betul

    2012-01-01

    School managers undertake an important duty in structuring of education institutions. In the study carried out in this context; anger conditions, continuity, and direction of anger, anger control levels and anger styles of school managers who are the decision makers in schools were examined according to the ages, working periods, duty types, ways…

  5. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil physical properties and water infiltration were measured for five land use and soil management practices at North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Coshocton, Ohio. The five treatments were no-till with and without manure (NTM, NTWM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional till...

  6. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  7. Towards a no-till no-spray future? Introduction to a symposium on nonchemical weed management for reduced-tillage cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced-tillage systems including no-tillage and strip tillage have well-known benefits for conserving and improving soils, protecting vulnerable crops from extreme weather events, and reducing labor and fuel costs associated with full-width inversion tillage. Despite these benefits, reduced-tillage...

  8. Improving Our Odds: Success through Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2009-01-01

    Launching a rocket, running a business, driving to work and even day-to-day living all involve some degree of risk. Risk is ever present yet not always recognized, adequately assessed and appropriately mitigated. Identification, assessment and mitigation of risk are elements of the risk management component of the "continuous improvement" way of life that has become a hallmark of successful and progressive enterprises. While the application of risk management techniques to provide continuous improvement may be detailed and extensive, the philosophy, ideals and tools can be beneficially applied to all situations. Experiences with the use of risk identification, assessment and mitigation techniques for complex systems and processes are described. System safety efforts and tools used to examine potential risks of the Ares I First Stage of NASA s new Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) presently being designed are noted as examples. Recommendations from lessons learned are provided for the application of risk management during the development of new systems as well as for the improvement of existing systems. Lessons learned and suggestions given are also examined for applicability to simple systems, uncomplicated processes and routine personal daily tasks. This paper informs the reader of varied uses of risk management efforts and techniques to identify, assess and mitigate risk for improvement of products, success of business, protection of people and enhancement of personal life.

  9. Lean management systems: creating a culture of continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Clark, David M; Silvester, Kate; Knowles, Simon

    2013-08-01

    This is the first in a series of articles describing the application of Lean management systems to Laboratory Medicine. Lean is the term used to describe a principle-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) management system based on the Toyota production system (TPS) that has been evolving for over 70 years. Its origins go back much further and are heavily influenced by the work of W Edwards Deming and the scientific method that forms the basis of most quality management systems. Lean has two fundamental elements--a systematic approach to process improvement by removing waste in order to maximise value for the end-user of the service and a commitment to respect, challenge and develop the people who work within the service to create a culture of continuous improvement. Lean principles have been applied to a growing number of Healthcare systems throughout the world to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of services for patients and a number of laboratories from all the pathology disciplines have used Lean to shorten turnaround times, improve quality (reduce errors) and improve productivity. Increasingly, models used to plan and implement large scale change in healthcare systems, including the National Health Service (NHS) change model, have evidence-based improvement methodologies (such as Lean CQI) as a core component. Consequently, a working knowledge of improvement methodology will be a core skill for Pathologists involved in leadership and management. PMID:23757036

  10. What is the appropriate business continuity management staff size?

    PubMed

    Walch, Damian; Merante, Jason

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the question 'how many professionals does it take to build a resilient enterprise?' The paper describes the various segments of a comprehensive business continuity, disaster recovery and crisis management programme and then delves into the variables that determine the appropriate number of professionals required for the company. It is a thought-provoking examination that can help anybody in the `c-suite' examine their particular requirements, characteristics and culture to determine appropriate staffing levels. The reader will have a quantitative approach for determining the size and structure of a resilient enterprise which can provide a solid foundation for a programme that adapts and adjusts quickly and cost-effectively to disasters and events. It can also help build executive support for a programme management office which could ultimately increase the overall success of the programme. PMID:21339110

  11. [Leadership: continuous learning in the management in nursing].

    PubMed

    Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Prado

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the leadership in the context of the management and the education in Nursing with the purpose to contribute to rethink the practice in the health organizations. The historical and conceptual aspects emphasize the leadership as a group phenomenon that involves the system of social influence of an individual on the rest. It analyzes the leadership in Nursing as an ability to be permanently developed considering the organizational, interpersonal and individual dimensions. It recognizes the importance of the group value for a responsible and ethical leadership, aiming at the continuous search of the knowledge, the mutual reliable establishment and the quality of the assistance. PMID:15603487

  12. Acquisition and management of continuous data streams for crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireless sensor network systems for decision support in crop water management offer many advantages including larger spatial coverage and multiple types of data input. However, collection and management of multiple and continuous data streams for near real-time post analysis can be problematic. Thi...

  13. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  14. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  15. Model Hosting for continuous updating and transparent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jódar, Jorge; Almolda, Xavier; Batlle, Francisco; Carrera, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have become a standard tool for water resources management. They are required for water volume bookkeeping and help in decision making. Nevertheless, numerical models are complex and they can be used only by highly qualified technicians, which are often far from the decision makers. Moreover, they need to be maintained. That is, they require updating of their state, by assimilation of measurements, natural and anthropic actions (e.g., pumping and weather data), and model parameters. Worst, their very complexity implies that are they viewed as obscure and far, which hinders transparency and governance. We propose internet model hosting as an alternative to overcome these limitations. The basic idea is to keep the model hosted in the cloud. The model is updated as new data (measurements and external forcing) becomes available, which ensures continuous maintenance, with a minimal human cost (only required to address modelling problems). Internet access facilitates model use not only by modellers, but also by people responsible for data gathering and by water managers. As a result, the model becomes an institutional tool shared by water agencies to help them not only in decision making for sustainable management of water resources, but also in generating a common discussion platform. By promoting intra-agency sharing, the model becomes the common official position of the agency, which facilitates commitment in their adopted decisions regarding water management. Moreover, by facilitating access to stakeholders and the general public, the state of the aquifer and the impacts of alternative decisions become transparent. We have developed a tool (GAC, Global Aquifer Control) to address the above requirements. The application has been developed using Cloud Computing technologies, which facilitates the above operations. That is, GAC automatically updates the numerical models with the new available measurements, and then simulates numerous management options

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Suyker, Andy [University of Nebraska - Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site. Site Description - The study site is one of three fields (all located within 1.6 km of each other) at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, Nebraska. This site is irrigated with a center pivot system. Prior to the initiation of the study, the irrigated site had a 10-yr history of maize-soybean rotation under no-till. A tillage operation (disking) was done just prior to the 2001 planting to homogenize the top 0.1 m of soil, incorporate P and K fertilizers, as well as previously accumulated surface residues. Since the tillage operation, the site has been under no-till management until the harvest of 2005. Following harvest, a conservation-plow tillage operation was initiated where a small amount of N fertilizer is sprayed on the residue immediately prior to the plow operation. Approximately 1/3 of the crop residue is left on the surface. The post-harvest conservation-plow operation continues as the current practice.

  17. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Management is a compilation of references to selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management. This publication lists 368 documents originally announced in the 1975 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). It includes references on the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. It also includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  18. Continuous cardiotocography during labour: Analysis, classification and management.

    PubMed

    Pinas, Ana; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The use of continuous intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) using a cardiotocograph (CTG) was developed to enable obstetricians and midwives to analyse the changes of fetal heart rate during labour so as to institute timely intervention to avoid intrapartum hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Although CTG was initially developed as a screening tool to predict fetal hypoxia, its positive predictive value for intrapartum fetal hypoxia is approximately only 30%. Even though different international classifications have been developed with the aim of defining combinations of features that help predict intrapartum fetal hypoxia, the false-positive rate of the CTG is high (60%). Moreover, there has not been a demonstrable improvement in the rate of cerebral palsy or perinatal deaths since the introduction of CTG into clinical practice approximately 45 years ago. However, there has been a significant increase in intrapartum caesarean section and operative vaginal delivery rates. Unfortunately, existing guidelines employ the visual interpretation of CTG based on 'pattern recognition', which is fraught with inter- and intra-observer variability. Therefore, clinicians need to understand the physiology behind fetal heart rate changes and to respond to them accordingly, instead of purely relying on guidelines for management. It is very likely that such a 'physiology-based' approach would reduce unnecessary operative interventions and improve perinatal outcomes whilst reducing the need for 'additional tests' of fetal well-being. PMID:26165747

  19. Managers' role in maximising investment in continuing professional education.

    PubMed

    Draper, Jan; Clark, Liz; Rogers, Jill

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare organisations face the challenge of delivering care in increasingly complex environments. To do so they depend on competent professionals, and continuing professional education (CPE) plays a major part in ensuring that staff maintain and develop their knowledge and skills. However, there is limited evidence of the effect of CPE on healthcare outcomes, and an emphasis on outcomes has overlooked the contribution of the processes that underlie effective CPE. This article reports the results of a study that explored a range of stakeholders' perceptions of the processes that maximise the positive effects of CPE on practice. Analysis of results shows that CPE can help improve care when supported by positive organisational cultures, effective partnership working between stakeholders and supportive learning environments that enable individuals to maximise their learning. This article discusses how managers play a pivotal role in creating positive cultures in which CPE can flourish by being role models and change agents, ensuring organisational strategic objectives are aligned with personal development plans, and by working collaboratively with education colleagues to ensure that learning from CPE is embedded in practice. PMID:26938913

  20. Management. A continuing bibliography with indexes. [March 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 604 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1979 covering the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. Program, project, and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decision making processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting are also covered. Abstracts are provided as well as subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes.

  1. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  2. Improvements of the Profil Cultural Method for a better Low-tech Field Assessment of Soil Structure under no-till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger-Estrade, Jean; Boizard, Hubert; Peigné, Josephine; Sasal, Maria Carolina; Guimaraes, Rachel; Piron, Denis; Tomis, Vincent; Vian, Jean-François; Cadoux, Stephane; Ralisch, Ricardo; Filho, Tavares; Heddadj, Djilali; de Battista, Juan; Duparque, Annie

    2016-04-01

    In France, agronomists have studied the effects of cropping systems on soil structure, using a field method based on a visual description of soil structure. The "profil cultural" method (Manichon and Gautronneau, 1987) has been designed to perform a field diagnostic of the effects of tillage and compaction on soil structure dynamics. This method is of great use to agronomists improving crop management for a better preservation of soil structure. However, this method was developed and mainly used in conventional tillage systems, with ploughing. As several forms of reduced, minimum and no tillage systems are expanding in many parts of the world, it is necessary to re-evaluate the ability of this method to describe and interpret soil macrostructure in unploughed situations. In unploughed fields, soil structure dynamics of untilled layers is mainly driven by compaction and regeneration by natural agents (climatic conditions, root growth and macrofauna) and it is of major importance to evaluate the importance of these natural processes on soil structure regeneration. These concerns have led us to adapt the standard method and to propose amendments based on a series of field observations and experimental work in different situations of cropping systems, soil types and climatic conditions. We improved the description of crack type and we introduced an index of biological activity, based on the visual examination of clods. To test the improved method, a comparison with the reference method was carried out and the ability of the "profil cultural" method to make a diagnosis was tested on five experiments in France, Brazil and Argentina. Using the improved method, the impact of cropping systems on soil functioning was better assessed when natural processes were integrated into the description.

  3. Why take the no-till path?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90% of the world's 5.2 million square miles of arable lands are severely degraded. This paper provides a general review, with examples, of the benefits of conservation tillage and sound cropping systems to improve soil quality on the 4.8 million square miles of arable lands worldwide that are ...

  4. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  5. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  6. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management is presented. There are 450 references to documents which were originally announced in the 1971 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). Subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes are included.

  7. Total Quality Management Continuous Improvement: Is the Philosophy a Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Aidan; Hughes, Helen; Maddox, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 72 Irish companies identified 51 using total quality management (TQM); second-survey responses from 28 of the latter showed that 57% of TQM initiatives were successful or very successful; most have a good understanding of comprehensive TQM and value long-term over short-term results. Benefits were experienced throughout…

  8. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  9. Academe Makes for Strange Bedfellows: How Continuing Education and Schools of Management Collide and Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    A significant component of continuing education involves teaching management, especially through the array of academic degree programs offered to part-time older students. In fact, the ability to offer management education is critical for the viability of continuing education. Co-existing amicably with its institution's business schools is the…

  10. Continuing Education in Management: A Survey of Practitioners' Perceived Needs, Knowledge and Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Norman V.; Jowdy, Albert W.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of Georgia pharmacists revealed a greater interest in learning about management than about marketing or finance, but little interest in attending continuing education programs. Managers, directors, and owners were more interested in continuing education in all areas than pharmacists in other positions. (MSE)

  11. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11584 - What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements? 63.11584 Section 63.11584 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  13. Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

    2010-01-01

    In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations. PMID:21069770

  14. Revitalizing a Continuing Education Department through Self-Managed Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinehart, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    A continuing education manager used the literature-based concept of self-managed work teams to reorganize the department, resulting in better productivity, financial solvency, and better customer focus and responsiveness. However, not all managers wanted to share power, and not all employees wanted to be empowered. (SK)

  15. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  16. Sustainable dryland agroecosystems management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dryland Agroecosystem Project with No-till management was established in the fall of 1985, with 1986 being the first harvest year. Grain and stover yields, crop residue amounts, soil water measurements, crop nutrient content and climate data have been reported annually in previously published t...

  17. Chapter 5, "License Renewal and Aging Management for Continued Service

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    As of August 2011, there were 104 commercial nuclear power reactors licensed to operate in 31 states in the United States. Initial operating licenses in the United States are granted for a period of 40 years. In order to help assure an adequate energy supply, the USNRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements that are needed to ensure safe plant operation for an extended plant life. The principals of license renewal and the basic requirements that address license renewal are identified as well as additional sources of guidance that can be utilized as part of the license renewal process. Aging management program inspections and operating experience related to the concrete and steel containment structures are provided. Finally, several lessons learned are provided based on containment operating experience.

  18. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter’s working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real–time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  19. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter's working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real-time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  20. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness. PMID:24051650

  1. Program/Project Management Resources: A collection of 50 bibliographies focusing on continual improvement, reinventing government, and successful project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    These Program/Project Management Resource Lists were originally written for the NASA project management community. Their purpose was to promote the use of the NASA Headquarters Library Program/Project Management Collection funded by NASA Headquarters Code FT, Training & Development Division, by offering introductions to the management topics studied by today's managers. Lists were also written at the request of NASA Headquarters Code T, Office of Continual improvements, and at the request of NASA members of the National Performance Review. This is the second edition of the compilation of these bibliographies; the first edition was printed in March 1994.

  2. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  3. The Correlates and Influences of Career-Related Continuous Learning: Implications for Management Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznia, Kevin D.; Kerno, Steven J., Jr.; Gilley, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Management personnel are increasingly aware that career success depends on the ability to continuously learn and adapt to the environment. However, scant attention has been paid to how learning activities contribute to managerial success. This study examines the degree to which involvement in career-related continuous learning affects managerial…

  4. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  6. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  7. Continuous Improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Programme at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been…

  8. Total Quality Management and Organizational Behavior Management: An Integration for Continual Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The history and main features of organizational behavior management (OBM) are compared and integrated with those of total quality management (TQM), with emphasis on W.E. Deming's 14 points and OBM's operant-based approach to performance management. Interventions combining OBM, TQM, and statistical process control are recommended. (DB)

  9. A Knowledge Tree Model and Its Application for Continuous Management Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun; Bao, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Jun

    This chapter analyzes the relationship of organizational knowledge and brings forward that organizational knowledge consists of three layers: core knowledge, structural knowledge, and implicit knowledge. According to the principle of knowledge maps, a dynamic management model of organizational knowledge based on knowledge tree is introduced and the definition of the value of knowledge node is given so that the quantitative management on knowledge is realized, which lays a foundation for performance evaluation of knowledge management. We also carefully study the application of knowledge tree in service quality management of hospital organizations and management innovation process and give the example of cooperation in endoscopic surgery to establish a knowledge tree about operational cooperation degree, which states the principle of organizational knowledge management and the knowledge innovation process of continuous management improvement.

  10. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  11. Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Strategic Planning: A Delicate Balance in Continuing Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomall, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends, for the management of community college adult/continuing education programs, strategic planning to determine the unit's niche within the educational marketplace and interorganizational "coupling" as a means of cooperating with other organizations to foster innovation. Offers a case study of "coupling" at Allegany Community College,…

  12. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether each sterilization cycle contains a full load of items, and if not, a statement from a hospital central...

  13. Continuing Education in Management for Health Care Personnel. A Second Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald K.

    Results are reported of an intensive evaluation of a statewide continuing education program in health care management based on interviews with program participants, their supervisors, and the administrators of their institutions. Focus is not how much knowledge was conveyed, but on how widely learning was reflected in improved management…

  14. Tribal Management Support Center: Training Services. Continuing Education System Catalog F. Y.-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A continuing education program in health systems management and administration, conducted for tribal and Indian Health Service (IHS) personnel, is described in this catalog. The first section states the goals of the program, which provides, on a national level, training to help tribes and tribal organizations administer health programs and to…

  15. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  16. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  17. Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently implementing the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Program developed by the Carnegie Mellon University and recommended by NASA as the Risk Management (RM) implementation approach. The four most frequently used risk assessment tools in the center are: (a) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). There are some guidelines for selecting the type of risk assessment tools during the project formulation phase of a project, but there is not enough guidance as to how to apply these tools in the Continuous Risk Management process (CRM). But the ways the safety and risk assessment tools are used make a significant difference in the effectiveness in the risk management function. Decisions regarding, what events are to be included in the analysis, to what level of details should the analysis be continued, make significant difference in the effectiveness of risk management program. Tools of risk analysis also depends on the phase of a project e.g. at the initial phase of a project, when not much data are available on hardware, standard FMEA cannot be applied; instead a functional FMEA may be appropriate. This study attempted to provide some directives to alleviate the difficulty in applying FTA, PRA, and FMEA in the CRM process. Hazard Analysis was not included in the scope of the study due to the short duration of the summer research project.

  18. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  19. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. PMID:26963231

  20. Continuous improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been applied to the results of four assessment tools and other data sources to improve performance. Important improvements include the need to reconsider two student outcomes as they were difficult to implement in courses. In addition, through benchmarking and the engagement of Alumni and Employers, key decisions were made to improve the curriculum and enhance employability.

  1. Agricultural management and environment controls long-term soil nitrous oxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas with a long atmospheric half-life. Understanding the controls on soil nitrous oxide fluxes is vital for the development of mitigation opportunities and for understanding their climatic impact. The spatial and temporal variability of soil nitrous oxide fluxes, however, makes it difficult to predict such fluxes. We examined the longest available dataset, 22 years of continues measurements, which contains biweekly measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions together with measurements of an array of environmental and management parameters from eleven ecosystems, including four corn-soybean-wheat rotations under different management (conventional, no-till, biological, and reduced input), one perennial alfalfa system, two tree plantations, three successional systems, and one deciduous forest. This dataset was used to assess the effect of different agricultural and land management practices on soil N2O emissions. Using statistical and correlation analyses, we found that, in general, annual crops emitted 2-3 times more N2O annually than did perennial crops. Among the annual crops, there were no differences in the annual emissions among the cropping systems; the conventional, no-till, reduced input, and biologically managed systems emitted similar amounts of N2O with very different emission patterns. Among the perennial crops, alfalfa emitted 2 times more N2O than did poplar, approximately 1.6 times more than did the coniferous plantation, and ~3 times more than did the unmanaged successional communities and the deciduous forest, which emitted similar amounts. Within the annual crop rotation phases, the wheat phase of the conventionally and no-till-managed rotations emitted approximately twice as much N2O than did the reduced input- and biologically managed systems, largely due to the length of the bare soil fallow. The corn and soybean phases of the conventionally managed rotation emitted between 70 and 100% less N2O than

  2. Tillage Management and Previous Crop Effects on Soil Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the potential positive effects of diverse crop rotations and no-till soil management on crop productivity and soil resource conservation, research to remove the constraints to widespread adoption of these crop and soil management practices in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota is ...

