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Sample records for continuum state cellular

  1. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  2. Floquet bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Longhi, Stefano; Valle, Giuseppe Della

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime. PMID:23860625

  3. Towards a continuum theory of movement in interacting cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    Interacting cellular systems form the basis of all higher organisms, and are fundamental to the understanding of embryogenesis, organ function, and neoplasms. I will describe a stochastic model of cell interactions which can be applied to these problems, and present some of our recent results on chemotactic response.

  4. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the system spontaneously splitting into stable domains separated by static boundaries, some synchronously oscillating and the others incoherent. When the coupling range is local, nontrivial coherent structures with different periodicities are formed.

  5. A new micromechanical approach of micropolar continuum modeling for 2-D periodic cellular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Bin; Yan, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new united approach to formulate the equivalent micropolar constitutive relation of two-dimensional (2-D) periodic cellular material to capture its non-local properties and to explain the size effects in its structural analysis. The new united approach takes both the displacement compatibility and the equilibrium of forces and moments into consideration, where Taylor series expansion of the displacement and rotation fields and the extended averaging procedure with an explicit enforcement of equilibrium are adopted in the micromechanical analysis of a unit cell. In numerical examples, the effective micropolar constants obtained in this paper and others derived in the literature are used for the equivalent micropolar continuum simulation of cellular solids. The solutions from the equivalent analysis are compared with the discrete simulation solutions of the cellular solids. It is found that the micropolar constants developed in this paper give satisfying results of equivalent analysis for the periodic cellular material.

  6. Quantum state transfer by time reversal in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    2016-03-01

    A method for high-fidelity quantum state transfer in a quantum network coupled to a continuum, based on time reversal in the continuum after decay, is theoretically suggested. Provided that the energy spectrum of the network is symmetric around a reference energy and symmetric energy states are coupled the same way to the common continuum, ideal perfect state transfer can be obtained after time reversal. In particular, it is shown that in a linear tight-binding chain a quantum state can be transformed into its mirror image with respect to the center of the chain after a controllable time. As compared to a quantum mirror image based on coherent transport in a static chain with properly tailored inhomogeneous hopping rates, our method does not require hopping rate engineering and is less sensitive to disorder for long transfer times.

  7. Regulation of cellular chromatin state

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    The identity and functionality of eukaryotic cells is defined not just by their genomic sequence which remains constant between cell types, but by their gene expression profiles governed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic controls maintain and change the chromatin state throughout development, as exemplified by the setting up of cellular memory for the regulation and maintenance of homeotic genes in proliferating progenitors during embryonic development. Higher order chromatin structure in reversibly arrested adult stem cells also involves epigenetic regulation and in this review we highlight common trends governing chromatin states, focusing on quiescence and differentiation during myogenesis. Together, these diverse developmental modules reveal the dynamic nature of chromatin regulation providing fresh insights into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in potentiating development and differentiation. PMID:20592864

  8. Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanović, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul

    2013-11-01

    We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.

  9. Bound States in the Continuum in double layer structures

    PubMed Central

    Li, LiangSheng; Yin, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the reflectivity spectrums of single- and double-layer photonic crystal slabs and the dielectric multilayer stack. It is shown that light can be perfectly confined in a single-layer photonic crystal slab at a given incident angle by changing the thickness, permittivity or hole radius of the structure. With a tunable double-layer photonic crystal slab, we demonstrate that the occurrence of tunable bound states in the continuum is dependent on the spacing between two slabs. Moreover, by analytically investigating the Drude lossless multilayer stack model, the spacing dependence of bound states in the continuum is characterized as the phase matching condition that illuminates these states can occur at any nonzero incident angles by adjusting the spacing. PMID:27245435

  10. Bound States in the Continuum in double layer structures.

    PubMed

    Li, LiangSheng; Yin, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the reflectivity spectrums of single- and double-layer photonic crystal slabs and the dielectric multilayer stack. It is shown that light can be perfectly confined in a single-layer photonic crystal slab at a given incident angle by changing the thickness, permittivity or hole radius of the structure. With a tunable double-layer photonic crystal slab, we demonstrate that the occurrence of tunable bound states in the continuum is dependent on the spacing between two slabs. Moreover, by analytically investigating the Drude lossless multilayer stack model, the spacing dependence of bound states in the continuum is characterized as the phase matching condition that illuminates these states can occur at any nonzero incident angles by adjusting the spacing. PMID:27245435

  11. Bound States in the Continuum in double layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangsheng; Yin, Hongcheng

    2016-06-01

    We have theoretically investigated the reflectivity spectrums of single- and double-layer photonic crystal slabs and the dielectric multilayer stack. It is shown that light can be perfectly confined in a single-layer photonic crystal slab at a given incident angle by changing the thickness, permittivity or hole radius of the structure. With a tunable double-layer photonic crystal slab, we demonstrate that the occurrence of tunable bound states in the continuum is dependent on the spacing between two slabs. Moreover, by analytically investigating the Drude lossless multilayer stack model, the spacing dependence of bound states in the continuum is characterized as the phase matching condition that illuminates these states can occur at any nonzero incident angles by adjusting the spacing.

  12. Analytic continuation as a bridge between continuum and bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhintsev, Leonid; Savin, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    The problem of obtaining characteristics of bound nuclear states from continuum states data is discussed. It is shown that the ambiguities due to the existence of phase-equivalent potentials can be resolved by using the analytic properties of scattering amplitudes. The methods of determination of asymptotic normalization coefficients and vertex constants are considered. The asymptotic normalization coefficients for 6Li in the α + d channel are found by analytic continuation of the two-channel effective range expansion. The account of inelastic channels within the effective range approach is discussed.

  13. Mechanical bound state in the continuum for optomechanical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Shen, Zhen; Xiong, Xiao; Dong, Chun-Hua; Zou, Chang-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    Clamping loss limits the quality factor of mechanical mode in the optomechanical resonators supported with the supporting stem. Using the mechanical bound state in the continuum (BIC), we have found that the mechanical clamping loss can be avoided. The mechanical quality factor of a microsphere could be achieved up to 108 for a specific radius of the stem, which forms a mechanical BIC with the combination of the symmetry protected mechanism and the single resonance mechanism. Such a mechanism is proved to be universal for different geometries and materials, thus can also be generalized to design high quality mechanical resonators.

  14. Block versus continuum deformation in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, G.; Oppenheimer, D.; Amelung, F.

    1994-01-01

    The relative role of block versus continuum deformation of continental lithosphere is a current subject of debate. Continuous deformation is suggested by distributed seismicity at continental plate margins and by cumulative seismic moment sums which yield slip estimates that are less than estimates from plate motion studies. In contrast, block models are favored by geologic studies of displacement in places like Asia. A problem in this debate is a lack of data from which unequivocal conclusions may be reached. In this paper we apply the techniques of study used in regions such as the Alpine-Himalayan belt to an area with a wealth of instrumental data-the Western United States. By comparing plate rates to seismic moment release rates and assuming a typical seismogenic layer thickness of 15 km it appears that since 1850 about 60% of the Pacific-North America motion across the plate boundary in California and Nevada has occurred seismically and 40% aseismically. The San Francisco Bay area shows similar partitioning between seismic and aseismic deformation, and it can be shown that within the seismogenic depth range aseismic deformation is concentrated near the surface and at depth. In some cases this deformation can be located on creeping surface faults, but elsewhere it is spread over a several kilometer wide zone adjacent to the fault. These superficial creeping deformation zones may be responsible for the palaeomagnetic rotations that have been ascribed elsewhere to the surface expression of continuum deformation in the lithosphere. Our results support the dominant role of non-continuum deformation processes with the implication that deformation localization by strain softening must occur in the lower crust and probably the upper mantle. Our conclusions apply only to the regions where the data are good, and even within the Western United States (i.e., the Basin and Range) deformation styles remain poorly resolved. Nonetheless, we maintain that block motion is the

  15. Bound states at exceptional points in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, N.; Hernández, E.; Jáuregui, A.; Mondragón, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, an example of exceptional points in the continuous spectrum of a Hamiltonian of von Neumann-Wigner type is presented and discussed. Remarkably, these exceptional points are not associated with a double pole in the scattering matrix but with a double pole in the normalization factor of the Jost eigenfunctions normalized to unit flux. At the exceptional points the two unnormalized Jost eigenfunctions are no longer linearly independent but coalesce to give rise to two Jordan cycles of generalized bound state energy eigenfunctions in the continuum and a Jordan block representation of the Hamiltonian. The regular scattering eigenfunction vanishes at the exceptional points and the irregular scattering eigenfunction has a double pole at the exceptional points. The scattering matrix is a regular analytical function of the wave number k for all k real including the exceptional points.

  16. Continuum-state and bound-state β--decay rates of the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, M.; Ivanov, A. N.; Ivanova, V. A.; Marton, J.; Pitschmann, M.; Serebrov, A. P.; Troitskaya, N. I.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2009-09-01

    For the β--decay of the neutron we analyze the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. We calculate the decay rates, the electron energy spectrum for the continuum-state decay mode, and angular distributions of the decay probabilities for the continuum-state and bound-state decay modes. The theoretical results are obtained for the new value for the axial coupling constant gA=1.2750(9), obtained recently by H. Abele [Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 60, 1 (2008)] from the fit of the experimental data on the coefficient of the correlation of the neutron spin and the electron momentum of the electron energy spectrum of the continuum-state decay mode. We take into account the contribution of radiative corrections and the scalar and tensor weak couplings. The calculated angular distributions of the probabilities of the bound-state decay modes of the polarized neutron can be used for the experimental measurements of the bound-state β--decays into the hyperfine states with total angular momentum F=1 and scalar and tensor weak coupling constants.

  17. Proton capture to continuum states of {sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Likar, A.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Vencelj, M.; Vidmar, T.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Komati, F.; Lawrie, J.J.; Maliage, S.M.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Ramashidzha, T.M.

    2006-04-15

    High resolution spectra from fast proton radiative capture in {sup 208}Pb are presented for three energies of the incident protons: 14.8, 15.7, and 16.9 MeV. The collected spectra were analyzed with emphasis on the region of capture to unbound states in order to search for possible structure and to study the competition between two basically different phenomena: the statistical process versus the fluctuation effects in radiative capture to unbound final states. In the energy region of incoming protons considered in our experiment, the statistical processes modeled with a Hauser-Feshbach calculation dominate. The spectra of primary {gamma} rays, coincident with the low energy one from the decay of the f{sub 7/2} single-particle state, show a prominent structure which is predominantly of g{sub 9/2} character. The calculations of continuum spectra based on the extended direct-semidirect model and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical approach successfully reproduce the experimental data.

  18. Strain-Induced Localized States Within the Matrix Continuum of Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dot-based infrared detectors often involve transitions from confined states of the dot to states above the minimum of the conduction band continuum of the matrix. We discuss the existence of two types of resonant states within this continuum in self-assembled dots: (i) virtual bound states, which characterize square wells even without strain and (ii) strain-induced localized states. The latter emerge due to the appearance of 'potential wings' near the dot, related to the curvature of the dots. While states (i) do couple to the continuum, states (ii) are sheltered by the wings, giving rise to sharp absorption peaks.

  19. Construction of a state evolution for Kawasaki dynamics in continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Christoph; Kondratiev, Yuri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr

    2013-06-01

    We consider conservative, non-equilibrium stochastic jump dynamics of interacting particles in continuum. These dynamics have a (grand canonical) Gibbs measure as invariant measure. The problem of existence of these dynamics is studied. The corresponding time evolution of correlation functions is constructed.

  20. Bound-state eigenenergy outside and inside the continuum for unstable multilevel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Manabu

    2005-12-01

    The eigenvalue problem for the dressed bound state of unstable multilevel systems is examined both outside and inside the continuum, based on the N -level Friedrichs model, which describes the couplings between the discrete levels and the continuous spectrum. It is shown that a bound-state eigenenergy always exists below each of the discrete levels that lie outside the continuum. Furthermore, by strengthening the couplings gradually, the eigenenergy corresponding to each of the discrete levels inside the continuum finally emerges. On the other hand, the absence of the eigenenergy inside the continuum is proved in weak but finite coupling regimes, provided that each of the form factors that determine the transition between some definite level and the continuum does not vanish at that energy level. An application to the spontaneous emission process for the hydrogen atom interacting with the electromagnetic field is demonstrated.

  1. Low-lying continuum states of drip-line oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukiyama, Koshiroh; Otsuka, Takaharu; Fujimoto, Rintaro

    2015-09-01

    Low-lying continuum states of exotic oxygen isotopes with A=23-26 are studied, by introducing the continuum-coupled shell model (CCSM) characterized by an infinite wall placed very far away and by an interaction for continuum coupling constructed in a close relation to the realistic shell-model Hamiltonian. Neutron-emission spectra from exotic oxygen isotopes are calculated by the doorway-state approach in heavy-ion multi-nucleon transfer reactions. The results agree with experiment remarkably well, providing evidence that the continuum effects are stronger than ˜ 1 MeV, consistent with the shell evolution in exotic nuclei. The peaks in the neutron spectra are understood as doorway-state resonances. The results by this CCSM doorway-state approach are compared with calculations on neutron-scattering resonance peaks made within the CCSM phase-shift approach and also with those obtained in the Gamow shell model, by taking the same Hamiltonian.

  2. Continuum limit of lattice models with Laughlin-like ground states containing quasiholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Iván D.; Nielsen, Anne E. B.

    2015-09-01

    There has been significant interest in recent years in finding fractional quantum Hall physics in lattice models, but it is not always clear how these models connect to the corresponding models in continuum systems. Here we introduce a family of models that is able to interpolate between a recently proposed set of lattice models with Laughlin-like ground states constructed from conformal field theory and models with ground states that are practically the usual bosonic/fermionic Laughlin states in the continuum. Both the ground state and the Hamiltonian are known analytically, and we find that the Hamiltonian in the continuum limit does not coincide with the usual delta interaction Hamiltonian for the Laughlin states. We introduce quasiholes into the models and show analytically that their braiding properties are as expected if the quasiholes are screened. We demonstrate screening numerically for the 1/3 Laughlin model and find that the quasiholes are slightly smaller in the continuum than in the lattice. Finally, we compute the effective magnetic field felt by the quasiholes and show that it is close to uniform when approaching the continuum limit. The techniques presented here to interpolate between the lattice and the continuum can also be applied to other fractional quantum Hall states that are constructed from conformal field theory.

