Science.gov

Sample records for continuous no-till management

  1. Soil nitrogen conservation with continuous no-till management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage management is an important regulator of organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in agroecosystems. Tillage has resulted in the loss of substantial amounts of organic N from the surface soils. There is potential to rebuild and conserve substantial amounts of soil N where no-till man...

  2. Pennsylvania Manure Management in No-till Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefits of no-till such as reduced soil erosion, reduced P runoff, improved soil quality, greater carbon sequestration are well established. At the same time, incorporating manure has numerous benefits including: reduced ammonia volatilization, reduced soluble P loss, and reduced odor. Howeve...

  3. No-Till Soil Management and the New Vision for Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What can producers do to adapt their production practices to the changing vision of agriculture as well as the changing local climate? One such change that farmers could consider is no-till soil management. No-till improves water infiltration, decreases runoff, and may even increase the amount of ...

  4. Diverse No-Till Irrigated Cropping Systems Instead of Burning and Plowing Continuous Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of stubble has long been used as a management tool for irrigated wheat in the Inland Pacific Northwest. Concerns about regional air quality and government regulations led growers and scientists to conduct a 6-year no-till field experiment to evaluate two cycles of a 3-year irrigated c...

  5. Soil Quality Changes with No-Till Management and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Take-out

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural producers in eastern Washington are adopting no-till farming in an effort to reduce soil erosion. In addition, lands returning to production after enrollment in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) must be managed in order to maintain improvements in soil quality. The soil character...

  6. No-Till Management Effects on Soil Water and Wind Erodibility Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which no-till management improves water and wind erodibility parameters is not well understood. This study assessed changes in aggregate resistance to raindrops, dry aggregate wettability, and dry aggregate stability as well as their relationships with changes in soil organic carbon co...

  7. Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  8. ECONOMICS OF IRRIGATED CONTINUOUS CORN UNDER CONVENTIONAL-TILL AND NO-TILL IN NORTHERN COLORADO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of irrigated cropland from conventional tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) could have several environmental benefits including reduced erosion potential, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and conservation of water. However NT must be economically viable if it is to be adopted. Costs of pro...

  9. Ten Years of Continuous Annual No-Till Cropping vs. Winter Wheat - Fallow in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-yr experiment was conducted to evaluate continuous annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spring wheat, spring barley (Hor...

  10. Contribution of macroporosity to infiltration into a continuous corn no-tilled watershed: Implications for contaminant movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. M.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Norton, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    Rainfall and runoff were measured for many years on small watersheds on 10-15% slopes in east-central Ohio. Surface runoff from watersheds used for corn ( Zea mays L.) production was high with conventional tillage and very low with no-tillage. A 50-year storm produced 15 times more runoff from a plowed watershed than from a mulch-covered no-till watershed. Reduced runoff from the no-till surface resulted in increased percolation and enhanced the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater. The mulched surface of the no-till watershed also created a favorable environment for the deep burrowing earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., whose burrows can transmit water rapidly downward through the soil profile, thus contributing to the high infiltration rates. Open biopores and smaller structural pores were counted and measured to characterize the major flow paths of water movement in the no-till soil. Photos of horizontal surfaces at 2.5-, 7.5-, 15-, and 30 - cm depths and vertical faces of impregnated samples from the 1- and 5-cm depths were evaluated by image analysis. Number of pores was inversely proportional to pore diameter, however pores in the 0.05-1.0-mm diameter range accounted for less porosity than did those in the 1.0-5.0-mm range. The large pores were nearly vertical earthworm burrows and were continuously open from near the surface to the bedrock. Surface applications of lime increased subsoil pH in the no-till watershed but had little effect below the plow sole in the tilled watershed, suggesting that rapid movement of water in large pores can enhance chemical migration into the subsoil.

  11. SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES UNDER CONVENTIONAL-TILL AND NO-TILL CONTINUOUS COTTON SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices affect soil microbial communities, which in turn influence soil ecosystem processes. In this study, the effects of conventional- and no-tillage practices on soil microbial communities were examined under long-term continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) systems on a Deca...

  12. Continuous Cropping Systems Reduce Near-Surface Maximum Compaction in No-Till Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased concerns over compaction in NT soils, it is important to assess how continuous cropping systems influence risks of soil compaction across a range of soils and NT management systems. We quantified differences in maximum bulk density (BDmax) and critical water content (CWC) by the...

  13. Integrating multiple tactics for managing weeds in high residue no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolled cover crop mulches can suppress weeds in subsequent cash crops, reduce the need for herbicides and allow organic no-till cash crop establishment. This study investigated the weed suppressiveness of a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop mulch across varying weed seedbank density. Cereal ...

  14. Rye and vetch management for no-till snap bean production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting no-till into cover crop residues left on the soil surface offers benefits of suppressing weeds, reducing soil erosion, and eliminating trips through the field. Adequate suppression of cover crops to prevent competition with the main crop can be challenging, particularly in organic systems w...

  15. Effects of a custom cover crop residue manager in a no-till cotton system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an important part of no-till conservation agriculture, and these crops must produce optimum biomass amounts to effectively protect the soil surface from erosion and runoff, conserve soil water, and provide a physical barrier against weeds. Because of the large amount of residue produ...

  16. Cover crop roller-crimper contributes to weed management in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Termination of cover crops prior to no-till planting of soybean is typically accomplished with a burndown herbicide. Recent advances in cover crop roller-crimper design offer the possibility of physical termination of cover crops without tillage. We hypothesized that 1) cover crop termination with a...

  17. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  18. Novel manure management technologies in no-till and forage introduction to the special series.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Rory O; Kleinman, Peter J A; Beegle, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of manures leaves nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) susceptible to being lost in runoff, and N can also be lost to the atmosphere through ammonia (IH3) volatilization. Tillage immediately after surface application of manure moves manure nutrients under the soil surface, where they are less vulnerable to runoff and volatilization loss. Tillage, however, destroys soil structure, can lead to soil erosion, and is incompatible with forage and no-till systems. A variety of technologies are now available to place manure nutrients under the soil surface, but these are not widely used as surface broadcasting is cheap and long established as the standard method for land application of manure. This collection of papers includes agronomic, environmental, and economic assessments of subsurface manure application technologies, many of which clearly show benefits when comparedwith surface broadcasting. However, there remain significant gaps in our current knowledge, some related to the site-specific nature of technological performance, others related to the nascent and incomplete nature of the assessment process. Thus, while we know that we can improve land application of manure and the sustainability of farming systems with alternatives to surface broadcasting, many questions remain concerning which technologies work best for particular soils, manure types, and farming and cropping systems. PMID:21520734

  19. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  20. Blending soil conservation with production: Assessment of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management for agronomic yield and soil C sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...

  1. Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop-based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the Eastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crop-based, organic rotational no-till soybean production has been gaining traction in the Eastern region of the United States because of the ability of this new system to enhance soil conservation, reduce labor requirements, and decrease diesel fuel use compared to traditional organic product...

  2. Weed Community Response to No-Till in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in Ukraine are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned about weed management. In North America, producers have used no-till systems for several decades without increasing weed community density in croplands. Initially, weed density escalated with no-till, ...

  3. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  5. No-till spring barley to control wind erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a major concern for growers and communities in the Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion not only degrades the soil resource which can affect the long-term productivity of agricultural lands, but it also degrades air quality in the region. Continuous no-till spring cereal cropping systems ...

  6. Biosolids application to no-till dryland agroecosytems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland agroecosystems are generally ideal environments for recycling biosolids. However, what is the efficacy of biosolids addition to a no-till dryland management agroecosystem? From 2000 to 2010, we studied application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO Wastewater Treatment Plant ver...

  7. Curve numbers for long-term no-till corn and agricultural practices with high watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number (CN) method is an engineering and land management tool for estimating surface runoff from rainstorms. There are few watershed runoff records available during which a no-till crop was growing and hence there are few field-measured CN values. We investigated CN under continuous long-...

  8. A 2-Year Small Grain Interval Reduces Need for Herbicides in No-Till Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured weed interference in soybean and corn as affected by residue management tactics following a sequence of oat and winter wheat. Residue management tactics compared were conventional tillage, no-till, and no-till plus cover crops. Treatments were split into weed-free and weed-infe...

  9. No-till: The Quiet Revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past several decades, an increasing number of farmers have been adopting no-till farming to capture efficiencies in crop production, saving money, time and energy; to stop the loss of valuable topsoil by erosion; and to curb the runoff of sediment, fertilizers, and pesticides into rivers, lak...

  10. Residue removal and climatic effects on soil carbon content of no-till soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While no-till management practices usually result in increased soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, the effect of residue removal with no-till is not well understood, especially in warmer climates. A multi-year study was conducted at six locations having a wide range of climatic conditions in centra...

  11. Effects of management type and timing on weed suppression in soybean no-till planted into rolled-crimped cereal rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed emergence periodicity can inform the timing and choice of weed management tactics. We tested the effects of weed management system (conventional = CNV and organic = ORG), timing of rye sowing (2 times), timing of soybean planting (5 times, 3 in each system), and supplemental contro...

  12. Soil carbon sequestration with continuous no-till management of grain cropping systems in the Virginia coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agroecosystems represents a significant opportunity to offset a portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climatic conditions in the Virginia coastal plain and modern production practices make it possible for high annual photosynthetic CO2 fixation. There is potential to seques...

  13. Application of manure to no-till soils: Phosphorus losses by sub-surface and surface pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the acceleration of eutrophication by agricultural runoff has focused attention on manure management in no-till. We evaluated losses of phosphorus (P) in sub-surface and surface flow as a function of dairy manure application to no-till soils on a dairy farm in north-central Pennsylvania...

  14. Effect of no-till farming on soil water intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall simulation and ponded infiltrometer methods were used to investigate the infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage farms. Seven pairs of no-till and conventional till farms under a corn-soybean rotation were selected on soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loam...

  15. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till systems have found that crop yields often exceed their expectation based on nutrient and water supply. For example, corn yields 7% higher in a no-till system in central South Dakota than in a tilled system in eastern South Dakota. This is surprising because rainfall is 5 in...

  16. One-time tillage of no-till: Effects on nutrients, mycorrhizae, and phosphorus uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stratification of nutrient availability, especially of P, that develops with continuous no-till (NT) can affect runoff nutrient concentration and possibly nutrient uptake. The effects of composted manure application and one-time tillage of NT on the distribution of soil chemical properties, root co...

  17. Nitrogen fertilization effects on irrigated no-till corn production and soil carbon and nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting from conventional tillage (CT) to a no-till (NT) production system can affect N requirements for optimizing corn (Zea mays L.) yields while enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) and N levels. Nitrogen fertilization impacts on irrigated, NT continuous-corn grain, stalk, cob, and stover yiel...

  18. When does no-till produce more? A global meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a growing world population while protecting environmental quality and enhancing the natural resource base represents a major challenge for the agricultural research and development community. No-till agriculture is a widely adopted management system with the aims of reducing soil erosion, de...