  3. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  4. Continuous quality improvement as a management concept for death investigation systems.

    PubMed

    Dibdin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) represents a management technique where the basic approach to managing quality consists of setting a standard for a work process, measuring variation in the work process in relation to the standard, and then implementing programs to decrease variation and improve end results. Everyone providing a service becomes involved both in understanding how quality is measured and in discussing how to improve quality. A team approach is adopted and instead of focusing on poor quality outcomes and how to avoid them, the team becomes involved in setting continuously improving standards for better performance and in finding ways to meet those standards. The objective is to meet or exceed consumer or user expectations. Relevant related concepts such as survey research, needs determination and outcomes analysis, and the importance of a mission statement are discussed using a medical examiner system as an example. PMID:11210931

  5. How Visual Management for Continuous Improvement Might Guide and Affect Hospital Staff: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Westerlund, Hugo; Sandahl, Christer; Thor, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visual management (VM) tools such as whiteboards, often employed in Lean thinking applications, are intended to be helpful in improving work processes in different industries including health care. It remains unclear, however, how VM is actually applied in health care Lean interventions and how it might influence the clinical staff. We therefore examined how Lean-inspired VM using whiteboards for continuous improvement efforts related to the hospital staff's work and collaboration. Within a case study design, we combined semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and photography on 2 cardiology wards. The fate of VM differed between the 2 wards; in one, it was well received by the staff and enhanced continuous improvement efforts, whereas in the other ward, it was not perceived to fit in the work flow or to make enough sense in order to be sustained. Visual management may enable the staff and managers to allow communication across time and facilitate teamwork by enabling the inclusion of team members who are not present simultaneously; however, its adoption and value seem contingent on finding a good fit with the local context. A combination of continuous improvement and VM may be helpful in keeping the staff engaged in the change process in the long run. PMID:26426324

  6. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  7. Management of drug interactions with beta-blockers: continuing education has a short-term impact

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Annelies; Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert

    There is a lack of clear guidelines regarding the management of drug-drug interactions. Objective To assess the impact of an educational intervention on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. Methods The study had a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention group (n=10 pharmacies) received a continuing education course and guidelines on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. The control group (n=10 pharmacies) received no intervention. Pharmacy students and staff of internship pharmacies participated in this study. Before and after the intervention, students registered interactions with beta-blockers during two weeks. Information was obtained on drug information of the beta-blocker and the interacting drug, patient’s demographics, and the mode of transaction. Results A total number of 288 interactions were detected during both study periods. Most beta-blockers causing an interaction were prescribed for hypertension, and interacted with hypoglycemic agents, NSAIDs, or beta2-agonists. Pharmacists’ intervention rate was low (14% in the pre-test compared to 39% in the post-test), but increased significantly in the post-test in the intervention group. Reasons for overriding the interaction included limited clinical relevance, refill prescriptions, not being aware of the interaction, and communication problems with the prescriber. Conclusion An interactive continuing education course, during which practice-oriented guidelines were offered, affected pharmacists’ short-term behavior at the counter in dealing with interactions of beta-blockers. Continuing education plays a role in raising pharmacists’ awareness and responsibility towards the detection and management of drug interactions in the pharmacy. PMID:25214902

  8. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by “exciting students about science”, who perceived increases in “student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts” and/or students as “more interested in termites after participating in this project” were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula. PMID:26464383

  9. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186911

  10. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries. PMID:25193457

  11. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  12. 40 CFR 63.11223 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice and management practice standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice and management practice standards? 63.11223 Section 63.11223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  13. Implementing business continuity management systems and sharing best practices at a European bank.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Stelios; Stratopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology applied by the Alpha Bank Group in order to implement a business continuity management (BCM) programme to its parent company (Alpha Bank SA), as well as to its subsidiaries in Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, UK and Ukraine. It also reviews the problems faced, how they were overcome and the lessons learned. When implementing a BCM programme in a large organisation, it is very important to follow the methodology described by BCM standard ISO 22301, otherwise the business continuity plan is unlikely to work efficiently or comply with the business recovery requirements, as well as with the requirements of other interested parties, such as customers, regulatory authorities, vendors, service providers, critical associates, etc. PMID:26897617

  14. [Perioperative Pain Management of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy with Bilateral Continuous Thoracic Paravertebral Block].

    PubMed

    Hida, Kumiko; Murata, Hiroaki; Sakai, Akiko; Ogami, Keiko; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for esophageal cancer. We describe bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks for perioperative pain management in 3 patients who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy. After anesthesia induction, bilateral thoracic paravertebral catheters were placed under ultrasound guidance with the patients in left lateral decubitus position at the sixth or seventh right intercostal space and eighth or ninth left intercostal space, respectively. Multiple ports for thoracoscopic procedures were located between the right third and ninth intercostal spaces. Laparoscopy-assisted gastric tube reconstruction was performed with skin incisions at bilateral T7-10 dermatomes. Intraoperative intermittent bolus injections of ropivacaine through the thoracic paravertebral catheters were used in combination with sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia, followed by continuous thoracic paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia with continuous intravenous fentanyl infusion and periodical intravenous acetaminophen administration. Numerical rating scales of postoperative pain at rest and when coughing were 4 or less for 48 hr after surgery. No complications related to thoracic paravertebral catheterization were observed. Bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks at different intercostal levels can provide good perioperative analgesia for minimally invasive esophagectomy. PMID:27017762

  15. Managers' perspective on continuous health education in a region of São Paulo State.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Silvana Martins; Aiub, Allan Correa; Rigato, Anna Francine Gonçalo; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Ogata, Marcia Niituma; Silva, Monica Vilchez da; Nogueira, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    OBJECTIVEAnalysing the concepts of Continuous Health Education - CHE (EPS - in Portuguese), operated by municipal managers and translated into official documents.METHODQualitative research with the use of official documents and semi-structured interviews with the Municipal Health Secretaries or Coordinators of Primary Health Care in the Northeast Region of São Paulo State, and thematic analysis of empirical material.RESULTSResults indicate difficulties in the municipalities problematizing their management practices, services and health care; EPS tools presented are insufficient and unsatisfactory for amending the array of problems raised and are still far from the routine of Primary Care services.CONCLUSIONDespite efforts to implement EPS actions for the strengthening of primary care, the process appears to be incipient. PMID:26353105

  16. Definition of Information Technology Architectures for Continuous Data Management and Medical Device Integration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H.; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2008-01-01

    The growing availability of continuous data from medical devices in diabetes management makes it crucial to define novel information technology architectures for efficient data storage, data transmission, and data visualization. The new paradigm of care demands the sharing of information in interoperable systems as the only way to support patient care in a continuum of care scenario. The technological platforms should support all the services required by the actors involved in the care process, located in different scenarios and managing diverse information for different purposes. This article presents basic criteria for defining flexible and adaptive architectures that are capable of interoperating with external systems, and integrating medical devices and decision support tools to extract all the relevant knowledge to support diabetes care. PMID:19885276

  17. Time to manage: patient strategies for coping with an absence of care coordination and continuity.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Dennis, Simone; Yen, Laurann; Mofizul Islam, M; Parkinson, Anne; Dawda, Paresh

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines how people with chronic illnesses respond to absences of continuity and coordination of care. Little work has been done on how the ill person might mitigate flaws in a less than optimal system. Our qualitative research, carried out among 91 participants in Australia, reveals that people with chronic illnesses create strategies to facilitate the management of their care. These strategies included efforts to improve communication between themselves and their health care practitioners; keeping personal up-to-date medication lists; and generating their own specific management plans. While we do not submit that it is patients' responsibility to attend to gaps in the health system, our data suggests that chronically ill people can, in and through such strategies, exert a measure of agency over their own care; making it effectively more continuous and coordinated. Participants crafted strategies according to the particular social and bodily rhythms that their ongoing illnesses had lent to their lives. Our analysis advances the view that the ill body itself is capable of enfolding the health system into the rhythms of illness - rather than the ill body always fitting into the overarching structural tempo. This entails an agent-centric view of time in illness experience. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/UwbxlEJOTx8. PMID:26871716

  18. ESSENTIAL AGRONOMIC PRACTICES FOR MANAGING SWITCHGRASS FOR BIOENERGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective is to present the state of the art for establishing and managing switchgrass for Bioenergy. The best and most productive switchgrass stands have been no-till seeded into soybean stubble. It is crucial to select the proper cultivar for the specific plant adaptation region, purchase qu...

  19. Environmental Management Assessment of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the CEBAF Site Office; the CEBAF management and operating contractor (M&O), Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA); the Oak Ridge Field Office (OR); and the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Office, the Office of Energy Research (ER). The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 8 through March 19, 1993, by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, ``Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,`` and Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN)-6E-92, ``Departmental Organizational and Management Arrangements,`` establish the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations, and through use of supplemental activities which serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations.

  20. CORN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM TILLAGE, RESIDUE AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tillage, residue, and N management experiment was established in 1980 at the University of Minnesota Research and Outreach Center, Rosemount, MN on a Typic Hapludoll. The experiment consisted of two tillage methods (till and no-till), two types of residue management (returned and harvested) and tw...

  1. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions with duration of no-tillage management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of no-till management (NT) on labile N is poorly defined. To quantify changes in soil C and N pools with duration of NT, we sampled Kempsville sandy loam soils in the Coastal Plain of Virginia from farm fields that had similar cropping histories and nutrient management but varied in a...

  2. A randomized trial of Assertive Continuing Care and Contingency Management for adolescents with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.; Dennis, Michael L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most adolescents relapse within 90 days of discharge from residential substance use treatment. We hypothesized that Contingency Management (CM), Assertive Continuing Care (ACC), and their combination (CM+ACC) would each be more effective than Usual Continuing Care (UCC). Method 337 adolescents were randomized to 4 continuing care conditions following residential treatment: UCC alone, CM, ACC, or CM+ACC. UCC was available across all conditions. Outcome measures over 12 months included percentage of days abstinent from alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana, and any alcohol or other drugs (AOD) using self-reports and toxicology testing and remission status at 12 months. Results CM had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC for heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.50, p<.01, d = 0.34), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.58, p<.01, d = 0.36), any AOD use (t(297)= 2.12, p=.01, d = 0.41), and had a higher rate in remission (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.45 [90% CI: 1.18 to 5.08], p=.02). ACC had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC from heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.66, p<.01, d = 0.31), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.63, p<.01, d = 0.30), any marijuana use (t(297)= 1.95, p=.02, d = 0.28), any AOD use (t(297)= 1.88, p=.02, d = 0.30), and had higher rates in remission (OR=2.31 [90% CI: 1.10 to 4.85], p=.03). The ACC+CM condition was not significantly different from UCC on any outcomes. Conclusions CM and ACC are promising continuing care approaches after residential treatment. Future research should seek to further improve their effectiveness. PMID:24294838

  3. Continuous subcutaneous levetiracetam in the management of seizures at the end of life: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wells, Geoffrey Howard; Mason, Louise D; Foreman, Emma; Chambers, John

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a man who developed seizures on a background of recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with intracranial involvement. Initial seizure control with enteral levetiracetam was achieved, and when enteral and intravenous (i.v.) access was no longer available, a continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of levetiracetam successfully controlled his seizures without the need for sedating anticonvulsants. As a result, end-of-life care was able to be given with the patient retaining the ability to communicate with his family and healthcare staff. This report adds to the sparse but growing evidence base for the use of subcutaneous levetiracetam to manage seizures in palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:26744359

  4. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  5. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties. PMID:23835428

  6. Performance evaluation of continuity of care records (CCRs): parsing models in a mobile health management system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Liou, Yong-Zan

    2014-10-01

    In a mobile health management system, mobile devices act as the application hosting devices for personal health records (PHRs) and the healthcare servers construct to exchange and analyze PHRs. One of the most popular PHR standards is continuity of care record (CCR). The CCR is expressed in XML formats. However, parsing is an expensive operation that can degrade XML processing performance. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify different operational and performance characteristics for those CCR parsing models including the XML DOM parser, the SAX parser, the PULL parser, and the JSON parser with regard to JSON data converted from XML-based CCR. Thus, developers can make sensible choices for their target PHR applications to parse CCRs when using mobile devices or servers with different system resources. Furthermore, the simulation experiments of four case studies are conducted to compare the parsing performance on Android mobile devices and the server with large quantities of CCR data. PMID:25086611

  7. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management requirements? 225.83 Section 225.83 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  8. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  9. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  10. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  11. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device

    PubMed Central

    SANTHANAKRISHNAN, ARVIND; NESTLE, TRENT T.; MOORE, BRIAN L.; YOGANATHAN, AJIT P.; PADEN, MATTHEW L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children and renal replacement therapies provide a life saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children due to lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children due to inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8-hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 mL/hour to 3000 mL/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

  12. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nestle, Trent T; Moore, Brian L; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Paden, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children, and renal replacement therapies provide a life-saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children because of lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children because of inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8 hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 to 3000 ml/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric-specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

  13. Management of aortic insufficiency in the continuous flow left ventricular assist device population.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Jonathan; Teuteberg, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    With the current generation of continuous-flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), patients are able to be supported for longer periods of time. As a result, there has been increasing focus on long-term complications from prolonged mechanical circulatory support, such as acquired aortic insufficiency (AI). In the presence of an LVAD, AI leads to a blind circulatory loop, with a portion of LVAD output regurgitating through the aortic valve (AV) into the left ventricle and back again through the device, limiting effective forward flow and ultimately leading to organ malperfusion and increased left ventricular diastolic pressures. The AV also experiences abnormal biomechanics as a result of limited valve opening in the presence of a CF LVAD. Increased shear stress, elevated transvalvular pressure gradients, and decreased valve open time all contribute to acquired AI. The prognosis of moderate to severe AI in LVAD patients is generally poor and leads to a higher rate of AV replacement and potentially reduced survival. However, there are no evidence-based guidelines for management of this challenging population. In severe AI, experts generally advocate AV replacement or repair, while lesser degrees of AI can be managed medically and/or with adjustments in pump parameters. PMID:24193452

  14. Quality management science in clinical chemistry: a dynamic framework for continuous improvement of quality.

    PubMed

    Westgard, J O; Burnett, R W; Bowers, G N

    1990-10-01

    Current quality assurance approaches will not be adequate to satisfy the needs for quality in the next decade. Quality management science (QMS), as evolving in industry today, provides the dynamic framework necessary to provide continuous improvement of quality. QMS emphasizes the importance of defining quality goals based on the needs and expectations (implied needs) of customers. The laboratory can develop customer-friendly goals and measures of quality by recognizing that customers' experiences are represented by a totality of results. Quality goals and measures are best communicated as "total performance" by specifying a limit and percentile of the distribution, rather than a mean and standard deviation. Application of quality goals within the laboratory will usually require partitioning the total performance goal into components and translating those components into specifications to guide the operation and management of production processes. QMS also extends beyond technical processes to people processes and provides guidance for improving the quality of worklife and caring for the laboratory's most essential resource--our people. PMID:2208645

  15. Refusing analgesics: using continuous improvement to improve pain management on a surgical ward.

    PubMed

    Carr, Eloise C J

    2002-11-01

    Despite advances in pain control many patients experience moderate to severe pain whilst in hospital. Contributory factors include inadequate assessment and documentation of pain, as well as patient and professional misconceptions. A 28-bedded surgical ward in a District General Hospital in the South of England was the setting for the project. A small preliminary audit of pain on this ward indicated that some patients experienced postoperative pain, which was not effectively controlled. A 'continuous improvement' framework was used to increase understanding of the problem and identify an aim for the project, which was to reduce the number of patients refusing analgesics when offered by nurses. An audit to ascertain how many patients refused analgesia revealed that, of 133 patients offered, 93 (70%) refused. Using the 'Model for Improvement' (Langley et al., 1996) a number of changes were introduced, including a patient information sheet, regular documented pain assessment and an innovative staff education programme. To evaluate if the changes in practice had been successful, further audit data were collected from 167 patients. Sixty-three (44%) accepted analgesics, indicating a significant decrease in the number refusing (P = 0.005). This small project demonstrated that continuous improvement methodology can improve the management of pain and quality of care for patients. Such an approach brings practitioner and patient into meaningful understanding and offers solutions which are realistic, achievable and sustainable over time. Despite finite resources and increased pressure on staff it is possible to motivate people when they feel they have ownership and change is meaningful. Continuous improvement methods offer an exciting, feasible, patient-centred approach to improving care. PMID:12427179

  16. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices. PMID:23615067

  17. Optimal Multi-scale Demand-side Management for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumit

    With the advent of deregulation in electricity markets and an increasing share of intermittent power generation sources, the profitability of industrial consumers that operate power-intensive processes has become directly linked to the variability in energy prices. Thus, for industrial consumers that are able to adjust to the fluctuations, time-sensitive electricity prices (as part of so-called Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the smart grid) offer potential economical incentives. In this thesis, we introduce optimization models and decomposition strategies for the multi-scale Demand-Side Management of continuous power-intensive processes. On an operational level, we derive a mode formulation for scheduling under time-sensitive electricity prices. The formulation is applied to air separation plants and cement plants to minimize the operating cost. We also describe how a mode formulation can be used for industrial combined heat and power plants that are co-located at integrated chemical sites to increase operating profit by adjusting their steam and electricity production according to their inherent flexibility. Furthermore, a robust optimization formulation is developed to address the uncertainty in electricity prices by accounting for correlations and multiple ranges in the realization of the random variables. On a strategic level, we introduce a multi-scale model that provides an understanding of the value of flexibility of the current plant configuration and the value of additional flexibility in terms of retrofits for Demand-Side Management under product demand uncertainty. The integration of multiple time scales leads to large-scale two-stage stochastic programming problems, for which we need to apply decomposition strategies in order to obtain a good solution within a reasonable amount of time. Hence, we describe two decomposition schemes that can be applied to solve two-stage stochastic programming problems: First, a hybrid bi-level decomposition scheme with

  18. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique. PMID:23316158

  19. Position Statement on the management of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII): The Italian Lazio experience.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Anna R; Suraci, Concetta; Pitocco, Dario; Schiaffini, Riccardo; Tubili, Claudio; Morviducci, Lelio; Giordano, Renato; Manfrini, Silvia; Lauro, Davide; Frontoni, Simona; Pozzilli, Paolo; Buzzetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    This document has been developed by a group of Italian diabetologists with extensive experience in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy to provide indications for the clinical management of CSII in diabetic patients (both type 1 and type 2) based on delivery mode operating in Italy. Although the potential benefits of pump therapy in achieving glycemic goals is now accepted, such results cannot be obtained without specific knowledge and skills being conveyed to patients during ad hoc educational training. To ensure that these new technologies reach their full effectiveness, as demonstrated theoretically and clinically, a careful assessment of the overall therapeutic and educational process is required, in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Therefore, to ensure the cost-effectiveness of insulin pump therapy and to justify reimbursement of therapy costs by the National Health System in Italy, in this article we present a model for diabetes and healthcare centers to follow that provides for different levels of expertise in the field of CSII therapy. This model will guarantee the provision of excellent care during insulin pump therapies, thus representing the basis for a successful outcome and expansion of this form of insulin treatment in patients with diabetes while also keeping costs under control. PMID:26118939

  20. Residue management, nitrogen, and carbon amendment effects on corn under full and limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is a suitable feedstock for livestock forage and cellulosic ethanol. However, information about the response of the subsequent corn crop to residue removal in irrigated no-till continuous corn rotations is lacking. Subsequently, little is known regarding its response under limited irrig...