  3. Multi-scale continuum modeling of biological processes: from molecular electro-diffusion to sub-cellular signaling transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Kekenes-Huskey, P.; Hake, J. E.; Holst, M. J.; McCammon, J. A.; Michailova, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of multi-scale modeling at the molecular to cellular scale, with new results for heart muscle cells. A finite element-based simulation package (SMOL) was used to investigate the signaling transduction at molecular and sub-cellular scales (http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/smol/, http://FETK.org) by numerical solution of the time-dependent Smoluchowski equations and a reaction-diffusion system. At the molecular scale, SMOL has yielded experimentally validated estimates of the diffusion-limited association rates for the binding of acetylcholine to mouse acetylcholinesterase using crystallographic structural data. The predicted rate constants exhibit increasingly delayed steady-state times, with increasing ionic strength, and demonstrate the role of an enzyme's electrostatic potential in influencing ligand binding. At the sub-cellular scale, an extension of SMOL solves a nonlinear, reaction-diffusion system describing Ca2+ ligand buffering and diffusion in experimentally derived rodent ventricular myocyte geometries. Results reveal the important role of mobile and stationary Ca2+ buffers, including Ca2+ indicator dye. We found that alterations in Ca2+-binding and dissociation rates of troponin C (TnC) and total TnC concentration modulate sub-cellular Ca2+ signals. The model predicts that reduced off-rate in the whole troponin complex (TnC, TnI, TnT) versus reconstructed thin filaments (Tn, Tm, actin) alters cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics under control conditions or in disease-linked TnC mutations. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop scalable methods and theories for the integration of molecular-scale information into simulations of cellular-scale systems.

  4. Unified calculation of generalized oscillator strength of argon ranging from bound to continuum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Jin, Rui; Zeng, De-Ling; Han, Xiao-Ying; Yan, Jun; Li, Jia-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The electron and photon scattering data of an atom are crucial for many scientific fields, including plasma physics, astrophysics, and so on. For high enough but nonrelativistic incident energies, the first Born approximation is applicable for calculating these data, in which the key physics quantity is the generalized oscillator strength (GOS). In high-energy electron impact excitation processes, atoms will be excited into various excited states including strongly perturbed Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. How to calculate these quantities of a nontrivial many-electron atom rapidly and accurately is still a great challenge. Based on our eigenchannel R -matrix method R -eigen, we further extend it to calculate the GOS of a whole channel in an atom, which includes all Rydberg and adjacent continuum states. The Jπ=1- states of argon are chosen as an illustrating example. The calculation results are in good agreement with the available benchmark absolute experimental measurements. The calculated eigenchannel GOS matrix elements are smooth functions of the excitation energy and momentum transfer. From such smooth eigenchannel GOS matrix elements, we can obtain the GOS of any specific excited state through multichannel quantum defect theory, e.g., infinite Rydberg (including a strongly perturbed one), autoionization, and continuum states.

  5. Treatment of continuum in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound systems. A simple model to test different prescriptions describing the coupling to continuum states

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C. H.; Vitturi, A.

    2009-03-04

    We exploit a model describing the break-up of weakly-bound nuclei that can be used as a laboratory for testing different prescriptions that have been advanced in the literature to take into account the near-by presence of continuum states. In the model we follow the evolution of a single particle wave function in one dimension, initially bound by a Woods-Saxon type potential and then perturbed by a time- and position-dependent external field. Proper choices of this potential can simulate the effect of the interaction between reaction partners in a nuclear collision. These processes generate inelastic excitation probabilities that--distributed over the bound and continuum states of the system--lead to either a partial or a total fragmentation of the final wave function. The comparison with the exact calculations shows that standard coupled channel descriptions based on discretization of the continuum can be accurate only when a proper choice is made of the number of discrete states, of the energy mesh and of the energy cutoff. This may imply, even in simplified cases, the use of a rather large (and unpracticable) number of channels. The use of a more restricted number of channels may lead to misleading results.

  6. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 108 are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications. PMID:26673548

  7. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 10(8) are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications. PMID:26673548

  8. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 108 are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications.

  9. Imaging of continuum states of the He{sub 2}{sup 2+} quasimolecule

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Stiebing, K. E.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Afaneh, F.; Weber, Th.

    2007-07-15

    Using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) we have investigated the production of one free electron in slow He{sup 2+}+He(1s{sup 2}) collisions. At projectile velocities between 0.6 and 1.06 a.u. (9-28 keV/u), the fully differential cross section was measured state selective with respect to the second electron, which is bound either at the target or the projectile. We provide a comprehensive data set comprising state selective total cross section, scattering angle dependent single differential cross sections, and fully differential cross section. We show that the momentum distribution of the electron in the continuum image the relevant molecular orbitals for the reaction channel under consideration. By choosing the bound electron final state at the target or projectile and the impact parameter we can select these orbitals and manipulate their relative phase.

  10. Types or States? Cellular Dynamics and Regenerative Potential.

    PubMed

    Adler, Carolyn E; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Many of our organs can maintain and repair themselves during homeostasis and injury, as a result of the action of tissue-specific, multipotent stem cells. However, recent evidence from mammalian systems suggests that injury stimulates dramatic plasticity, or transient changes in cell potential, in both stem cells and more differentiated cells. Planarian flatworms possess abundant stem cells, making them an exceptional model for understanding the cellular behavior underlying homeostasis and regeneration. Recent discoveries of cell lineages and regeneration-specific events provide an initial framework for unraveling the complex cellular contributions to regeneration. In this review, we discuss the concept of cellular plasticity in the context of planarian regeneration, and consider the possibility that pluripotency may be a transient, probabilistic state exhibited by stem cells. PMID:26437587

  11. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry-Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. We show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectors not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors. PMID:27557882

  12. Catching the bound states in the continuum of a phantom atom in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessi, L. H.; Machado, R. S.; Marques, Y.; Ricco, L. S.; Kristinsson, K.; Yoshida, M.; Shelykh, I. A.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    We explore theoretically the formation of bound states in the continuum (BICs) in graphene hosting two collinear adatoms situated at different sides of the sheet and at the center of the hexagonal cell, where a phantom atom of a fictitious lattice emulates the six carbons of the cell. We verify that in this configuration the local density of states near the Dirac points exhibits two characteristic features: (i) a cubic dependence on energy instead of a linear one for graphene as found in New J. Phys. 16, 013045 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/1/013045, and (ii) the formation of BICs as an aftermath of a Fano destructive interference assisted by the Coulomb correlations in the adatoms. For the geometry where adatoms are collinear to carbon atoms, we report an absence of BICs.

  13. Formation mechanism of guided resonances and bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xingwei; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Lin, Xiao; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism, based on the mode expansion method, to describe the guided resonances and bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs with one-dimensional periodicity. This approach provides analytic insights to the formation mechanisms of these states: the guided resonances arise from the transverse Fabry–Pérot condition, and the divergence of the resonance lifetimes at the BICs is explained by a destructive interference of radiation from different propagating components inside the slab. We show BICs at the center and on the edge of the Brillouin zone protected by symmetry, BICs at generic wave vectors not protected by symmetry, and the annihilation of BICs at low-symmetry wave vectors. PMID:27557882

  14. Friedel phase discontinuity and bound states in the continuum in quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, B.; Ladrón de Guevara, M. L.; Orellana, P. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this Letter we study the Friedel phase of the electron transport in two different systems of quantum dots which exhibit bound states in the continuum (BIC). The Friedel phase jumps abruptly in the energies of the BICs, which is associated to the vanishing width of these states, as shown by Friedrich and Wintgen in [H. Friedrich, D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. A 31 (1985) 3964]. This odd behavior of the Friedel phase has consequences in the charge through the Friedel sum rule. Namely, if the energy of the BIC drops under the Fermi energy the charge changes abruptly in a unity. We show that this behavior closely relates to discontinuities in the conductance predicted for interacting quantum dot systems.

  15. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  16. Resonances and continuum states of drip-line nuclei using the complex scaling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myo, Takayuki; Katō, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    Resonances and continuum states of He isotopes are investigated using the cluster orbital shell model (COSM) with the complex scaling method (CSM). We discuss the following subjects: 1) Spectroscopic factors of the unbound nucleus 7He into the 6He-n components and their relation to the one-neutron removal strengths of 7He. The importance of the 6He(2+) resonance is shown. 2) Structure of five-body 0+ resonance of 8He from the viewpoint of the two-neutron pair coupling. The monopole strengths into five-body unbound states are also investigated. It is found that the sequential breakup process of 8He → 7He+n → 6He+n+n is dominant in the monopole excitation, while the contribution of 8He(0+2) is negligible.

  17. Modeling electron dynamics coupled to continuum states in finite volumes with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Rubio, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Absorbing boundaries are frequently employed in real-time propagation of the Schrödinger equation to remove spurious reflections and efficiently emulate outgoing boundary conditions. These conditions are a fundamental ingredient for the calculation of observables involving infinitely extended continuum states in finite volumes. In the literature, several boundary absorbers have been proposed. They mostly fall into three main families: mask function absorbers, complex absorbing potentials, and exterior complex-scaled potentials. To date none of the proposed absorbers is perfect, and all present a certain degree of reflections. Characterization of such reflections is thus a critical task with strong implications for time-dependent simulations of atoms and molecules. We introduce a method to evaluate the reflection properties of a given absorber and present a comparison of selected samples for each family of absorbers. Further, we discuss the connections between members of each family and show how the same reflection curves can be obtained with very different absorption schemes.

  18. Self-localized states for electron transfer in nonlocal continuum deformable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros-Ake, Luis A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of electron transport in a deformable continuum medium subjected to an external harmonic substrate potential. We then consider the quasi-stationary state of the full problem to find a Gross-Pitaevskii type equation with a nonlocal external potential, which is solved by variational and numerical means (considered as the exact solution) to find the parameter conditions for the existence of self-localized solutions. The variational approach predicts a threshold on the on-site or nonlocality parameter where localized solutions cease to exist from the Non-Linear Schrödinger soliton limit. A numerical continuation of stationary state solutions in the corresponding discrete system is used to confirm the prediction of the turning value in the on-site term. We finally study the full stationary state and make use of an approximation, proposed by Briedis et al. [17], for the nonlocal term, corresponding to strong nonlocalities, to find analytic expressions for self-localized states in terms of the series solutions of a nonlinear modified Bessel equation.

  19. Cellular immunity in semistarved states in hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Bistrian, B R; Blackburn, G L; Scrimshaw, N S; Flatt, J P

    1975-10-01

    Adult protein-calorie malnutrition, as reflected by decreased levels of serum albumin and transferrin, was studied in 21 hospitalized patients. This malnutrition state was a consequence of a catabolic response to stress and also use of standard parenteral fluid maintenance with 5% dextrose and water. Associated findings included a significant reduction in both total lymphocytes and cellular immunity, as measured by dinitrochlorobenzene and Candida skin testing. This state of visceral attrition, resembling kwashiorkor, occurs commonly in hospitalized patients, and may account for significant morbidity and mortality. Alternatives to the 5% dextrose and water in the nutritional support of the semistarved state may allow better preservation of visceral protein status and immune function. PMID:810018

  20. Renormalisation of 2D Cellular Automata with an Absorbing State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Iain S.; Prügel-Bennett, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We describe a real-space renormalisation scheme for non-equilibrium probabilistic cellular automata (PCA) models, and apply it to a two-dimensional binary PCA. An exact renormalisation scheme is rare, and therefore we provide a method for computing the stationary probability distribution of states for such models with which to weight the renormalisation, effectively minimising the error in the scale transformation. While a mean-field approximation is trivial, we use the principle of maximum entropy to incorporate nearest-neighbour spin-correlations in the steady-state probability distribution. In doing so we find the fixed point of the renormalisation is modified by the steady-state approximation order.

  1. Quantum phase transition triggering magnetic bound states in the continuum in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessi, L. H.; Marques, Y.; Machado, R. S.; Kristinsson, K.; Ricco, L. S.; Shelykh, I. A.; Figueira, M. S.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Graphene hosting a pair of collinear adatoms in the phantom atom configuration has density of states vanishing in the vicinity of the Dirac point which can be described in terms of the pseudogap scaling as cube of the energy, Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 , which leads to the appearance of spin-degenerate bound states in the continuum (BICs) [Phys. Rev. B 92, 045409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045409]. In the case when adatoms are locally coupled to a single carbon atom the pseudogap scales linearly with energy, which prevents the formation of BICs. Here, we explore the effects of nonlocal coupling characterized by the Fano factor of interference q0, tunable by changing the slope of the Dirac cones in the graphene band structure. We demonstrate that three distinct regimes can be identified: (i) for q0qc 2 the cubic scaling of the pseudogap with energy Δ ∝|ɛ| 3 characteristic to the phantom atom configuration is restored and the phase with nonmagnetic BICs is recovered. The phase with magnetic BICs can be described in terms of an effective intrinsic exchange field of ferromagnetic nature between the adatoms mediated by graphene monolayer. We thus propose a new type of QPT resulting from the competition between two ground states, respectively characterized by spin-degenerate and magnetic BICs.

  2. Lifetime measurements of 17C excited states and three-body and continuum effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smalley, D.; Iwasaki, H.; Navratil, P.; Roth, R.; Langhammer, J.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Barryman, J. S.; Campbell, C. M.; Dohet-Eraly, J.; et al

    2015-12-18

    We studied transition rates for the lowest 1/2+ and 5/2+ excited states of 17C through lifetime measurements with the GRETINA array using the recoil-distance method. The present measurements provide a model-independent determination of transition strengths giving the values of B(M1;1/2+ → 3/2+g.s.) = 1.04+0.03–0.12 × 10–2μ2N and B(M1;5/2+ → 3/2+g.s.) = 7.12+1.27–0.96 × 10–2μ2N. The quenched M1 transition strength for the 1/2+ → 3/2+g.s. transition, with respect to the 5/2+ → 3/2+g.s. transition, has been confirmed with greater precision. Furthermore, the current data are compared to importance-truncated no-core shell model calculations addressing effects due to continuum and three-body forces.

  3. Continuum electrodynamics of type-II superconductors in the mixed state: The dc and ac response

    SciTech Connect

    Placais, B.; Mathieu, P.; Simon, Y.; Sonin, E.B.; Traito, K.B.

    1996-11-01

    The dc and ac response of the ideal type-II superconductor in the mixed state is analyzed in the frame of a continuum electrodynamics, in which all fields are averaged on a scale exceeding the intervortex distance. The results of previous calculations are brought together and compared, while paying special attention to the role of the vortex line tension and the normal current. The electromagnetic response is studied in the whole range of magnetic fields and frequencies. The possible effect of the normal current on vortex motion is discussed. We argue in this respect that existing theories, where the Lorentz force involves the normal current, are not consistent with Onsager relations. Due to vortex line tension the external fields penetrate into a superconductor as a superposition of two modes with different complex wave numbers (the two-mode electrodynamics). Obtained expressions for the surface impedance should permit one to determine the parameters of the theory from the experiment and to discriminate different models of vortex motion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Continuum emission in Nd3+/Yb3+ co-doped Ca12Al14O33 phosphor: Charge transfer state luminescence versus induced optical heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. K.; Rai, S. B.