  19. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P) while incorporation by tillage increases erosion potential and particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat-poorly-drai...

  20. Rye termination by different rollers/crimpers developed for no-till small-scale farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expansion of fresh food production by local small vegetable farms must be associated with sustainable practices that include no-till systems with proper cover crop management. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue protects the soil from erosio...

  1. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  2. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  3. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level management practices for no-till and conventional tillage. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulation model, was used to determine impacts of alternative tilla...

  4. Seedling emergence of horseweed in no-till

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density of horseweed is increasing in no-till cropping systems because horseweed seed is transported by wind and seedlings can establish from seeds lying on the soil surface. Also, horseweed has developed resistance to commonly-used herbicides, thus control tactics are often ineffective. This repo...

  5. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  6. Chemical stabilization of organic carbon pools in particle size fractions in no-till and meadow soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and soil management affects soil organic carbon (SOC) pools associated with particle size fractions and their chemical stabilization. No-till (NT) production of corn (Zea mays L.) is a recommended management practice that reduces erosion and increases SOC concentration, but the knowledge a...

  7. Evaluating new manure application technologies to balance environmental and agronomic objectives in no-till crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure is one of the most challenging issues facing farmers. Changing policies, demographics and management priorities must be balanced. A critical issue is the balance between manure incorporation for optimum nutrient management and use of no-till crop production systems. This p...

  8. Biogeophysical benefits of no-till agriculture for mitigating heat wave impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change[1]. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming[1]. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface[2]. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heatwaves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate engineering measures targeting high impact events rather than mean climate properties. References: [1] Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko (2007): Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds

  9. A Multi-Year Comparison of No-Till Versus Conventional-Till Effects on the Carbon Balance in a Corn/Soybean Agro-Ecosystem Using Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Slattery, R.; Meyers, T. P.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the industrial revolution are in large part due to the release of carbon previously stored in the soil. No-till strategies have been proposed as a means to mitigate agricultural contributions to atmospheric carbon by decreasing emissions and sequestering carbon in agricultural soils while increasing water use efficiency and soil quality. However, the effects of no-till versus conventional-till practices on carbon sequestration often vary due to difficulty in quantifying soil carbon as soil properties change with management. Eddy covariance (EC) offers a more accurate method of continuously measuring the total carbon budget and does so without relying on physical soil carbon measurements. The majority of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States is farmed using the corn/soybean rotation, making it an ideal agro-ecosystem to examine the potential of adopting no-till practices on carbon and water balances. In this study, we use EC to compare carbon and water fluxes between continuous no-till and conventional-till corn/soybean sites over several years in east central Illinois. This allows the determination and comparison of 1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NEE after accounting for grain usage); 2) water use efficiency; and 3) response to climatic variation, both at short and long time scales, between the two tillage systems. We hypothesize that both carbon uptake and water use efficiency will improve with no-till practices, which in turn will improve crop responses to environmental factors such as drought and heat stress.

  10. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated strip-till and no-till corn production ystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from strip-till (ST) and no-till (NT), irrigated continuous corn fields were evaluated in 2011 near Fort Collins, CO on a clay loam soil. Emissions were monitored from plots receiving urea, ESN®1, SuperU®, and liquid UA...

  11. Cropping Intensity Effects on Organic Carbon, Aggregate Stability, and Hydraulic Properties of a No-till Loam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved no-till management techniques have allowed greater cropping intensity in the central Great Plains. Organic carbon (OC) contents in the soil have increased because of greater plant biomass production and less carbon loss from oxidation. Increased OC in the soil leads to improved soil physica...

  12. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  13. No-till drill planting of Texas bluegrass on the Southern Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the use of a flail-vac harvester, a hammer mill, and the WW2000 cleaner, Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr. [Poaceae]) seed was harvested, cleaned, and planted with a no-till drill at Woodward OK, USDA-ARS. Seeds were no-till drilled into clear ground or herbicide killed wheat stubble...

  14. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  15. Infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage in Indiana and Illinois farm fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall simulation and ponded infiltrometer methods were used to investigate the infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage farms. Seven pairs of no-till and conventional till farms under a corn-soybean rotation were selected on soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loa...

  16. Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

    2012-02-07

    Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

  17. Increased Use of No-till Cropping Systems Improves Stream Ecosystem Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, A. G.; Bailey, R. C.; Schwindt, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Release of sediments to streams from tilled lands has been a significant stressor to streams in agro-ecosystems for decades and has been shown to impact aquatic biota in a variety of ways. To limit soil erosion from cultivated lands, conservation tillage techniques, including the use of no-till systems, have been developed and widely adopted throughout the region. However, there haves been no tests of the effects of no-till systems on stream quality at a watershed scale. We measured habitat and water quality and sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) and fish communities in 32 small (100-1400 ha) subwatersheds along a gradient of the proportion of land under no-till cropping systems to determine relationships between the use of no-till and stream quality. Our results demonstrate that with increasing proportions of no-till, habitat scores improve, the quantities of sediment and sediment associated stressors in the water decline, the BMI community exhibits reduced dominance by Oligocheata and Sphaeriidae, as well as improved Family Biotic Index (FBI) scores, and fish species richness increases. We concluded that increased use of no-till cropping systems by farmers does contribute to improved quality of streams in agro-ecosystems.

  18. Biosolids application to no-till dryland crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosolids recycling on dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can supply a reliable, slow-release source of nitrogen (N) and organic. Our past research found that continuous application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO wastewater treatment facility to dryland winter wheat-fallow r...

  19. Production of N2O and CO2 in Tillage and no Till Dryland and Irrigated Wheat Systems in Response to Additions of Water and N Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyanovsky, K.; Huggins, D.; Stockle, C.; Smith, J. L.; Morrow, J.; Lamb, B. K.; Pressley, S. N.; Waldo, S.; Brown, D. J.; Pan, W.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall, irrigation and soil N fertilization are significant processes which drive emissions of highly potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, the major contributor to climate change from agriculture. Changing climate is likely to result in shifting of agroecozones due to increased temperatures, and expansion of irrigated agriculture as well as increase in irrigation requirements. An accurate assessment of N2O in irrigation and dryland scenarios is required for predicting the effects of these agricultural management practices on global climate change. The effects of N application and water additions on CO2 and N2O emissions were evaluated on long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage sites of dryland and irrigated wheat cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. We implemented the system of Li-Cor 8100A automatic chambers coupled with LGR 23r N2O analyzer for continuous IRGA monitoring of CO2 and N2O emissions in the short term microplot study with the following treatments: 1) no water; 2) water added to 80% water filled pore space and amended with 150 kg NH4NO3-N ha-1; 3) water added to 80% water filled pore space. Application of N and water took place at 9:00 and the measurements continued from that time until 7:00 the following day for 22 hrs. The study was conducted in the summer and repeated in fall, which are most likely to be affected by increased temperatures. Nitrogen and water treatments resulted in higher N2O peaks than water only treatments. Both N plus water and only water treatments had higher N2O emissions than the no water treatments. Conventional tillage treatments resulted in N2O emissions 30-40% than no-till treatments. Emissions of CO2 tended to be increased in the fertilized and water added treatments compared to just water added treatments, and both of these treatments had higher CO2 emissions than treatments without water added. Tillage treatments also tended to have higher CO2 emissions than no-till treatments. Emissions of CO2 and N2O were

  20. Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powlson, David S.; Stirling, Clare M.; Jat, M. L.; Gerard, Bruno G.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The Emissions Gap Report 2013 from the United Nations Environment Programme restates the claim that changing to no-till practices in agriculture, as an alternative to conventional tillage, causes an accumulation of organic carbon in soil, thus mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. But these claims ignore a large body of experimental evidence showing that the quantity of additional organic carbon in soil under no-till is relatively small: in large part apparent increases result from an altered depth distribution. The larger concentration near the surface in no-till is generally beneficial for soil properties that often, though not always, translate into improved crop growth. In many regions where no-till is practised it is common for soil to be cultivated conventionally every few years for a range of agronomic reasons, so any soil carbon benefit is then lost. We argue that no-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

  1. Impact of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris living sites on the greenhouse gas balance of no-till arable soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32 % higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13 % higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2 % of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  2. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    PubMed

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels. PMID:18948459

  3. Simulating the impact of no-till systems on field water fluxes and maize productivity under semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, W.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Crop output from the smallholder farming sector in sub-Saharan Africa is trailing population growth leading to widespread household food insecurity. It is therefore imperative that crop production in semi-arid areas be improved in order to meet the food demand of the ever increasing human population. No-till farming practices have the potential to increase crop productivity in smallholder production systems of sub-Saharan Africa, but rarely do because of the constraints experienced by these farmers. One of the most significant of these is the consumption of mulch by livestock. In the absence of long term on-farm assessment of the no-till system under smallholder conditions, simulation modelling is a tool that provides an insight into the potential benefits and can highlight shortcomings of the system under existing soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Thus, this study was designed to better understand the long term impact of no-till system without mulch cover on field water fluxes and maize productivity under a highly variable rainfall pattern typical of semi-arid South Africa. The simulated on-farm experiment consisted of two tillage treatments namely oxen-drawn conventional ploughing (CT) and ripping (NT). The APSIM model was applied for a 95 year period after first being calibrated and validated using measured runoff and maize yield data. The predicted results showed significantly higher surface runoff from the conventional system compared to the no-till system. Predicted deep drainage losses were higher from the NT system compared to the CT system regardless of the rainfall pattern. However, the APSIM model predicted 62% of the annual rainfall being lost through soil evaporation from both tillage systems. The predicted yields from the two systems were within 50 kg ha -1 difference in 74% of the years used in the simulation. In only 9% of the years, the model predicted higher grain yield in the NT system compared to the CT system. It is suggested that

  4. Long-Term No-Till and Conventional-Till Soybean Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual crop yields of long-term no-till soybean (Glycine max) and conventional-till soybean at Holly Springs, Mississippi were summarized for a 16-year period, 1984 through 1999. This research report provides a complete data set of crop yields, cultural practices, and chemical applications used for...

  5. Addition of cover crops enhances no-till potential for improving soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the use of cover crops (CC) is growing. Inclusion of CC may be a potential strategy to boost no-till performance by improving soil physical properties. To assess this potential, we utilized a wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)]-grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] rotation, four N rate...

  6. No-Till Corn after Bromegrass: Effect on Soil C and Soil Aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A different 13C/12C isotope signature is imparted to SOC by C4 plants versus C3 plants. We measured changes in C isotope ratios in SOC during ~ 6½ yrs of no-till corn (Zea mays L) planted into 13yr old bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) sod for a C3 ' C4 plant switch to identify SOC isotope changes ...