  1. Influence of conservation management practices on indicators of soil quality in a claypan agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation management practices including vegetative filter strips (VFS) and no-till cultivation have the potential to enhance soil carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services in agroecosystems. A modified two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with subsamples was used to compare SOC and TN...

  2. Attitudes of North Dakota Implement Dealership Managers towards a Continuing Management Education Program. Report of the Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleene, Marvin D.; Priebe, Donald W.

    Conducted as part of a Farm Management Education Research and Development Project which was examining the use of variations of the Farm Management Education Program in meeting the managerial needs of agribusinesses, the descriptive study reported here was done to determine attitudes of 359 farm implement dealership managers in North Dakota towards…

  3. Continuous monitoring of an earth fissure in Chino, California, USA - a management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Continuous measurements of deformation have been made in Chino, California across an earth fissure and nearby unfissured soil since 2011 in two buried, horizontal, 150 mm pipes, 51 m long, which are connected by sealed boxes enclosing vertical posts at mostly 6 m intervals. Horizontal displacements and normal strain are measured in one line using nine end-to-end quartz tubes that are attached to posts and span fissured or unfissured soil. The free ends of the tubes are supported by slings and move relative to the attachment post of the next quartz tube. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors measure the relative movements. Five biaxial tilt sensors were also attached to selected posts in that line. Relative vertical movement was measured at nine locations along the line in the second pipe using low-level differential pressure sensors. The second pipe is half full of water giving a free water surface along its length. Data are recorded on a Campbell CR10 using multiplexers. The quartz-tube horizontal extensometers have exhibited more than 3 mm of predominantly elastic opening and closing in response to about 32 m of seasonal drawdown and recovery, respectively, in an observation well 0.8 km to the south. The nearest production well is 1.6 km to the west. The horizontal strain was 5.9 × 10-5 or 30 % of the lowest estimate of strain-at-failure for alluvium. Maximum relative vertical movement was 4.8 mm. Maximum tilt in the fissure zone was 0.09 arcdeg while tilt at a separate sensor 100 m to the east was 0.86 arcdeg, indicating a wider zone of deformation than is spanned by the instrumentation. High correlation of horizontal displacements during drawdown, and especially recovery, with change in effective stress supports differential compaction as the mechanism for earth-fissure movement. The continuous measurements of horizontal strain coupled with water-level fluctuations and vertical borehole extensometry can provide a real-time adaptive management

  4. N response of no-till dryland winter triticale forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland winter triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...

  5. No-till and curve numbers a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its inception in the 1950s, worldwide adoption and use of the Curve Number (CN) methodology for estimating runoff has highlighted some inconsistencies, limitations and problems. Analysis of curve numbers derived from 34 years of rainfall-runoff data from a 2.7 ha Georgia Piedmont catchment man...

  6. No-till bioenergy cropping systems effect on soil aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on soil quality, such as the effects of maize stover harvesting on soil aeration and the relationships to soil structure and water, associated with bioenergy cropping systems has been l...

  7. Macropore flow estimations under no-till and till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processes associated with water movement through silt loam soils involve both the flow through macropores as preferential flow or macropore flow and flow through the micropore as matrix flow. Macropore and matrix flow components were separated from total flow by a hydrograph-separation technique...

  8. Innovating Conservation Agriculture: The Case of No-Till Cropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughenour, C. Milton

    2003-01-01

    The extensive sociological studies of conservation agriculture have provided considerable understanding of farmers' use of conservation practices, but attempts to develop predictive models have failed. Reviews of research findings question the utility of the conceptual and methodological perspectives of prior research. The argument advanced here…

  9. Carbon sequestration and environmental benefits from no-till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming. Information is needed on the mechanism and magnitude of gas generation and emission from agricultural soils with specific emphasis on tillage mechanisms. This work reviews the scient...

  10. Nitrogen fertilization reduces yield declines following no-till adoption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) has been promoted as a method of sustainable intensification and climate change mitigation and is being widely practiced and implemented globally. However, notill (NT) practices, a fundamental component of CA, have been shown to reduce yields. In order to maintain yield...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership program... through 91.1443. Any program manager who elects to maintain the program aircraft using a...

  12. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    PubMed

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. PMID:26470320

  13. Sustainable MSD prevention: management for continuous improvement between prevention and production. Ergonomic intervention in two assembly line companies.

    PubMed

    Caroly, S; Coutarel, F; Landry, A; Mary-Cheray, I

    2010-07-01

    To increase output and meet customers' needs, companies have turned to the development of production management systems: Kaizen, one piece flow, Kanban, etc. The aim of such systems is to accelerate decisions, react to environmental issues and manage various productions. In the main, this type of management system has led to the continuous improvement of production performance. Consequently, such production management systems can have unexpected negative effects on operators' health and safety. Conversely, regulation and control systems focusing on work-related risks have obliged firms to implement health and safety management systems such as OHSAS 18001. The purpose of this type of system, also based on continuous improvement, is to reduce risks, facilitate work-related activities and identify solutions in terms of equipment and tools. However, the prevention actions introduced through health and safety systems often result in other unexpected and unwanted effects on production. This paper shows how companies can improve the way they are run by taking into account both types of management system. PMID:20097327

  14. 40 CFR 63.11584 - What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS... to, monitoring results, review of operation and maintenance procedures, review of operation and... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are my initial and...

  15. [Managing a health research institute: towards research excellence through continuous improvement].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Carmen; Buño, Ismael; Plá, Rosa; Lomba, Irene; Bardinet, Thierry; Bañares, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Health research institutes are a strategic commitment considered the ideal environment to develop excellence in translational research. Achieving quality research requires not only a powerful scientific and research structure but also the quality and integrity of management systems that support it. The essential instruments in our institution were solid strategic planning integrated into and consistent with the system of quality management, systematic evaluation through periodic indicators, measurement of key user satisfaction and internal audits, and implementation of an innovative information management tool. The implemented management tools have provided a strategic thrust to our institute while ensuring a level of quality and efficiency in the development and management of research that allows progress towards excellence in biomedical research. PMID:26215894

  16. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth’s radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  17. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management.

    PubMed

    Davin, Edouard L; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-07-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  18. Pregnancy in a quadriplegic patient treated with continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion to manage her severe spasticity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Delhaas, E M; Verhagen, J

    1992-07-01

    A report on pregnancy in a quadriplegic patient treated with a high dose of 1000 mcg/24 h continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion using an implanted drug delivery system (Synchromed, Medtronic, USA). Spasticity could be managed up to the 35th week of gestation. However, uterine contractions evoke enormous spastic symptoms which we, even with maximum values of the spasticity scales, could not classify. The recurrence of spasticity was associated with autonomic dysregulation. With continuous epidurally infused bupivacaine (11.25 mg/h) adequate relaxation could be reached and gestation was terminated by a primary caesarean section. A healthy girl was born (2040 g, Apgar 9 and 10). PMID:1508570

  19. Effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration for postoperative pain management after open gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xing; Feng, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration (CWI) for pain management after open gastrectomy. METHODS: Seventy-five adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA) grade 1-3 undergoing open gastrectomy were randomized to three groups. Group 1 patients received CWI with 0.3% ropivacaine (group CWI). Group 2 patients received 0.5 mg/mL morphine intravenously by a patient-controlled analgesia pump (PCIA) (group PCIA). Group 3 patients received epidural analgesia (EA) with 0.12% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL morphine with an infusion at 6-8 mL/h for 48 h (group EA). A standard general anesthetic technique was used for all three groups. Rescue analgesia (2 mg bolus of morphine, intravenous) was given when the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was ≥ 4. The outcomes measured over 48 h after the operation were VAS scores both at rest and during mobilization, total morphine consumption, relative side effects, and basic vital signs. Further results including time to extubation, recovery of bowel function, surgical wound healing, mean length of hospitalization after surgery, and the patient’s satisfaction were also recorded. RESULTS: All three groups had similar VAS scores during the first 48 h after surgery. Group CWI and group EA, compared with group PCIA, had lower morphine consumption (P < 0.001), less postoperative nausea and vomiting (1.20 ± 0.41 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, 1.32 ± 0.56 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, respectively, P < 0.001), earlier extubation (16.56 ± 5.24 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.05, 15.48 ± 4.59 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.01), and earlier recovery of bowel function (2.96 ± 1.17 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, 2.80 ± 1.38 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean length of hospitalization after surgery was reduced in groups CWI (8.20 ± 2.58 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.05) and EA (7.96 ± 2.30 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.01) compared with group PCIA

  20. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for the Management of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Imbalances in Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2016-05-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to manage electrolyte and acid-base imbalances in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Although a standard solution and prescription is acceptable in most clinical circumstances, specific disorders may require a tailored approach such as adjusting fluid composition, regulating CRRT dose, and using separate intravenous infusions to mitigate and correct these disturbances. Errors in fluid prescription, compounding, or delivery can be rapidly fatal. This article provides an overview of the principles of acid-base and electrolyte management using CRRT. PMID:27113697

  1. Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

  2. Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

    2014-11-15

    The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

  3. Using community partners to deliver low-cost and effective emergency management and business continuity services.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joan; Roggiero, Jean Paul; Silva, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Small to medium-sized organisations enhance their business mission as well as their communities by continuing to offer services in extreme circumstances. Developing emergency preparedness and business continuity plans that are cost-effective, comprehensive and operational for small to medium-sized organisations with limited resources requires a consistent, supportive, hands-on approach over time with professionals to create appropriate and sustainable strategies. Using a unique, multi-layered and applied approach to emergency preparedness training, organisations have successfully created plans that are effective and sustainable. PMID:21177218

  4. Lean management: innovative tools for engaging teams in continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Lucille; Vaillancourt, Lise; Filion, Catherine; Hadj, Camélia

    2014-01-01

    Lean management has proven to be a sustainable method to ensure a high level of patient care through innovation and teamwork. It involves a set of six tools that allow for visual management shared among team members. The team focuses their efforts on the improvement of organizational indicators in a standardized and engaging way, resulting in the sustainability of improvements. This article outlines the program's rollout at Montfort Hospital (l'Hôpital Montfort). In only a few months, two pilot units accomplished close to 50 improvements each. In addition, the organizational employee satisfaction questionnaire showed very positive results. PMID:25191803

  5. Nitrogen, stover and tillage management affect nitrogen use efficiency in continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in corn (Zea mays L.) is critical for optimizing yield and reducing environmental impact. Stover removal in continuous corn (CC) for biofuel production, coupled with reduced-tillage systems, could alter NUE and residual soil nitrate-N. Experiments were conduct...

  6. APPLICATION OF CONTINUOUS WATERSHED MODELLING TO FEEDLOT RUNOFF MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous simulation, digital computer, hydrologic model of feedlot runoff generation and disposal has been developed at Kansas State University. The purpose of the model is to establish guidelines and design parameters for feedlot runoff control facilities which will meet the...

  7. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  8. How to Setup a Continuous Experimental Teaching System: Case Study on the Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Mu; Huang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese higher tourism education witnesses 32-year continuous innovation and exploration since the reform and opening policies. And it has gained many successful experiences in the aspects of talents cultivation mentality, nurture target, subject construction, curriculum arrangement and training module. However, it suffers the shortage of tourism…

  9. Practice Stories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education: Springboards for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    2014-01-01

    The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…

  10. Unit Manager's Role with Family Members of Clients in Complex Continuing Care Settings: An Untold Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guruge, Sepali; McGilton, Katherine; Yetman, Linda; Campbell, Heather; Librado, Ruby; Bloch, Lois; Ladak, Salima

    2005-01-01

    Most literature on staff-family relationships has come from studies of long-term care settings, has focused mainly on the families' perspectives on factors affecting their relationships with staff, and has included scant findings from the staff's perspective. No studies that examined staff-family relationships in complex continuing care (CCC)…

  11. The Planning Process in Managing Organisations of Continuing Education: The Case of Greek Vocational Training Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, Eugenia; Chatzipanagiotou, Paraskevi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a framework model of the planning of the activities of organisations of continuing education and training, which gives the opportunity to determine their mission, to seek specific aims, to develop the available resources and to create a cooperative operating climate. Adopting this recommended model would help…

  12. 75 FR 17745 - Tribal Management Grant Program; Announcement Type: New and Competing Continuation Discretionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ....SpottedHorse@IHS.GOV . Business Concerns Please contact Mr. Pallop Chareonvootitam, Grants Management... number is a nine-digit identification number, which uniquely identifies business entities. Obtaining a... Business Center (NBC)/Department of the Interior http://www.aqd.nbc.gov/Services/ICS.aspx . If...

  13. Managing Staff Development Effectively in Further Education. Discussion Paper in Continuing Education. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheale, John

    A 1989 project provided models and ideas to help British further education colleges manage staff development more effectively. It examined the relationship between staff development and organizational development in colleges, found a common language for the two, and discovered ways of integrating their planning processes. A survey of literature…

  14. Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  15. Walking the Talk: Continuous Improvement of a Quality Management Field Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Steven; Adams, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    This article provides results from a three semester case study of the pedagogical efficacy of an innovative quality management field exercise. A series of direct and indirect measures were used to assess the extent to which the field exercise met a set of learning objectives. The results indicate that the assessment framework is useful in…

  16. CQESTR simulated changes in soil organic carbon under residue management practices in continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property and strongly influenced by management. Changes in SOC stocks are difficult to measure through direct sampling, requiring both long time periods and intensive sampling to detect small changes in the large, highly variable pool. Models have the p...

  17. Reconsidering Social Science Theories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stummann, C. B.; Gamborg, C.

    2014-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, the "wicked problems" concept was introduced into forestry to describe the increasingly complex work situations faced by many natural resource management (NRM) professionals and at the same time the demand and frequency of public involvement in NRM issues also grew. Research on the impact of these changes for NRM…

  18. Physician management of hypercholesterolemia. A randomized trial of continuing medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Browner, W S; Baron, R B; Solkowitz, S; Adler, L J; Gullion, D S

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effect of continuing medical education (CME) on compliance with the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on high serum cholesterol levels in adults, we randomly assigned primary physicians in 174 practices to 3 groups, 2 that underwent either standard or intensive CME and a control group. The standard CME group was offered a free 3-hour seminar on high serum cholesterol levels; the intensive CME group was offered in addition follow-up seminars and free office materials. After 18 months, we audited 13,099 medical records from the 140 practices that remained in the study. There were no significant differences (P > .15) in screening for high serum cholesterol or compliance with guidelines between the groups receiving continuing medical education (51% screening; 33% compliance) and the control group (57% screening; 37% compliance). In the prespecified subgroup of patients with hypercholesterolemia, there was a trend toward a modest benefit from the continuing medical education interventions: compliance was 21% in the control group, 23% in the standard CME group, and 27% in the intensive CME group (P = .07 overall). These results emphasize the need for better ways to change behavior in practicing physicians and the importance of studying the implementation of preventive health recommendations. PMID:7856157

  19. Monitoring Two Small Catchments to Evaluate Effects of No-Tillage Agricultural Management in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Gonçalves, A. O.; Melo, A. D. S.; de Bona, F. D.; Hernani, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, declines in water and soil quality have been observed in areas of Brazil where no-till agriculture had been previously implemented. Poor soil management associated with the absence of public policies has caused soil erosion, because many farmers are moving back from no-till to traditional cultivation for faster economic gains. A research project - SoloVivo Project - leaded by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with Itaipu Binacional aims to develop and validate, in a participatory way, tools to evaluate the technical performance of soil and water management at the rural properties that practice no-till agriculture. In this context we have selected two paired small (< 100 ha) catchments in the Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, where no-till management is practiced at two different degrees of effectiveness. In the figure bellow it can be seen a scene of one of the two studied catchments. For monitoring rainfall, soil solution and stream water, each catchment will be equipped with a programmable datalogger (with cell phone communication for data collection) linked to: a high intensity tipping bucket rain gage; a reflectometer to monitor soil volumetric water content, bulk electric conductivity and temperature; a radar water level sensor; a turbidity sensor; and an electric conductivity-temperature probe. We expect that stream flow and sediment generation, besides water quality (measured by conductivity) may serve as indicators of the benefits of no-tillage agriculture done more or less well. The results of this study will be used to stimulate discussions at workshops with the farmers who participate in a rural producers association in the region. In addition this and other results can be used to help the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) decide about applying no-till agricultural management systems in its programs of payment for environmental services.