    2013-02-01

    An unusual phenomenon of local heating and associated emission of continuum in lanthanide doped material has attracted much interest currently because of its use in white light generation and in localized heating. In the present work, Nd3+/Yb3+ co-doped Ca12Al14O33 phosphor has been synthesized, which gives broad continuum emission both by downconversion (DC) and upconversion (UC) processes. On 266 nm excitation, broad continuum emission is achieved through charge transfer state (CTS) luminescence of Yb3+ ion. On the other hand on 976 nm excitation, UC emission is observed from Nd3+ ion, which at higher pump power gives continuum emission.

  5. Doubling of states, quantum anomalies, and possible cosmological consequences in the continuum limit of the theory of discrete quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2008-01-15

    The problem of the doubling of states is investigated in the framework of the theory of discrete quantum gravity under the assumption that the theory has a continuum (macroscopic) limit. It is demonstrated that irregular (in some sense) modes of fields (i.e., modes that change abruptly on scales of a lattice step and have a finite energy when the lattice step tends to zero) are separated from the normal modes. Some cosmological consequences of this finding are discussed.

  6. Exogenous antioxidants—Double-edged swords in cellular redox state

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH) and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.), alkoxyl radicals (RO.) and peroxyradicals (ROO.). However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects. PMID:20972369

  7. Fano effect and bound state in continuum in electron transport through an armchair graphene nanoribbon with line defect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport properties in an armchair graphene nanoribbon are theoretically investigated by considering the presence of line defect. It is found that the line defect causes the abundant Fano effects and bound state in continuum (BIC) in the electron transport process, which are tightly dependent on the width of the nanoribbon. By plotting the spectra of the density of electron states of the line defect, we see that the line defect induces some localized quantum states around the Dirac point and that the different localizations of these states lead to these two kinds of transport results. Next, the Fano effect and BIC phenomenon are detailedly described via the analysis about the influence of the structure parameters. According to the numerical results, we propose such a structure to be a promising candidate for graphene nanoswitch. PACS 81.05.Uw, 71.55.-i, 73.23.-b, 73.25.+i PMID:23870061

  8. Inhomogeneous ordered states and translational nature of the gauge group in the landau continuum theory: I. General analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Braginsky, A. Ya.

    2007-07-15

    A phenomenological continuum theory of phase transitions to a global inhomogeneous state of a crystal must take into account the compensating fields that represent the fields of stresses caused by dislocations appearing at the boundaries between local homogeneous regions. These compensating fields, which are introduced in order to satisfy the condition of invariance of the Landau potential with respect to the operation of translation, enter into the theory via extended derivatives of the local order parameters with respect to macroscopic coordinates of the local homogeneous regions in the crystal. Because of this extension of derivatives, the theory of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous state must include the theory of elasticity, in which a potential of the stress field induced by the phase transition is proportional to the compensating field magnitude. The Kroener equation, which describes the state of dislocations induced by spatially inhomogeneous ordering, appears in this theory as a result of minimization of the Landau potential with respect to the compensating fields.

  9. Decay of bound states in the continuum of Majorana fermions induced by vacuum fluctuations: Proposal of qubit technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricco, L. S.; Marques, Y.; Dessotti, F. A.; Machado, R. S.; de Souza, M.; Seridonio, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a theoretical investigation of the interplay between vacuum fluctuations, Majorana quasiparticles (MQPs), and bound states in the continuum (BICs) by proposing a new venue for qubit storage. BICs emerge due to quantum interference processes as the Fano effect and, since such a mechanism is unbalanced, these states decay as regular into the continuum. Such fingerprints identify BICs in graphene as we have discussed in detail in Phys. Rev. B 92, 245107 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.245107 and Phys. Rev. B, 92, 045409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.045409. Here, by considering two semi-infinite Kitaev chains within the topological phase, coupled to a quantum dot (QD) hybridized with leads, we show the emergence of a novel type of BICs, in which MQPs are trapped. As the MQPs of these chains far apart build a delocalized fermion and qubit, we identify that the decay of these BICs is not connected to Fano and it occurs when finite fluctuations are observed in the vacuum composed by electron pairs for this qubit. From the experimental point of view, we also show that vacuum fluctuations can be induced just by changing the chain-dot couplings from symmetric to asymmetric. Hence, we show how to perform the qubit storage within two delocalized BICs of MQPs and to access it when the vacuum fluctuates by means of a complete controllable way in quantum transport experiments.

  10. Measuring the redox state of cellular peroxiredoxins by immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew G; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    The peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of thiol peroxidases that scavenge hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. The abundance and reactivity of these proteins makes them primary targets for cellular H(2)O(2). The catalytic cycle of typical 2-Cys Prxs involves formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond between peroxidatic and resolving cysteines on opposing subunits. Rapid alterations in the ratio of reduced monomer and oxidized dimer have been detected in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of cultured cells exposed to various exogenous and endogenous sources of oxidative stress. Here we describe immunoblot methods to monitor the interconversion of individual 2-Cys Prxs in cultured cells. We also outline an adaptation of this method to measure the extent to which individual 2-Cys Prxs become hyper oxidized in treated cells. Together, these methods enable the redox status of cellular Prxs to be assessed and quantified in a rapid and robust manner. PMID:20609904

  11. Combining the GW formalism with the polarizable continuum model: A state-specific non-equilibrium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchemin, Ivan; Jacquemin, Denis; Blase, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green's function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.

  12. Combining the GW formalism with the polarizable continuum model: A state-specific non-equilibrium approach.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, Ivan; Jacquemin, Denis; Blase, Xavier

    2016-04-28

    We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green's function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology. PMID:27131530

  13. Photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules studied with a continuum-state-corrected strong-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissigacker, Ingo; Lein, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on circular dichroism in the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization of chiral molecules [C. Lux et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 5001 (2012), 10.1002/anie.201109035; C. S. Lehmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234307 (2013), 10.1063/1.4844295], we investigate the origin of this effect theoretically. We show that it is not possible to describe photoelectron circular dichroism with the commonly used strong-field approximation due to its plane-wave nature. We therefore apply the Born approximation to the scattering state and use this as a continuum-state correction in the strong-field approximation. We obtain electron distributions for the molecules camphor and fenchone. In order to gain physical insight into the process, we study the contributions of individual molecular orientations.

  14. Photoionization microscopy of the lithium atom: Wave-function imaging of quasibound and continuum Stark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Harb, M. M.; Ollagnier, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Barillot, T.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Photoionization of an atom in the presence of a uniform static electric field provides the unique opportunity to expand and visualize the atomic wave function at a macroscopic scale. In a number of seminal publications dating back to the 1980s, Fabrikant, Demkov, Kondratovich, and Ostrovsky showed that this goal could be achieved by projecting slow (meV) photoionized electrons onto a position-sensitive detector and underlined the distinction between continuum and resonant contributions. The uncovering of resonant signatures was achieved fairly recently in experiments on the nonhydrogenic lithium atoms [Cohen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 183001 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.183001. The purpose of the present article is the general description of these findings, with emphasis on the various manifestations of resonant character. From this point of view, lithium has been chosen as an illustrative example between the two limiting cases of hydrogen, where resonance effects are more easily identified, and heavy atoms like xenon, where resonant effects were not observed.

  15. The characteristics of four ratcheting states in cellular flames.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M; el-Hamdi, M; Pearson, B

    2009-09-01

    A premixed flat flame on a circular porous plug burner can form patterns of one or two concentric rings of cells in which brighter, hotter regions are separated by darker, cooler cusps and folds. Dynamic states are found at parameter values that are interleaved between those of the ordered states. Rotating states, modulated rotating states, hopping states, and intermittently ordered states have all been observed with motions of approximately 100 degrees/s. These states have been described using the ideas of dynamical systems. Their characteristics have been analyzed using modal decomposition techniques. Ratcheting states are qualitatively and quantitatively different from these other dynamic states. In ratcheting states one or both of the concentric rings rotate very slowly, approximately 0.8 degrees/s, each speeding up and slowing down in a manner unique to that state. Measurements of the angular displacement and computed values of the angular velocity are presented for four ratcheting states. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the physical characteristics of the flame front and in terms of bifurcations of systems with symmetry. Many of the principal features of ratcheting motion are not yet understood. PMID:19792020

  16. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov–Bohm rings with the Rashba spin–orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov–Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase.

  17. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N; Sadreev, Almas F

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase. PMID:27165662

  18. Reciprocal Control of the Circadian Clock and Cellular Redox State - a Critical Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Putker, Marrit; O’Neill, John Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Redox signalling comprises the biology of molecular signal transduction mediated by reactive oxygen (or nitrogen) species. By specific and reversible oxidation of redox-sensitive cysteines, many biological processes sense and respond to signals from the intracellular redox environment. Redox signals are therefore important regulators of cellular homeostasis. Recently, it has become apparent that the cellular redox state oscillates in vivo and in vitro, with a period of about one day (circadian). Circadian time-keeping allows cells and organisms to adapt their biology to resonate with the 24-hour cycle of day/night. The importance of this innate biological time-keeping is illustrated by the association of clock disruption with the early onset of several diseases (e.g. type II diabetes, stroke and several forms of cancer). Circadian regulation of cellular redox balance suggests potentially two distinct roles for redox signalling in relation to the cellular clock: one where it is regulated by the clock, and one where it regulates the clock. Here, we introduce the concepts of redox signalling and cellular timekeeping, and then critically appraise the evidence for the reciprocal regulation between cellular redox state and the circadian clock. We conclude there is a substantial body of evidence supporting circadian regulation of cellular redox state, but that it would be premature to conclude that the converse is also true. We therefore propose some approaches that might yield more insight into redox control of cellular timekeeping. PMID:26810072

  19. Studies of continuum states in 16 Ne using three-body correlation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Two-proton decay of the unbound nucleus 16Ne , produced in one-neutron knockout from a 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam, has been studied at GSI. The ground state, at a resonance energy 1.388(15) MeV, ( MeV) above the 14O +p+p threshold, and two narrow resonances at MeV and 7.57(6) MeV have been investigated. A comparison of the energy difference between the first excited 2+ state and the 0+ ground state in 16Ne with its mirror nucleus 16C reveals a small Thomas-Ehrman shift (TES) of keV. A trend of the TES for the T = 2 quintet is obtained by completing the known data with a prediction for 16F obtained from an IMME analysis. The decay mechanisms of the observed three resonances were revealed from an analysis of the energy and angular correlations of the 14O +p+p decay products. The ground state decay can be considered as a genuine three-body (democratic) mode and the excited states decay sequentially via states in the intermediate nucleus 15F , the 3.22 MeV state predominantly via the 15F ground-state resonance, while the 7.57 MeV state decays via the 5/2+ resonance in 15F at 2.8 MeV above the 14O +p+p threshold. Further, from an analysis of angular correlations, the spin-parity of the 7.57 MeV state has been determined as and assigned as the third 2+ state in 16Ne based on a comparison with 16C.

  20. Live cell tracking based on cellular state recognition from microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-N; Lin, C-H; Kuo, C-C; Ho, C-L; Lin, C-J

    2009-07-01

    The analysis of cell motion is an essential process in fundamental medical studies because most active cellular functions involve motion. In this paper, a computer-assisted motion analysis system is proposed for cell tracking. In the proposed tracking process, unlike in conventional tracking methods, cellular states referring to the cellular life cycle are defined and appropriate strategies are adopted for cells at different states. The use of cellular state recognition allows detection of possible cell division and hence can improve the robustness of cell tracking. Experimental results show that cells can be successfully segmented and tracked over a long period of time, and the proposed system is found to be as accurate as manual tracking. Various quantitative analyses and visualizations are used to represent cell motion, which demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed system in the study of cell dynamics. PMID:19566631

  1. MEASURING BLACK HOLE SPIN VIA THE X-RAY CONTINUUM-FITTING METHOD: BEYOND THE THERMAL DOMINANT STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2009-08-20

    All prior work on measuring the spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) via the X-ray continuum-fitting (CF) method has relied on the use of weakly Comptonized spectra obtained in the thermal dominant (TD) state. Using a self-consistent Comptonization model, we show that one can analyze spectra that exhibit strong power-law components and obtain values of the inner disk radius, and hence spin, that are consistent with those obtained in the TD state. Specifically, we analyze many RXTE spectra of two BH transients, H1743-322 and XTE J1550-564, and we demonstrate that the radius of the inner edge of the accretion disk remains constant to within a few percent as the strength of the Comptonized component increases by an order of magnitude, i.e., as the fraction of the thermal seed photons that are scattered approaches 25%. We conclude that the CF method can be applied to a much wider body of data than previously thought possible, and to sources that have never been observed to enter the TD state (e.g., Cyg X-1)

  2. Photoluminescence of a quantum dot hybridized with a continuum of extended states.

    PubMed

    León Hilario, L M; Aligia, A A

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the intensity of photon emission from a trion in a single quantum dot, as a function of energy and gate voltage, using the impurity Anderson model and variational wave functions. Assuming a flat density of conduction states and constant hybridization energy, the results agree with the main features observed in recent experiments: nonmonotonic dependence of the energy on gate voltage, non-Lorentzian line shapes, and a linewidth that increases near the regions of instability of the single electron final state to occupations zero or two. PMID:19905656

  3. The Teacher Development Continuum in the United States and China: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreras, Ana; Olson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Liping Ma published her book "Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics: Teachers' Understanding of Fundamental Mathematics in the United States and China," which probed the kinds of knowledge that elementary school teachers need to convey mathematical concepts and procedures effectively to their students. Later that year, Roger Howe, a…

  4. Coherent-state path integrals in the continuum: The SU(2) case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordas, G.; Kalantzis, D.; Karanikas, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    We define the time-continuous spin coherent-state path integral in a way that is free from inconsistencies. The proposed definition is used to reproduce known exact results. Such a formalism opens new possibilities for applying approximations with improved accuracy and can be proven useful in a great variety of problems where spin Hamiltonians are used.

  5. Studies of yrast and continuum states in A = 140 - 160 nuclei. Progress report for 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    The results of nuclear structure investigations by in-beam ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy following heavy ion reactions are summarized. Detailed information is given for the proton-rich nuclei /sup 151/Tm, /sup 152/Tm and /sup 150/Ho, and for nuh/sub 11/2//sup n/ states in heavy tin isotopes. The first experiments performed with the new Compton-suppressed detector array at ATLAS are outlined.