  7. Phosphorus Fertilization of Late-Planted Winter Wheat into No-Till Summer Fallow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted in low precipitation (< 300 mm) areas of north-central Oregon and east-central Washington after 14 months of tilled fallow. No-till fallow (NTF) is an alternative to the tillage-based method. The disadvantage of NTF is the loss of seed-zone moisture a...

  8. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  9. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  10. Irrigated, No-Till Corn and Barley Response to Nitrogen in Northern Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converting irrigated, conventional till (CT) systems to no-till (NT) production systems can potentially reduce soil erosion, fossil fuel consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen fertilization (6 N rates) effects on irrigated, corn (Zea mays L.) and malting barley (Hordeum distichon L.)...

  11. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  12. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  13. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr field study was conducted on an Atwood silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalfs) marginal upland soil to evaluate if incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface in a no-till cotton affect runoff nutrient concentrations. The treatments consisted of 7.8 Mg ha-1 broiler l...

  14. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes broiler litter to the atmosphere and rain events, enhances the potential loss of nutrients to the air and surface runoff water and may limit benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A 2-...

  15. Nutrient dynamics from broiler litter applied to no-till cotton in an upland soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface-applying broiler litter to a no-till cotton field increases the potential for loss of manure nutrients from the fields in runoff events and volitization of the NH4-N. An experiment was conducted on an upland Atwood silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleududalfs) at the Pontoto...

  16. Evaporation from high residue no-till versus tilled fallow in a dry summer climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the low-precipitation (< 300 mm annual) region of the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States practice summer fallow to produce winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a 2-yr rotation. No-till fallow (NTF) is ideal for control of wind erosion but is not widely practiced because of se...

  17. Curve numbers for no-till: field data versus standard tables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number procedure developed by Soil Conservation Service (Now Natural Resources Conservation Service) in the mid-1950s for estimating direct runoff from rainstorms has not been extensively tested in cropping systems under no-till. Analysis of CNs using the frequency matching and asymptotic ...

  18. Impact of different cover crop residues and shank types on no-till tomato yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year experiment with no-till tomatoes was conducted in Cullman, AL (2006 to 2008) to determine the effect of plastic mulch (control), rye and crimson clover cover crops, and different subsoiler shanks on no–till tomato yield. In 2006 and 2008, plastic cover provided higher yield compared wit...

  19. Cropping Intensity Effects on Physical Properties of a No-till Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems in the semi-arid west have the potential to increase organic carbon in the soil profile and improve soil physical properties by increasing cropping intensity and crop diversity. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that increasing cropping intensity will improve sele...

  20. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  1. GPFARM Evaluation Across a No-Till Dryland Agroecosystem Landscape Catena

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Title: GPFARM Evaluation Across a No-Till Dryland Agroecosystem Landscape Catena Authors: James C. Ascough II, Allan A. Andales, Gregory S. McMaster, and Lajpat R. Ahuja Address: USDA-ARS, ASRU, 2150 Centre Ave., Bldg. D, Suite 200, Fort Collins, CO 80526 GPFARM is a USDA-ARS decision support syst...

  2. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  3. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  4. Organic no-till production for grain crops in Iowa: Effects on crop productivity and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-state, long-term organic experiment was established in 6 states in 2008 to examine effects of organic no-till production on crop productivity, yields, soil quality, and economic performance. Tillage treatments included conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT), with cover crop planted in th...

  5. Cover crop residue and organic mulches provide weed control during limited-input no-till collard production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited input producers may adopt no-till if sufficient weed suppression can be achieved. High-biomass producing cover crops used in conjunction with organic mulches may provide sufficient weed control in no-till vegetable production. Our objective was to quantify weed suppression from a summer co...

  6. Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia Bare Patch in a Long-Term No-Till Cropping Systems Experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major concern for farmers who practice no-till in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. Bare patches caused by Rhizoctonia first appeared in 1999 during year 3 of a 15-year no-till cropping systems experiment near Ritzville, WA (269 mm annual precipit...

  7. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  8. Forces and Straw Cutting Performance of Double Disc Furrow Opener in No-Till Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an “impossible to achieve” task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  9. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  10. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting. PMID:23673763

  11. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  12. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya; Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L; Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cougui

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions were monitored using a soil CO₂ flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH₄ emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO₂ and N₂O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO₂ and N₂O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p<0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3. PMID:25461105

  13. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  14. Changes of Soil Aggregate C Isotopes in No-Till Corn Following Bromegrass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. F.; Varvel, G.; Vogel, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    This field study is near Ithaca, Nebraska, USA (lat. 41.151, long. 96.401) on a Filbert silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argialboll). The site was in bromegrass since 1986. Corn was no-till seeded into the bromegrass sod in spring 1999. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. No-till corn was the main treatment with nitrogen (N) as subplots. N was broadcast at the start of each growing season at 60 or 120 kg N/ha as NH4NO3. Total biomass was measured by weighing 4.4 m of row in each plot. Soil samples were obtained in May 1999 (baseline sampling), Sept 1999, June 2000, Oct 2000, Sept 2001, Nov 2002, Sept 2003, and Oct 2005 from pre-selected areas by removal of plant material from the soil surface and removing the 0-5, 5- 10, and at 4 of the 8 harvests also sampling the 10-30 cm depths with a flat-bladed shovel. Soil bulk densities were determined on clods from each layer. The moist soil was passed through an 8 mm sieve before air drying and storing. Aggregate size fractions were obtained with a Yoder wet-aggregate method. Soil size fractions obtained were > 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.045 and < 0.045 mm. Detritus was floated to the surface and skimmed off for transfer to a separate container. Aggregates were dried at 55°C, weighed, ground, and analyzed for total C and N and 13C:12C isotope ratio. Because soil organic carbon (SOC) was labeled with the bromegrass (C3 plant) isotope signature, then during the 77 months of this experiment the re-labeling of each fraction and the total SOC with the corn (C4 plant) isotope signature and the amounts of SOC lost from aggregate size fractions with conversion of the bromegrass sod to no-till corn was measured. During 6.5 years, total SOC decreased from 21.1, 17.0, and 55.8 t/ha in the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-30 cm depths to 20.1, 16.7, and 55.5 t/ha, respectively. However the SOC in the < 2, 0.5-2, and < 0.5 mm fractions of the 0 - 5 cm depth changed from 62, 21, and 16 % of the total SOC at the

  15. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Shankle, M W; Tewolde, H; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K R; McLaughlin, M R; Rowe, D E

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of broiler litter to no-till cotton could lead to degradation of water quality. Incorporation of broiler litter into the top surface soil (0.05 m) could alleviate this risk. A 2-yr field study was conducted on a silt loam upland soil to determine the effect of incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface on nutrient and bacterial transport in runoff. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments and three replications. Treatments were (i) unfertilized control; (ii) surface-appliedbroiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) without incorporation; (iii) surface-applied broiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) with immediate incorporation; and (iv) inorganic fertilizer N (urea ammonium nitrate, 32% N) and inorganic fertilizer P (triple superphosphate) at the recommended rate. Phosphorus was surface appliedat 25 kg ha(-1) and N was injected at 101 kg ha(-1) into the soil using a commercial liquid fertilizer applicator. Runoff was collected from small runoff plots (2.4 m by 1.6 m) established at the bottom side of main plots (13.7 m by 6.0 m). Incorporation of broiler litter reduced total N (TN), NO3-N, water soluble P (WSP), and total P (TP) concentrations in runoffby 35, 25, 61, and 64%, respectively, and litter-associated bacteria by two to three orders of magnitude compared with unincorporated treatment. No significant difference in total suspended solids (TSS) in runoffwas obtained between incorporated and unincorporated treatments. Incorporation of broiler litter into the surface soil in the no-till system immediately after application minimized the potential risk for surface nutrient losses and bacteria transport in runoff. PMID:21520764

  16. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  17. On-farm effects of no-till versus occasional tillage on soil quality and crop yields in eastern Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide interest in conservation tillage is increasing, because conventional tillage adversely impacts the long-term fertility of the soil and its vulnerability to erosion. No-till (NT) agriculture minimizes adverse impacts of an intensive arable land use. In some cases, rotational till-NT practic...

  18. Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT No-till planting cotton into small grain cover crops has many benefits including reducing soil erosion and allelopathic suppression of weeds. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche...

  19. No-till and conventional-till cotton response to broiler litter fertilization in an upland soil: lint yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of poultry litter as cotton fertilizer is not well documented for upland soils in the southeastern USA where cotton may be grown under no-till and other soil conservation practices. The objective of this research was to measure the response of cotton to broiler litter fertilization...

  20. Fourteen Years of Diverse Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed the 14th year of a cropping systems experiment to evaluate diverse annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spri...

  1. Long-term Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tillage-based winter wheat – summer fallow (WW-SF) cropping system has dominated dryland farming in the Pacific Northwest for 125 years. We conducted a large-scale multidisciplinary 8-year study of annual no-till cropping systems as an alternative to WW-SF. Soft white and hard white classes of w...

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE AND NITROUS OXIDE FLUXES IN ORGANIC, NO-TILL AND CHISEL-TILL CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic cropping systems may have the potential to increase soil C sequestration and reduce soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes compared to conventional systems but organic systems are not well studied. We are measuring greenhouse gas fluxes and soil C sequestration in no-till, chisel-till and organic ...

  3. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  4. No-till and cover crop impacts on soil carbon and associated properties on Pennsylvania dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of conservation practices in crop production, especially no-till planting, is generally expected to result in sequestration of C as soil organic matter and contribute to the reduction of CO2 inputs to the atmosphere. However, expectations are almost exclusively based on findings from plot-s...

  5. Monitoring and APEX modeling of no-till and reduced-till in tile drained agricultural landscapes for water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of agricultural practices through monitoring and modeling is necessary for the development of more effective conservation programs and policies. No-till and reduced-till are both agricultural conservation practices widely promoted for their proven ability to conserve water and reduce ...

  6. Conservation tillage issues: cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production in the mid-atlantic region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers in the mid-Atlantic region are interested in reducing tillage, labor, and time requirements for grain production. Cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production is one approach to accomplishing these goals. Advancements in a system for planting crops into a mat of cov...

  7. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  8. Site-Specific N Management in an Intensified No-till Dryland Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional uniform N application is inefficient. Nitrogen is over-applied in low-producing parts of a field and under-applied in areas with high-production potential. The result is lost income for farmers, diminished carbon sequestration, and negative environmental impact (soil acidification, tox...

  9. Elevated carbon dioxide alters chemical management of Canada thistle in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differential responses of crops and weeds to anthropogenic climatic change may alter competition and crop yields. Here we examine the role of current and projected increases in carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], on soybean growth and seed yield with and without competition from Canada thistle (Cir...

  10. Sunflower response to irrigation from limited water supplies with no-till management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited irrigation necessitates maximizing economic returns by rotating crops, so we conducted a field study during 2005-2009 in southwest Kansas to determine the yield response of sunflower to irrigation and evapotranspiration (ETc) and to measure plant growth parameters and soil water use. Sunflow...