  20. Delayering and span of control: a model to assess appropriate management size during downsizing. A continuing process of organizational renewal.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, M R

    1995-01-01

    Health-care organizations are continuing to seek effective methods of "downsizing" or "rightsizing" their workforce in response to economic pressures imposed by local and national health-care reform. Staff reductions often appear haphazard or reactionary and typically include an "across-the-board" methodology to achieve a predetermined financial goal. In contrast, review of the literature suggests that chances of success improve when the approach is more thoughtful and based on sound principles. A key component of all successful strategies is proper sizing and restructuring of the management staff. This article presents one possible model that allows an organization to rationally assess management structure and carry out an effective downsizing strategy. The process considers the number of management layers in the organization, the number of individuals a manager supervises (span of control), and the relative complexity of the work performed. Critical to success is an effective training component to educate "surviving" managers on techniques needed to "do more with less." PMID:10152578

  1. Management of hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy by hydralazine bolus injection vs continuous drip--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mosammat Rashida; Quadir, Ehsan; Begum, Anowara; Akhter, Sayeba; Rahman, Khalilur

    2002-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted at Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the time required to control high blood pressure levels in obstetric patients by injection of hydralazine in a bolus intravenous dose vs continuous drip. Seventy-seven patients with eclampsia and hypertensive emergencies comprised the target population. Patients were managed either by hydralazine drip in normal saline (existing official protocol, n = 33) or hydralazine bolus injection (as experiment, n = 44) until diastolic blood pressure fell to 90-95 mmHg. Results were compared. Student's t-test was done for statistical significance, and a P value of <.05 was considered as significant. The groups were similar with respect to maternal age and their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the time of enrollment. Patients who received bolus injection required less time to achieve the therapeutic goal (65.23 +/- 23.38 minutes) than continuous drip (186.36 +/- 79.77 minutes; P <.001). The experimental group also required significantly lower doses (6.68 +/- 1.66 mg) in comparison to that required by control group (20.07 +/- 11.38 mg; P <.001). There was no overshoot hypotension in either group. The data suggest that hydralazine bolus dose is equally safe and more effective than continuous drip in the management of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. PMID:12466730

  2. Residual Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Optimization: Causes and Management.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia L; Serinel, Yasmina; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2016-09-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it is also common in the general population. When sleepiness remains after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA, comorbid conditions or permanent brain injury before CPAP therapy may be the cause of the residual sleepiness. There is currently no broad approach to treating residual EDS in patients with OSA. Individual assessment must be made of comorbid conditions and medications, and of lifestyle factors that may be contributing to the sleepiness. Modafinil and armodafinil are the only pharmacologic agents indicated for residual sleepiness in these patients. PMID:27542881

  3. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  4. Italian Contributions to the Development of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensors for Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino, Giovanni; Zanon, Mattia; Facchinetti, Andrea; Zecchin, Chiara; Maran, Alberto; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring glucose concentration in the blood is essential in the therapy of diabetes, a pathology which affects about 350 million people around the World (three million in Italy), causes more than four million deaths per year and consumes a significant portion of the budget of national health systems (10% in Italy). In the last 15 years, several sensors with different degree of invasiveness have been proposed to monitor glycemia in a quasi-continuous way (up to 1 sample/min rate) for relatively long intervals (up to 7 consecutive days). These continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors have opened new scenarios to assess, off-line, the effectiveness of individual patient therapeutic plans from the retrospective analysis of glucose time-series, but have also stimulated the development of innovative on-line applications, such as hypo/hyper-glycemia alert systems and artificial pancreas closed-loop control algorithms. In this review, we illustrate some significant Italian contributions, both from industry and academia, to the growth of the CGM sensors research area. In particular, technological, algorithmic and clinical developments performed in Italy will be discussed and put in relation with the advances obtained in the field in the wider international research community. PMID:23202020

  5. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  6. Action on AMD. Optimising patient management: act now to ensure current and continual delivery of best possible patient care

    PubMed Central

    Amoaku, W; Blakeney, S; Freeman, M; Gale, R; Johnston, R; Kelly, S P; McLaughlan, B; Sahu, D; Varma, D

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in the clinical management of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD)—a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding degenerative eye disease. Wet AMD is responsible for more than half of registered severe sight impairment (blindness) in the United Kingdom, and patients who are being treated for wet AMD require frequent and long-term follow-up for treatment to be most effective. The clinical workload associated with the frequent follow-up required is substantial. Furthermore, as more new patients are diagnosed and the population continues to age, the patient population will continue to increase. It is thus vital that clinical services continue to adapt so that they can provide a fast and efficient service for patients with wet AMD. This Action on AMDdocument has been developed by eye health-care professionals and patient representatives, the Action on AMDgroup. It is intended to highlight the urgent and continuing need for change within wet AMD services. This document also serves as a guide for eye health-care professionals, NHS commissioners, and providers to present possible solutions for improving NHS retinal and macular services. Examples of good practice and service development are considered and can be drawn upon to help services meet the recommended quality of care and achieve best possible outcomes. PMID:22302094

  7. How to manage continuing education and retraining programs on optical physics and laser technology at a university: Moscow State experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadkov, Victor N.; Koroteev, Nikolai I.

    1995-10-01

    An experience of managing the continuing education and retraining programs at the International Laser Center (ILC) of Moscow State University is discussed. The offered programs are in a wide range of areas, namely laser physics and technology, laser biophysics and biomedicine, laser chemistry, and computers in laser physics. The attendees who are presumably scientists, engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can join these programs through the annual ILC term (6 months), individual training and research programs (up to a year), annual ILC Laser Graduate School, graduate study, and post-docs program, which are reviewed in the paper. A curriculum that includes basic and specialized courses is described in detail. A brief description of the ILC Laser Teaching and Computer Labs that support all the educational courses is given as well.

  8. Clinical management of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease treated with continuous intestinal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Santos García, Diego; Martínez Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Puente Périz, Víctor; Seoane Urgorri, Agustín; Fernández Díez, Servando; Benita León, Vicente; Udaeta Baldivieso, Beatriz; Campolongo Perillo, Antonia; Mariscal Pérez, Natividad

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease often have a good initial response to dopaminergic therapy but later usually develop motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In these patients, continuous infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) allows for maintaining adequate dopamine levels and for improving motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as quality of life and autonomy. Adequate candidate selection and follow-up are crucial for treatment success. Management should be multidisciplinary, and patient and caregiver education is a priority. This expert consensus document has been developed by a team of neurologists, gastroenterologists and nurses who have a vast experience in LCIG therapy, with an intention to provide knowledge and tools to facilitate patient management throughout all phases of LCIG treatment process. PMID:27075968

  9. Continuity of care in addictions treatment: the role of advocacy and coordination in case management.

    PubMed

    Graham, K; Timney, C B; Bois, C; Wedgerfield, K

    1995-11-01

    Although advocacy and coordination are recognized as important aspects of the addictions treatment process, little research has been done in these areas. The present study examined advocacy and coordination at two programs where the mandate was assessment, referral, and case management. Both programs spent a similar proportion of client-related effort on advocacy and/or coordination (about 25% of contact time, accounting for about half of contacts made regarding clients). The majority of advocacy and coordination contacts were with other agencies about clients (the remainder with family and friends of clients). A framework for advocacy and coordination was developed that allowed contacts to be categorized into mutually exclusive advocacy or coordination activities. Advocacy was defined as any activity undertaken to obtain something for clients; coordination involved the giving or receiving of information regarding specific clients. Sources of variability in the provision of advocacy and coordination were found between the programs that could be attributed to differences between the systems within which the programs operated, as well as differences in program clientele. In terms of client characteristics, it was found that females were more likely than males to receive advocacy; those over 65 years were most likely to receive both advocacy and coordination; those who were referred by school or employer or by corrections were most likely to receive coordination; those with no prior treatment were most likely to receive advocacy; and self-referrals and those who had had prior treatment were most likely to receive neither advocacy nor coordination. Receiving advocacy or coordination was not found to reduce the need by clients for other case management services, such as supportive counseling. The findings are discussed in terms of the need for knowledge regarding highly variable aspects of treatment such as advocacy and coordination. New research approaches (as taken in

  10. Characteristics and Management of Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep.

    PubMed

    Fatema, K; Rahman, M M; Begum, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to describe the clinical spectrum, EEG characteristics and treatment modalities in children with continuous spike and slow wave in sleep (CSWS). Ten patients with CSWS had been treated between 2012 and 2013. Mean age of the patients was 6.9 years; male female ratio was 3:2. The main etiologic group in this study was epilepsy (10), cerebral palsy (3) and brain lesion (arachnoid cyst). All the patients had prior seizure. Presenting features were abnormal behavior (4), agitation (4), aggression (4), eye blinking (2) and involuntary movement (2). Three patients had speech regression and 1 had motor regression. Regarding EEG finding, 7 out 10 cases had SWI>85% whereas, rest of them had SWI 50 to 80%. Most of the patients were resistant to two or more oral AED. The AED found to be efficacious were Midazolam drip, pulse methyl prednisolone and valproate. Eighty percent (80%) patient responded to midazolam drip. Methyl prednisolone caused 50% improvement in one patient but failed in 2 cases. In contrast to the previous studies where high dose valproic acid, levetiracetam, Injection ACTH was more efficacious, this study demonstrates significant positive result with midazolam drip. PMID:26620024

  11. Integrated delivery systems/networks in the uncertain future. Strategic stakeholder management, Round One continued.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, T M; Paolino, A R; McMurrough, B M; Fottler, M D; Blair, J D

    1995-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Round One data with a focus on integrated delivery systems/networks (IDS/Ns). These complex, multifaceted organizations are growing in importance in the turbulent health care industry. The emergence of these multi-organizational forms requires that all health care industry organizations--medical groups, hospitals, payer organizations, suppliers--adapt to the ever-increasing demands placed on them as the industry experiences revolutionary changes. The findings presented in this article were compiled from the responses of 580 health care industry experts about the uncertain future facing health care executives. These respondents represented virtually every health care organizational form, including medical groups, physicians, hospitals, payer organizations, academic researchers, pharmaceutical firms and other health care industry suppliers. Each of these health care respondent panels answered hundreds of questions pertaining to both the present (1994) and the future (1999). These analyses seek to describe the different relationships between medical groups, their stakeholders and IDS/Ns, and how they will change over the years of 1994 to 1999. We also present experts' perceptions and predictions about five other key stakeholders of medical groups--managed care organizations, governments, employers, system hospitals and patients. PMID:10144241

  12. Managing perceived conflicts of interest while ensuring the continued innovation of medical technology.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    If it were not for the ongoing collaboration between vascular surgeons and the medical technology industry, many of these advanced treatments used every day in vascular interventional surgery would not exist. The flip side of this coin is that these vital relationships create multiple roles for surgeons and must be appropriately managed. The dynamic process of innovation, along with factors such as product delivery technique refinement, education, testing and clinical trials, and product support, all make it necessary for ongoing and close collaboration between surgeons and the device industry. This unique relationship sometimes leads to the perception of conflicts of interest for physicians, in part because the competing pressures from the multiple, overlapping roles as clinician/caregiver/investigator/innovator/customer are significant. To address this issue, the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed), the nation's largest medical technology association representing medical device and diagnostics companies, developed a Code of Ethics to guide medical technology companies in their interactions with health care professionals. First introduced in 1993, the AdvaMed Code strongly encourages both industry and physicians to commit to openness and high ethical standards in the conduct of their business interactions. The AdvaMed Code addresses many of the types of interactions that can occur between companies and health care professionals, including training, consulting agreements, the provision of demonstration and evaluation units, and charitable donations. By following the Code, companies send a strong message that treatment decisions must always be based on the best interest of the patient. PMID:21872113

  13. Managing Widely Disparate Code Bases Through Automation of Continuous Integration and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Joshi, T.

    2013-12-01

    NASA EOSDIS tools, services, and service endpoints are widely dispersed across different sub-agencies and sub-organizations. Each of these entities has a different set of skills and widely varying codebases. Some produce sophisticated, well-tested, stable and deployable code, while others are struggling to meet stringent requirements with limited resources. This disparity makes the process of partnering with and deploying code onto the Earthdata platform (https://earthdata.nasa.gov) difficult, even at times impossible. The Earthdata Code Collaborative (ECC) is a project repository and code hosting facility that addresses this problem directly through a three-tiered approach: 1. Provide a standardized set of testing and automation tools for all hosted projects. 2. Regularly report on bugs and features as well as testing coverage and success through Web-based tools. 3. Directly pipeline projects from the ECC into the Earthdata production environment. This session will explain the architecture behind the ECC, including the custom software and 3rd party tools used. It will also detail the process by which decisions were and are being made to arrive at a fully-automated suite of tools and tests that allow any code base to quickly improve its quality and become a candidate for Earthdata inclusion. The session is oriented towards developers, managers, and team members involved in the process of developing, testing, deploying, and ensuring the quality of a code base, whether that code base be tens of millions of lines of code or simply hundreds.

  14. Use of continuous local anesthetic infusion in the management of postoperative split-thickness skin graft donor site pain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jorge L Reguero; Savetamal, Alisa; Crombie, Roselle E; Cholewczynski, Walter; Atweh, Nabil; Possenti, Paul; Schulz, John T

    2013-01-01

    Donor sites from split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) impose significant pain on patients in the early postoperative period. We report the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion as a method for the management of postoperative STSG donor site pain. Patients undergoing single or dual, adjacent STSG harvest from the thigh (eight patients) or back (one patient) were included in this study. Immediately after STSG harvest, subcutaneous catheters were placed for continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Daily donor site-specific pain severity scores were prospectively recorded in nine patients receiving local anesthetic infusion. Patient characteristics, technical aspects, and postoperative complications were identified in the study. The thigh was the anatomic location chosen for most donor sites. A single catheter was placed for donor sites limited to 4 inches in width or less. A dual catheter system was used for those wider than 4 inches. An elastomeric pump delivered continuously a total of 4 ml/hr of a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. The average anesthetic infusion duration was 3.1 days. A substantial decrease in worst, least, and average donor site pain scores was found from the first 24 hours to the second postoperative day in our patients, a treatment trend that continued through postoperative day 3. One patient developed minor anesthetic leakage from the catheter insertion site; and in three cases, accidental dislodgement of the catheters occurred. There were no cases of donor site secondary infection. All donor sites were completely epithelialized at 1-month follow-up. Continuous local anesthetic infusion is technically feasible and may represent an option for postoperative donor site pain control after STSG harvesting. Relative cost-benefit of the technique remains to be determined. PMID:23271060

  15. Toxicity Persistence of Chlorpyrifos in Runoff from Experimental Soybean Plots to the Non-target Amphipod Hyalella curvispina: Effect of Crop Management.

    PubMed

    Mugni, Hernán; Paracampo, Ariel; Demetrio, Pablo; Pardi, Martín; Bulus, Gustavo; Ronco, Alicia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Toxicity persistence to the nontarget amphipod Hyalella curvispina in runoff events following chlorpyrifos applications to soy experimental plots was compared in conventional and no-till management. Two application scenarios were compared: an early-season application with the soil almost bare and a late-season application after the foliage had attained complete soil cover. H. curvispina was exposed to chlorpyrifos using two different test systems: a short-term (48 h) runoff water exposure and a long-term (10 days) soil exposure. Both commonly used crop management practices for soybean production resulted in runoff toxicity following pesticide applications and represent a toxicity risk for adjacent inland waters. Toxicity persistence was longer after the earlier than the late season application, likely because of higher volatilization and photodecomposition losses from the soy canopy than from the soil. For the early-season application, toxicity persisted longer in the no-till plots than in the conventional tillage plots. Suspended matter was higher in the conventional treatment. Chlorpyrifos sorption to suspended matter likely contributed to the shorter persistence. For the late-season application, toxicity persisted longer in the conventional treatment. The causes remain conjectural. The soil organic carbon content was higher in the no-till treatment. Sorption to organic matter might have contributed to the shorter chlorpyrifos toxicity persistence in no-till management. Late applications are more frequent and prevail longer throughout the soy growing season. Overall, the no-till management practice seems preferably because shorter toxicity persistence in runoff represents a lower environmental risk for the adjacent inland waters. PMID:26142121

  16. [The total-quality-management-analysis of the continuation and discontinuation of alcohol family treatment: a grassroots approach].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Tatsuki, S

    2001-06-01

    A family support/treatment program was provided to thirty-three cases where a drinking family member (identified patient) had shown alcohol related problems but not yet admitted the problem. After a period of between thirteen and twenty-one months of family treatment, fourteen (42.4%) identified patients started their own treatment. The only statistically significant factor that was related to the patients' treatment program participation was the continuation of family members' involvement in a family treatment program. Among the thirty-three cases, a little less than one half (48.5%) continued the family program. In order to increase the patients' participation, it is crucial to encourage family members to continue their family support/treatment program. In order to identify factors that contribute treatment continuation as well as dropouts, workshops were held with those who dropped out and those who continued the family treatment program. The Total-Quality-Management (TQM) affinity and arrow diagram techniques were employed to classify the participants' statements and to find cause-effect relationships among the identified factors, respectively. Five family treatment discontinuation factors were identified: 1) a lack of information about family support program, 2) resistance against a "family change" orientation in family treatment program, 3) family member burnout, 4) a misfit between family needs for immediate problem solutions and what family program offers, and 5) a temporal improvement of patients' drinking problems. While widely varied factors were found to contribute discontinuation, only a very few factors were identified to facilitate the treatment continuation. It was concluded that treatment discontinuation, rather than continuation, was the norm among the families of problem drinkers. Based on the above findings, three kaizen plans were proposed. First, in order to make sure that family members obtain necessary information about the family support

  17. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  18. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity. PMID:24854735

  19. Cropping Sequence and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Nitrous Oxide Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas responsible for global warming, may be influenced by cropping and N fertilization management. The effects of three cropping sequences [no-tilled continuous malt barley (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (NTB-P), and conventional tilled malt bar...

  20. The Virtual Practice: Using the Residents' Continuity Clinic to Teach Practice Management and Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jose A.; Faust, Cheryl; Kenyon, Angie

    2009-01-01

    Background Education in systems-based practice is a required component of all postgraduate medical education programs in the United States. Competency in this area requires that trainees have an understanding of the health care system sufficient to provide optimal care to patients. Most trainees in residency programs have little understanding of the complexities and challenges of present-day practice in the current system of care and consider themselves unprepared to undertake this activity following completion of training. Training in practice management in residency programs has not been emphasized as an important component of systems-based practice. Historically, practice management training in residency programs has been done using a fully didactic model, and residents have expressed a desire to learn this skill by becoming more directly involved in the operations and management of a practice. The patient visit touches many aspects of the health care system, including clinic operations, insurance, quality, and finances. Approach At our institution, we used the residents' continuity clinic practices as a vehicle to provide education in practice management and systems-based practice by creating a curriculum that included the residents' perceived gaps in knowledge regarding going into practice. This is known as the virtual practice. This curriculum is taught using data obtained from residents' practice to illustrate concepts in many areas, including primary practice operations, malpractice insurance, financial benchmarks, and career planning. Results Resident self-assessed knowledge of these areas increased after participating in the curriculum, and resident testimonials indicate satisfaction with the project. In addition, residents have become engaged and interested in how their effort translates into performance and how they participate in the health care system. PMID:21975715

  1. DialysisNet: Application for Integrating and Management Data Sources of Hemodialysis Information by Continuity of Care Record

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ho Suk; Kim, Sungho; Kim, HyeHyeon; Chung, Hee-Joon; Park, Yu Rang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Health Avatar Beans was for the management of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This article is about the DialysisNet system in Health Avatar Beans for the seamless management of ESRD based on the personal health record. Methods For hemodialysis data modeling, we identified common data elements for hemodialysis information (CDEHI). We used ASTM continuity of care record (CCR) and ISO/IEC 11179 for the compliance method with a standard model for the CDEHI. According to the contents of the ASTM CCR, we mapped the CDHEI to the contents and created the metadata from that. It was transformed and parsed into the database and verified according to the ASTM CCR/XML schema definition (XSD). DialysisNet was created as an iPad application. The contents of the CDEHI were categorized for effective management. For the evaluation of information transfer, we used CarePlatform, which was developed for data access. The metadata of CDEHI in DialysisNet was exchanged by the CarePlatform with semantic interoperability. Results The CDEHI was separated into a content list for individual patient data, a contents list for hemodialysis center data, consultation and transfer form, and clinical decision support data. After matching to the CCR, the CDEHI was transformed to metadata, and it was transformed to XML and proven according to the ASTM CCR/XSD. DialysisNet has specific consideration of visualization, graphics, images, statistics, and database. Conclusions We created the DialysisNet application, which can integrate and manage data sources for hemodialysis information based on CCR standards. PMID:24872913

  2. A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

  3. Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Risk identification is an ongoing activity that takes place during the routine project work flow. Project activities such as programmatic and technical meetings, telecons, reviews, and other forms of communication often bring to light project risks. When this occurs, we record and analyze the risk on a Risk Information Sheet. This process helps the project team identify and cope with project risks throughout the life of the project.