  6. Bound and continuum states of molecular anions C2H- and C3N-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephen; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Recently a number of molecular anions, closed-shell linear carbon chains of the form CnH- and CnN-, have been detected in space. The molecules C2H- and C3N- are investigated by using the R-matrix method to consider electron scattering from the corresponding neutral targets. Initial target calculations are conducted and refined in order to produce target state characteristics similar to the experimental data. A number of different scattering models are tested including static exchange and close-coupling models, and the use of Hartree-Fock or natural orbitals in the close-coupling calculations. The calculations concentrate on bound and resonances states for the anions as well as eigenphase sums, elastic cross-sections and electronic excitation cross-sections for electron collisions with the neutral. It is found that electronic resonances are all too high in energy to be important for anion formation in the interstellar medium. However, C3N-, unlike C2H-, supports a number of very weakly bound excited states, which may well provide the route to electron attachment for this system.

  7. Studies of yrast and continuum states in A = 140 - 160 nuclei. Progress report for 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    Proton-rich nuclei in the mass region around A = 150 have been studied by in-beam ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy using /sup 58/Ni and /sup 60/Ni beams from the Argonne Superconducting Linac. New structural information was obtained for the N = 81 nuclei /sup 146/Tb, /sup 147/Dy, /sup 148/Ho, /sup 149/Er, /sup 150/Tm and /sup 151/Yb, for the N = 82 nuclei /sup 150/Er and /sup 151/Tm, and for the N = 83 nuclei /sup 150/Ho and /sup 152/Tm. Collaborative studies of feeding patterns and feeding times of yrast states in A approx. 150 nuclei were also completed. Publications and talks are listed.

  8. A Ground State Method for Continuum Systems Using Random Walks in the Space of Slater Determinants.^

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwei; Krakauer, Henry

    2001-03-01

    We study a ground state quantum Monte Carlo method for electronic systems. The method is based on the constrained path Monte Carlo approach(S. Zhang, J. Carlson, and J. E. Gubernatis, Phys. Rev. B 55), 7464 (1997). developed for lattice models of correlated electrons. It works in second-quantized form and uses random walks involving full Slater determinants rather than individual real-space configurations. The method allows easy calculation of expectation values and also makes it straightforward to import standard techniques (e.g., pseudopotentials) used in density functional and quantum chemistry calculations. In general, Slater determinants will acquire overall complex phases, due to the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation of the two-body potential. In order to control the sign decay, an approximation is developed for the propagation of complex Slater determinants by random walks. We test the method in a homogeneous 3-D electron gas (jellium) using a planewave basis. ^ Supported by NSF, ONR and Research Corporation.

  9. [Effect of gentamicin on the state of cellular resistance].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, E G; Rastunova, G A; Medvedeva, M M; Zhuravleva, T P; Kuchushev, Sh A

    1977-05-01

    The effect of gentamicin on the functional state of the cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the abdominal cavity of mouse macrophages and the cell culture of the rabbit embryon kidneys was studied. Gentamicin administered intramuscularly in multiple doses of I and 10 mg/kg for 6--14 days did not induce significant changes in the absorptive activity of the RES. In doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg gentamicin induced some inhibition of the absorptive activity of the abdominal cavity macrophages, which was accompanied by a decrease in the content of the total protein and an increase in the activity of the acid phosphatase in the cell cytoplasm. The changes were reversible and persisted for not more than 48 hours after the last administration of the antibiotic. Gentamicin inhibited the cell growth in the culture of the rabbit embryon kidneys in concentrations higher than 1000 mg/kg, LD50 of gentamicin for mice weighing 20--22 gm being 244 mg/kg. Preliminary administration of amigluracyl provided a decrease in the toxic effect of gentamicin in both the cell culture and the host, which was possibly associated with the anabolyzing effect of amigluracyl. PMID:879726

  10. Continuum {gamma} rays feeding normal and superdeformed states in Gd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.H.; Cinausero, M.; de Angelis, G.; De Poli, M.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.; Viesti, G.; Petrache, C.M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1997-03-01

    The feeding mechanism of the superdeformed bands in {sup 147}Gd and {sup 148}Gd has been studied via the {sup 124}Sn + {sup 29}Si reaction at a beam energy of 157 MeV. Using the BGO inner ball of the GASP array, high-energy {gamma} rays have been detected in coincidence with discrete transitions deexciting normal-deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states in the final product nuclei. The slope of the measured high-energy {gamma}-ray spectra depends strongly on the number of emitted neutrons and is somewhat lower for spectra in coincidence with SD bands than for those in coincidence with ND structures. Both observations are qualitatively reproduced by statistical model Monte Carlo calculations, which point out the importance of angular momentum effects in the emission of energetic {gamma} rays. The present data exclude the enhanced population of SD bands when fed through high-energy E1 transitions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Lifetime measurements of 17C excited states and three-body and continuum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, D.; Iwasaki, H.; Navratil, P.; Roth, R.; Langhammer, J.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Barryman, J. S.; Campbell, C. M.; Dohet-Eraly, J.; Fallon, P.; Gade, A.; Langer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Morse, C.; Parker, J.; Quaglioni, S.; Recchia, F.; Stroberg, S. R.; Wiesshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.; Wimmer, K.; Brown, B. A.

    2015-12-18

    We studied transition rates for the lowest 1/2+ and 5/2+ excited states of 17C through lifetime measurements with the GRETINA array using the recoil-distance method. The present measurements provide a model-independent determination of transition strengths giving the values of B(M1;1/2+ → 3/2+g.s.) = 1.04+0.03–0.12 × 10–2μ2N and B(M1;5/2+ → 3/2+g.s.) = 7.12+1.27–0.96 × 10–2μ2N. The quenched M1 transition strength for the 1/2+ → 3/2+g.s. transition, with respect to the 5/2+ → 3/2+g.s. transition, has been confirmed with greater precision. Furthermore, the current data are compared to importance-truncated no-core shell model calculations addressing effects due to continuum and three-body forces.

  12. Continuum Nanofluidics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter; Todd, Billy D; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-12-15

    This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response functions that incorporate spatial correlations. The continuum theory is compared with molecular dynamics simulation data for both relaxation processes and fluid flows, showing excellent agreement on the nanometer length scale. We also present practical tools to estimate when the extended theory should be used. It is shown that in the wall-fluid region the fluid molecules align with the wall, and in this region the isotropic model may fail and a full anisotropic description is necessary. PMID:26457405

  13. Feed-forward regulation ensures stability and rapid reversibility of a cellular state

    PubMed Central

    Doncic, Andreas; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular transitions are important for all life. Such transitions, including cell fate decisions, often employ positive feedback regulation to establish and stabilize new cellular states. However, positive feedback is unlikely to underlie stable cell cycle arrest in yeast exposed to mating pheromone because the signaling pathway is linear, rather than bistable, over a broad range of extracellular pheromone concentration. We show that the stability of the pheromone arrested state results from coherent feed-forward regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor Far1. This network motif is effectively isolated from the more complex regulatory network in which it is embedded. Fast regulation of Far1 by phosphorylation allows rapid cell cycle arrest and reentry, whereas slow Far1 synthesis reinforces arrest. We thus expect coherent feed-forward regulation to be frequently implemented at reversible cellular transitions because this network motif can achieve the ostensibly conflicting aims of arrest stability and rapid reversibility without loss of signaling information. PMID:23685071

  14. A Ubiquitiformal One-Dimensional Steady-State Conduction Model for a Cellular Material Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guan-Ying; Ou, Zhuo-Cheng; Xie, Ran; Duan, Zhuo-Ping; Huang, Feng-Lei

    2016-04-01

    A ubiquitiformal model for the one-dimensional steady-state heat transfer of a cellular material rod is developed in this paper, and the explicit analytical expressions for both the temperature distribution and the equivalent thermal conductivity are obtained. The calculated results for two kinds of dry soil are found to be in good agreement with previous experimental data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ubiquitiformal model is more reasonable for describing such a cellular material than the fractal one, and hence a ubiquitiformal rather than a fractal model should be considered in practical applications whenever the integral dimensional measure of a real physical object must be taken into account.

  15. A Study of the Density of Unfilled States in Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide by means of Soft X-ray Continuum Isochromats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Ramya; Liefeld, Robert

    2002-10-01

    The New Mexico State University two-crystal X-ray spectrometer is designed for spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region. It has a demountable ultra-high vacuum X-ray tube and is equipped with Potassium Acid Phthalate (KAP) crystals and a flowing gas proportional counter. The KAP crystals provide a unique and sensitive spectral window at a photon energy of 530 eV. The high signal to background available makes it possible to record continuum limit spectra as continuum isochromats. We intend to obtain continuum isochromats at 530 eV from Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide, a high temperature superconductor. Such spectra are convolutions of the energy spectrum of the incident electrons in the target with the product of the density of unfilled states and a matrix element for the transition. The spectrum of initially mono-energetic electrons in the target can be derived from equivalent photoemission experiments and used to obtain a representation of the density of unfilled states above the Fermi level of the target material from the isochromat spectra.

  16. Numerical Study of Rarefied Hypersonic Flow Interacting with a Continuum Jet. Degree awarded by Pennsylvania State Univ., Aug. 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christopher E.

    2000-01-01

    An uncoupled Computational Fluid Dynamics-Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (CFD-DSMC) technique is developed and applied to provide solutions for continuum jets interacting with rarefied external flows. The technique is based on a correlation of the appropriate Bird breakdown parameter for a transitional-rarefied condition that defines a surface within which the continuum solution is unaffected by the external flow-jet interaction. The method is applied to two problems to assess and demonstrate its validity; one of a jet interaction in the transitional-rarefied flow regime and the other in the moderately rarefied regime. Results show that the appropriate Bird breakdown surface for uncoupling the continuum and non-continuum solutions is a function of a non-dimensional parameter relating the momentum flux and collisionality between the two interacting flows. The correlation is exploited for the simulation of a jet interaction modeled for an experimental condition in the transitional-rarefied flow regime and the validity of the correlation is demonstrated. The uncoupled technique is also applied to an aerobraking flight condition for the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with attitude control system jet interaction. Aerodynamic yawing moment coefficients for cases without and with jet interaction at various angles-of-attack were predicted, and results from the present method compare well with values published previously. The flow field and surface properties are analyzed in some detail to describe the mechanism by which the jet interaction affects the aerodynamics.

  17. Aurora Borealis: stochastic cellular automata simulations of the excited-state dynamics of oxygen atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, P. G.; Kier, L. B.; Cheng, C.-K.

    1999-12-01

    Emissions from the 1S and 1D excited states of atomic oxygen play a prominent role in creating the dramatic light displays (aurora borealis) seen in the skies over polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. A probabilistic asynchronous cellular automaton model described previously has been applied to the excited-state dynamics of atomic oxygen. The model simulates the time-dependent variations in ground (3P) and excited-state populations that occur under user-defined probabilistic transition rules for both pulse and steady-state conditions. Although each trial simulation is itself an independent "experiment", deterministic values for the excited-state emission lifetimes and quantum yields emerge as limiting cases for large numbers of cells or large numbers of trials. Stochastic variations in the lifetimes and emission yields can be estimated from repeated trials.

  18. Unified ab initio approach to bound and unbound states: No-core shell model with continuum and its application to 7He

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baroni, Simone; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2013-03-26

    In this study, we introduce a unified approach to nuclear bound and continuum states based on the coupling of the no-core shell model (NCSM), a bound-state technique, with the no-core shell model/resonating group method (NCSM/RGM), a nuclear scattering technique. This new ab initio method, no-core shell model with continuum (NCSMC), leads to convergence properties superior to either NCSM or NCSM/RGM while providing a balanced approach to different classes of states. In the NCSMC, the ansatz for the many-nucleon wave function includes (i) a square-integrable A-nucleon component expanded in a complete harmonic oscillator basis and (ii) a binary-cluster component with asymptoticmore » boundary conditions that can properly describe weakly bound states, resonances, and scattering. The Schrödinger equation is transformed into a system of coupled-channel integral-differential equations that we solve using a modified microscopic R-matrix formalism within a Lagrange mesh basis. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by investigating the unbound 7He nucleus.« less

  19. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay A; Daniëls, Mark; van der Cruijsen, Elwin A W; Folkers, Gert E; Baldus, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR. PMID:25956570

  20. 76 FR 17652 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on the Cellular South Licenses, Inc. and United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be... COMMISSION Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on the Cellular South Licenses, Inc. and United States..., the Wireline Competition Bureau seeks comment on a joint petition filed by Cellular South...

  1. Influence of higher-order dispersion coefficients on near-threshold bound and continuum states: Application to {sup 88}Sr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Alexander; Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-12-07

    We give a simple description of quantum states near the dissociation threshold of deep interatomic potentials. The influence of the potential tail is separated from effects due to the interaction at short distances. We present a general formalism which is valid for weakly bound and low-energy continuum states, both for vanishing and non-vanishing angular momentum. Its applicability is demonstrated for the example of the electronic ground state of the strontium dimer {sup 88}Sr{sub 2}. With an appropriate choice of the potential tail that includes higher-order dispersion coefficients, all short-range effects are incorporated via the threshold quantum number v{sub D} and one further parameter accounting for residual short-range effects.

  2. In vitro chemical and cellular tests applied to uranium trioxide with different hydration states.

    PubMed Central

    Ansoborlo, E; Chalabreysse, J; Hengé-Napoli, M H; Pujol, E

    1992-01-01

    A simple and rapid in vitro chemical solubility test applicable to industrial uranium trioxide (UO3) was developed together with two in vitro cellular tests using rat alveolar macrophages maintained either in gas phase or in alginate beads at 37 degrees C. Industrial UO3 was characterized by particle size, X-ray, and IR spectra, and chemical transformation (e.g., aging and hydration of the dust) was also studied. Solvents used for the in vitro chemical solubility study included carbonates, citrates, phosphates, water, Eagle's basal medium, and Gamble's solution (simulated lung fluid), alone, with oxygen, or with superoxide ions. Results, expressed in terms of the half-time of dissolution, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) classification (D,W,Y), varied for different hydration states of UO3, showing a lower solubility of hydrated UO3 in solvents compared to basic UO3 or UO3 heated at 450 degrees C. Two in vitro cellular tests on cultured rat alveolar macrophages (cells maintained in gas phase and cells immobilized in alginate beads) were used on the same UO3 samples and generally showed a lower solution transfer rate in the presence of macrophages than in the culture medium alone. The results of in vitro chemical and cellular tests were compared, with four main conclusions: a good reproducibility of the three tests in Eagle's basal medium the effect of hydration state on solubility, the classification of UO3 in terms of ICRP solubility criteria, and the ability of macrophages to decrease uranium solubility in medium. PMID:1396449

  3. On the evolution of the cellular automaton of rule 150 from some simple initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    The evolution Eα in discrete time t of the cellular automaton CA150 of Wolfram rule 150 is studied for certain initial states ψα. The values of the cell variables in any state ψα considered are all zero outside a principal sequence (PS) of length k within which they take on values 1a2a3⋯ak -2ak -11, where a2=1,0,…. Powerful algebraic methods are used to develop formulas for the weight, Ωα(t), i.e., the total number of cell variables with value equal to 1 at time t, of the state of Eα at time t ≥0, and of the sum Wα(N)=∑t =02N-1Ωα(t) of the weights of the first 2N states of the evolution of Eα in discrete time. The methods are described carefully. A selection of results, new here, is stated and proved for several initial states ψα with simple PSs of increasing lengths k >1. Many of them feature numbers in the Fibonacci, Lucas, and Jacobsthal sequences.