  11. Novel manure management technologies in no-till and forage systems: introduction to the special series

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface application of manures leaves nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) susceptible to losses in runoff and N can also be lost to the atmosphere through ammonia volatilization. Tillage immediately after surface application of manure moves manure nutrients under the soil surface where they are less vul...

  12. Gypsum soil amendment as a management practice in no-till to improve water quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage agriculture has been promoted as a viable means of controlling soil erosion in many regions of the USA. In no-tillage, manures are largely surface applied and soluble forms of nutrients can easily be removed by water during a runoff event. Gypsum has been shown to improve infiltration i...

  13. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions under no-till farming in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Sheng-Li; Pu, Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Yu-Qiao; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2016-04-01

    No-till (NT) practices are among promising options toward adaptation and mitigation of climate change. However, the mitigation effectiveness of NT depends not only on its carbon sequestration potential but also on soil-derived CH4 and N2O emissions. A meta-analysis was conducted, using a dataset involving 136 comparisons from 39 studies in China, to identify site-specific factors which influence CH4 emission, CH4 uptake, and N2O emission under NT. Comparative treatments involved NT without residue retention (NT0), NT with residue retention (NTR), compared to plow tillage (PT) with residue removed (PT0). Overall, NT0 significantly decreased CH4 emission by ~30% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 with an average emission 218.8 kg ha(-1) for rice paddies. However, the increase in N2O emission could partly offset the benefits of the decrease in CH4 emission under NT compared to PT0. NTR significantly enhanced N2O emission by 82.1%, 25.5%, and 20.8% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 for rice paddies, acid soils, and the first 5 years of the experiments, respectively. The results from categorical meta-analysis indicated that the higher N2O emission could be mitigated by adopting NT within alkaline soils, for long-term duration, and with less N fertilization input when compared to PT0. In addition, the natural log (lnR) of response ratio of CH4 and N2O emissions under NT correlated positively (enhancing emission) with climate factors (temperature and precipitation) and negatively (reducing emission) with experimental duration, suggesting that avoiding excess soil wetness and using NT for a long term could enhance the benefits of NT. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the conditions favoring greenhouse gas(es) reductions is essential to achieving climate change mitigation and advancing food security in China. PMID:26661415

  14. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Francesco, Alluvione

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing crop yields; however, it may potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The study objective was to assess the ability of commercially available enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers to reduce N2O emissions following their application in comparison with conventional dry granular urea and liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn (Zea mays L.) production system. Four enhanced-efficiency fertilizers were evaluated: two polymer-coated urea products (ESN and Duration III) and two fertilizers containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers significantly reduced growing-season N2O-N emissions in comparison with urea, including UAN. SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus had significantly lower N2O-N emissions than UAN. Compared with urea, SuperU reduced N2O-N emissions 48%, ESN 34%, Duration III 31%, UAN 27%, and UAN+AgrotainPlus 53% averaged over 2 yr. Compared with UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus reduced N2O emissions 35% and SuperU 29% averaged over 2 yr. The N2O-N loss as a percentage of N applied was 0.3% for urea, with all other N sources having significantly lower losses. Grain production was not reduced by the use of alternative N sources. This work shows that enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers can potentially reduce N2O-N emissions without affecting yields from irrigated NT corn systems in the semiarid central Great Plains. PMID:21043261

  15. Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) source comparison study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of inorganic N source and placement on growing-season and non-crop period soil nitrous oxide (NO). Commercially available controlled-release N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn ( L.) production system. Controlled-release N fertilizers evaluated were: a polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea (SuperU), and UAN+AgrotainPlus (SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain nitrification and urease inhibitors). Each N source was surface band applied (202 kg N ha) near the corn row at emergence and watered into the soil the next day. Subsurface banded ESN (ESNssb) and check (no N applied) treatments were included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons and after harvest using static, vented chambers. All N sources had significantly lower growing-season NO emissions than granular urea (0.7% of applied N), with UAN+AgrotainPlus (0.2% of applied N) and ESN (0.3% of applied N) having lower emissions than UAN (0.4% of applied N). Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but were greater than the check. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in NT, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. In our study, UAN+AgrotainPlus consistently had the lowest level of NO emissions with no yield loss. PMID:23099926

  16. Comparing carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between no-till and conventional tillage agriculture in Lesotho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices can either sequester or emit carbon (C). Feeding seven billion people mandates that soils be used intensively for food production, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the lack of CO2 flux measurements on African subs...

  17. Simulating landscape catena effects in no-till dryland agroecosystems using GPFARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative agricultural management systems in the semi-arid Great Plains are receiving increasing attention. GPFARM is a farm/ranch decision support system (DSS) designed to assist in strategic management planning for land units from the field to the whole-farm level. This study evaluated the site...

  18. Continuous Risk Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

  19. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five management systems: continuous corn (CC), cropland to woodland (CW), cropland to pastures (CP), no-till (NT), and conservation reserve program (CRP), were selected to evaluate their long-term impacts (5, 10 and 15 yr) on soil C sequestration. Nine soil cores from each system were randomly colle...

  20. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  1. Soil sorptivity enhancement with crop residue accumulation in simiarid dryland no-till agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water capture and precipitation use efficiency are of great importance in dryland cropping systems because the world’s dependence on food produced in dryland areas continues to increase. Growing season evapotranspiration potential greatly exceeds growing season precipitation rates in dryland areas,...

  2. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  3. Soil CO2 flux in response to wheel traffic in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of soil CO2 flux in the absence of living plants can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of soil management practices for C sequestration, but field CO2 flux is spatially variable and may be affected by soil compaction and percentage of total pore space filled with water (%WFPS). The ...

  4. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  5. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate. PMID:25744820

  6. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  7. A Marketing Management Approach for Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a marketing management model to the revitalization, or remarketing, of continuing education. Assesses the potential of continuing education as a higher education market. Suggests surveying present students, developing and quantifying hypotheses, applying new technology, promoting selected benefits, approaching areas of opportunity, and…

  8. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  9. SEX HORMONES FROM POULTRY LITTER-THEIR FATE AND TRANSPORT IN RUNOFF AND DRAINAGE FROM CROPPED TILL- AND NO-TILL PLOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The millions of tons of poultry litter that are applied to agricultural fields annually are a source of the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone. Our objective was to determine if the concentrations of these two sex hormones in runoff and drainage from till and no-till soils receiving broiler lit...

  10. COMPARISON OF RUNOFF, SOIL EROSION, AND WINTER WHEAT YIELDS FROM NO-TILL AND INVERSION TILLAGE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparisons of yields and conservation effectiveness in no-till and inversion tillage systems is typically confined to small plot research. Results from this type of research are often criticized for being site specific with results that do not transfer to production field scales, for crop yield or ...

  11. Roller type and operating speed effects on rye kill rates, soil moisture and irrigated sweet corn yield in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted in Cullman, Alabama to evaluate the effects of three different roller/crimpers on terminating a rye (Secale cereale L) cover crop, soil moisture, and sweet corn yield in a no-till system. A straight bar roller, a smooth roller with crimper, and a two-stage roller ope...

  12. Cotton population and yield following rye and crimson clover termination with roller/crimper and herbicides in an Alabama no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an essential part of no-till systems because of important benefits such as improved soil quality, weed control and moisture conservation. Typically, under optimal weather conditions, a three week time period, after rolling, is required to achieve termination rates above 90%. A common...

  13. Roller type and operating speed effects on rye termination rates, soil moisture and yield of sweet corn in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted in Cullman, Alabama to evaluate the effects of three different rollers/crimpers on the termination of a rye (Secale cereale L) winter cover crop, soil moisture, and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) in a no-till system. The following roller types were tested: a strai...

  14. In-Crop and Autumn-Applied Glyphosate Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)Density in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of in-crop and fall-applied glyphosate on purple nutsedge density and yield of no-till glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and GR soybean. Separate experiments were conducted in GR corn and GR soybean in areas main...

  15. Effects of different roller/crimper designs and rolling speed on rye cover crop termination and seedcotton yield in A no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rollers/crimpers have been utilized in no-till systems to mechanically terminate cover crops as a substitute for chemical termination; however, excessive vibration generated by the original straight bar roller adopted from Brazil has delayed its adoption in the U.S. To reduce excessive vibration, pr...

  16. Examination of curve numbers from a small piedmont catechment under 33 years of no-till crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number (CN) method for estimating direct runoff from storm rainfall developed in the 1950’s by the USDA Soil Conservation Service has been adopted by large groups of users across the world. This has helped to gradually expose its strengths and weaknesses. Recently users have identified the...

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT ROLLER DESIGNS ON MANAGING RYE AS A COVER CROP IN NO-TILL COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of speed on cover crop (rye, Secale cereale L.) termination rate, vibration level and cotton yield was tested for two roller designs during the 2004-2005 growing season. In 2004, two roller designs, a triple-section straight bar roller (4.1 m wide) and a smooth roller/crimper, were evalua...

  18. Enhancing management of fall-applied poultry litter with cover crop and subsurface band placement in no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether yield reduction risk of cotton fertilized with fall-applied poultry litter in regions with warm fall or winter months can be minimized by applying the litter in subsurface bands in conjunction with winter cover crop is unknown. A field study was conducted in Mississippi to test whether litte...

  19. Water use and yields of no-till managed dryland grasspea and yellow pea under different planting configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus) is a drought-tolerant legume that can be grown for forage and grain. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in dryland rotations with non-legume grain crops. However, the agronomics of GP for the Central Great Plains region have not been investi...