  4. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  5. The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries. PMID:22948108

  6. Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

  7. Influences of Climate Warming and Facility Management on Continuous Permafrost at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise, Zermatt, Swiss Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lorenz; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Imbery, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    In many parts of the Alps, hazardous bedrock instabilities occur more often during the past 30 years. In many cases, permafrost degradation played a central role for instability (e.g. in 1987 the Val Pola rockslide, Italy). At other events, the role of permafrost degradation is more complex or unpredictable (e.g. in 1991 the Randa rockfall, Wallis, Swiss Alps). However, instabilities in perennially frozen bedrock may also be provoked by human influence. This is exemplarily shown at touristic facilities in the Alps. Human impact on permafrost is often underestimated, or even carelessly taken into account. The tourist resort Zermatt with more than 1.8 million overnight stays per year is located at 1600 m a.s.l. and is surrounded by high mountain ranges that often reach above 4000 m. The dry and sunny climate results in a high glacier equilibrium line thus leaving space for vast non-glaciated permafrost terrain. Numerous tourist facilities provide excellent logistics and easy access to permafrost sites, and the region is thus especially suitable for permafrost research. The infrastructure erected on permafrost consists of hotels, restaurants and mountain huts, station buildings of railways, funiculars, ski lifts and installations for artificial snowing the ski-runs. Some problems at these constructions due to permafrost degradation are shown. At the Matterhorn Glacier Paradise station at an altitude of 3820 meters, todays MAAT ranges between -6 °C and -8°C. During the construction of a tunnel in 1981 bedrock temperatures were at -12°C. Over the past 30 years, these bedrock temperatures have risen to -3 to -2°C, due to the heat brought into the tunnel by facilities and more than 490,000 visitors per year. In an elevator shaft, the temperature temporarily even rose above freezing point. Several new construction sites in continuous permafrost are described and new research data is presented. Another interesting site for permafrost and ice studies at Matterhorn

  8. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Issues Related to Uranium Mining and Tailings Management in Continuous Permafrost Zones in Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Booshehrian, A.; Wan, R.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the potential environmental effects of a uranium mining and tailings management project in northern Canada, numerical simulations have been conducted on the Kiggavik project to investigate the issues of permafrost degradation, mine pit floor heave and slope deformation, and potential inflow into the mine pits during mining and tailings disposition. The project includes the development of three open pit mines, the Main Zone, the Centre Zone, and the East Zone at the Kiggavik site, and an open pit mine and an underground mine at the Sissons site. The mined ore will be milled at the Kiggavik site and the mill tailings will be disposed back into the three open pits at Kiggavik. The mining and milling operation of the project will last about 15 to 20 years. Permafrost at the Kiggavik site extends between 220 m to 240 m below ground surface, while permafrost at the Sissons site ranges from 260 m to 280 m below ground surface. The centre zone and the east zone will be excavated within permafrost, while the main zone and the open pit at Sissons will penetrate the permafrost layer. A high artesian pressure due to the permafrost constraint was measured at both Kiggavik and Sissons sites, and was found to be higher than the ground surface. The results of numerical simulations on the behavior of the continuous permafrost layer indicate that permafrost degradation around the pits or tailings management facilities is not significant during mine operation. No open talik would form below the excavated area as a result of depositing warm tailings in both East Zone and Centre Zone pits. A thin thawed zone of 3 to 5 m on the side of Centre Zone pit is developed, while the thawed area at the bottom of the pit extends to a depth of 10 to 15 m. For the Main Zone, where the excavation breaks through the permafrost, an open talik would remain following the operation period. The warm tailings would cause a 20 m thick thawed zone along the lower sides of the pit. With

  10. Enzyme activities as indicators of metabolic functioning of soil microbial communities under management alternatives to continuous cotton in a semiarid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains (THP), past practices (largely cotton monocultures) have been profitable successful, but have often represent an environmental cost including soil degradation. Gradually, alternative management has been suggested for the typical practice of continuous cotton and the Texas H...

  11. Medical Management of Pediatric Malignant Bowel Obstruction in a Patient with Burkitt's Lymphoma and Ataxia Telangiectasia Using Continuous Ambulatory Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, M A

    2016-01-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is commonly seen in patients with advanced abdominal cancers. The incidence of pediatric MBO in a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia is rare, with no published case reports till now. Conservative management of inoperable MBO results in relief of symptoms and improves quality of life. An 11-year-old boy with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia was referred to pediatric palliative care with MBO. The objective of this report is to demonstrate conservative management of pediatric MBO using continuous ambulatory drug delivery system. The patient was initiated on continuous ambulatory drug delivery (CADD) system for symptom relief. MBO was reversed with conservative management and the child was discharged on self-collapsible portable elastomeric continuous infusion pump under the supervision of a local family physician. The child remained comfortable at home for 4 weeks until his death. His parents were satisfied with the child's symptom control, quality of life, and were able to care for the child at home. In a resource-limited setting, managing patients at home using elastomeric continuous infusion pumps instead of expensive automated CADD is a practical pharmacoeconomic approach. PMID:26862790

  12. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897

  13. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Motion Management in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Lung: A Controlled Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Jeffrey D.; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Appel, Sarit; Landau, Efrat; Ben-David, Merav A.; Rabin, Tatiana; Benayun, Maoz; Dubinski, Sergey; Weizman, Noam; Alezra, Dror; Gnessin, Hila; Goldstein, Adam M.; Baidun, Khader; Segel, Michael J.; Peled, Nir; Symon, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on tumor motion, lung volume, and dose to critical organs in patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval in December 2013, patients with primary or secondary lung tumors referred for SBRT underwent 4-dimensional computed tomographic simulation twice: with free breathing and with CPAP. Tumor excursion was calculated by subtracting the vector of the greatest dimension of the gross tumor volume (GTV) from the internal target volume (ITV). Volumetric and dosimetric determinations were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. CPAP was used during treatment if judged beneficial. Results: CPAP was tolerated well in 10 of the 11 patients enrolled. Ten patients with 18 lesions were evaluated. The use of CPAP decreased tumor excursion by 0.5 ± 0.8 cm, 0.4 ± 0.7 cm, and 0.6 ± 0.8 cm in the superior–inferior, right–left, and anterior–posterior planes, respectively (P≤.02). Relative to free breathing, the mean ITV reduction was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16%-39%, P<.001). CPAP significantly augmented lung volume, with a mean absolute increase of 915 ± 432 cm{sup 3} and a relative increase of 32% (95% CI 21%-42%, P=.003), contributing to a 22% relative reduction (95% CI 13%-32%, P=.001) in mean lung dose. The use of CPAP was also associated with a relative reduction in mean heart dose by 29% (95% CI 23%-36%, P=.001). Conclusion: In this pilot study, CPAP significantly reduced lung tumor motion compared with free breathing. The smaller ITV, the planning target volume (PTV), and the increase in total lung volume associated with CPAP contributed to a reduction in lung and heart dose. CPAP was well tolerated, reproducible, and simple to implement in the treatment room and should be evaluated further as a novel strategy for motion management in radiation therapy.

  14. Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Liberatore, Raphael Del Roio; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Results: Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15–40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5–40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. Conclusions: This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. PMID:26826879

  15. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  16. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  17. The Use of Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodiafiltration in the Management of Ifosfamide-induced Encephalopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Kee Kiat; HaDuong, Josephine H

    2016-08-01

    Encephalopathy is a common side effect of ifosfamide, occurring in up to 30% of patients. Although self-resolving in most cases, death secondary to severe encephalopathy has been reported. Methylene blue and thiamine have been occasionally successful as treatment. We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with relapsed neuroblastoma who developed grade 4 ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy. She showed no initial response to methylene blue and thiamine. She remained neurologically impaired and continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was started, with rapid resolution of encephalopathy. This is the first report of continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration use for suspected ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy in the pediatric population. PMID:26907647

  18. Continuing Education for the Health Professions. Developing, Managing, and Evaluating Programs for Maximum Impact on Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joseph S., Ed.; And Others

    Advice on making continuing education (CE) responsive to the practice needs of professionals in medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and public health is provided in 16 chapters. Attention is directed to: establishing realistic goals, tailoring programs to specific needs, recruiting subject matter experts, evaluating programs and…

  19. 75 FR 2463 - Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... provides as follows: ``Any public work on canals, rivers, and harbors adopted by Congress may be prosecuted... contracts.'' The use of continuing contracts permitted large civil work projects, spanning more than one fiscal year, to be accomplished in a comprehensive manner, rather than through a series of yearly...

  20. Continuous renal replacement therapy versus furosemide for management of kidney impairment in heart transplant recipients with volume overload

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Shadi; Ahmadi, Zargham Hossein; Rashid Farokhi, Farin; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES It is unknown whether continuous renal replacement therapy or furosemide therapy is superior in heart transplant recipients who are in postoperative kidney insufficiency and volume overload. This prospective non-randomized, controlled trial investigated the efficacy of the two methods after transplantation. METHODS We assigned heart transplant recipients 18 years of age or older who were oliguric (urine output < 400 ml/day); had volume overload and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 of body surface area calculated with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, to designed initiation of intervention. We followed 30 patients for up to 30 days. The primary outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate status after intervention. RESULTS Between January 2010 and April 2012, a total of 30 adults (mean age: 37 years; 18 men and 12 women) were assessed for entry in this trial. Continuous renal replacement therapy, when compared with furosemide, was associated with a significant increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate of patients after intervention 61 ± 4.5 vs 55 ± 8.5l ml/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.02). Moreover, the mean glomerular filtration rate at discharge time for the continuous renal replacement therapy group was 72 ± 7.3 and 58 ± 7.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 for the furosemide group (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period, 6 of 15 patients in the continuous renal replacement therapy group (40%) and 4 of 15 in the furosemide group (26.6%) died (P = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS In this study, continuous renal replacement therapy in heart transplant recipients with reduced kidney function was associated with an improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate status in comparison with furosemide. PMID:23223674

  1. 76 FR 12081 - Notice of Two-Year Continuation of Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... demonstration notice was published on June 13, 2007 (72 FR 32628-32629) and described a demonstration project to... information on the TRICARE demonstration project for disease management, please see 72 FR 32628-32629 and 74 FR 11089-11090. The original demonstration notice focused on explaining the differences between...

  2. An Example of Continuous Information on the Basic Activities of a University. Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadot, Jean

    The dangers in abstract management within the university setting are described and considered in terms of the development of techniques that would enable the university to fully comprehend the content of its activities. The "Report on Unit Activities" at the Catholic University of Louvain is reviewed, dealing with the two-yearly inventory of the…

  3. Inputs and losses by surface runoff and subsurface leaching for pastures managed by continuous or rotational stocking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management practices can affect forage quality and production, and animal health and production as well as impacting surface and ground water quality. In a 5-yr study, conducted at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, Ohio, we compared the effects of two contrasting g...

  4. A Study of the Continuing Education Needs and Interests of Managers and Professional People in South-Central Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Edison E.

    Questionnaires were sent rendomly to 980 individuals to determine educational needs and interests of supervisors, managers, administrators, and professional people in south-central Oregon. The object was to determine the desired subject matter, time, place, approach, and instructor, and the influence of age, education, location, size of…

  5. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831o). See 12 CFR 6.3(b)-(c), 208.42(b)-(c), and 325.102(b)-(c). (ii) Well managed. A company... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the consequences of failing to... HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

  6. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831o). See 12 CFR 6.3(b)-(c), 208.42(b)-(c), and 325.102(b)-(c). (ii) Well managed. A company... conducted only under section 4(k), (n), or (o) of the BHC Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(k), (n), or (o)). The... HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies §...

  7. Continuing Professional Education of Insurance and Risk Management Practitioners: A Comparative Case Study of Customer Service Representatives, Insurance Agents and Risk Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, George E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how selected insurance practitioners learn and developed in their practices setting. The selected insurance practitioners (collectively customer service representatives, insurance agents, and risk managers) are responsible for the counseling and placement of insurance products and the implementation of…

  8. Engineering youth service system infrastructure: Hawaii's continued efforts at large-scale implementation through knowledge management strategies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Brad J; Mueller, Charles W; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Okamura, Kelsie H; Chang, Jaime P; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Hawaii's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division provides a unique illustration of a youth public mental health system with a long and successful history of large-scale quality improvement initiatives. Many advances are linked to flexibly organizing and applying knowledge gained from the scientific literature and move beyond installing a limited number of brand-named treatment approaches that might be directly relevant only to a small handful of system youth. This article takes a knowledge-to-action perspective and outlines five knowledge management strategies currently under way in Hawaii. Each strategy represents one component of a larger coordinated effort at engineering a service system focused on delivering both brand-named treatment approaches and complimentary strategies informed by the evidence base. The five knowledge management examples are (a) a set of modular-based professional training activities for currently practicing therapists, (b) an outreach initiative for supporting youth evidence-based practices training at Hawaii's mental health-related professional programs, (c) an effort to increase consumer knowledge of and demand for youth evidence-based practices, (d) a practice and progress agency performance feedback system, and (e) a sampling of system-level research studies focused on understanding treatment as usual. We end by outlining a small set of lessons learned and a longer term vision for embedding these efforts into the system's infrastructure. PMID:23819869

  9. Continuous electroencephalogram detection of non-convulsive seizures in the pediatric intensive care unit: review of the utility and impact on management and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-convulsive seizures (NCS) are common among critically ill children with acute encephalopathy. Continuous electroencephalogram (CEEG) monitoring is an indispensable tool to detect NCS, which is essential to guiding management and assessing prognosis. Risk factors for NCS are highest in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with altered mental status (AMS) and a recently witnessed clinical seizure, acute changes on neuroimaging, and/or interictal abnormalities on CEEG. Screening for at least 24 hours in at risk pediatric populations is ideal, but around half of NCS may be detected within the first hour. Rapid treatment of prolonged seizures or status epilepticus is critical, as higher seizure burdens have been associated with poorer outcomes in critically ill children. This review integrates current information on critically ill children with AMS and the use of CEEGs, risk factors for NCS, duration of CEEG monitoring, and how the detection of NCS impacts management and outcomes. PMID:26835390

  10. Do PTSD Symptoms and Course Predict Continued Substance Use for Homeless Individuals in Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Lehman, Kenneth A.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Homeless individuals (n = 187) entering contingency management (CM) for cocaine dependence were assessed for PTSD diagnosis, and a subset of 102 participants reporting traumatic exposure also periodically completed a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD in full remission at 6 months (end of active treatment) and 12 months (end of aftercare) used substances much less frequently during aftercare than those with no PTSD diagnosis. Those whose PTSD diagnosis improved to full remission status during active treatment, and remained in full remission at 12 months, also had superior substance use outcomes. Severity of PTSD symptoms at 6 months, but not baseline or 2 months, was associated with substance use across treatment phases. Substance use during aftercare, however, was better predicted by changes in PTSD symptom severity. Patients whose PTSD symptoms improved more during active treatment fared better during aftercare than those with less improvement. Findings suggest homeless individuals with comorbid PTSD entering CM for cocaine dependence are not necessarily at increased risk for substance use compared to those without the comorbidity. However, course of PTSD does predict substance use, with the potential for CM to be unusually effective for those who respond with substantial, lasting improvements in PTSD. PMID:20363465

  11. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P management of cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management. PMID:19279946

  12. Use of Continuous Plankton Recorder information in support of marine management: applications in fisheries, environmental protection, and in the study of ecosystem response to environmental change [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brander, K. M.; Dickson, R. R.; Edwards, M.

    2003-08-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was conceived from the outset as a programme of applied research designed to assist the fishing industry. Its survival and continuing vigour after 70 years is a testament to its utility, which has been achieved in spite of great changes in our understanding of the marine environment and in our concerns over how to manage it. The CPR has been superseded in several respects by other technologies, such as acoustics and remote sensing, but it continues to provide unrivalled seasonal and geographic information about a wide range of zooplankton and phytoplankton taxa. The value of this coverage increases with time and provides the basis for placing recent observations into the context of long-term, large-scale variability and thus suggesting what the causes are likely to be. Information from the CPR is used extensively in judging environmental impacts and producing quality status reports (QSR); it has shown the distributions of fish stocks, which had not previously been exploited; it has pointed to the extent of ungrazed phytoplankton production in the North Atlantic, which was a vital element in establishing the importance of carbon sequestration by phytoplankton. The CPR continues to be the principal source of large-scale, long-term information about the plankton ecosystem of the North Atlantic. It has recently provided extensive information about the biodiversity of the plankton and about the distribution of introduced species. It serves as a valuable example for the design of future monitoring of the marine environment and it has been essential to the design and implementation of most North Atlantic plankton research.

  13. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p < 0.05); less patients suffered circuit coagulation with inability to return the blood to the patient (25 patients [46.3%] vs. 16 patients [22.2%]; p < 0.05); 54 patients (100%) versus 5 (6.94%) did not get phosphorus levels monitoring (p < 0.05); in 14 patients (25.9%) versus 0 (0%), the CRRT prescription did not appear on medical orders. As a measure of improvement, we adopt a dynamic dosage management. After the process FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients. PMID:26418206

  14. Effects of Subsurface Applying Poultry Litter in Pasture and No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia-N escapes into the atmosphere. We developed and tested a knifin...

  15. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregates in a no-till corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding the removal of corn residue for use in the biofuels industry. Concerned producers are asking questions pertaining to what impacts removing residue will have on the following crop (short-term) and the effects this practice has on soil quality (long-term). To ad...

  16. Constraints of no-till dryland agroecosystems as bioenergy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion and loss of soil organic C (SOC) may limit the sustainable harvest of crop residues for biofuels from dryland systems in the semiarid Great Plains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capabilities and constraints of harvesting residues from dryland systems. The study used ob...

  17. Soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition and yield in diverse crop rotations under no-till conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of sustainable agricultural systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil attributes, crop rotations, and crop yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as soybean (Glycine max Merr.) stover dry weight and mineral concentra...

  18. Alternative No-till Rotations and Drought Mitigation Research in the Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the dryland portion of the Central Great Plains Region make their living on land that receives 14-20 inches of precipitation annually. The evaporative demand in the region is usually 4 to 8 times that amount and so the challenge to successfully farm this region is great. The crops and lan...

  19. Corn production in no-till and conventional tillage with poultry litter: a 5-yr data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production in the Southeast is erratic due to intermittent droughts and hot weather during the growing season. Increasing demand for corn to satisfy expanding poultry and livestock enterprises as well as biofuels production has resulted in more producers considering corn production. Our recent...

  20. Natural migration of rotylenchulus reniformis in a no-till cotton system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotylenchulus reniformis is the most economically damaging pathogen of cotton in Alabama. It is easily introduced into cotton fields via contaminated equipment and when present, is difficult and costly to control. A trial to monitor the natural migration of R. reniformis from an initial point of ori...