  4. [Motivation and Emotional States: Structural Systemic, Neurochemical, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Bazyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The structural, systemic, neurochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms of organization and coding motivation and emotional states are describe. The GABA and glutamatergic synaptic systems of basal ganglia form a neural network and participate in the implementation of voluntary behavior. Neuropeptides, neurohormones and paracrine neuromodulators involved in the organization of motivation and emotional states, integrated with synaptic systems, controlled by neural networks and organizing goal-directed behavior. Structural centers for united and integrated of information in voluntary and goal-directed behavior are globus pallidus. Substantia nigra pars reticulata switches the information from corticobasal networks to thalamocortical networks, induces global dopaminergic (DA) signal and organize interaction of mesolimbic and nigostriatnoy DA systems controlled by prefrontal and motor cortex. Together with the motor cortex, substantia nigra displays information in the brainstem and spinal cord to implementation of behavior. Motivation states are formed in the interaction of neurohormonal and neuropeptide systems by monoaminergic systems of brain. Emotional states are formed by monoaminergic systems of the mid-brain, where the leading role belongs to the mesolimbic DA system. The emotional and motivation state of the encoded specific epigenetic molecular and chemical pattern of neuron. PMID:27149821

  5. Integrated Stress Response Modulates Cellular Redox State via Induction of Cystathionine γ-Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Dickhout, Jeffrey G.; Carlisle, Rachel E.; Jerome, Danielle E.; Mohammed-Ali, Zahraa; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Guangdong; Mani, Sarathi; Garg, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Ruma; Kaufman, Randal J.; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Wang, Rui; Austin, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated stress response mediated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation maintains cellular homeostasis under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. eIF2α phosphorylation induces activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes responsible for amino acid metabolism, cellular redox state, and anti-stress responses. Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase are critical enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway, which also regulate cellular redox status by modulating glutathione (GSH) levels. To determine the link between the integrated stress response and the transsulfuration pathway, we used homocysteine (Hcy) as an inducer of eIF2α phosphorylation and ATF4 gene induction. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking ATF4 (ATF4−/−) had reduced GSH levels and increased reactive oxygen species and were susceptible to apoptotic cell death under normal culture conditions. Further, ATF4−/− MEFs were more sensitive to Hcy-induced cytotoxicity and showed significantly reduced intracellular GSH levels associated with apoptosis. ATF4−/− MEFs could be rescued from l-Hcy-induced apoptosis by β-mercaptoethanol medium supplementation that increases cysteine levels and restores GSH synthesis. ATF4−/− MEFs showed little or no CSE protein but did express cystathionine β-synthase. Further, ER stress-inducing agents, including tunicamycin and thapsigargin, induced the expression of CSE in ATF4+/+ MEFs. Consistent with ATF4−/− MEFs, CSE−/− MEFs showed significantly greater apoptosis when treated with tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and l-Hcy, compared with CSE+/+ MEFs. Liver and kidney GSH levels were also reduced in CSE−/− mice, suggesting that CSE is a critical factor in GSH synthesis and may act to protect the liver and kidney from a variety of conditions that cause ER stress. PMID:22215680

  6. Cellular Solid-State NMR Investigation of a Membrane Protein Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Caporini, Marc A.; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    While an increasing number of structural biology studies successfully demonstrate the power of high-resolution structures and dynamics of membrane proteins in fully understanding their function, there is considerable interest in developing NMR approaches to obtain such information in a cellular setting. As long as the proteins inside the living cell tumble rapidly in the NMR timescale, recently developed in-cell solution NMR approaches can be applied towards the determination of 3D structural information. However, there are numerous challenges that need to be overcome to study membrane proteins inside a cell. Research in our laboratory is focused on developing a combination of solid-state NMR and biological approaches to overcome these challenges with a specific emphasis on obtaining high-resolution structural insights into electron transfer biological processes mediated by membrane-bound proteins like mammalian cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the signal-enhancement rendered by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy for in-cell studies on a membrane-anchored protein. Our experimental results obtained from 13C-labeled membrane-anchored cytochrome b5 in native Escherichia coli cells show a ~16-fold DNP signal enhancement (ε). Further, results obtained from a 2D 13C/13C chemical shift correlation MAS experiment demonstrates that it is highly possible to suppress the background signals from other cellular contents for high-resolution structural studies on membrane proteins. We believe that this study would pave new avenues for high-resolution 3D structural studies on a variety of membrane-associated proteins and their complexes in the cellular context to fully understand their functional roles in physiological processes. PMID:25017802

  7. Cellular and circuit models of increased resting-state network gamma activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, R S; Siegel, S J

    2016-05-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disorder characterized by positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions), negative symptoms (blunted affect, alogia, reduced sociability, and anhedonia), as well as persistent cognitive deficits (memory, concentration, and learning). While the biology underlying subjective experiences is difficult to study, abnormalities in electroencephalographic (EEG) measures offer a means to dissect potential circuit and cellular changes in brain function. EEG is indispensable for studying cerebral information processing due to the introduction of techniques for the decomposition of event-related activity into its frequency components. Specifically, brain activity in the gamma frequency range (30-80Hz) is thought to underlie cognitive function and may be used as an endophenotype to aid in diagnosis and treatment of SCZ. In this review we address evidence indicating that there is increased resting-state gamma power in SCZ. We address how modeling this aspect of the illness in animals may help treatment development as well as providing insights into the etiology of SCZ. PMID:26577758

  8. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zilong; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, Veaceslav

    2016-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case. PMID:27338105

  9. Cellular Nonlinear Networks for the emergence of perceptual states: application to robot navigation control.

    PubMed

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Patané, Luca

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new general purpose perceptual control architecture, based on nonlinear neural lattices, is presented and applied to solve robot navigation tasks. Insects show the ability to react to certain stimuli with simple reflexes, using direct sensory-motor pathways, which can be considered as basic behaviors, inherited and pre-wired. Relevant brain centres, known as Mushroom Bodies (MB) and Central Complex (CX) were recently identified in insects: though their functional details are not yet fully understood, it is known that they provide secondary pathways allowing the emergence of cognitive behaviors. These are gained through the coordination of the basic abilities to satisfy the insect's needs. Taking inspiration from this evidence, our architecture modulates, through a reinforcement learning, a set of competitive and concurrent basic behaviors in order to accomplish the task assigned through a reward function. The core of the architecture is constituted by the so-called Representation layer, used to create a concise picture of the current environment situation, fusing together different stimuli for the emergence of perceptual states. These perceptual states are steady state solutions of lattices of Reaction-Diffusion Cellular Nonlinear Networks (RD-CNN), designed to show Turing patterns. The exploitation of the dynamics of the multiple equilibria of the network is emphasized through the adaptive shaping of the basins of attraction for each emerged pattern. New experimental campaigns on standard robotic platforms are reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:19596552

  10. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F.; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  11. Modelling chronotaxicity of cellular energy metabolism to facilitate the identification of altered metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Gemma; Suprunenko, Yevhen F; Jenkins, Kirsten; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular energy metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, one notable example being cancer. Here, we focus on the identification of the transition from healthy to abnormal metabolic states. To do this, we study the dynamics of energy production in a cell. Due to the thermodynamic openness of a living cell, the inability to instantaneously match fluctuating supply and demand in energy metabolism results in nonautonomous time-varying oscillatory dynamics. However, such oscillatory dynamics is often neglected and treated as stochastic. Based on experimental evidence of metabolic oscillations, we show that changes in metabolic state can be described robustly by alterations in the chronotaxicity of the corresponding metabolic oscillations, i.e. the ability of an oscillator to resist external perturbations. We also present a method for the identification of chronotaxicity, applicable to general oscillatory signals and, importantly, apply this to real experimental data. Evidence of chronotaxicity was found in glycolytic oscillations in real yeast cells, verifying that chronotaxicity could be used to study transitions between metabolic states. PMID:27483987

  12. Open boundaries in a cellular automaton model for traffic flow with metastable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlovic, Robert; Huisinga, Torsten; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2002-10-01

    The effects of open boundaries in the velocity-dependent randomization (VDR) model, a modified version of the well-known Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) cellular automaton model for traffic flow, are investigated. In contrast to the NaSch model, the VDR model exhibits metastable states and phase separation in a certain density regime. A proper insertion strategy allows us to investigate the whole spectrum of possible system states and the structure of the phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. We observe an interesting microscopic structure of the jammed phases, which is different from the one of the NaSch model. For finite systems, the existence of high flow states in a certain parameter regime leads to a special structure of the fundamental diagram measured in the open system. Apart from that, the results are in agreement with an extremal principle for the flow, which has been introduced for models with a unique flow-density relation. Finally, we discuss the application of our findings for a systematic flow optimization. Here some surprising results are obtained, e.g., a restriction of the inflow can lead to an improvement of the total flow through a bottleneck.

  13. Analytical second derivatives of excited-state energy within the time-dependent density functional theory coupled with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Liang, WanZhen

    2013-01-01

    This work extends our previous works [J. Liu and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 014113 (2011), 10.1063/1.3605504; J. Liu and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 184111 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3659312 on analytical excited-state Hessian within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to couple with a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM). The formalism, implementation, and application of analytical first and second energy derivatives of TDDFT/CPCM excited state with respect to the nuclear and electric perturbations are presented. Their performances are demonstrated by the calculations of excitation energies, excited-state geometries, and harmonic vibrational frequencies for a number of benchmark systems. The calculated results are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data or other theoretical calculations, indicating the reliability of the current computer implementation of the developed algorithms. Then we made some preliminary applications to calculate the resonant Raman spectrum of 4-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethyl-imidazolinone in ethanol solution and the infrared spectra of ground and excited states of 9-fluorenone in methanol solution.

  14. Population transfer through the continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, T.; Elk, M.; Zhang, J.; Lambropoulos, P. Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser and Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 711 10, Crete Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 )

    1994-08-01

    We show that complete population transfer is not in general possible through continuum intermediate states. We present a formal theoretical argument and supporting numerical results. In addition, the behavior of the system is compared with the well-known [Lambda] system.

  15. Parameter identification in continuum models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Crowley, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation techniques for use in numerical schemes for estimating spatially varying coefficients in continuum models such as those for Euler-Bernoulli beams are discussed. The techniques are based on quintic spline state approximations and cubic spline parameter approximations. Both theoretical and numerical results are presented.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral State-Dependent Bidirectional Modulation of Motor Cortex Output

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, Julia; Puggioni, Paolo; Dacre, Joshua; Pelko, Miha; Domanski, Aleksander; van Rossum, Mark C.W.; Duguid, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1) correlates with behavioral state, but the cellular mechanisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or suppressed) firing rate changes during movement, mediated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1) a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5Bsuppressed neurons), and (2) a coincident noradrenaline-mediated increase in excitatory drive to a subpopulation of L5B neurons (L5Benhanced neurons) that elevated firing rates. Blocking noradrenergic receptors in forelimb M1 abolished the bidirectional modulation of M1 output during movement and selectively impaired contralateral forelimb motor coordination. Together, our results provide a mechanism for how noradrenergic neuromodulation and network-driven input changes bidirectionally modulate M1 output during motor behavior. PMID:25981037

  17. Quasi-bound states and continuum absorption background of polar Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N/GaN quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Elmaghraoui, D. Triki, M.; Jaziri, S.; Leroux, M.; Brault, J.

    2014-07-07

    A theoretical interpretation of the photoluminescence excitation spectra of self-organized polar GaN/(Al,Ga)N quantum dots is presented. A numerical method assuming a realistic shape of the dots and including the built-in electric field effects is developed to calculate their energy structure and hence their optical absorption. The electron and hole spectra show the existence of a set of quasi-bound states that does not originate from the wetting layer and plays a crucial role in the observed absorption spectrum of the GaN/(Al,Ga)N dots. Transitions involving these quasi-bound states and wetting layer states give a sufficient explanation for the observed continuum absorption background. The properties of this absorption band, especially its extension, depend strongly on the dot's size. Our simulation provides a natural explanation of the experimental luminescence excitation spectra of ensembles of dots of different heights. Our theoretical model can be convenient for future optical studies including systems with more complicated potentials.

  18. Resonance and non-resonance effect of continuum states of 6Li on elastic scattering angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.

    2016-07-01

    CDCC calculations of elastic scattering angular distributions for reactions of the weakly bound projectile 6Li with targets 28Si and 58Ni at energies around the Coulomb barrier are presented. Special emphasis is given to account for the effect of couplings from 6Li resonance states l = 2, J π = 3+, 2+, 1+. Similarly, the effect produced by non-resonant state couplings is studied. The convergent calculations are carried out with global α-target and d-target interactions. The calculated elastic scattering angular distributions are in general in good agreement with the measurements for the systems considered in this work. It is found that the calculations with only resonance states are very similar to that with all couplings (resonance+non-resonance). So, the absence of these states have a strong effect on elastic scattering (non-resonance states calculation). It is shown that the effects increase as the collision energy increases. An interpretation of the strength of the different effects is given in terms of the polarization potentials that emerge from the different couplings.