  20. Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

    2006-01-01

    The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT

  1. Initial nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Leilei; Philip Robertson, G

    2013-08-01

    Around 4.4 million ha of land in USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts will expire between 2013 and 2018 and some will likely return to crop production. No-till (NT) management offers the potential to reduce the global warming costs of CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O emissions during CRP conversion, but to date there have been no CRP conversion tillage comparisons. In 2009, we converted portions of three 9-21 ha CRP fields in Michigan to conventional tillage (CT) or NT soybean production and reserved a fourth field for reference. Both CO2 and N2 O fluxes increased following herbicide application in all converted fields, but in the CT treatment substantial and immediate N2 O and CO2 fluxes occurred after tillage. For the initial 201-day conversion period, average daily N2 O fluxes (g N2 O-N ha(-1)  d(-1) ) were significantly different in the order: CT (47.5 ± 6.31, n = 6) ≫ NT (16.7 ± 2.45, n = 6) ≫ reference (2.51 ± 0.73, n = 4). Similarly, soil CO2 fluxes in CT were 1.2 times those in NT and 3.1 times those in the unconverted CRP reference field. All treatments were minor sinks for CH4 (-0.69 ± 0.42 to -1.86 ± 0.37 g CH4 -C ha(-1)  d(-1) ) with no significant differences among treatments. The positive global warming impact (GWI) of converted soybean fields under both CT (11.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) and NT (2.87 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) was in contrast to the negative GWI of the unconverted reference field (-3.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) with on-going greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. N2 O contributed 39.3% and 55.0% of the GWI under CT and NT systems with the remainder contributed by CO2 (60.7% and 45.0%, respectively). Including foregone mitigation, we conclude that NT management can reduce GHG costs by ~60% compared to CT during initial CRP conversion. PMID:23553929

  2. Initial nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Leilei; Philip Robertson, G

    2013-01-01

    Around 4.4 million ha of land in USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts will expire between 2013 and 2018 and some will likely return to crop production. No-till (NT) management offers the potential to reduce the global warming costs of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions during CRP conversion, but to date there have been no CRP conversion tillage comparisons. In 2009, we converted portions of three 9–21 ha CRP fields in Michigan to conventional tillage (CT) or NT soybean production and reserved a fourth field for reference. Both CO2 and N2O fluxes increased following herbicide application in all converted fields, but in the CT treatment substantial and immediate N2O and CO2 fluxes occurred after tillage. For the initial 201-day conversion period, average daily N2O fluxes (g N2O-N ha−1 d−1) were significantly different in the order: CT (47.5 ± 6.31, n = 6) ≫ NT (16.7 ± 2.45, n = 6) ≫ reference (2.51 ± 0.73, n = 4). Similarly, soil CO2 fluxes in CT were 1.2 times those in NT and 3.1 times those in the unconverted CRP reference field. All treatments were minor sinks for CH4 (−0.69 ± 0.42 to −1.86 ± 0.37 g CH4–C ha−1 d−1) with no significant differences among treatments. The positive global warming impact (GWI) of converted soybean fields under both CT (11.5 Mg CO2e ha−1) and NT (2.87 Mg CO2e ha−1) was in contrast to the negative GWI of the unconverted reference field (−3.5 Mg CO2e ha−1) with on-going greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. N2O contributed 39.3% and 55.0% of the GWI under CT and NT systems with the remainder contributed by CO2 (60.7% and 45.0%, respectively). Including foregone mitigation, we conclude that NT management can reduce GHG costs by ∼60% compared to CT during initial CRP conversion. PMID:23553929

  3. Estimation of greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from no-till cropland under increased temperature and altered precipitation regime: a DAYCENT model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Kumar, Sandeep; Luo, Yiqi; Xu, Xianli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Wei; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman

    2014-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play an important role in regulating the Earth surface temperature. GHG emissions from soils are sensitive to climate change and land management practices. According to general circulation model (GCM) predictions, the Earth will experience a combination of increased temperature and altered precipitation regimes which may result in an increase or a decrease of GHG exchange. The effect of climate change on GHG emissions can be examined through both experiments and by applying process-based models, which have become more popular. The performance of those models can be improved significantly by appropriate calibration procedures. The objectives of this study are to: (i) calibrate the DAYCENT model using advance parameter estimation (PEST) software and to (ii) examine simulated GHG dynamics at daily and seasonal time-scales under a climate change scenario of increased temperature (2 °C) and a precipitation regime change where 40% of precipitation during the dry season was redistributed to the wet season. The algorithmic calibration improved the model performance by reducing the sum of weighted squared residual differences by up to 223% (decreased from 1635 to 505 g N2O-N ha- 1 d- 1) for N2O and 22% (decreased from 623 to 507% WFPS) for water filled pore space (WFPS) simulation results. In the altered climate scenario, total N2O and CO2 fluxes decreased by 9% (from 2.31 to 2.10 kg N2O-N ha- 1 yr- 1) and 38% (from 1134.08 to 699.56 kg CO2 ha- 1 yr- 1) respectively, whereas CH4 fluxes increased by 10% (from 1.62 to 1.80 kg CH4 ha- 1 yr- 1). Our results show a larger impact of altered climate on CO2 as compared to N2O and CH4 emissions. The main difference in all GHG emissions was observed in summer period due to drought conditions created by reduced precipitation and increased temperatures. However, the GHG dynamics can also be attributed to no-till practices which play an important role in changing the soil moisture conditions for aerobic

  4. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  5. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 782 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1977. The citations, and abstracts when available, are reproduced exactly as they appeared originally in IAA and STAR, including the original accession numbers from the respective announcement journals. Topics cover the management of research and development contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control citations. Includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  6. Continuing Education - A Management Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Peter F.

    The approach to continuing education at the Shell Oil Company is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods of instruction and different formats for continuing education are described. The impact of continuing education is assessed in relation to the following: hiring policies, career development, staff upgrading, promotional…

  7. Title V continuous compliance data management

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, J.; Takacs, J.F.; Conover, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. (MBI) has realized that the hardest part about compliance with Title V requirements is not the initial permit application, but the ongoing compliance and certification process. In late 1995, the Phillipsburg New Jersey plant elected to begin the development of an Air Compliance Module. This Air Module is a component of the overall Environmental Information Management System (EIMS). The purpose of this module is to meet the needs for continuous compliance and certification of that compliance. The Air Module meets three functional needs. The first need is to verify permit compliance. The permit limitations for each emission unit are contained in this module. These limitations do not just include emissions, but also include operational limitations such as, hours of operation and product throughputs. The second need is to calculate and track emissions. The emissions from each emission unit are calculated and compared to the annual limitations. Reports are generated for total emissions and for emission units that are approaching permit limits. The third need is for production tracking. This system tracks production, hours of operation, scrubber parameters and most of the information required by the compliance plan. In addition, specific business information such as quality parameters and safety inspections is recorded. This is where this module becomes a business system, providing data accumulation, tracking and reporting not possible using the current manual systems. Data from all of the operations at the plant are captured by the production tracking system. This information is fed into the emission calculator to calculate the emissions for each emission unit. The emission data and other operating parameters are then compared to the requirements of the compliance plan stored in the permit limitations. This is then used to produce the semi-annual compliance report.

  8. Long-Term Crop Residue Dynamics in No-Till Cropping Systems Under Semi-Arid Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of crop residue is an important component of dryland cropping systems management in the semiarid environment where soil erosion by wind is a major soil degradation process. Residue also affects precipitation capture and runoff. Long-term residue quantity dynamics of different cropping s...

  9. Responses of rice cultivars and elite lines to diseases in no-till organic production system, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was established in a field of League-type soil (3% sand, 32% silt, and 64% clay) under organic management for many years at the Texas A&M University System's Agrilife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont. Twenty rice cultivars and lines were arranged in a randomized complete block ...

  10. Dairy Slurry Application Method Effects On NH3 Emission, and NO3 Leaching in No-till Corn Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most losses of ammonia N from dairy farms occurs during periods of manure land application. To reduce odors and conserve manure N for subsequent crop use, various manure application techniques have been tested. Reduction in ammonia N loss due to manure injection or other soil management techniques m...

  11. Dairy Slurry Application Method Effects on Ammonia Emission and Nitrate Leaching in No-till Corn Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce odors and conserve dairy slurry nitrogen (N) for subsequent crop use, various slurry application techniques have been tested. Reductions in ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may, however, increase nitrate (NO3) leaching. Possible trade...

  12. A new perspective with weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management in no-till, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Producers are seeking a broader perspective with weed management. One approach is to disrupt weed...

  13. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  14. Continuing Education -- A Management Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. D.

    The needs for continuing engineering education to avoid technical obsolescence and the programs offered by one company to fill this need are discussed. Ten educational alternative programs of the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico) are described. (CP)

  15. Implementing Continuous Improvement Management (CIM) in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgers, William E.; Thompson, Tommy A.

    This book traces the restructuring of a Texas school district that moved from management by coercion to continuous improvement for quality. In 1990, the Dickinson Independent School District (Texas) began implementation of Continuous Improvement Management (CIM), based on the teachings of W. Edwards Deming, William Glasser, and J. M. Juran.…

  16. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience. PMID:26642170

  17. Business continuity management and pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B

    2006-01-01

    Pandemic influenza planning presents challenges for both government and businesses. Effective cooperation and communication before and during a pandemic will help mitigate the major threats to societal function. The major challenges for government include communicating a realistic estimate of pandemic risk, managing community anxiety, communicating the need for rationing of vaccines and antiviral medications, setting standards for preparedness, and gaining the trust of essential service workers. For businesses the challenges are tailoring generic planning guides to local use, and making links with local and regional partners in pandemic planning. PMID:17293894

  18. Managing weeds with a population dynamics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. A critical aspect of no-till is controlling weeds. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Scientists and producers are seeking a broader perspectiv...

  19. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  20. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed. PMID:20378494

  1. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, Cerruti R. R.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed. PMID:23430284

  2. Effects of Cover Crops to Offset Soil Carbon Changes Under No-till on an Ohio farm when Biomass is Harvested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, J. M.; Everett, L. R.; Richards, W.

    2003-12-01

    The results of a long term experiment to look at the use of cover crops and there effect on soil organic carbon. No-till has been shown to increase SOC and improve the overall soil quality under conditions where the biomass has been returned to the field. However, biomass may be removed as silage or for use in biofuels. The removal will reduce the inputs to the field so to overcome the amount of biomass not returned to the soil different cover crops were used. This experiment was done on a working farm where the corn biomass was being removed as silage. Four cover crops were planted in early September of 2002: rye, oats, clover, and canola with two controls, one with no cover crop and one where corn stubble was left on the field. The soils were sampled soon after the crops were planted and again in the spring of 2003 before the cover crops were killed just prior to planting. The first results indicate that the most root biomass was produced by the rye followed by oats then canola and then clover.

  3. Anger in School Managers: Continuity, Direction, Control and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Iskender, Murat; Cardak, Mehmet; Dusunceli, Betul

    2012-01-01

    School managers undertake an important duty in structuring of education institutions. In the study carried out in this context; anger conditions, continuity, and direction of anger, anger control levels and anger styles of school managers who are the decision makers in schools were examined according to the ages, working periods, duty types, ways…

  4. Red to Black: A Primer for Continuing Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Armand; White, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Traces the efforts of the Division of Continuing Studies at a large northeastern state university to regain fiscal solvency through business and leadership techniques including management by objectives, section management, and a course confirmation formula. Warns program administrators about potential problems with break-even registration…

  5. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil physical properties and water infiltration were measured for five land use and soil management practices at North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Coshocton, Ohio. The five treatments were no-till with and without manure (NTM, NTWM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional till...

  6. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  7. Towards a no-till no-spray future? Introduction to a symposium on nonchemical weed management for reduced-tillage cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced-tillage systems including no-tillage and strip tillage have well-known benefits for conserving and improving soils, protecting vulnerable crops from extreme weather events, and reducing labor and fuel costs associated with full-width inversion tillage. Despite these benefits, reduced-tillage...