  1. MITIGATION CAPACITIES OF AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES FOR FERTILIZER CONTAMINATION FROM NO-TILL COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are important routes of preferential flow in agricultural systems providing a rapid, more direct path for nutrient (N and P) laden drainage waters to reach downstream environments. Drainage ditches are forgotten links between agricultural farms and receiving waters, th...

  2. Response of carbon dioxide emissions to warming under no-till and conventional till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage (NT) tends to have greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in the surface soil layer relative to (conventional tillage) CT but few studies have addressed the stability of the SOC under conditions of global warming. An open warming experiment was conducted in situ by infrared heating of l...

  3. Curve numbers from a long-term no-till crop field in the Georgia Piedmont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its inception in the 1950s, acceptance, use and adaptation of the Curve Number (CN) method for estimating direct runoff from a rainfall event has increased worldwide. Some inconsistencies, limitations and problems have been identified as a result. There have been calls for development of local...

  4. No-till corn productivity in a Southeastern USA Ultisoil amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging potential for large-scale renewable bio-energy production has substantially increased the price and demand of corn (Zea mays L.). In order to compete in the new corn market producers in the southeastern USA need to overcome the region’s soil and water limitations. One option is adopting...

  5. Residue harvest effects on irrigated, no-till corn yield and nitrogen response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue harvest is common in Nebraska, primarily for feeding of beef cattle. Applied N immobilization is expected to be less with residue harvest due to reduced microbial activity for digestion of high CN organic material. Residue reduction may affect subsequent crop yield and res...

  6. Agronomics and economics of no-till facultative wheat in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the 1900’s, winter wheat rotated with dust-mulch summer fallow(WW/SF) has been the dominant production practice in the low-precipitation zone (<305 mm) of the Pacific Northwest. The WW/SF system has developed several problems including reduced crop yields and quality caused by increased weeds...

  7. Nitrogen Source Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated No-Till Corn in Colorado (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing corn yields and economic returns in irrigated cropping systems in the USA Central Great Plains area (Maddux and Halvorson, 2008). However, N application generally increases nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems (Mosier et...

  8. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

  9. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. The known benefits of winter cover crops include reduced nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and weed germination, but evidence of improvements in soil productivity would provide further incentive for famers to implemen...

  10. Soil carbon sequestration by switchgrass and no-till maize grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net environmental benefits of bioenergy crops including maize and perennial grasses such as switchgrass, are a function of several factors including the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered by these crops. In 1998, a long-term SOC study was established in eastern Nebraska for switchgrass and maize ...

  11. Effect of dairy manure slurry application in a no-till system on phosphorus runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of manure under reduced tillage conditions remains a challenge in the northeastern U.S. New technologies to inject or improve manure incorporation are available but their agronomic and environmental benefits have not been quantified. This study evaluated the effects of six manure appli...

  12. Dynamics of Mycotoxin Concentrations in Aging Corn Residues Under Mississippi No-Till Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and zearalenone, produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium species when present in grain can cause serious health problems in livestock and humans. Little is known about the occurrence of these toxins in corn plant debris post-harve...

  13. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  14. Applications of a simulation model to decisions in mallard management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sparling, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A system comprising simulation models and data bases for habitat availability and nest success rates was used to predict results from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management plan and to compare six management methods with a control. Individual treatments in the applications included land purchase for waterfowl production, wetland easement purchase, lease of uplands for waterfowl management, cropland retirement, use of no-till winter wheat, delayed cutting of alfalfa, installation of nest baskets, nesting island construction, and use of predator-resistant fencing.The simulations predicted that implementation of the management plan would increase recruits by 24%. Nest baskets were the most effective treatment, accounting for 20.4% of the recruits. No-till winter wheat was the second most effective, accounting for 5.9% of the recruits. Wetland loss due to drainage would cause an 11% loss of breeding population in 10 years.The models were modified to account for migrational homing. The modification indicated that migrational homing would enhance the effects of management. Nest success rates were critical contributions to individual management methods. The most effective treatments, such as nest baskets, had high success rates and affected a large portion of the breeding population.Economic analyses indicated that nest baskets would be the most economical of the three techniques tested. The applications indicated that the system is a useful tool to aid management decisions, but data are scarce for several important variables. Basic research will be required to adequately model the effect of migrational homing and density dependence on production. The comprehensive nature of predictions desired by managers will also require that production models like the one described here be extended to encompass the entire annual cycle of waterfowl.

  15. Modeling the CO2 and N2O Emissions From Stover Removal for Biofuel Production From Continuous Corn Production in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Brenner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover, an agricultural residue, can be used as feedstock for near term bioethanol production and is available today at levels that can significantly impact energy supply. We evaluated the environmental impact of such a large-scale change in agricultural practices on green house gas production, soil erosion and soil carbon using the Century model. Estimates of soil C changes and GHG emissions were performed for the 99 counties in Iowa where previous environmental, management and erosion data was available. We employed climate, soil and historical management databases from a separate USDA-funded project as input to Century. RUSLE estimates of the residue requirements for acceptable soil loss rates under continuous corn agriculture were available from a previous study done Dr. Richard Nelson (Enersol Resources). Two mulch tillage and a no-till systems, where erosion estimates were available, were used as the basis for the simulations. Century simulations of these systems were run under a variety of stover removal rates. For each soil type within each county the model was run for 15 years (1980-1995) under continuous corn with convention tillage, and full residue return. Model simulation of crop yields and residue production were then calibrated to match those used by the Polysys model team at Oak Ridge and the simulation was repeated with the addition of the three corn tillage regimes, and several residue removal rates. County-average soil C changes (and net CO2 emissions) were calculated as area-weighted averages of the individual soil types in each county. For this study, we have utilized the IPCC approach to estimate annual N2O emissions. At low or zero residue removal rates, county-averaged soil C stocks were predicted to increase (i.e. net CO2 emissions are negative). Where the allowable residue removal rates (based on erosion tolerance) for mulch-tillage are on the order of 40-50% or more, the reduced input of C is such that the soils no longer sequester C

  16. Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-27

    This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National

  17. Testing the Technology Acceptance Model: HIV Case Managers' Intention to Use a Continuity of Care Record with Context-specific Links

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to examine the applicability of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in explaining Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) case managers’ acceptance of a prototype Continuity of Care Record (CCR) with context-specific links designed to meet their information needs. Design An online survey, based on the constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), of 94 case managers who provide care to persons living with HIV (PLWH). To assess the consistency, reliability and fit of the model factors, three methods were used: principal components factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, and regression analysis. Results Principal components factor analysis resulted in three factors (Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Barriers to Use) that explained 84.88% of the variance. Internal consistency reliability estimates ranged from .69–.91. In a linear regression model, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Barriers to Use scores explained 43.6% (p <.001) of the variance in Behavioral Intention to use a CCR with context-specific links. Conclusion Our study validated the use of the TAM in health information technology.Results from our study demonstrated that Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Barriers to Use are predictors of Behavioral Intention to use a CCR with context-specific links to web-based information resources. PMID:21848452

  18. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  19. Satellite and ground-based analysis of the effects on vegetation of continuous SO2 degassing at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) and its application to hazard management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortini, R.; van Manen, S. M.; Burson, B.; Carn, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Turrialba is an active stratovolcano located 35 km northeast of San Jose, Costa Rica's capital city and socioeconomic hub. After over 100 years of quiescence Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 progressively increasing its degassing and seismic activity, showing continuous gas emissions since 2007. Intermittent phreatic explosions with ash emissions that have reached the capital have occurred since 2010. This activity has resulted in the temporary evacuation of two villages, closure of the National Park that comprises the summit region of the volcano and devastation of the local ecosystem. We combined a variety of satellite-based time series with ground-based measurements of ambient gas concentrations, element deposition and surveys of species richness to enable a comprehensive assessment of SO2 emissions and changes in vegetation. Satellite-based time-series were obtained from Landsat ETM+, Terra ASTER, Terra/Aqua MODIS and Aura OMI, with some of the data dating back to 2000. From 2007-2010 we observed emissions of SO2 and loss of vegetation healthiness (i.e. decrease of EVI2) downwind of the vents. From 2010 onwards these stabilized, but we observe an apparent decrease in agriculture. Other multi-temporal products, such as the ALOS PALSAR FNF data, confirm our observations. The exposure to the volcanic plume resulted in high soil acidity and significant uptake of certain heavy metals by vegetation; in contrast other elements are leached from the soil as a result of the acid deposition. These factors are likely to be responsible for decreased species richness and physiological damage observed at Turrialba. Our study shows ecological impacts, in terms of soil characteristics, vegetation composition and diversity and physiological damage of vegetation, which all correlate to fumigation by Turrialba's plume. Analyzing and relating the remote observations to conditions and impacts on the ground provides a better understanding of volcanic degassing, its impacts on

  20. Improvement in rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease management and prevention using a health centre-based continuous quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major health concern for Aboriginal Australians. A key component of RHD control is prevention of recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) using long-term secondary prophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin (BPG). This is the most important and cost-effective step in RHD control. However, there are significant challenges to effective implementation of secondary prophylaxis programs. This project aimed to increase understanding and improve quality of RHD care through development and implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) strategy. Methods We used a CQI strategy to promote implementation of national best-practice ARF/RHD management guidelines at primary health care level in Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, 2008–2010. Participatory action research methods were employed to identify system barriers to delivery of high quality care. This entailed facilitated discussion with primary care staff aided by a system assessment tool (SAT). Participants were encouraged to develop and implement strategies to overcome identified barriers, including better record-keeping, triage systems and strategies for patient follow-up. To assess performance, clinical records were audited at baseline, then annually for two years. Key performance indicators included proportion of people receiving adequate secondary prophylaxis (≥80% of scheduled 4-weekly penicillin injections) and quality of documentation. Results Six health centres participated, servicing approximately 154 people with ARF/RHD. Improvements occurred in indicators of service delivery including proportion of people receiving ≥40% of their scheduled BPG (increasing from 81/116 [70%] at baseline to 84/103 [82%] in year three, p = 0.04), proportion of people reviewed by a doctor within the past two years (112/154 [73%] and 134/156 [86%], p = 0.003), and proportion of people who received influenza vaccination (57

  1. A multidisciplinary and multi-sensor assessment of continuous degassing at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica; insights and their application to hazard management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Tortini, R.; Burson, B.; Carn, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Turrialba is an active stratovolcano located in the Central Cordillera of Costa Rica with an elevation of 3,340 m. Located just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose it looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. After more than 100 years of quiescence Turrialba resumed activity in 1996, marked by progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity with gas emissions becoming continuous in 2007. Intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions that have reached the capital have been occurring since 2010. The activity has resulted in the evacuation of two villages, closure of the National Park that comprises the summit region of the volcano and devastation of the local ecosystem. In this work we present a multi-disciplinary and multi-sensor assessment of the persistent degassing and its impacts on the local ecosystem. Combining a variety of high temporal and high spatial resolution satellite-based time series with ground-based measurements of ambient gas concentrations, element deposition and surveys of species richness, enables a comprehensive assessment of SO2 emissions and changes in vegetation. Satellite-based time-series were obtained from Landsat TM and ETM+, Terra ASTER and MODIS, Aqua MODIS, EO-1 and Aura OMI, with some of the data dating back to 2000. Preliminary results show exposure to the volcanic plume results in high soil acidity and significant uptake of certain heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu, Hg and Pb) by vegetation, in contrast other elements such as Ba, Ca and Sr are leached from the soil as a result of the acid deposition. These factors are likely to be responsible for decreased species richness and physiological damage observed downwind of Turrialba. Ambient SO2 concentrations that exceed WHO guideline values have been recorded, which has potentially important consequences for human health in the area. Analyzing and relating the remote observations to conditions and impacts

  2. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  3. Dryland crop yields and soil organic matter as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term management practices are needed to sustain dryland crop yields and maintain soil organic matter in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of no-till continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (...

  4. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha(-1) and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha(-1), respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0-120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0-120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  5. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed Central

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha-1 and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha-1, respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0–120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0–120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  6. Health-care district management information system plan: Review of operations analysis activities during calendar year 1975 and plan for continued research and analysis activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, G. J.; Stevenson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Operations research activities developed to identify the information required to manage both the efficiency and effectiveness of the Veterans Administration (VA) health services as these services relate to individual patient care are reported. The clinical concerns and management functions that determine this information requirement are discussed conceptually. Investigations of existing VA data for useful management information are recorded, and a diagnostic index is provided. The age-specific characteristics of diseases and lengths of stay are explored, and recommendations for future analysis activities are articulated. The effect of the introduction of new technology to health care is also discussed.

  7. Study of the Continuous Improvement Trend for Health, Safety and Environmental Indicators, after Establishment of Integrated Management System (IMS) in a Pharmaceutical Industry in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mariouryad, Pegah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Nasiri, Parvin; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, organizations try to improve their services and consequently adopt management systems and standards which have become key parts in various industries. One of these management systems which have been noticed in the recent years is Integrated Management System that is the combination of quality, health, safety and environment management systems. Aim This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the improvement trend after establishment of integrated management system for health, safety and environment indicators, in a pharmaceutical industry in Iran. Materials and Methods First, during several inspections in different parts of the industry, indicators that should have been noted were listed and then these indicators were organized in 3 domains of health, safety and environment in the form of a questionnaire that followed Likert method of scaling. Also, the weight of each index was resulted from averaging out of 30 managers and the viewpoints of the related experts in the field. Moreover, by checking the documents and evidence of different years (5 contemplation years of this study), the score of each indicator was determined by multiplying the weight and score of the indices and were finally analysed. Results Over 5 years, scores of health scope indicators, increased from 161.99 to 202.23. Score in the first year after applying the integrated management system establishment was 172.37 in safety part and in the final year increased to 197.57. The changes of environmental scope rates, from the beginning of the program up to the last year increased from 49.24 to 64.27. Conclusion Integrated management systems help organizations to improve programs to achieve their objectives. Although in this study all trends of health, safety and environmental indicator changes were positive, but at the same time showed to be slow. So, one can suggest that the result of an annual evaluation should be applied in planning future activities for the years ahead

  8. The continuing antenatal management program (CAMP): Outpatient monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. Keeps patients safe, costs low and care nearby.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dawn S; Ussery, Donna J; Woodruff, Dawn L; Sandlin, Adam T; Kinder, Sarah R; Magann, Everett F

    2015-06-01

    A program was developed for referred, stable, high-risk obstetrical patients allowing them to receive antenatal care close to a tertiary hospital without the costs of a hospital admission. There were 426 women managed from September 2007 through December of 2012 with diagnosis of preterm labor, fetal anomalies, hypertensive disorders, placental abruption and other conditions. This management saved the hospital almost $9,000,000 USD or $20,956 USD per patient. PMID:25998879

  9. Effects of Soil Management on N Mineralization and Nitrification Rates in Soybean Fields of the Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, M.; Mitsuya, M.; Moura, J. M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) promoted by the cultivation of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill], consists in a significant input of reactive nitrogen (N) in the system. The availability of this nutrient to plants occurs through the mineralization of organic-N of the soil, conducted by soil organic matter and / or crop residues. Thus, understanding the fate of this increased supply, as well as changes in the dynamics of N in the system is essential in the context of the recent expansion of soybean in the Amazon. This work aims to understand the dynamics of N in the soil cultivated with soybean, through the determination of ammonium and nitrate concentrations, as well as, mineralization and nitrification rates in soybean fields under till and no-till systems in the municipality of Santarém, Brazil. We collected 12 soil samples (0-10cm depth) in each crop and the extractions were done in 2M KCl solution using 10 g of soil. The samples were incubated for 7 days when new extractions were done to determine the rates of mineralization and nitrification. The till system showed higher concentrations of nitrate (0.82 ± 0.13 mg kg-1) and ammonium (8.15 ± 0.54 mg kg-1) compared to the results found in no-till system (0.59 ± 0.09 mg kg-1 and 5.25 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for nitrate and ammonium respectively). The mineralization rates were negative in the till system, indicating possible immobilization of N in the soil during that period. In contrast, no-till system showed higher rates of mineralization in the soil. Although there is a great removal of N by grain harvest, it is possible to infer that no-till system has higher nitrogen availability to soybean and that this management could contribute to an increased productivity mainly due to deposition of crop residues enriched in N on the soil.

  10. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management. PMID:20222583

  11. The Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Continuing Care in the Clinical Management of Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: 12-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Shepard, Donald S.; Ratichek, Sara; Morrison, Rebecca; Koppenhaver, Janelle; Pettinati, Helen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study of continuing care for substance dependent patients compared a telephone-based monitoring and brief counseling intervention (TEL) with 2 face-to-face interventions, relapse prevention (RP) and standard 12-step group counseling (STND). The participants were graduates of intensive outpatient programs who had current dependence on alcohol…

  12. Handbook of Institutional Advancement. A Practical Guide to College and University Relations, Fund Raising, Alumni Relations, Government Relations, Publications, and Executive Management for Continued Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, A. Westley, Ed.

    The guide's purpose is to provide administrators with essential information that will maintain public confidence in higher education and ensure continued financial support. Six major aspects of institutional advancement are considered: (1) institutional relation (programs to improve communication and understanding among students, administrators,…

  13. Management and land use implications of continuous nitrogen and phosphorus monitoring in a small non-karst catchment in southeastern PA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term climate and water quality monitoring data provide some of the most essential and informative information to the scientific community. These datasets however, are often incomplete and do not have frequent enough sampling to provide full explanations of trends. With the advent of continuous ...

  14. Effective Change Management Strategies for Embedding Online Learning within Higher Education and Enabling the Effective Continuing Professional Development of Its Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolnik, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    Previous research studies show that those universities wishing to successfully engage in online learning will have to adopt and implement tactics that have the capacity to overcome existing social and cultural constraints. An inclusive, consultative framework needs to be established, and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) has been…

  15. Same Planet, Different Worlds: Why Projects Continue to Fail. A Generalist Review of Project Management with Special Reference to Electronic Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of IT "solutions" in the context of changes to business processes and efficiency is a common trigger for using formalised project management techniques. The trigger may include topical activities such as job evaluation schemes or quality assurance accreditation. This has led to a blurring of the boundary between projects and…

  16. Novice Couples Coping with Network Trouble in Personal Videoconferencing: Managing the Intersection of Interaction and Technology in the Collaborative Achievement of Conversational Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintel, E. Sean

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of home Internet connections make Personal Videoconferencing (PV) interaction vulnerable to network trouble. This dissertation explores how novice couples collaboratively manage PV network trouble so as to carry on their conversation. It is found that transmission/reception and their perturbations are material frames for…

  17. We Are All Adult Educators Now: The Implications of Adult Learning Theory for the Continuing Professional Development of Educational Leaders and Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This article was written, but never published, by Dr. Valerie Hall, who died in 2002. Its existence was brought to my attention by Professor Ron Glatter at the memorial event for her held at the University of Bristol. It was presented at a seminar in Milton Keynes in 1998 as part of an ESRC series on "Redefining Educational Management"--a field in…

  18. Nitrogen Source Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of N fertilizer source and tillage on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils under several irrigated, crop management systems were evaluated. Irrigated corn production systems [conventional-till continuous corn (CT-CC); no-till continuous corn (NT-CC); NT corn-dry bean (NT-CDb); and NT cor...