  19. The Early Childhood and Elementary Education Continuum: Constructing an Understanding of P-3 as State-Level Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie Anne

    2009-01-01

    State-level policy attention to young children's early learning opportunities burgeons; a sense of urgency exists to identify reform agendas that are both effective and sustainable. "P-3" often is used as the term for the first level of a seamless P-20 system that stretches from early childhood through post-secondary education. While it is…

  20. FANTOM5 transcriptome catalog of cellular states based on Semantic MediaWiki.

    PubMed

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Shimoji, Hisashi; Sahin, Serkan; Kondo, Atsushi; Harshbarger, Jayson; Lizio, Marina; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    The Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome project (FANTOM5) mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and measured their activities in a diverse range of biological samples. The FANTOM5 project generated a large data set; including detailed information about the profiled samples, the uncovered TSSs at high base-pair resolution on the genome, their transcriptional initiation activities, and further information of transcriptional regulation. Data sets to explore transcriptome in individual cellular states encoded in the mammalian genomes have been enriched by a series of additional analysis, based on the raw experimental data, along with the progress of the research activities. To make the heterogeneous data set accessible and useful for investigators, we developed a web-based database called Semantic catalog of Samples, Transcription initiation And Regulators (SSTAR). SSTAR utilizes the open source wiki software MediaWiki along with the Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) extension, which provides flexibility to model, store, and display a series of data sets produced during the course of the FANTOM5 project. Our use of SMW demonstrates the utility of the framework for dissemination of large-scale analysis results. SSTAR is a case study in handling biological data generated from a large-scale research project in terms of maintenance and growth alongside research activities.Database URL: http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/sstar/. PMID:27402679

  1. FANTOM5 transcriptome catalog of cellular states based on Semantic MediaWiki

    PubMed Central

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Shimoji, Hisashi; Sahin, Serkan; Kondo, Atsushi; Harshbarger, Jayson; Lizio, Marina; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya

    2016-01-01

    The Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome project (FANTOM5) mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and measured their activities in a diverse range of biological samples. The FANTOM5 project generated a large data set; including detailed information about the profiled samples, the uncovered TSSs at high base-pair resolution on the genome, their transcriptional initiation activities, and further information of transcriptional regulation. Data sets to explore transcriptome in individual cellular states encoded in the mammalian genomes have been enriched by a series of additional analysis, based on the raw experimental data, along with the progress of the research activities. To make the heterogeneous data set accessible and useful for investigators, we developed a web-based database called Semantic catalog of Samples, Transcription initiation And Regulators (SSTAR). SSTAR utilizes the open source wiki software MediaWiki along with the Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) extension, which provides flexibility to model, store, and display a series of data sets produced during the course of the FANTOM5 project. Our use of SMW demonstrates the utility of the framework for dissemination of large-scale analysis results. SSTAR is a case study in handling biological data generated from a large-scale research project in terms of maintenance and growth alongside research activities. Database URL: http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/sstar/ PMID:27402679

  2. Functional Divergence of Hsp90 Genetic Interactions in Biofilm and Planktonic Cellular States

    PubMed Central

    Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is among the most prevalent opportunistic fungal pathogens. Its capacity to cause life-threatening bloodstream infections is associated with the ability to form biofilms, which are intrinsically drug resistant reservoirs for dispersal. A key regulator of biofilm drug resistance and dispersal is the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which stabilizes many signal transducers. We previously identified 226 C. albicans Hsp90 genetic interactors under planktonic conditions, of which 56 are involved in transcriptional regulation. Six of these transcriptional regulators have previously been implicated in biofilm formation, suggesting that Hsp90 genetic interactions identified in planktonic conditions may have functional significance in biofilms. Here, we explored the relationship between Hsp90 and five of these transcription factor genetic interactors: BCR1, MIG1, TEC1, TUP1, and UPC2. We deleted each transcription factor gene in an Hsp90 conditional expression strain, and assessed biofilm formation and morphogenesis. Strikingly, depletion of Hsp90 conferred no additional biofilm defect in the mutants. An interaction was observed in which deletion of BCR1 enhanced filamentation upon reduction of Hsp90 levels. Further, although Hsp90 modulates expression of TEC1, TUP1, and UPC2 in planktonic conditions, it has no impact in biofilms. Lastly, we probed for physical interactions between Hsp90 and Tup1, whose WD40 domain suggests that it might interact with Hsp90 directly. Hsp90 and Tup1 formed a stable complex, independent of temperature or developmental state. Our results illuminate a physical interaction between Hsp90 and a key transcriptional regulator of filamentation and biofilm formation, and suggest that Hsp90 has distinct genetic interactions in planktonic and biofilm cellular states. PMID:26367740

  3. Satellite Retrieval of Marine Stratocumulus Surface Coupling State and its Effect on the Clouds Cellular Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, T.; Rosenfeld, D.

    2014-12-01

    A methodology for a complete description of the marine stratocumulus clouds geometrical and microphysical properties was developed and tested. These include, among others, coupling state and cloud geometrical depth. The methodology combines simultaneous observations from several A-TRAIN instruments (CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS) and re-analysis data. Analysis of different types of Marine Stratocumulus (MSC) scenes revealed interesting features. While most of the MSC that we have analyzed existed within a coupled Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), those that existed in a de-coupled MBL, i.e., cloud layer that is de-coupled from the ocean surface, lacked the typical spatial cellular organization. It was found that the occurrence of rain within closed cells breaks and organizes them into open cells only when the clouds are coupled with the surface. Otherwise the closed cells remain as thin lightly precipitating stratiform clouds having low cloud water. The coupling state was also found to affect the ability of drizzle to break closed cells, so that closed cells in a de-coupled MBL tend to produce stronger drizzle before breaking up. We hypothesize that rain driven downdrafts hit the surface and form gust fronts that trigger convective elements, which break the cloud deck, only when the clouds are coupled to the surface. Among the other problems that can be answered by using the presented methodology is disentangling the role of large scale meteorology and aerosols on the development of precipitation (i.e., cloud depth versus droplet concentrations as a limiting factor for drizzle initiation). Examples will be shown together with their physical interpretation.

  4. Quantitative metric profiles capture three-dimensional temporospatial architecture to discriminate cellular functional states

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computational analysis of tissue structure reveals sub-visual differences in tissue functional states by extracting quantitative signature features that establish a diagnostic profile. Incomplete and/or inaccurate profiles contribute to misdiagnosis. Methods In order to create more complete tissue structure profiles, we adapted our cell-graph method for extracting quantitative features from histopathology images to now capture temporospatial traits of three-dimensional collagen hydrogel cell cultures. Cell-graphs were proposed to characterize the spatial organization between the cells in tissues by exploiting graph theory wherein the nuclei of the cells constitute the nodes and the approximate adjacency of cells are represented with edges. We chose 11 different cell types representing non-tumorigenic, pre-cancerous, and malignant states from multiple tissue origins. Results We built cell-graphs from the cellular hydrogel images and computed a large set of features describing the structural characteristics captured by the graphs over time. Using three-mode tensor analysis, we identified the five most significant features (metrics) that capture the compactness, clustering, and spatial uniformity of the 3D architectural changes for each cell type throughout the time course. Importantly, four of these metrics are also the discriminative features for our histopathology data from our previous studies. Conclusions Together, these descriptive metrics provide rigorous quantitative representations of image information that other image analysis methods do not. Examining the changes in these five metrics allowed us to easily discriminate between all 11 cell types, whereas differences from visual examination of the images are not as apparent. These results demonstrate that application of the cell-graph technique to 3D image data yields discriminative metrics that have the potential to improve the accuracy of image-based tissue profiles, and thus improve the detection

  5. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  6. [Cellular immunity state assessed in bronchial and alveolar lavage for experimental animals exposed to the rubber dust].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Karabalin, S K; Bakirova, R E

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 21 rats helped to study influence of mechanical rubber dust on cellular immunity state in bronchial and alveolar lavage, efficiency of Ruvimine for prophylaxis. Findings are that mechanical rubber dust is strongly cytotoxic. Ruvimine administration during the whole experiment demonstrates therapeutic and prophylactic effect and normalizes local pulmonary phagocytosis. PMID:15318451

  7. The plastic cellular states of liver cells: Are EpCAM and Lgr5 fit for purpose?

    PubMed

    Huch, Meritxell; Dollé, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Adult liver cells have been considered restricted regarding their fate and lineage potential. That is, hepatocytes have been thought able only to generate hepatocytes and duct cells, only duct cells. While this may be the case for the majority of scenarios in a state of quiescence or homeostasis, evidence suggests that liver cells are capable of interconverting between cellular states of distinct phenotypic traits. This interconversion or plasticity had been suggested by classical studies using cellular markers, but recently lineage tracing approaches have proven that cells are highly plastic and retain an extraordinary ability to respond differently to normal tissue homeostasis, to tissue repair, or when challenged to expand ex vivo or to differentiate upon transplantation. Stemness, as "self-renewal and multipotency," seems not to be limited to a particular cell type but rather to a cellular state in which cells exhibit a high degree of plasticity and can move back and forth in different phenotypic states. For instance, upon damage cells can dedifferentiate to acquire stem cell potential that allows them to self-renew, repopulate a damaged tissue, and then undergo differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on cellular plasticity in the liver, focusing our attention on two markers, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5, which identify cells with stem cell potential. (Hepatology 2016;64:652-662). PMID:26799921

  8. The plastic cellular states of liver cells: Are EpCAM and Lgr5 fit for purpose?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adult liver cells have been considered restricted regarding their fate and lineage potential. That is, hepatocytes have been thought able only to generate hepatocytes and duct cells, only duct cells. While this may be the case for the majority of scenarios in a state of quiescence or homeostasis, evidence suggests that liver cells are capable of interconverting between cellular states of distinct phenotypic traits. This interconversion or plasticity had been suggested by classical studies using cellular markers, but recently lineage tracing approaches have proven that cells are highly plastic and retain an extraordinary ability to respond differently to normal tissue homeostasis, to tissue repair, or when challenged to expand ex vivo or to differentiate upon transplantation. Stemness, as “self‐renewal and multipotency,” seems not to be limited to a particular cell type but rather to a cellular state in which cells exhibit a high degree of plasticity and can move back and forth in different phenotypic states. For instance, upon damage cells can dedifferentiate to acquire stem cell potential that allows them to self‐renew, repopulate a damaged tissue, and then undergo differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on cellular plasticity in the liver, focusing our attention on two markers, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and leucine‐rich repeat‐containing G protein‐coupled receptor 5, which identify cells with stem cell potential. (Hepatology 2016;64:652‐662) PMID:26799921

  9. QCD equation of state at nonzero chemical potential: continuum results with physical quark masses at order μ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsányi, Sz.; Endrődi, G.; Fodor, Z.; Katz, S. D.; Krieg, S.; Ratti, C.; Szabó, K. K.

    2012-08-01

    We determine the equation of state of QCD for nonzero chemical potentials via a Taylor expansion of the pressure. The results are obtained for N f = 2 + 1 flavors of quarks with physical masses, on various lattice spacings. We present results for the pressure, interaction measure, energy density, entropy density, and the speed of sound for small chemical potentials. At low temperatures we compare our results with the Hadron Resonance Gas model. We also express our observables along trajectories of constant entropy over particle number. A simple parameterization is given (the Matlab/Octave script parameterization.m, submitted to the arXiv along with the paper), which can be used to reconstruct the observables as functions of T and μ, or as functions of T and S/N.

  10. "Caught in the Continuum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of Steve Taylor's Caught in the Continuum. Steve Taylor describes the flawed thinking associated with the "least restrictive environment" (LRE) principle and the related continuum model of human services that linked severity of disability with segregation, and required improvements in skills as a…

  11. Studies of yrast and continuum states in A=140-160 nuclei. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980. [Purdue Univ. , 1/1/80-12/31/80

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of nuclei in the A approx. 150 region was investigated by in-beam ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy using heavy-ion beams, mostly from the Argonne Tandem-Linac. Results for the nuclei /sup 148/Dy, /sup 149/Dy, /sup 153/Dy, /sup 154/Dy, /sup 149/Ho, and /sup 150/Ho are summarized. The feeding of yrast states in these nuclei and the link between the highest known yrast states and the continuum region were also studied. 6 figures.

  12. Continuum radiation at Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S.; Gurnett, D.A. ); Desch, M.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Uranus has proven to be a radio source of remarkable complexity with as many as six distinctly different types of emission. One Uranian radio emission which has thus far escaped attention is an analog of continuum radiation at Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. The emission is found to be propagating in the ordinary mode in the range of one to a few kHz on the inbound leg of the Voyager 2 encounter, shortly after the magnetopause crossing. The continuum radiation spectrum at Uranus also includes bands with frequencies as high as 12 kHz or greater on both the inbound and outbound legs. The Uranian continuum radiation is notably weak, making it more like that detected at Saturn than the extremely intense Jovian continuum radiation. The Uranian emission shows some evidence for narrow-band components lying in the same frequency regime as the continuum, completing the analogy with the other planets, which also show narrow-band components superimposed on the continuum spectrum. The authors argue that the low intensity of the Uranian continuum is most likely related to the lack of a density cavity within the Uranian magnetosphere that is deep relative to the solar wind plasma density.

  13. Boundary-corrected four-body continuum-intermediate-state method: Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by fast nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2015-06-01

    Single charge exchange in collisions between bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems at intermediate and high incident energies is examined by using the four-body formalism of the first- and second-order theories. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the relative importance of the intermediate ionization continua of the captured electron compared to the usual direct path of the single electron transfer from a target to a projectile. In order to achieve this goal, comprehensive comparisons are made between the four-body boundary-corrected continuum-intermediate-states (BCIS-4B) method and the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) method. The perturbation potential is the same in the CB1-4B and BCIS-4B methods. Both methods satisfy the correct boundary conditions in the entrance and exit channels. However, unlike the CB1-4B method, the second-order BCIS-4B method takes into account the electronic Coulomb continuum-intermediate states in either the entrance or the exit channel depending on whether the post or the prior version of the transition amplitude is used. Hence, by comparing the results from these two theories, the relative importance of the intermediate ionization electronic continua can be assessed within the four-body formalism of scattering theory. The BCIS-4B method predicts the usual second-order effect through double scattering of the captured electron on two nuclei as a quantum-mechanical counterpart of the Thomas classical two-step, billiard-type collision. The physical mechanism for this effect in the BCIS-4B method is also comprised of two steps such that ionization occurs first. This is followed by capture of the electron by the projectile with both processes taking place on the energy shell. Moreover, the role of the second, noncaptured electron in a heliumlike target is revisited. To this end, the BCIS-4B method describes the effect of capture of one electron by the interaction of the projectile nucleus with

  14. Kernel Continuum Regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hee; Liu, Yufeng

    2013-12-01

    The continuum regression technique provides an appealing regression framework connecting ordinary least squares, partial least squares and principal component regression in one family. It offers some insight on the underlying regression model for a given application. Moreover, it helps to provide deep understanding of various regression techniques. Despite the useful framework, however, the current development on continuum regression is only for linear regression. In many applications, nonlinear regression is necessary. The extension of continuum regression from linear models to nonlinear models using kernel learning is considered. The proposed kernel continuum regression technique is quite general and can handle very flexible regression model estimation. An efficient algorithm is developed for fast implementation. Numerical examples have demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed technique. PMID:24058224

  15. Rapid induction and persistence of paracrine-induced cellular antiviral states arrest viral infection spread in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Emily A; Swick, Adam; Yin, John