  8. Improving Our Odds: Success through Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2009-01-01

    Launching a rocket, running a business, driving to work and even day-to-day living all involve some degree of risk. Risk is ever present yet not always recognized, adequately assessed and appropriately mitigated. Identification, assessment and mitigation of risk are elements of the risk management component of the "continuous improvement" way of life that has become a hallmark of successful and progressive enterprises. While the application of risk management techniques to provide continuous improvement may be detailed and extensive, the philosophy, ideals and tools can be beneficially applied to all situations. Experiences with the use of risk identification, assessment and mitigation techniques for complex systems and processes are described. System safety efforts and tools used to examine potential risks of the Ares I First Stage of NASA s new Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) presently being designed are noted as examples. Recommendations from lessons learned are provided for the application of risk management during the development of new systems as well as for the improvement of existing systems. Lessons learned and suggestions given are also examined for applicability to simple systems, uncomplicated processes and routine personal daily tasks. This paper informs the reader of varied uses of risk management efforts and techniques to identify, assess and mitigate risk for improvement of products, success of business, protection of people and enhancement of personal life.

  9. Lean management systems: creating a culture of continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Clark, David M; Silvester, Kate; Knowles, Simon

    2013-08-01

    This is the first in a series of articles describing the application of Lean management systems to Laboratory Medicine. Lean is the term used to describe a principle-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) management system based on the Toyota production system (TPS) that has been evolving for over 70 years. Its origins go back much further and are heavily influenced by the work of W Edwards Deming and the scientific method that forms the basis of most quality management systems. Lean has two fundamental elements--a systematic approach to process improvement by removing waste in order to maximise value for the end-user of the service and a commitment to respect, challenge and develop the people who work within the service to create a culture of continuous improvement. Lean principles have been applied to a growing number of Healthcare systems throughout the world to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of services for patients and a number of laboratories from all the pathology disciplines have used Lean to shorten turnaround times, improve quality (reduce errors) and improve productivity. Increasingly, models used to plan and implement large scale change in healthcare systems, including the National Health Service (NHS) change model, have evidence-based improvement methodologies (such as Lean CQI) as a core component. Consequently, a working knowledge of improvement methodology will be a core skill for Pathologists involved in leadership and management. PMID:23757036

  10. What is the appropriate business continuity management staff size?

    PubMed

    Walch, Damian; Merante, Jason

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the question 'how many professionals does it take to build a resilient enterprise?' The paper describes the various segments of a comprehensive business continuity, disaster recovery and crisis management programme and then delves into the variables that determine the appropriate number of professionals required for the company. It is a thought-provoking examination that can help anybody in the `c-suite' examine their particular requirements, characteristics and culture to determine appropriate staffing levels. The reader will have a quantitative approach for determining the size and structure of a resilient enterprise which can provide a solid foundation for a programme that adapts and adjusts quickly and cost-effectively to disasters and events. It can also help build executive support for a programme management office which could ultimately increase the overall success of the programme. PMID:21339110

  11. [Leadership: continuous learning in the management in nursing].

    PubMed

    Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Prado

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the leadership in the context of the management and the education in Nursing with the purpose to contribute to rethink the practice in the health organizations. The historical and conceptual aspects emphasize the leadership as a group phenomenon that involves the system of social influence of an individual on the rest. It analyzes the leadership in Nursing as an ability to be permanently developed considering the organizational, interpersonal and individual dimensions. It recognizes the importance of the group value for a responsible and ethical leadership, aiming at the continuous search of the knowledge, the mutual reliable establishment and the quality of the assistance. PMID:15603487

  12. Acquisition and management of continuous data streams for crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireless sensor network systems for decision support in crop water management offer many advantages including larger spatial coverage and multiple types of data input. However, collection and management of multiple and continuous data streams for near real-time post analysis can be problematic. Thi...

  13. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  14. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  15. Model Hosting for continuous updating and transparent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jódar, Jorge; Almolda, Xavier; Batlle, Francisco; Carrera, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have become a standard tool for water resources management. They are required for water volume bookkeeping and help in decision making. Nevertheless, numerical models are complex and they can be used only by highly qualified technicians, which are often far from the decision makers. Moreover, they need to be maintained. That is, they require updating of their state, by assimilation of measurements, natural and anthropic actions (e.g., pumping and weather data), and model parameters. Worst, their very complexity implies that are they viewed as obscure and far, which hinders transparency and governance. We propose internet model hosting as an alternative to overcome these limitations. The basic idea is to keep the model hosted in the cloud. The model is updated as new data (measurements and external forcing) becomes available, which ensures continuous maintenance, with a minimal human cost (only required to address modelling problems). Internet access facilitates model use not only by modellers, but also by people responsible for data gathering and by water managers. As a result, the model becomes an institutional tool shared by water agencies to help them not only in decision making for sustainable management of water resources, but also in generating a common discussion platform. By promoting intra-agency sharing, the model becomes the common official position of the agency, which facilitates commitment in their adopted decisions regarding water management. Moreover, by facilitating access to stakeholders and the general public, the state of the aquifer and the impacts of alternative decisions become transparent. We have developed a tool (GAC, Global Aquifer Control) to address the above requirements. The application has been developed using Cloud Computing technologies, which facilitates the above operations. That is, GAC automatically updates the numerical models with the new available measurements, and then simulates numerous management options

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Suyker, Andy [University of Nebraska - Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site. Site Description - The study site is one of three fields (all located within 1.6 km of each other) at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, Nebraska. This site is irrigated with a center pivot system. Prior to the initiation of the study, the irrigated site had a 10-yr history of maize-soybean rotation under no-till. A tillage operation (disking) was done just prior to the 2001 planting to homogenize the top 0.1 m of soil, incorporate P and K fertilizers, as well as previously accumulated surface residues. Since the tillage operation, the site has been under no-till management until the harvest of 2005. Following harvest, a conservation-plow tillage operation was initiated where a small amount of N fertilizer is sprayed on the residue immediately prior to the plow operation. Approximately 1/3 of the crop residue is left on the surface. The post-harvest conservation-plow operation continues as the current practice.

  17. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Management is a compilation of references to selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management. This publication lists 368 documents originally announced in the 1975 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). It includes references on the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. It also includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  18. Managers' role in maximising investment in continuing professional education.

    PubMed

    Draper, Jan; Clark, Liz; Rogers, Jill

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare organisations face the challenge of delivering care in increasingly complex environments. To do so they depend on competent professionals, and continuing professional education (CPE) plays a major part in ensuring that staff maintain and develop their knowledge and skills. However, there is limited evidence of the effect of CPE on healthcare outcomes, and an emphasis on outcomes has overlooked the contribution of the processes that underlie effective CPE. This article reports the results of a study that explored a range of stakeholders' perceptions of the processes that maximise the positive effects of CPE on practice. Analysis of results shows that CPE can help improve care when supported by positive organisational cultures, effective partnership working between stakeholders and supportive learning environments that enable individuals to maximise their learning. This article discusses how managers play a pivotal role in creating positive cultures in which CPE can flourish by being role models and change agents, ensuring organisational strategic objectives are aligned with personal development plans, and by working collaboratively with education colleagues to ensure that learning from CPE is embedded in practice. PMID:26938913

  19. Continuous cardiotocography during labour: Analysis, classification and management.

    PubMed

    Pinas, Ana; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The use of continuous intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) using a cardiotocograph (CTG) was developed to enable obstetricians and midwives to analyse the changes of fetal heart rate during labour so as to institute timely intervention to avoid intrapartum hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Although CTG was initially developed as a screening tool to predict fetal hypoxia, its positive predictive value for intrapartum fetal hypoxia is approximately only 30%. Even though different international classifications have been developed with the aim of defining combinations of features that help predict intrapartum fetal hypoxia, the false-positive rate of the CTG is high (60%). Moreover, there has not been a demonstrable improvement in the rate of cerebral palsy or perinatal deaths since the introduction of CTG into clinical practice approximately 45 years ago. However, there has been a significant increase in intrapartum caesarean section and operative vaginal delivery rates. Unfortunately, existing guidelines employ the visual interpretation of CTG based on 'pattern recognition', which is fraught with inter- and intra-observer variability. Therefore, clinicians need to understand the physiology behind fetal heart rate changes and to respond to them accordingly, instead of purely relying on guidelines for management. It is very likely that such a 'physiology-based' approach would reduce unnecessary operative interventions and improve perinatal outcomes whilst reducing the need for 'additional tests' of fetal well-being. PMID:26165747

  20. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  1. Management. A continuing bibliography with indexes. [March 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 604 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1979 covering the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. Program, project, and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decision making processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting are also covered. Abstracts are provided as well as subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes.

  2. Improvements of the Profil Cultural Method for a better Low-tech Field Assessment of Soil Structure under no-till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger-Estrade, Jean; Boizard, Hubert; Peigné, Josephine; Sasal, Maria Carolina; Guimaraes, Rachel; Piron, Denis; Tomis, Vincent; Vian, Jean-François; Cadoux, Stephane; Ralisch, Ricardo; Filho, Tavares; Heddadj, Djilali; de Battista, Juan; Duparque, Annie

    2016-04-01

    In France, agronomists have studied the effects of cropping systems on soil structure, using a field method based on a visual description of soil structure. The "profil cultural" method (Manichon and Gautronneau, 1987) has been designed to perform a field diagnostic of the effects of tillage and compaction on soil structure dynamics. This method is of great use to agronomists improving crop management for a better preservation of soil structure. However, this method was developed and mainly used in conventional tillage systems, with ploughing. As several forms of reduced, minimum and no tillage systems are expanding in many parts of the world, it is necessary to re-evaluate the ability of this method to describe and interpret soil macrostructure in unploughed situations. In unploughed fields, soil structure dynamics of untilled layers is mainly driven by compaction and regeneration by natural agents (climatic conditions, root growth and macrofauna) and it is of major importance to evaluate the importance of these natural processes on soil structure regeneration. These concerns have led us to adapt the standard method and to propose amendments based on a series of field observations and experimental work in different situations of cropping systems, soil types and climatic conditions. We improved the description of crack type and we introduced an index of biological activity, based on the visual examination of clods. To test the improved method, a comparison with the reference method was carried out and the ability of the "profil cultural" method to make a diagnosis was tested on five experiments in France, Brazil and Argentina. Using the improved method, the impact of cropping systems on soil functioning was better assessed when natural processes were integrated into the description.

  3. Why take the no-till path?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 90% of the world's 5.2 million square miles of arable lands are severely degraded. This paper provides a general review, with examples, of the benefits of conservation tillage and sound cropping systems to improve soil quality on the 4.8 million square miles of arable lands worldwide that are ...

  4. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  5. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  6. Total Quality Management Continuous Improvement: Is the Philosophy a Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Aidan; Hughes, Helen; Maddox, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 72 Irish companies identified 51 using total quality management (TQM); second-survey responses from 28 of the latter showed that 57% of TQM initiatives were successful or very successful; most have a good understanding of comprehensive TQM and value long-term over short-term results. Benefits were experienced throughout…

  7. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management is presented. There are 450 references to documents which were originally announced in the 1971 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). Subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes are included.