  19. Continuation of research into software for space operations support: Conversion of the display manager to X Windows/Motif, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Mark D.; Killough, Ronnie; Martin, Nancy L.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently using a set of applications called the Display Builder and Display Manager. They run on Concurrent systems and heavily depend on the Graphic Kernel System (GKS). At this time however, these two applications would more appropriately be developed in X Windows, in which a low X is used for all actual text and graphics display and a standard widget set (such as Motif) is used for the user interface. Use of the X Windows will increase performance, improve the user interface, enhance portability, and improve reliability. Prototype of X Window/Motif based Display Manager provides the following advantages over a GKS based application: improved performance by using a low level X Windows, display of graphic and text will be more efficient; improved user interface by using Motif; Improved portability by operating on both Concurrent and Sun workstations; and Improved reliability.

  20. Continued implementation and testing of a Neighborhood Office Center (NOC) and integration of the NOC with an administrative correspondence management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of decentralized (remote) neighborhood offices, linked together through a self-sustaining communications network for exchanging voice messages, video images, and digital data was quantitatively evaluated. Hardware and procedures for the integrated multifunctional system were developed. The configuration of the neighborhood office center (NOC) is explained, its production statistics given, and an experiment for NOC network integration via satellite is described. The hardware selected for the integration NOC/management information system is discussed, and the NASA teleconferencing network is evaluated.

  1. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS): a partial-factorial randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. Methods In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140–220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. Findings Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16–37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference −7·0 [95% CI −8·5 to −5·6] mm Hg/–3·5 [–4·4 to −2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference −9·5 [95% CI −11·8 to −7·2] mm Hg/–5·0 [–6·4 to −3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison—the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91–1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90–1·22; p=0·55). Interpretation

  2. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  3. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  4. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  5. Geographic variations of soil phosphorus induced by long-term land and manure nutrient management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Most natural and agricultural ecosystems are deficient in phosphorus (P), and supplemental P must be provided to attain optimal levels of agronomic production. Animal manure is often used to supply needed plant nutrients to enhance production of feed and fiber crops for human and livestock consumption. Soils have been treated with large amounts of P-enriched manure, and have shown elevated P levels in watersheds where there is a high density of intensive confined animal agriculture. Long-term additions can have lasting effects on the geographic distribution of soil microbes associated with the turnover of major soil nutrients, in particular non-mobile one such as P. We determined the distribution of soil P forms in a 10-ha no-till field that received annual additions of dairy manure at 0, 15, and 30 kg P ha-1 at the field scale for 16 consecutive years. Spectroscopic analyses of the near-surface zone were performed by X-ray fluorescence in soil cores taken to a depth of 0.2 m. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the spatial structure of the soil compositional data. Soil X-ray fluorescence spectral attributes were obtained based on a set of five parallel transects established across five experimental blocks, i.e., a 5 × 5 rectangular grid pattern. Three subsets of each soil attribute were identified for the three rates of manure addition. Long-term manure addition, albeit liquid manure, resulted in significant variability in soil P distribution in the near surface zone. The heterogeneity persisted over years of continuous no-tillage management. Therefore, a high density of geo-referenced soil measurements must be made to estimate the status of a required plant nutrient, especially a non-mobile nutrient in soil. A large number of timely measurements would require a rapid geo-referenced soil sensing spectroscopic method such as X-ray fluorescence to manage in near real-time the observed spatial variability of manure-treated fields.

  6. Acquired von Willebrand disease--hemostatic management of major orthopedic surgery with high-dose immunoglobulin, desmopressin, and continuous factor concentrate infusion.

    PubMed

    Frank, Rolf Dario; Kunz, Dagmar; Wirtz, Dieter Christian

    2002-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (aVWD) is a rare bleeding disorder that mimics congenital VWD in previously healthy individuals; it is most frequently associated with monoclonal gammopathy. Hemostatic therapy of aVWD is challenging due to the extremely shortened half-life of endogenous and exogenous VWF. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (ivIG) is recommended as the treatment of choice, usually rapidly normalizing coagulation; but in case of failure, alternative treatment options are not well explored. We report successful major orthopedic surgery in a 61-year-old woman with multiple myeloma IgG lambda and aVWD. IvIG alone failed to correct hemostasis. However, ivIG pretreatment improved the VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) half-life from only 1.5 hr to more than 4 hr, allowing desmopressin infusions twice daily to maintain sufficient VWF:RCo levels. Because of diminishing desmopressin effect, we attempted for the first time in aVWD a continuous VWF/FVIII infusion (Haemate HS), 2.1-2.7 FVIII U/kg/hr or 51-64 U/kg/day, respectively 4.6-6.0 VWF:RCo U/kg/hr or 110-145 U/kg/day) to reach constant factor levels. The steady-state clearance was 2.4 mL/kg/hr for FVIII:C and 13.5 mL/kg/hr for VWF:RCo. During surgery, VWF:RCo, FVIII:C, and PFA-100 closure time were normalized. Until day 5, VWF:RCo was kept above 50%, from day 6 to 10 at least 30% activity were attained. FVIII:C levels were always >70%. The clinical course was uneventful without bleeding. Two weeks after hip surgery the patient was discharged from the hospital without complaints. The therapy described can be recommended as safe and feasible for further evaluation in aVWD patients who are hyporesponsive to ivIG treatment alone. Continuous VWF/FVIII infusion can improve substitution therapy in aVWD. PMID:11994985

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  8. Severe acute respiratory failure managed with continuous positive airway pressure and partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal by an artificial membrane lung. A controlled, randomized animal study.

    PubMed

    Borelli, M; Kolobow, T; Spatola, R; Prato, P; Tsuno, K

    1988-12-01

    Using an animal model of acute respiratory failure (ARF), we evaluated two treatments: conventional mechanical pulmonary ventilation (MV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with extracorporeal removal of CO2 by an artificial membrane lung. We developed a model of "mild" ARF and a model of "severe" ARF after ventilating healthy sheep at a peak inspiratory pressure of 50 cm H2O for various lengths of time. Sheep from either injury models were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment groups. All 16 sheep from the model with "severe" ARF died, with progressive deterioration in pulmonary function and multiorgan failure irrespective of the treatment. Of 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated by MV, only three survived, whereas all 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated with CPAP and extracorporeal removal of CO2 responded well, and nine sheep ultimately recovered. We conclude that CPAP with extracorporeal removal of CO2 provided a better environment for the recovery in our model with "mild" ARF than the conventional arrangement centered on MV alone. Our studies also suggest that lung injury can progress (i.e., model with "severe" ARF) to where neither of the two treatments can succeed. PMID:3144216

  9. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    steep (>5%, with measured slopes of more than 22%) and soil textures were predominantly sandy loam and sandy silt loam with medium topsoil permeability. Subsurface traffic pans were observed in almost all tested fields from 20 to 40 cm depth. Where VSA scores were low, runoff potential scores were high, which shows a positive relation between both diagnostic tools. Lessons taken from field diagnosis are that farm managers cannot always implement "good" soil, water and input management practices. For example, grape quality may be adversely impacted which creates a reluctance to change (White 2003). In our paper, we review current advisory practices to mitigate runoff in Sicilian vineyards, such as residue management, continuous soil cover and no-till (Novara et al. 2011, 2013, Leys et al. 2010, Arneaz et al. 2007), against our observations and discussions with farm managers. Our findings, especially in the Regaleali vineyards, indicate that the focus for change should not only be at the edge of the field, but also in the field (Sabbagh et al. 2009). Runoff should be stopped at source first and discussion with farm managers is critical before advising on BMP plans for runoff mitigation, especially in viticulture since wine production is a multidisciplinary profession. References Arneaz, J., Lasanta, T., Ruiz-Flaño, Ortigosa, L. Factors affecting runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall in Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research 93 (2007) 324-334. ARPA, Water Incore, Sustainable water management through common responsibility enhancement in Mediterranean River Basins, 2010. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. Storminess and environmental changes in the Mediterranean Central Area, Earth Interactions (2010), 14, Paper No. 4. Leys, A. Govers, G., Gillijns K., Berckmoes E., Takken I. Scale effects on runoff and erosion losses from arable land under conservation and conventional tillage: the role of residue cover, Journal of Hydrology (2010), 390, 143-154. Novara, A

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  11. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for...

  12. Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Employing ACoRN Respiratory Sequence Protocol versus Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Pedram; Faghani, Asadallah; Afjeh, Seyed-Abolfazl; Moradinazer, Mehdi; Bahman-Bijari, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of respiratory distress in premature infants. This study was designed to evaluate two different RDS treatment protocols by comparing the outcomes. Methods: This study was a double center cross sectional study performed from June to December 2012. During that period, 386 neonates with RDS were hospitalized and treated according to two different therapeutic protocols so-called Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN) respiratory sequence protocol (group I) and Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (E-NCPAP) protocol (group II). The variables and main outcomes of this study were gestational age, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), pulmonary hemorrhage (PH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), air leak and mortality rate (MR). Findings : Out of 386 infants, 202 infants were in group I (male 60.4%, female 39.6%, mean gestational age 316/7 weeks, mean birth weight=1688 grams) and group II included 184 infants (male 61.4%, female 38.6%, mean gestational age 32 weeks, mean birth weight 1787 grams), P= 0.07. The ratios of BPD of group I to group II and PH of group I to group two were not significant (P=0.63 and P=0.84, respectively). Air leak ratio in group I was higher than in group II (P=0.001). Although IVH ratio in group II was higher than in group I (P=0.01), grade III and IV IVH was higher in group I (30% vs. 4.6%). In case of MR, it was higher in group I than in group II (P=0.001). Conclusion: According to the findings the incidence of air leak, grade III and IV IVH and MR was less common in E-NCPAP protocol, so it may show the effectiveness of this protocol. The authors suggest that more researches are needed for more accurate results. PMID:25793046

  13. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator Once Monthly versus Epoetin Thrice Weekly for Anaemia Management in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maoujoud, Omar; Ahid, Samir; Dkhissi, Hocein; Oualim, Zouhair; Cherrah, Yahia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) once monthly to epoetin beta (EpoB) thrice weekly to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) within the range 10.5–12 g/dL. Methods. Prospective cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis. Chronic haemodialysis patients (CHP), being treated with EpoB, were selected for two periods of follow-up: period 1, maintaining prior treatment with EpoB, and period 2, conversion to CERA once monthly. Hb concentrations and costs were measured monthly. Health care payer perspective for one year was adopted. Results. 75 CHP completed the study, with a mean age of 52.9 ± 14.3 years. Baseline Hb was 11.14 ± 1.18 g/dL in EpoB phase and 11.46 ± 0.79 g/dL in CERA phase; we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients successfully treated (Hb within the recommended range), 65.3% versus 70.7%, p: 0.008, and in the average effectiveness by 4% (0.55 versus 0.59). Average cost-effectiveness ratios were 6013.86 and 5173.64$, with an ICER CERA to EpoB at −6457.5$. Conclusion. Our health economic evaluation of ESA use in haemodialysis patients suggests that the use of CERA is cost-effective compared with EpoB. PMID:26843983

  14. 5 CFR 9701.105 - Continuing collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing collaboration. 9701.105 Section 9701.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.105 Continuing collaboration. (a)...

  15. Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management practices are needed to enhance soil productivity in degraded dryland soils in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till and no-till], five crop rotations (continuous spring wheat, spring wheat-fallow, spring wheat-lentil, s...

  16. Environmental and management impacts on temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G.; Scholl, P.; Loiskandl, W.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties underlie temporal changes caused by different natural and management factors. Rainfall intensity, wet-dry cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, tillage and plant effects are potential drivers of the temporal variability. For agricultural purposes it is important to determine the possibility of targeted influence via management. In no-till systems e.g. root induced soil loosening (biopores) is essential to counteract natural soil densification by settling. The present work studies two years of temporal evolution of soil hydraulic properties in a no-till crop rotation (durum wheat-field pea) with two cover crops (mustard and rye) having different root systems (taproot vs. fibrous roots) as well as a bare soil control. Soil hydraulic properties such as near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, flow weighted pore radius, pore number and macroporosity are derived from measurements using a tension infiltrometer. The temporal dynamics are then analysed in terms of potential driving forces. Our results revealed significant temporal changes of hydraulic conductivity. When approaching saturation, spatial variability tended to dominate over the temporal evolution. Changes in near-saturated hydraulic conductivity were mainly a result of changing pore number, while the flow weighted mean pore radius showed less temporal dynamic in the no-till system. Macroporosity in the measured range of 0 to -10 cm pressure head ranged from 1.99e-4 to 8.96e-6 m3m-3. The different plant coverage revealed only minor influences on the observed system dynamics. Mustard increased slightly the flow weighted mean pore radius, being 0.090 mm in mustard compared to 0.085 mm in bare soil and 0.084 mm in rye. Still pore radius changes were of minor importance for the overall temporal dynamics. Rainfall was detected as major driving force of the temporal evolution of structural soil hydraulic properties at the site. Soil hydraulic conductivity in the slightly unsaturated range (-7 cm to -10

  17. Phosphorus runoff losses from a no-till coastal plain soil with surface and subsurface-applied poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry litter to soils is a water quality concern on the Delmarva Peninsula, as runoff contributes phosphorus (P) to the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. This study compared a new subsurface applicator for poultry litter with conventional surface application and tillage incorporation of...

  18. Cotton population and yield following different cover crops termination practices in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alabama, under optimal weather conditions, a three-week time period is required after rolling down a cover crop to achieve termination rates above 90%, and to eliminate competition for soil moisture between the cover crop and cash crop. A common method to enhance the cover crop termination proces...

  19. Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture originated 10 to 13 millennia ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, mostly along the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus and Yangtze River valleys and was introduced into Greece and southeast Europe > 8000 years ago. Sumerian and other civilizations developed a wide variety of simple ...

  20. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come: Europés ZT/CA area is 1.35 million hectares, while the world area is now some 125 million and growing at a rate of 7 million hectares per year. More scientific measurements of the benefits of this system are required, both to assist adoption and to trigger policy measures. In the EEC, CAP reform (greening) needs to consider making environmental services payments for these social benefits since a reduction in single farm payments is ineluctable and carbon footprint reduction is of the essence, in the face of constantly-rising fuel prices and the need to cut GHG emissions. Therefore, as the principal farm tool which offers an effective and immediate solution towards positive changes in soil quality, productivity and sustainability, ZT/CA adoption needs financial incentives, which have high economic and environmental returns to society.

  1. Regional Study of No-Till Impacts on Near-Surface Aggregate Properties that Influence Soil Erodibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which tillage systems modify the near-surface soil aggregate properties affecting soil’s susceptibility to erosion by water and wind is not well understood. We hypothesized that an increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) content with conservation tillage systems, particularly NT, may imp...

  2. Comparison of mineral element cycling under till and no-till practices: an experimental approach to agroecosystems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stinner, B R; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    In this paper we give an overview of a research project which is attempting to integrate the approaches of agronomy and ecosystem ecology. We are attempting to apply methodologies and approaches of ecosystem study, in particular nutrient cycling, as a means of evaluating performance of agronomic systems. Specifically, we are comparing structure, function, and nutrient dynamics in a set of no-tillage and conventional plots.

  3. Effects of terminating cover crops with rolling/crimping and herbicides in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2008, a field experiment was initiated in central Alabama to study the effects of rolling/crimping and different herbicides with different application rates on cover crops termination rates, cotton population and yield. Results from 2009 and 2010 growing seasons are presented. A roller/cr...

  4. Research achievements and adoption of no-till, dryland cropping in the semi-arid US Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region of the United States and Canada is an area of widespread dryland crop production, with wheat being the dominant crop. Precipitation in the region ranges from 300 to 500 mm annually, with the majority of precipitatioCPRLn falling during hot summer months. The prevailing croppi...

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Native Prairie, Perennial Grass, and No-Tilled and Cultivated Annual Crops in Palouse Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial vegetation and annual cropping with low soil disturbance are often considered the best alternatives to tillage-based cropping systems for increasing C sequestration in soil. Our main objective was to evaluate soil organic C (SOC) and various measures of SOC characteristics in Palouse silt ...

  6. Pearl millet production potential with no-till and conventional tillage on Cecil soil in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Importing grains from the Midwest to the Southeast for poultry rations results in a net regional accumulation of phosphorus which potentially threatens environmental quality. Regionally grown grains would help reduce the imbalance of phosphorus importation. Pearl millet is well adapted to the reg...

  7. Can cover crop and manure maintain or improve soil properties after stover removal from irrigated no-till corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of cover crops and animal manure following corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for expanded uses may mitigate negative soil property effects of stover removal. We studied the short-term (3 yr) cumulative impacts of stover removal with and without winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop or a...

  8. Curve numbers from conventional and no-till cropping: A 39-yr dataset from a small Georgia Piedmont watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its inception in the 1950s, acceptance, use and adaptation of the curve number (CN) method for estimating direct runoff from a rainfall event has increased worldwide receiving critical reviews. There have been calls for development of locally defined CNs to address concerns with regional and s...

  9. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  10. Assessing manure management strategies through small-plot research and whole-farm modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, A.M.; Veith, T.L.; Kleinman, P.J.A.; Rotz, C.A.; Saporito, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Plot-scale experimentation can provide valuable insight into the effects of manure management practices on phosphorus (P) runoff, but whole-farm evaluation is needed for complete assessment of potential trade offs. Artificially-applied rainfall experimentation on small field plots and event-based and long-term simulation modeling were used to compare P loss in runoff related to two dairy manure application methods (surface application with and without incorporation by tillage) on contrasting Pennsylvania soils previously under no-till management. Results of single-event rainfall experiments indicated that average dissolved reactive P losses in runoff from manured plots decreased by up to 90% with manure incorporation while total P losses did not change significantly. Longer-term whole farm simulation modeling indicated that average dissolved reactive P losses would decrease by 8% with manure incorporation while total P losses would increase by 77% due to greater erosion from fields previously under no-till. Differences in the two methods of inference point to the need for caution in extrapolating research findings. Single-event rainfall experiments conducted shortly after manure application simulate incidental transfers of dissolved P in manure to runoff, resulting in greater losses of dissolved reactive P. However, the transfer of dissolved P in applied manure diminishes with time. Over the annual time frame simulated by whole farm modeling, erosion processes become more important to runoff P losses. Results of this study highlight the need to consider the potential for increased erosion and total P losses caused by soil disturbance during incorporation. This study emphasizes the ability of modeling to estimate management practice effectiveness at the larger scales when experimental data is not available.

  11. STOCK AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND CORN-DERIVED SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN AGGREGATE AND PRIMARY PARTICLE FRACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd

    2005-04-01

    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  12. 5 CFR 9701.105 - Continuing collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing collaboration. 9701.105... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.105 Continuing collaboration. (a) In... determine the number of employee representatives to be engaged in the continuing collaboration process....