    2016-09-01

    The virus/host interaction is a complex interplay between pro- and anti-viral factors that ultimately determines the spread or halt of virus infections in tissues. This interplay develops over multiple rounds of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine how cellular-level processes combine to impact the spatial spread of infection. We measured the kinetics of virus replication (VSV), antiviral paracrine signal upregulation and secretion, spatial spread of virus and paracrine antiviral signaling, and inhibition of virus production in antiviral-exposed A549 human lung epithelial cells. We found that initially infected cells released antiviral signals 4-to-7h following production of virus. However, the subsequent rapid dissemination of signal and fast induction of a robust and persistent antiviral state ultimately led to a suppression of infection spread. This work shows how cellular responses to infection and activation of antiviral responses can integrate to ultimately control infection spread across host cell populations. PMID:27254596

  16. The Aquatic Systems Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The Aquatic Systems Continuum is a proposed framework for interrelating the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of aquatic ecosystems. The continuum can be represented by a three-dimensional matrix that relates aquatic ecosystems to their position within hydrologic flow paths (x-axis, a spatial dimension) and their response to climate variability (y-axis). The z-axis describes the structure of biological communities as they relate to the hydrological conditions defined by the x and y axes. The concept is an extension of the Wetland Continuum that was derived from field studies of a prairie pothole wetland complex in North Dakota. At that site, the hydrologic continuum in space is defined by ground-water flow systems. The wetlands are surface-water expressions of larger ground-water watersheds, in which wetlands serve recharge, flow-through, and discharge functions with respect to ground water. The water balance of the wetlands is dominated by precipitation and evaporation. However, the interaction of the wetlands with ground water, although a small part of their water budget, provides the primary control on delivery of major solutes to and from the wetlands. Having monitored these wetlands for more than 25 years, during which time the site had a complete range of climate conditions from drought to deluge, the response of the aquatic communities to a wide variety of climate conditions has been well documented. The Aquatic Systems Continuum extends the model provided by the Wetland Continuum to include rivers and their interaction with ground water. As a result, both ground water and surface water are used to describe terrestrial water flows for all types of aquatic ecosystems. By using the Aquatic Systems Continuum to describe the hydrologic flow paths in all types of terrain, including exchange with atmospheric water, it is possible to design studies, monitoring programs, and management plans for nearly any type of aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Diversification of importin-α isoforms in cellular trafficking and disease states

    PubMed Central

    Pumroy, Ruth A.; Cingolani, Gino

    2015-01-01

    The human genome encodes seven isoforms of importin α which are grouped into three subfamilies known as α1, α2 and α3. All isoforms share a fundamentally conserved architecture that consists of an N-terminal, autoinhibitory, importin-β-binding (IBB) domain and a C-terminal Arm (Armadillo)-core that associates with nuclear localization signal (NLS) cargoes. Despite striking similarity in amino acid sequence and 3D structure, importin-α isoforms display remarkable substrate specificity in vivo. In the present review, we look at key differences among importin-α isoforms and provide a comprehensive inventory of known viral and cellular cargoes that have been shown to associate preferentially with specific isoforms. We illustrate how the diversification of the adaptor importin α into seven isoforms expands the dynamic range and regulatory control of nucleocytoplasmic transport, offering unexpected opportunities for pharmacological intervention. The emerging view of importin α is that of a key signalling molecule, with isoforms that confer preferential nuclear entry and spatiotemporal specificity on viral and cellular cargoes directly linked to human diseases. PMID:25656054

  18. Perturbation of cellular oxidative state induced by dichloroacetate and arsenic trioxide for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Sadowska, Mariola; Carter-Cooper, Brandon; Bhatnagar, Vishal; van der Merwe, Isabella; Levis, Mark J; Sausville, Edward A; Lapidus, Rena G

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rising and the outcome of current therapy, which has not changed significantly in the last 40 years, is suboptimal. Cellular oxidative state is a credible target to selectively eradicate AML cells, because it is a fundamental property of each cell that is sufficiently different between leukemic and normal cells, yet its aberrancy shared among different AML cells. To this end, we tested whether a short-time treatment of AML cells, including cells with FLT3-ITD mutation, with sub-lethal dose of dichloroacetate (DCA) (priming) followed by pharmacologic dose of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in presence of low-dose DCA could produce insurmountable level of oxidative damage that kill AML cells. Using cellular cytotoxicity, apoptotic and metabolic assays with both established AML cell lines and primary AML cells, we found that priming with DCA significantly potentiated the cytotoxicity of ATO in AML cells in a synergistic manner. The combination decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as expression of Mcl-1 and GPx in primary AML cells more than either drug alone. One patient with AML whose disease was refractory to several lines of prior treatments was treated with this combination, and tolerated it well. These data suggest that targeting cellular redox balance in leukemia may provide a therapeutic option for AML patients with relapsed/refractory disease. PMID:25982179

  19. A study of high-temperature heat pipes with multiple heat sources and sinks. I - Experimental methodology and frozen startup profiles. II - Analysis of continuum transient and steady-state experimental data with numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, A.; Cao, Y.; Buchko, M.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental profiles for heat pipe startup from the frozen state were obtained, using a high-temperature sodium/stainless steel pipe with multiple heat sources and sinks to investigate the startup behavior of the heat pipe for various heat loads and input locations, with both low and high heat rejection rates at the condensor. The experimental results of the performance characteristics for the continuum transient and steady-state operation of the heat pipe were analyzed, and the performance limits for operation with varying heat fluxes and location are determined.

  20. A cellular automaton model of the steady-state free'' growth of a non-isothermal dendrite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.G.R.; Williams, T.; Spittle, J.A. . Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    A 2D cellular automaton model has been developed to study the steady-state free'' growth of a non-isothermal dendrite. The model incorporates rules to account for heat diffusion, the influence of curvature on the equilibrium freezing temperature and latent heat evolution. The model predicts a V [proportional to] [Delta]T[sup b] growth rate-undercooling relationship for the various dendrite tip growth temperatures selected. The prediction of the values of b accords reasonably with analytical models and reported experimental observations.

  1. Examining the Psychosis Continuum

    PubMed Central

    DeRosse, Pamela; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that psychosis may exist on a continuum with normal experience has been proposed in multiple forms throughout the history of psychiatry. However, in recent years there has been an exponential increase in efforts aimed at elucidating what has been termed the ‘psychosis continuum’. The present review seeks to summarize some of the more basic characteristics of this continuum and to present some of the recent findings that provide support for its validity. While there is still considerable work to be done, the emerging data holds considerable promise for advancing our understanding of both risk and resilience to psychiatric disorders characterized by psychosis. PMID:26052479

  2. Disordered cellular automaton traffic flow model: phase separated state, density waves and self organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourrate, K.; Loulidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a disordered traffic flow model that captures many features of traffic flow. It is an extension of the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) stochastic cellular automata for single line vehicular traffic model. It incorporates random acceleration and deceleration terms that may be greater than one unit. Our model leads under its intrinsic dynamics, for high values of braking probability pr, to a constant flow at intermediate densities without introducing any spatial inhomogeneities. For a system of fast drivers pr→0, the model exhibits a density wave behavior that was observed in car following models with optimal velocity. The gap of the disordered model we present exhibits, for high values of pr and random deceleration, at a critical density, a power law distribution which is a hall mark of a self organized criticality phenomena.

  3. A cellular and molecular mosaic establishes growth and differentiation states for cranial sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Beverly A; A Bryan, Corey; Paronett, Elizabeth M; Baker, Jennifer L; Fernandez, Alejandra; Horvath, Anelia; Maynard, Thomas M; Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-S

    2016-07-15

    We compared apparent origins, cellular diversity and regulation of initial axon growth for differentiating cranial sensory neurons. We assessed the molecular and cellular composition of the developing olfactory and otic placodes, and cranial sensory ganglia to evaluate contributions of ectodermal placode versus neural crest at each site. Special sensory neuron populations-the olfactory and otic placodes, as well as those in vestibulo-acoustic ganglion- are entirely populated with cells expressing cranial placode-associated, rather than neural crest-associated markers. The remaining cranial sensory ganglia are a mosaic of cells that express placode-associated as well as neural crest-associated markers. We found two distinct populations of neural crest in the cranial ganglia: the first, as expected, is labeled by Wnt1:Cre mediated recombination. The second is not labeled by Wnt1:Cre recombination, and expresses both Sox10 and FoxD3. These populations-Wnt1:Cre recombined, and Sox10/Foxd3-expressing- are proliferatively distinct from one another. Together, the two neural crest-associated populations are substantially more proliferative than their placode-associated counterparts. Nevertheless, the apparently placode- and neural crest-associated populations are similarly sensitive to altered signaling that compromises cranial morphogenesis and differentiation. Acute disruption of either Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Retinoic acid (RA) signaling alters axon growth and cell death, but does not preferentially target any of the three distinct populations. Apparently, mosaic derivation and diversity of precursors and early differentiating neurons, modulated uniformly by local signals, supports early cranial sensory neuron differentiation and growth. PMID:26988119

  4. A computational model of skeletal muscle metabolism linking cellular adaptations induced by altered loading states to metabolic responses during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Ranjan K; DiBella, John A; Cabrera, Marco E

    2007-01-01

    Background The alterations in skeletal muscle structure and function after prolonged periods of unloading are initiated by the chronic lack of mechanical stimulus of sufficient intensity, which is the result of a series of biochemical and metabolic interactions spanning from cellular to tissue/organ level. Reduced activation of skeletal muscle alters the gene expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms to meet the functional demands of reduced mechanical load, which results in muscle atrophy and reduced capacity to process fatty acids. In contrast, chronic loading results in the opposite pattern of adaptations. Methods To quantify interactions among cellular and skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations, and to predict metabolic responses to exercise after periods of altered loading states, we develop a computational model of skeletal muscle metabolism. The governing model equations – with parameters characterizing chronic loading/unloading states- were solved numerically to simulate metabolic responses to moderate intensity exercise (WR ≤ 40% VO2 max). Results Model simulations showed that carbohydrate oxidation was 8.5% greater in chronically unloaded muscle compared with the loaded muscle (0.69 vs. 0.63 mmol/min), while fat oxidation was 7% higher in chronically loaded muscle (0.14 vs. 0.13 mmol/min), during exercise. Muscle oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood flow (Q) response times were 29% and 44% shorter in chronically loaded muscle (0.4 vs. 0.56 min for VO2 and 0.25 vs. 0.45 min for Q). Conclusion The present model can be applied to test complex hypotheses during exercise involving the integration and control of metabolic processes at various organizational levels (cellular to tissue) in individuals who have undergone periods of chronic loading or unloading. PMID:17448235

  5. Teacher Education: A Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document is a theme issue of the journal "Momentum", devoted to the topic "Teacher Education: A Continuum." It contains 15 articles in the central section and 7 articles in a special section subtitled "The Multicultural Challenge." The following articles on the central theme are presented: (1) "Closing the Gap" concerns fusing the college and…

  6. The Creativity Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Children are innately creative, and the youngest often are the most original because they have yet to be influenced by the creativity of others. One way to think of creative expression is as a continuum. At one end is originality, or the creation of something wholly new, "original." At the other end is replication, or the re-creation of something…

  7. The Continuum of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rud, A. G.; Garrison, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between "apophatic" and "cataphatic" listening is defined and analyzed. "Apophatic" listening is more or less devoid of cognitivist claims, whereas "cataphatic" listening involves cognition and questioning. Many of the papers in this volume are discussed along the continuum determined by these two types of listening.…

  8. Extragalactic continuum sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, E.

    1989-09-01

    As with most other high-frequency radio telescopes, continuum work occupies only a small fraction - currently about 5% - of SEST's total time. The importance of these observations in increasing our understanding of quasars and other extragalactic sources is, however, large.

  9. Multiplexed mass cytometry profiling of cellular states perturbed by small-molecule regulators

    PubMed Central

    Bodenmiller, Bernd; Zunder, Eli R.; Finck, Rachel; Chen, Tiffany J.; Savig, Erica S.; Bruggner, Robert V.; Simonds, Erin F.; Bendall, Sean C.; Sachs, Karen; Krutzik, Peter O.; Nolan, Garry P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to comprehensively explore the impact of bio-active molecules on human samples at the single-cell level can provide great insight for biomedical research. Mass cytometry enables quantitative single-cell analysis with deep dimensionality, but currently lacks high-throughput capability. Here we report a method termed mass-tag cellular barcoding (MCB) that increases mass cytometry throughput by sample multiplexing. 96-well format MCB was used to characterize human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) signaling dynamics, cell-to-cell communication, the signaling variability between 8 donors, and to define the impact of 27 inhibitors on this system. For each compound, 14 phosphorylation sites were measured in 14 PBMC types, resulting in 18,816 quantified phosphorylation levels from each multiplexed sample. This high-dimensional systems-level inquiry allowed analysis across cell-type and signaling space, reclassified inhibitors, and revealed off-target effects. MCB enables high-content, high-throughput screening, with potential applications for drug discovery, pre-clinical testing, and mechanistic investigation of human disease. PMID:22902532

  10. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms, risk factors and management of preterm birth: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Rossetti, D; Belluomo, G; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is usually defined as a delivery before 37 completed weeks or 259 days of gestation. World Health Organization estimates a worldwide incidence of PTB of 9.6%. Infants born preterm are at higher risks than infants born at term for mortality, and acute and chronic morbidity. Major causes of PTB are the following: spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes (50%), labor induction or caesarean delivery for maternal or fetal indications (30%), and preterm premature rupture of membranes or PPROM (20%). The aim of this review is to analyze this medical condition, focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms, maternal risk factors and role of inflammation and infections in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and PTB. Moreover we will discuss about the proper therapeutic strategies for its management. Although different methods have been introduced to predict the advent of preterm labour in asymptomatic women, possibilities for real primary prevention are rare. An early estimation of potential risk factors is pivotal in the secondary prevention of PTB. Finally most efforts so far have been tertiary interventions. These measures have reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality. Advances in primary and secondary care will be needed to prevent prematurity-related illness in infants and children. PMID:25373016

  11. Mitoplasticity: adaptation biology of the mitochondrion to the cellular redox state in physiology and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jose, Caroline; Melser, Su; Benard, Giovanni; Rossignol, Rodrigue

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation and transformation biology of the mitochondrion to redox status is an emerging domain of physiology and pathophysiology. Mitochondrial adaptations occur in response to accidental changes in cellular energy demand or supply while mitochondrial transformations are a part of greater program of cell metamorphosis. The possible role of mitochondrial adaptations and transformations in pathogenesis remains unexplored, and it has become critical to decipher the stimuli and the underlying molecular pathways. Immediate activation of mitochondrial function was described during acute exercise, respiratory chain injury, Endoplasmic Reticulum stress, genotoxic stress, or environmental toxic insults. Delayed adaptations of mitochondrial form, composition, and functions were evidenced for persistent changes in redox status as observed in endurance training, in fibroblasts grown in presence of respiratory chain inhibitors or in absence of glucose, in the smooth muscle of patients with severe asthma, or in the skeletal muscle of patients with a mitochondrial disease. Besides, mitochondrial transformations were observed in the course of human cell differentiation, during immune response activation, or in cells undergoing carcinogenesis. Little is known on the signals and downstream pathways that govern mitochondrial adaptations and transformations. Few adaptative loops, including redox sensors, kinases, and transcription factors were deciphered, but their implication in physiology and pathology remains elusive. Mitoplasticity could play a protective role against aging, diabetes, cancer, or neurodegenerative diseases. Research on adaptation and transformation could allow the design of innovative therapies, notably in cancer. PMID:22989324

  12. Chemical tagging and customizing of cellular chromatin states using ultrafast trans-splicing inteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Yael; Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Verma, Shivam; Muir, Tom W.