  8. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  9. Continuing Education in Management: A Survey of Practitioners' Perceived Needs, Knowledge and Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Norman V.; Jowdy, Albert W.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of Georgia pharmacists revealed a greater interest in learning about management than about marketing or finance, but little interest in attending continuing education programs. Managers, directors, and owners were more interested in continuing education in all areas than pharmacists in other positions. (MSE)

  10. Academe Makes for Strange Bedfellows: How Continuing Education and Schools of Management Collide and Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    A significant component of continuing education involves teaching management, especially through the array of academic degree programs offered to part-time older students. In fact, the ability to offer management education is critical for the viability of continuing education. Co-existing amicably with its institution's business schools is the…

  11. 40 CFR 63.11584 - What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my initial and continuous compliance management practice requirements? 63.11584 Section 63.11584 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  12. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES...

  13. Continuity in health care: lessons from supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Meijboom, Bert R; Bakx, Saskia J W G C; Westert, Gert P

    2010-01-01

    In health care, multidisciplinary collaboration is both indispensable and complicated. We discuss organizational problems that occur in situations where multiple health care providers are required to cooperate for patients with complex needs. Four problem categories, labelled as communication, patient safety, waiting times and integration are distinguished. Then we develop a supply chain perspective on these problems in the sense of discussing remedies according to supply chain management (SCM) literature. This perspective implies a business focus on inter-organizational conditions and requirements necessary for delivering health care and cure across organizational borders. We conclude by presenting some strategic and policy recommendations. PMID:21069770

  14. Revitalizing a Continuing Education Department through Self-Managed Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinehart, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    A continuing education manager used the literature-based concept of self-managed work teams to reorganize the department, resulting in better productivity, financial solvency, and better customer focus and responsiveness. However, not all managers wanted to share power, and not all employees wanted to be empowered. (SK)

  15. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  16. Sustainable dryland agroecosystems management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dryland Agroecosystem Project with No-till management was established in the fall of 1985, with 1986 being the first harvest year. Grain and stover yields, crop residue amounts, soil water measurements, crop nutrient content and climate data have been reported annually in previously published t...

  17. Chapter 5, "License Renewal and Aging Management for Continued Service

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    As of August 2011, there were 104 commercial nuclear power reactors licensed to operate in 31 states in the United States. Initial operating licenses in the United States are granted for a period of 40 years. In order to help assure an adequate energy supply, the USNRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements that are needed to ensure safe plant operation for an extended plant life. The principals of license renewal and the basic requirements that address license renewal are identified as well as additional sources of guidance that can be utilized as part of the license renewal process. Aging management program inspections and operating experience related to the concrete and steel containment structures are provided. Finally, several lessons learned are provided based on containment operating experience.

  18. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter's working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real-time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  19. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter’s working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real–time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  20. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness. PMID:24051650

  1. Program/Project Management Resources: A collection of 50 bibliographies focusing on continual improvement, reinventing government, and successful project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    These Program/Project Management Resource Lists were originally written for the NASA project management community. Their purpose was to promote the use of the NASA Headquarters Library Program/Project Management Collection funded by NASA Headquarters Code FT, Training & Development Division, by offering introductions to the management topics studied by today's managers. Lists were also written at the request of NASA Headquarters Code T, Office of Continual improvements, and at the request of NASA members of the National Performance Review. This is the second edition of the compilation of these bibliographies; the first edition was printed in March 1994.

  2. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  3. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oxide Sterilizers Monitoring-Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.10420 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether...

  6. Continuous Improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Programme at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been…

  7. The Correlates and Influences of Career-Related Continuous Learning: Implications for Management Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznia, Kevin D.; Kerno, Steven J., Jr.; Gilley, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Management personnel are increasingly aware that career success depends on the ability to continuously learn and adapt to the environment. However, scant attention has been paid to how learning activities contribute to managerial success. This study examines the degree to which involvement in career-related continuous learning affects managerial…

  8. Total Quality Management and Organizational Behavior Management: An Integration for Continual Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The history and main features of organizational behavior management (OBM) are compared and integrated with those of total quality management (TQM), with emphasis on W.E. Deming's 14 points and OBM's operant-based approach to performance management. Interventions combining OBM, TQM, and statistical process control are recommended. (DB)

  9. A Knowledge Tree Model and Its Application for Continuous Management Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun; Bao, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Jun

    This chapter analyzes the relationship of organizational knowledge and brings forward that organizational knowledge consists of three layers: core knowledge, structural knowledge, and implicit knowledge. According to the principle of knowledge maps, a dynamic management model of organizational knowledge based on knowledge tree is introduced and the definition of the value of knowledge node is given so that the quantitative management on knowledge is realized, which lays a foundation for performance evaluation of knowledge management. We also carefully study the application of knowledge tree in service quality management of hospital organizations and management innovation process and give the example of cooperation in endoscopic surgery to establish a knowledge tree about operational cooperation degree, which states the principle of organizational knowledge management and the knowledge innovation process of continuous management improvement.

  10. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  11. Tribal Management Support Center: Training Services. Continuing Education System Catalog F. Y.-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Indian Health.

    A continuing education program in health systems management and administration, conducted for tribal and Indian Health Service (IHS) personnel, is described in this catalog. The first section states the goals of the program, which provides, on a national level, training to help tribes and tribal organizations administer health programs and to…

  12. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether each sterilization cycle contains a full load of items, and if not, a statement from a hospital central...

  13. Continuing Education in Management for Health Care Personnel. A Second Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald K.

    Results are reported of an intensive evaluation of a statewide continuing education program in health care management based on interviews with program participants, their supervisors, and the administrators of their institutions. Focus is not how much knowledge was conveyed, but on how widely learning was reflected in improved management…

  14. Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Strategic Planning: A Delicate Balance in Continuing Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomall, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends, for the management of community college adult/continuing education programs, strategic planning to determine the unit's niche within the educational marketplace and interorganizational "coupling" as a means of cooperating with other organizations to foster innovation. Offers a case study of "coupling" at Allegany Community College,…

  15. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  16. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  17. Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently implementing the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Program developed by the Carnegie Mellon University and recommended by NASA as the Risk Management (RM) implementation approach. The four most frequently used risk assessment tools in the center are: (a) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). There are some guidelines for selecting the type of risk assessment tools during the project formulation phase of a project, but there is not enough guidance as to how to apply these tools in the Continuous Risk Management process (CRM). But the ways the safety and risk assessment tools are used make a significant difference in the effectiveness in the risk management function. Decisions regarding, what events are to be included in the analysis, to what level of details should the analysis be continued, make significant difference in the effectiveness of risk management program. Tools of risk analysis also depends on the phase of a project e.g. at the initial phase of a project, when not much data are available on hardware, standard FMEA cannot be applied; instead a functional FMEA may be appropriate. This study attempted to provide some directives to alleviate the difficulty in applying FTA, PRA, and FMEA in the CRM process. Hazard Analysis was not included in the scope of the study due to the short duration of the summer research project.

  18. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. PMID:26963231

  19. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  20. Continuous improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been applied to the results of four assessment tools and other data sources to improve performance. Important improvements include the need to reconsider two student outcomes as they were difficult to implement in courses. In addition, through benchmarking and the engagement of Alumni and Employers, key decisions were made to improve the curriculum and enhance employability.

  1. Agricultural management and environment controls long-term soil nitrous oxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas with a long atmospheric half-life. Understanding the controls on soil nitrous oxide fluxes is vital for the development of mitigation opportunities and for understanding their climatic impact. The spatial and temporal variability of soil nitrous oxide fluxes, however, makes it difficult to predict such fluxes. We examined the longest available dataset, 22 years of continues measurements, which contains biweekly measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions together with measurements of an array of environmental and management parameters from eleven ecosystems, including four corn-soybean-wheat rotations under different management (conventional, no-till, biological, and reduced input), one perennial alfalfa system, two tree plantations, three successional systems, and one deciduous forest. This dataset was used to assess the effect of different agricultural and land management practices on soil N2O emissions. Using statistical and correlation analyses, we found that, in general, annual crops emitted 2-3 times more N2O annually than did perennial crops. Among the annual crops, there were no differences in the annual emissions among the cropping systems; the conventional, no-till, reduced input, and biologically managed systems emitted similar amounts of N2O with very different emission patterns. Among the perennial crops, alfalfa emitted 2 times more N2O than did poplar, approximately 1.6 times more than did the coniferous plantation, and ~3 times more than did the unmanaged successional communities and the deciduous forest, which emitted similar amounts. Within the annual crop rotation phases, the wheat phase of the conventionally and no-till-managed rotations emitted approximately twice as much N2O than did the reduced input- and biologically managed systems, largely due to the length of the bare soil fallow. The corn and soybean phases of the conventionally managed rotation emitted between 70 and 100% less N2O than

  2. Tillage Management and Previous Crop Effects on Soil Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the potential positive effects of diverse crop rotations and no-till soil management on crop productivity and soil resource conservation, research to remove the constraints to widespread adoption of these crop and soil management practices in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota is ...

  3. Continuous quality improvement as a management concept for death investigation systems.

    PubMed

    Dibdin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) represents a management technique where the basic approach to managing quality consists of setting a standard for a work process, measuring variation in the work process in relation to the standard, and then implementing programs to decrease variation and improve end results. Everyone providing a service becomes involved both in understanding how quality is measured and in discussing how to improve quality. A team approach is adopted and instead of focusing on poor quality outcomes and how to avoid them, the team becomes involved in setting continuously improving standards for better performance and in finding ways to meet those standards. The objective is to meet or exceed consumer or user expectations. Relevant related concepts such as survey research, needs determination and outcomes analysis, and the importance of a mission statement are discussed using a medical examiner system as an example. PMID:11210931

  4. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  5. How Visual Management for Continuous Improvement Might Guide and Affect Hospital Staff: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Westerlund, Hugo; Sandahl, Christer; Thor, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visual management (VM) tools such as whiteboards, often employed in Lean thinking applications, are intended to be helpful in improving work processes in different industries including health care. It remains unclear, however, how VM is actually applied in health care Lean interventions and how it might influence the clinical staff. We therefore examined how Lean-inspired VM using whiteboards for continuous improvement efforts related to the hospital staff's work and collaboration. Within a case study design, we combined semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and photography on 2 cardiology wards. The fate of VM differed between the 2 wards; in one, it was well received by the staff and enhanced continuous improvement efforts, whereas in the other ward, it was not perceived to fit in the work flow or to make enough sense in order to be sustained. Visual management may enable the staff and managers to allow communication across time and facilitate teamwork by enabling the inclusion of team members who are not present simultaneously; however, its adoption and value seem contingent on finding a good fit with the local context. A combination of continuous improvement and VM may be helpful in keeping the staff engaged in the change process in the long run. PMID:26426324