  13. 5 CFR 9701.105 - Continuing collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing collaboration. 9701.105... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.105 Continuing collaboration. (a) In... determine the number of employee representatives to be engaged in the continuing collaboration process....

  14. 5 CFR 9701.105 - Continuing collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing collaboration. 9701.105... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.105 Continuing collaboration. (a) In... determine the number of employee representatives to be engaged in the continuing collaboration process....

  15. 5 CFR 9701.105 - Continuing collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing collaboration. 9701.105... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.105 Continuing collaboration. (a) In... determine the number of employee representatives to be engaged in the continuing collaboration process....

  16. Gypsum Soil Amendment as a Management Practice in Conservation Tillage to Improve Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till agriculture is the most common method used to control soil erosion on highly erodible lands in agricultural production in the USA and the interrill, rill and gulley erosion that are common in conventional tillage on slope lands (Plate #1) are reduced. No-till has been shown by many studies ...

  17. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continuation by production. 3107.2-1 Section 3107.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation...

  18. Multifaceted Roles of Management on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, D. D.; Knox, S. H.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Dronova, I.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J.

    2015-12-01

    To the first degree the exchange of mass and energy between vegetated canopies and the atmosphere are driven by environmental factors. But when one compares fluxes of a mesoscale network of flux towers in a common climate area, the impacts of management emerge. In this talk we will develop a vocabulary for evaluating the roles of management on fluxes, as it remains lacking in the assessment of data in the literature. Examples, will be drawn from our work across a network of agricultural and wetland sites in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta and from examples drawn from the AmeriFlux and FluxNet networks. Planting date, type of irrigation, burning, grazing, plowing/discing/no till, herbicide application and harvesting will be some of the management practices discussed. In sum, different management practices affect timing of phenology, the state of leaf area index and the activity of soil reservoirs. These factors modulate photosynthesis, and in turn can perturb ecosystem respiration and methane production. With regards of mass and energy exchange, different management practices can affect the state of the atmosphere and its feedback on surface fluxes.

  19. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs

  20. Efficacy of Postoperative Pain Management Using Continuous Local Anesthetic Infusion at the Iliac Crest Bone Graft Site in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Parallel, Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Dino; Bow, Cora; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Sham, Phoebe; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Cheung, Wai-Yuen; Wong, Yat-Wa; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Lawmin, Jean-Claude

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common spinal deformity that affects every population. In severe deformity, surgical intervention is performed. Autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) harvesting remains a common procedure worldwide for scoliosis surgery. Postoperative pain at the ICBG donor site is a major concern in patients undergoing spine surgery that affects postoperative functional outcome and consumes health care resources. Previous studies have noted a decrease in pain and postoperative analgesic use with the application of continuous infusion of anesthetic at the ICBG site in comparison with placebo. However, there is lack of evidence addressing the efficacy of continuous anesthetic infusion at the ICBG site in young patients and in particular those with spinal deformity, such as AIS. As such, this parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial addressed the pain management efficacy of continuous anesthetic infusion versus saline at the ICBG site in patients with AIS during the immediate postoperative period. Methods Participants were randomized into two groups. Group A (control subjects) received 3 mL per hour of saline locally at the ICBG site, and group B (treatment subjects) received a constant rate of infusion of 3 mL per hour of 0.25% levobupivacaine. Both groups received their postoperative intervention for 47 hours. All subjects and outcome assessors were blinded to the type of intervention. Utilizing the visual analog pain scale, pain was assessed at the primary spine surgical site, ICBG site, and contralateral ICBG site. Overall physical pain was assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The degree of analgesic use and complications were also evaluated. All outcomes were assessed up until the fourth day of the patients' hospitalization following surgery. Results Twelve subjects were recruited (five in group A; seven in group B). No difference was noted at baseline

  1. Overview of Continuing Education Financing and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Travis

    1982-01-01

    Continuing education agencies have cycles of financial activities that are all parts of financial management, including obtaining funding and venture capital, setting fees, and controlling costs for cost recovery. (Author/SSH)

  2. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  3. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  4. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  5. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation by production. A lease shall be extended so long as oil or gas is... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continuation by production....

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation by production. A lease shall be extended so long as oil or gas is... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continuation by production....

  7. Carbon Management Response curves: estimates of temporal soil carbon dynamics.

    PubMed

    West, Tristram O; Marland, Gregg; King, Anthony W; Post, Wilfred M; Jain, Atul K; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2004-04-01

    Measurement of the change in soil carbon that accompanies a change in land use (e.g., forest to agriculture) or management (e.g., conventional tillage to no-till) can be complex and expensive, may require reference plots, and is subject to the variability of statistical sampling and short-term variability in weather. In this paper, we develop Carbon Management Response (CMR) curves that could be used as an alternative to in situ measurements. The CMR curves developed here are based on quantitative reviews of existing global analyses and field observations of changes in soil carbon. The curves show mean annual rates of soil carbon change, estimated time to maximum rates of change, and estimated time to a new soil carbon steady state following the initial change in management. We illustrate how CMR curves could be used in a carbon accounting framework while effectively addressing a number of potential policy issues commonly associated with carbon accounting. We find that CMR curves provide a transparent means to account for changes in soil carbon accumulation and loss rates over time, and also provide empirical relationships that might be used in the development or validation of ecological or Earth systems models. PMID:15453404

  8. Continuity of Care

    PubMed Central

    Alazri, Mohammed; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. The objective of this article is to explore the literature about the concept of continuity of care focusing on factors that influence continuity; advantages and disadvantages of continuity and the effect of continuity on outcomes, hence on the quality of care. Electronic databases and other websites were searched for relevant literature. The results of this review showed that continuity of care is influenced by demographic factors, factors related to patients and healthcare professionals, patient-healthcare professional relationship, inter-professional factors, role of receptionists and organisational factors. Several advantages were found to be associated with most types of continuity in various medical disciplines preventive medicine, general health, maternity and child health, mental and psychosocial health, chronic diseases and costs of care.Various factors influenced different types of continuity. Most types of continuity were associated with good outcomes, hence indirectly affecting the quality of care. Health care professionals and policy makers should be aware of the effect of continuity on quality of care and of the factors that influence continuity if they wish to preserve it as a core value of primary care. PMID:21748104

  9. Continuous spinal analgesia with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain management: Comparison of 0.125% versus 0.0625% in elective total knee and hip replacement: A double-blind randomized study

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Alessandro; Spadaro, Savino; Natale, Chiara; Cotoia, Antonella; Dambrosio, Michele; Cinnella, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) has not been widely used for postoperative analgesia, mainly to avoid complications from the subarachnoid injection. Recently, the introduction of low caliber CSA catheters (Spinocath®), has allowed to decrease anesthetics doses and volumes with good analgesia and reduced complications. The aim of this present study was to compare two concentrations of levobupivacaine administered through CSA for postoperative pain management after major orthopedic surgery. Secondary outcomes were adverse events associated with CSA. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive sufentanil 1 mcg/h plus levobupivacaine 0.125%-1 ml/h (Group A0.125) or 0.0625%-2 ml/h (Group B0.0625) for postoperative analgesia through CSA catheter, connected to the elastomeric pump over 48 h. The quality of analgesia was assessed based on pain intensity by Visual Analogic Scale (VAS). Sensory and motor function, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters were recorded for 96 h after surgery, after which the catheter was removed. In addition, joint mobility was assessed, and any side effects were noted. Results: VAS score was ≤30 mm in 25 patients. Three patients in Group A0.125 and 4 in Group B0.0625 (NS), received a rescue dose of levobupivacaine. Median VAS in Group A0.125 was lower than in Group B0.0625 on T1h (8 ± 11 vs 16 ± 11; P < 0.05), and on T4h (11 ± 8 vs 18 ± 1; P < 0.05). All patients remained hemodynamically stable. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative joints mobility. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine at a dose of 1.25 mg/h administered by CSA provides good quality analgesia independent of concentration and solution volume in patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement. PMID:26702204

  10. SURVEY ON THE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY OF COMPANIES BASED ON THE HEARING ETC. INVESTIGATION TO CRO IN THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND CONSIDERATION OF ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT IN FUTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruma, Yoshiki; Noda, Kentaro

    In light of the recent disaster, a major theme for corporations is now how to go about disaster preparedness and business continuity undertakings. This survey examines the effectiveness of existing disaster preparedness and business continuity efforts, while also paying consideration to issues that must be overcome or improved in the future. This paper will present a path (requirements) for improving business continuity capacity, and endeavors to link that path to future assistance for recovery and business continuity for corporations by having the path utilized in developing various tools that ameliorate disaster preparedness and business continuity capacity.

  11. Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

    2010-05-01

    The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity

  12. Intensive English Language Programs: Continuing Education's Foreign Cousin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankowski, Mary L.; Maurice, Keith

    1986-01-01

    While intensive English programs have much in common with continuing education, problems of student balance, classroom management, and unique cultural pressures separate them from the mainstream of continuing education and require creative and individualized solutions. (Author/MSE)

  13. Portfolio Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise Business Information Services Division (EBIS) supports the Laboratory and its functions through the implementation and support of business information systems on behalf of its business community. EBIS Five Strategic Focus Areas: (1) Improve project estimating, planning and delivery capability (2) Improve maintainability and sustainability of EBIS Application Portfolio (3) Leap forward in IT Leadership (4) Comprehensive Talent Management (5) Continuous IT Security Program. Portfolio Management is a strategy in which software applications are managed as assets

  14. Continual Improvement in Shuttle Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Jean; Schafer, Loraine

    1995-01-01

    It has been said that Continual Improvement (CI) is difficult to apply to service oriented functions, especially in a government agency such as NASA. However, a constrained budget and increasing requirements are a way of life at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), making it a natural environment for the application of CI tools and techniques. This paper describes how KSC, and specifically the Space Shuttle Logistics Project, a key contributor to KSC's mission, has embraced the CI management approach as a means of achieving its strategic goals and objectives. An overview of how the KSC Space Shuttle Logistics Project has structured its CI effort and examples of some of the initiatives are provided.

  15. Continuing Through Iani Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image continues the northward trend through the Iani Chaos region. Compare this image to Monday's and Tuesday's. This image was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0.1 Longitude 342.6 East (17.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.703 - Marginally punched continuous forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Marginally punched continuous forms. 101-26.703 Section 101-26.703 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.703 - Marginally punched continuous forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Marginally punched continuous forms. 101-26.703 Section 101-26.703 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.703 - Marginally punched continuous forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Marginally punched continuous forms. 101-26.703 Section 101-26.703 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM...

  19. Planning for Project Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Grant, Jr.

    Designed to help colleges plan for the successful continuation of educational improvement projects beyond the end of their original funding period, this report presents a case study of Pennsylvania College of Technology's (PCT's) efforts to ensure the continuation of a Title III faculty development program. After describing the the Title III…

  20. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  1. Continuing Vocational Training (CVT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drogosz-Zablocka, Elzbieta; Izycka, Halina; Trzeciak, Wlodzimierz

    Polish continuing education (CE) includes education, further education, and professional development in and out of school; in day, evening, or weekend courses; and distance education. The state, workplaces, grants, and foreign assistance provide financing. A variety of organizations cooperate to provide continuing education. High-risk groups…

  2. The Tactile Continuity Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Norimichi; Igarashi, Yuka; Kashino, Makio

    2009-01-01

    We can perceive the continuity of an object or event by integrating spatially/temporally discrete sensory inputs. The mechanism underlying this perception of continuity has intrigued many researchers and has been well documented in both the visual and auditory modalities. The present study shows for the first time to our knowledge that an illusion…

  3. Continuous partition lattice

    PubMed Central

    Björner, Anders

    1987-01-01

    A continuous analogue to the partition lattices is presented. This is the metric completion of the direct limit of a system of embeddings of the finite partition lattices. The construction is analogous to von Neumann's construction of a continuous geometry over a field F from the finite-dimensional projective geometries over F. PMID:16593874

  4. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  5. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  6. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Aderholt, Robert B. [R-AL-4

    2011-05-26

    09/30/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-33. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 10/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2014-09-09

    09/19/2014 Became Public Law No: 113-164. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/11/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Graves, Sam [R-MO-6

    2011-07-21

    10/05/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-36. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 11/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  10. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  11. Simulated responses of soil organic carbon stock to tillage management scenarios in the Northwest Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng; Loveland, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Background Tillage practices greatly affect carbon (C) stocks in agricultural soils. Quantification of the impacts of tillage on C stocks at a regional scale has been challenging because of the spatial heterogeneity of soil, climate, and management conditions. We evaluated the effects of tillage management on the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) in croplands of the Northwest Great Plains ecoregion of the United States using the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). Tillage management scenarios included actual tillage management (ATM), conventional tillage (CT), and no-till (NT). Results Model simulations show that the average amount of C (kg C ha-1yr-1) released from croplands between 1972 and 2000 was 246 with ATM, 261 with CT, and 210 with NT. The reduction in the rate of C emissions with conversion of CT to NT at the ecoregion scale is much smaller than those reported at plot scale and simulated for other regions. Results indicate that the response of SOC to tillage practices depends significantly on baseline SOC levels: the conversion of CT to NT had less influence on SOC stocks in soils having lower baseline SOC levels but would lead to higher potentials to mitigate C release from soils having higher baseline SOC levels. Conclusion For assessing the potential of agricultural soils to mitigate C emissions with conservation tillage practices, it is critical to consider both the crop rotations being used at a local scale and the composition of all cropping systems at a regional scale. PMID:17650336

  12. (Continuous casting 1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, R.A.

    1985-06-12

    The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

  13. [Continuous EEG monitoring for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pugin, D; Vulliemoz, S; Bijlenga, P; Gasche, Y

    2014-12-10

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still carries a high morbidity and mortality, despite improvement in surgical and medical management. Seizures and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) secondary to vasospasm or cortical spreading depression are frequent after SAH. Continuous EEG allows early detection of non-convulsive seizures or delayed cerebral ischemia and may become a promissing tool in the monitoring of SAH patients. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited because many resources are required for recording and analyzing continuous EEG. Moreover, we require more data to confirm the relationship between aggressive treatment of non-convulsive seizure or delayed cerebral ischemia triggered by continuous EEG and outcome. PMID:25632630

  14. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  15. Singular Continuations of Attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, A.; Sanjurjo, J. M. R.

    2009-01-01

    We study dynamical and topological properties of the singularities of continuations of attractors of flows on manifolds. Despite the fact that these singularities are not isolated invariant sets, they share many of the properties of attractors; in particular, they have finitely generated Čech homology and cohomology, and they have the Čech homotopy type of attractors. This means that, from a global point of view, the singularities of continuations are topological objects closely related to finite polyhedra. The global structure is preserved even for weaker forms of continuation. An interesting case occurs with the Lorenz system for parameter values close to the situation of preturbulence. A general result, motivated by this particular case, is presented.

  16. Reasoning about continuous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, C.S.; Thielscher, M.

    1996-12-31

    Overcoming the disadvantages of equidistant discretization of continuous actions, we introduce an approach that separates time into slices of varying length bordered by certain events. Such events are points in time at which the equations describing the system`s behavior that is, the equations which specify the ongoing processes-change. Between two events the system`s parameters stay continuous. A high-level semantics for drawing logical conclusions about dynamic systems with continuous processes is presented, and we have developed an adequate calculus to automate this reasoning process. In doing this, we have combined deduction and numerical calculus, offering logical reasoning about precise, quantitative system information. The scenario of multiple balls moving in 1-dimensional space interacting with a pendulum serves as demonstration example of our method.

  17. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    PubMed

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  18. Advancements for continuous miners

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-06-15

    Design changes and new technology make the modern continuous miner more user friendly. Two of the major manufacturers, Joy Mining Machinery and DBT, both based near Pittsburgh, PA, USA, have recently acquired other OEMs to offer a greater product line. Joy's biggest development in terms of improving cutting time is the FACEBOSS Control System which has an operator assistance element and Joy Surface Reporting Software (JSRP). Joy's WetHead continuous miners have excellent performance. DBT is researching ways to make the machines more reliable with new drive systems. It has also been experimenting with water sprays to improve dust suppression. 4 photos.

  19. Toward Continuous Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Roni F

    2005-01-01

    While traditional continuing medical education (CME) courses increase participants' knowledge, they have minimal impact on the more relevant end points of physician behavior and patient outcomes. The interactive potential of online CME and its flexibility in time and place offer potential improvements over traditional CME. However, more emphasis should be placed on continuing education that occurs when clinicians search for answers to questions that arise in clinical practice, instead of that which occurs at an arbitrary time designated for CME. The use of learning portfolios and informationists can be integrated with self-directed CME to help foster a culture of lifelong learning. PMID:15693934

  20. Distributed Continuous Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Donald L.

    1981-01-01

    The development, implementation, and features of Northern Colorado's continuous registration system are described. The system is an online distributed processing system, written in COBOL for an IBM Series I under the CPS operating system. Course selection, permit to enroll, and drop/add forms are provided. (Author/MLW)

  1. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  2. To Be Continued...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Professional growth, like personal growth, comes only through an investment of effort, but it can provide significant returns. Music educators--indeed, most serious musicians--are naturally curious and intensely interested in opportunities for continuing education. If music educators are looking for ways to increase the level of knowledge they…

  3. CEU [Continuing Education Unit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Basic Education Region V Staff Development Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) is a means of recording and accounting non-credit programs and activities which are professional in nature. Seven criteria have been established to assure the professionalism and quality of instruction. The criteria concern the need, objectives, and rationale of the activity; the course planning and…

  4. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2013-07-22

    10/17/2013 Became Public Law No: 113-46. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The final version of the bill makes continuing appropriations through January 15, 2014, thus ending the government shutdown, and increases the debt limit through February 7, 2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  6. Legitimacy and Program Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Rene F.

    This paper examines the extent to which legitimacy affects program continuation, and focuses on the process by which programs attempt to maintain legitimate status through conformity with the larger environment. Legitimacy is defined as cultural support from a program's larger environment, such as the school district or community. An innovative…

  7. Continuing Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Association of U.S.A., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of about 150 items on women's continuing education begins with descriptions of a newsletter and three bibliographies, followed by documents on sex differences in ability, achievement, and role perception. Four other sections cover employment related interests and needs, women's participation in programs by universities…

  8. Clausal Continuations in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekoski, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate cases of turn continuations that are not necessarily criterially dependent on clausal syntax (Couper-Kuhlen & Ono, 2007; Ford, Fox, & Thompson, 2002), advancing a more multidimensional construal of turn expansions, in general, which, as Auer (2007) put it, "is not a syntactic issue alone" (p. 651). This study further…

  9. 5 CFR 412.401 - Continuing executive development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing executive development. 412.401... SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive Development § 412.401 Continuing executive development. (a) Each agency must establish a program or programs for the continuing development of its...

  10. 5 CFR 412.401 - Continuing executive development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing executive development. 412.401... SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive Development § 412.401 Continuing executive development. (a) Each agency must establish a program or programs for the continuing development of its...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and...

  12. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and...

  16. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  17. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  18. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  20. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...