  6. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  7. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by “exciting students about science”, who perceived increases in “student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts” and/or students as “more interested in termites after participating in this project” were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula. PMID:26464383

  8. Management of drug interactions with beta-blockers: continuing education has a short-term impact

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Annelies; Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert

    There is a lack of clear guidelines regarding the management of drug-drug interactions. Objective To assess the impact of an educational intervention on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. Methods The study had a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention group (n=10 pharmacies) received a continuing education course and guidelines on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. The control group (n=10 pharmacies) received no intervention. Pharmacy students and staff of internship pharmacies participated in this study. Before and after the intervention, students registered interactions with beta-blockers during two weeks. Information was obtained on drug information of the beta-blocker and the interacting drug, patient’s demographics, and the mode of transaction. Results A total number of 288 interactions were detected during both study periods. Most beta-blockers causing an interaction were prescribed for hypertension, and interacted with hypoglycemic agents, NSAIDs, or beta2-agonists. Pharmacists’ intervention rate was low (14% in the pre-test compared to 39% in the post-test), but increased significantly in the post-test in the intervention group. Reasons for overriding the interaction included limited clinical relevance, refill prescriptions, not being aware of the interaction, and communication problems with the prescriber. Conclusion An interactive continuing education course, during which practice-oriented guidelines were offered, affected pharmacists’ short-term behavior at the counter in dealing with interactions of beta-blockers. Continuing education plays a role in raising pharmacists’ awareness and responsibility towards the detection and management of drug interactions in the pharmacy. PMID:25214902

  9. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186911

  10. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries. PMID:25193457

  11. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  12. 40 CFR 63.11223 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice and management practice standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice and management practice standards? 63.11223 Section 63.11223 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  13. Implementing business continuity management systems and sharing best practices at a European bank.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Stelios; Stratopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology applied by the Alpha Bank Group in order to implement a business continuity management (BCM) programme to its parent company (Alpha Bank SA), as well as to its subsidiaries in Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, UK and Ukraine. It also reviews the problems faced, how they were overcome and the lessons learned. When implementing a BCM programme in a large organisation, it is very important to follow the methodology described by BCM standard ISO 22301, otherwise the business continuity plan is unlikely to work efficiently or comply with the business recovery requirements, as well as with the requirements of other interested parties, such as customers, regulatory authorities, vendors, service providers, critical associates, etc. PMID:26897617

  14. [Perioperative Pain Management of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy with Bilateral Continuous Thoracic Paravertebral Block].

    PubMed

    Hida, Kumiko; Murata, Hiroaki; Sakai, Akiko; Ogami, Keiko; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for esophageal cancer. We describe bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks for perioperative pain management in 3 patients who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy. After anesthesia induction, bilateral thoracic paravertebral catheters were placed under ultrasound guidance with the patients in left lateral decubitus position at the sixth or seventh right intercostal space and eighth or ninth left intercostal space, respectively. Multiple ports for thoracoscopic procedures were located between the right third and ninth intercostal spaces. Laparoscopy-assisted gastric tube reconstruction was performed with skin incisions at bilateral T7-10 dermatomes. Intraoperative intermittent bolus injections of ropivacaine through the thoracic paravertebral catheters were used in combination with sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia, followed by continuous thoracic paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia with continuous intravenous fentanyl infusion and periodical intravenous acetaminophen administration. Numerical rating scales of postoperative pain at rest and when coughing were 4 or less for 48 hr after surgery. No complications related to thoracic paravertebral catheterization were observed. Bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks at different intercostal levels can provide good perioperative analgesia for minimally invasive esophagectomy. PMID:27017762

  15. Definition of Information Technology Architectures for Continuous Data Management and Medical Device Integration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H.; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2008-01-01

    The growing availability of continuous data from medical devices in diabetes management makes it crucial to define novel information technology architectures for efficient data storage, data transmission, and data visualization. The new paradigm of care demands the sharing of information in interoperable systems as the only way to support patient care in a continuum of care scenario. The technological platforms should support all the services required by the actors involved in the care process, located in different scenarios and managing diverse information for different purposes. This article presents basic criteria for defining flexible and adaptive architectures that are capable of interoperating with external systems, and integrating medical devices and decision support tools to extract all the relevant knowledge to support diabetes care. PMID:19885276

  16. Managers' perspective on continuous health education in a region of São Paulo State.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Silvana Martins; Aiub, Allan Correa; Rigato, Anna Francine Gonçalo; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Ogata, Marcia Niituma; Silva, Monica Vilchez da; Nogueira, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    OBJECTIVEAnalysing the concepts of Continuous Health Education - CHE (EPS - in Portuguese), operated by municipal managers and translated into official documents.METHODQualitative research with the use of official documents and semi-structured interviews with the Municipal Health Secretaries or Coordinators of Primary Health Care in the Northeast Region of São Paulo State, and thematic analysis of empirical material.RESULTSResults indicate difficulties in the municipalities problematizing their management practices, services and health care; EPS tools presented are insufficient and unsatisfactory for amending the array of problems raised and are still far from the routine of Primary Care services.CONCLUSIONDespite efforts to implement EPS actions for the strengthening of primary care, the process appears to be incipient. PMID:26353105

  17. Time to manage: patient strategies for coping with an absence of care coordination and continuity.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Dennis, Simone; Yen, Laurann; Mofizul Islam, M; Parkinson, Anne; Dawda, Paresh

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines how people with chronic illnesses respond to absences of continuity and coordination of care. Little work has been done on how the ill person might mitigate flaws in a less than optimal system. Our qualitative research, carried out among 91 participants in Australia, reveals that people with chronic illnesses create strategies to facilitate the management of their care. These strategies included efforts to improve communication between themselves and their health care practitioners; keeping personal up-to-date medication lists; and generating their own specific management plans. While we do not submit that it is patients' responsibility to attend to gaps in the health system, our data suggests that chronically ill people can, in and through such strategies, exert a measure of agency over their own care; making it effectively more continuous and coordinated. Participants crafted strategies according to the particular social and bodily rhythms that their ongoing illnesses had lent to their lives. Our analysis advances the view that the ill body itself is capable of enfolding the health system into the rhythms of illness - rather than the ill body always fitting into the overarching structural tempo. This entails an agent-centric view of time in illness experience. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/UwbxlEJOTx8. PMID:26871716

  18. ESSENTIAL AGRONOMIC PRACTICES FOR MANAGING SWITCHGRASS FOR BIOENERGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective is to present the state of the art for establishing and managing switchgrass for Bioenergy. The best and most productive switchgrass stands have been no-till seeded into soybean stubble. It is crucial to select the proper cultivar for the specific plant adaptation region, purchase qu...

  19. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions with duration of no-tillage management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of no-till management (NT) on labile N is poorly defined. To quantify changes in soil C and N pools with duration of NT, we sampled Kempsville sandy loam soils in the Coastal Plain of Virginia from farm fields that had similar cropping histories and nutrient management but varied in a...

  20. CORN RESPONSE TO LONG-TERM TILLAGE, RESIDUE AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tillage, residue, and N management experiment was established in 1980 at the University of Minnesota Research and Outreach Center, Rosemount, MN on a Typic Hapludoll. The experiment consisted of two tillage methods (till and no-till), two types of residue management (returned and harvested) and tw...

  1. Environmental Management Assessment of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the CEBAF Site Office; the CEBAF management and operating contractor (M&O), Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA); the Oak Ridge Field Office (OR); and the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Office, the Office of Energy Research (ER). The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 8 through March 19, 1993, by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, ``Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,`` and Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN)-6E-92, ``Departmental Organizational and Management Arrangements,`` establish the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations, and through use of supplemental activities which serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations.

  2. A randomized trial of Assertive Continuing Care and Contingency Management for adolescents with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Mark D.; Godley, Susan H.; Dennis, Michael L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Most adolescents relapse within 90 days of discharge from residential substance use treatment. We hypothesized that Contingency Management (CM), Assertive Continuing Care (ACC), and their combination (CM+ACC) would each be more effective than Usual Continuing Care (UCC). Method 337 adolescents were randomized to 4 continuing care conditions following residential treatment: UCC alone, CM, ACC, or CM+ACC. UCC was available across all conditions. Outcome measures over 12 months included percentage of days abstinent from alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana, and any alcohol or other drugs (AOD) using self-reports and toxicology testing and remission status at 12 months. Results CM had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC for heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.50, p<.01, d = 0.34), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.58, p<.01, d = 0.36), any AOD use (t(297)= 2.12, p=.01, d = 0.41), and had a higher rate in remission (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.45 [90% CI: 1.18 to 5.08], p=.02). ACC had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC from heavy alcohol use (t(297)= 2.66, p<.01, d = 0.31), any alcohol use (t(297)= 2.63, p<.01, d = 0.30), any marijuana use (t(297)= 1.95, p=.02, d = 0.28), any AOD use (t(297)= 1.88, p=.02, d = 0.30), and had higher rates in remission (OR=2.31 [90% CI: 1.10 to 4.85], p=.03). The ACC+CM condition was not significantly different from UCC on any outcomes. Conclusions CM and ACC are promising continuing care approaches after residential treatment. Future research should seek to further improve their effectiveness. PMID:24294838

  3. Performance evaluation of continuity of care records (CCRs): parsing models in a mobile health management system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Liou, Yong-Zan

    2014-10-01

    In a mobile health management system, mobile devices act as the application hosting devices for personal health records (PHRs) and the healthcare servers construct to exchange and analyze PHRs. One of the most popular PHR standards is continuity of care record (CCR). The CCR is expressed in XML formats. However, parsing is an expensive operation that can degrade XML processing performance. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify different operational and performance characteristics for those CCR parsing models including the XML DOM parser, the SAX parser, the PULL parser, and the JSON parser with regard to JSON data converted from XML-based CCR. Thus, developers can make sensible choices for their target PHR applications to parse CCRs when using mobile devices or servers with different system resources. Furthermore, the simulation experiments of four case studies are conducted to compare the parsing performance on Android mobile devices and the server with large quantities of CCR data. PMID:25086611

  4. Continuous subcutaneous levetiracetam in the management of seizures at the end of life: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wells, Geoffrey Howard; Mason, Louise D; Foreman, Emma; Chambers, John

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a man who developed seizures on a background of recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with intracranial involvement. Initial seizure control with enteral levetiracetam was achieved, and when enteral and intravenous (i.v.) access was no longer available, a continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of levetiracetam successfully controlled his seizures without the need for sedating anticonvulsants. As a result, end-of-life care was able to be given with the patient retaining the ability to communicate with his family and healthcare staff. This report adds to the sparse but growing evidence base for the use of subcutaneous levetiracetam to manage seizures in palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:26744359

  5. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  6. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties. PMID:23835428

  7. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management requirements? 225.83 Section 225.83 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  8. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  9. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  10. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…