    2015-05-01

    Post-translational modification of the histone proteins in chromatin plays a central role in the epigenetic control of DNA-templated processes in eukaryotic cells. Developing methods that enable the structure of histones to be manipulated is, therefore, essential to understand the biochemical mechanisms that underlie genomic regulation. Here we present a synthetic biology method to engineer histones that bear site-specific modifications on cellular chromatin using protein trans-splicing (PTS). We genetically fused the N-terminal fragment of ultrafast split intein to the C terminus of histone H2B, which, on reaction with a complementary synthetic C intein, generated labelled histone. Using this approach, we incorporated various non-native chemical modifications into chromatin in vivo with temporal control. Furthermore, the time and concentration dependence of PTS performed in nucleo enabled us to examine differences in the accessibility of the euchromatin and heterochromatin regions of the epigenome. Finally, we used PTS to semisynthesize a native histone modification, H2BK120 ubiquitination, in isolated nuclei and showed that this can trigger downstream epigenetic crosstalk of H3K79 methylation.

  13. Chemical Fluxes in Cellular Steady States Measured by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Elson, Elliot L.

    Genetically, identical cells adopt phenotypes that have different structures, functions, and metabolic properties. In multi-cellular organisms, for example, tissue-specific phenotypes distinguish muscle cells, liver cells, fibroblasts, and blood cells that differ in biochemical functions, geometric forms, and interactions with extracellular environments. Tissue-specific cells usually have different metabolic functions such as synthesis of distinct spectra of secreted proteins, e.g., by liver or pancreatic cells, or of structural proteins, e.g., muscle vs. epithelial cells. But more importantly, a phenotype should include a dynamic aspect: different phenotypes can have distinctly different dynamic functions such as contraction of muscle cells and locomotion of leukocytes. The phenotypes of differentiated tissue cells are typically stable, but they can respond to changes in external conditions, e.g., as in the hypertrophy of muscle cells in response to extra load [1] or the phenotypic shift of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts as part of the wound healing response [2]. Cells pass through sequences of phenotypes during development and also undergo malignant phenotypic transformations as occur in cancer and heart disease.

  14. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  15. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4 - I. A focus on the continuum in the low/hard and high/soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahoui, F.; Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Lee, J. C.; Rodriguez, J.; Russell, D. M.; Migliari, S.

    2012-05-01

    The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about 15 yr. An extensive radio to X-ray multiwavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on European Southern Observatory/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by Australia Telescope Compact Array radio and Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to an M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined with disc irradiation and perhaps another component peaking in the ultraviolet. The spectral break where the jet transits from the optically thick to thin regimes, located below 1.20 × 1014 Hz, is not detected and the extension of the optically thin synchrotron is consistent with the 3-50 keV spectrum. In contrast, the emission during the second hard state is more difficult to understand and points towards a more complex jet continuum. In both cases, the near-infrared continuum is found to be variable at time-scales at least as short as 20 s, although these variabilities are smoothed out beyond a few hundred seconds. This implies rapid variations - in flux and frequency - of the location of the spectral break, i.e. dramatic short time-scale changes of the physical conditions at the base of the jet, such as the magnetic field and/or the base radius. a Same as DISKBB.

  16. Unified ab initio approach to bound and unbound states: No-core shell model with continuum and its application to 7He

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Simone; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2013-03-26

    In this study, we introduce a unified approach to nuclear bound and continuum states based on the coupling of the no-core shell model (NCSM), a bound-state technique, with the no-core shell model/resonating group method (NCSM/RGM), a nuclear scattering technique. This new ab initio method, no-core shell model with continuum (NCSMC), leads to convergence properties superior to either NCSM or NCSM/RGM while providing a balanced approach to different classes of states. In the NCSMC, the ansatz for the many-nucleon wave function includes (i) a square-integrable A-nucleon component expanded in a complete harmonic oscillator basis and (ii) a binary-cluster component with asymptotic boundary conditions that can properly describe weakly bound states, resonances, and scattering. The Schrödinger equation is transformed into a system of coupled-channel integral-differential equations that we solve using a modified microscopic R-matrix formalism within a Lagrange mesh basis. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by investigating the unbound 7He nucleus.

  17. [Toxicological assessment of nanostructured silica. III. Microecological, hematological indices, state of cellular immunity].

    PubMed

    Shumakova, A A; Efimochkina, N R; Minaeva, L P; Bykova, I B; Batishchava, S Yu; Markova, Yu M; Trushina, E N; Mustafina, O K; Sharanova, N E; Gmoshinsky, I V; Khanferyan, R A; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A; Tutelyan, V A

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of publications on the experimental study of subacute oral toxicity of nanostructured silicon dioxide (SiO2). We used commercial nanostructured SiO2, obtained by hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane in the gaseous phase, with the size of the primary nanoparticles (NPs) of 5-30 nm. The aqueous dispersion of SiO2 after treatment with ultrasound was administered to rats with initial weight of 80 +/- 5 g for the first 30 days by intragastric gavage and further for 60 days with diets in doses of 0.1; 1.0; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day. Animals of the control group were treated with deionized water. The amount of basic and transient populations of gut microbiocenosis, hematological indexes were measured using standard methods. Specific content of the B-lymphocytes (CD45RA+), total T-lymphocytes (CD3+), T-helper cells (CD4+), T-cytotoxic cells (CD8+), NK-cells (CD161a+) in general population of lymphocytes was evaluated byflow cytometry; serum cytokine levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 were determined by ELISA. No significant changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota populations regardless of the dose of administered nanomaterial have been found. This gave reason to believe that the postulated mechanism of the toxic effects of the NPs of SiO2, mediated by modification of the composition of the intestinal microflora and the corresponding changes in its functional activity, apparently, is not realized. The main target of nanostructured SiO2 was the T-cellular system of the immune system of animals, that was manifested in the significant decrease of the number of leukocytes (33%), number of T-helper cells (13%), CD4/CD8 ratio (27%) and increasing the number of cytotoxic lymphocytes (19%) and the level of TNF-alpha (590%). The value of the maximum dose (NOAEL) of nanostructured SiO2, has no effect on T-cell immunity was not more than 100 mg/kg body weight per day. PMID:26852532

  18. Evidence for transcriptional and post-translational regulation of sucrose synthase in pea nodules by the cellular redox state.

    PubMed

    Marino, Daniel; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge; Moran, Jose F; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2008-05-01

    Nitrogen fixation (NF) in legume nodules is very sensitive to environmental constraints. Nodule sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) has been suggested to play a crucial role in those circumstances because its downregulation leads to an impaired glycolytic carbon flux and, therefore, a depletion of carbon substrates for bacteroids. In the present study, the likelihood of SS being regulated by oxidative signaling has been addressed by the in vivo supply of paraquat (PQ) to nodulated pea plants and the in vitro effects of oxidizing and reducing agents on nodule SS. PQ produced cellular redox imbalance leading to an inhibition of NF. This was preceded by the downregulation of SS gene expression, protein content, and activity. In vitro, oxidizing agents were able to inhibit SS activity and this inhibition was completely reversed by the addition of dithiothreitol. The overall results are consistent with a regulation model of nodule SS exerted by the cellular redox state at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. The importance of such mechanisms for the regulation of NF in response to environmental stresses are discussed. PMID:18393622

  19. Conway's game of life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Kinouchi, Osame

    2014-05-01

    Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ =0) and an active phase density, with ρ =0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ2D≈0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction."

  20. Conway's Game of Life is a near-critical metastable state in the multiverse of cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Reia, Sandro M; Kinouchi, Osame

    2014-05-01

    Conway's cellular automaton Game of Life has been conjectured to be a critical (or quasicritical) dynamical system. This criticality is generally seen as a continuous order-disorder transition in cellular automata (CA) rule space. Life's mean-field return map predicts an absorbing vacuum phase (ρ = 0) and an active phase density, with ρ = 0.37, which contrasts with Life's absorbing states in a square lattice, which have a stationary density of ρ(2D) ≈ 0.03. Here, we study and classify mean-field maps for 6144 outer-totalistic CA and compare them with the corresponding behavior found in the square lattice. We show that the single-site mean-field approach gives qualitative (and even quantitative) predictions for most of them. The transition region in rule space seems to correspond to a nonequilibrium discontinuous absorbing phase transition instead of a continuous order-disorder one. We claim that Life is a quasicritical nucleation process where vacuum phase domains invade the alive phase. Therefore, Life is not at the "border of chaos," but thrives on the "border of extinction." PMID:25353755

  1. Delayed effects of low-dose radiation on cellular immunity in atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloom, E T; Akiyama, M; Kusunoki, Y; Makinodan, T

    1987-05-01

    Several parameters of cellular immune function were assessed among persons who survived the 1945 atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki but who now reside in the United States. The subjects in this study were exposed to various low doses (T65D) of radiation at the time of the bomb. More than half received an estimated 0 Gy (S0 group). Of those exposed to more radiation (S+ group), nearly 90% received less than 0.50 Gy (50 rad). Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of these individuals and were assessed for the following parameters of cellular immunity: mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin, mitogenic response to allogeneic lymphocytes, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), and interferon production. In every case, the response of the S+ group was greater than that of the S0 group, although only the difference for NCMC was statistically significant. Results of studies presently being performed on A-bomb survivors residing in Hiroshima do not confirm this difference. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the increase in natural cytotoxicity observed among the American and not the Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to very low doses of radiation is a hormetic effect which was modulated by post-radiation environmental conditions or a result of selective migration. PMID:3570796

  2. A continuum model of transcriptional bursting

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Adam M; Tunnacliffe, Edward; Cannon, Danielle; Chubb, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Transcription occurs in stochastic bursts. Early models based upon RNA hybridisation studies suggest bursting dynamics arise from alternating inactive and permissive states. Here we investigate bursting mechanism in live cells by quantitative imaging of actin gene transcription, combined with molecular genetics, stochastic simulation and probabilistic modelling. In contrast to early models, our data indicate a continuum of transcriptional states, with a slowly fluctuating initiation rate converting the gene between different levels of activity, interspersed with extended periods of inactivity. We place an upper limit of 40 s on the lifetime of fluctuations in elongation rate, with initiation rate variations persisting an order of magnitude longer. TATA mutations reduce the accessibility of high activity states, leaving the lifetime of on- and off-states unchanged. A continuum or spectrum of gene states potentially enables a wide dynamic range for cell responses to stimuli. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13051.001 PMID:26896676

  3. Preformed Soluble Chemoreceptor Trimers That Mimic Cellular Assembly States and Activate CheA Autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial chemoreceptors associate with the histidine kinase CheA and coupling protein CheW to form extended membrane arrays that receive and transduce environmental signals. A receptor trimers-of-dimers resides at each vertex of the hexagonal protein lattice. CheA is fully activated and regulated when it is integrated into the receptor assembly. To mimic these states in solution, we have engineered chemoreceptor cytoplasmic kinase-control modules (KCMs) based on the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar that are covalently fused and trimerized by a foldon domain (TarFO). Small-angle X-ray scattering, multi-angle light scattering, and pulsed-dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy of spin-labeled proteins indicate that the TarFO modules assemble into homogeneous trimers wherein the protein interaction regions closely associate at the end opposite to the foldon domains. The TarFO variants greatly increase the saturation levels of phosphorylated CheA (CheA-P), indicating that the association with a trimer of receptor dimers changes the fraction of active kinase. However, the rate constants for CheA-P formation with the Tar variants are low compared to those for autophosphorylation by free CheA, and net phosphotransfer from CheA to CheY does not increase commensurately with CheA autophosphorylation. Thus, the Tar variants facilitate slow conversion to an active form of CheA that then undergoes stable autophosphorylation and is capable of subsequent phosphotransfer to CheY. Free CheA is largely incapable of phosphorylation but contains a small active fraction. Addition of TarFO to CheA promotes a planar conformation of the regulatory domains consistent with array models for the assembly state of the ternary complex and different from that observed with a single inhibitory receptor. Introduction of TarFO into E. coli cells activates endogenous CheA to produce increased clockwise flagellar rotation, with the effects increasing in the presence of the chemotaxis

  4. Ionization states, cellular toxicity and molecular modeling studies of midazolam complexed with trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Sohajda, Tamás; Puskás, István; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens-Albert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the ionization profiles for open-ring (OR) and closed-ring (CR) forms of midazolam and drug-binding modes with heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin; TRIMEB) using molecular modeling techniques and quantum mechanics methods. The results indicated that the total net charges for different molecular forms of midazolam tend to be cationic for OR and neutral for CR at physiological pH levels. The thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that CR is less water-soluble than OR, mainly due to the maximal solvation energy (ΔG(CR)(solv = -9.98 kcal·mol ⁻¹), which has a minimal ΔG(OR)(solv) of -67.01 kcal·mol⁻¹. A cell viability assay did not detect any signs of TRIMEB and OR/CR-TRIMEB complex toxicity on the cEND cells after 24 h of incubation in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium or in heat-inactivated human serum. The molecular docking studies identified the more flexible OR form of midazolam as being a better binder to TRIMEB with the fluorophenyl ring introduced inside the amphiphilic cavity of the host molecule. The OR binding affinity was confirmed by a minimal Gibbs free energy of binding (ΔG(bind)) value of -5.57 ± 0.02 kcal·mol⁻¹, an equilibrium binding constant (K(b)) of 79.89 ± 2.706 μM, and a ligand efficiency index (LE(lig)) of -0.21 ± 0.001. Our current data suggest that in order to improve the clinical applications of midazolam via its complexation with trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin to increase drug's overall aqueous solubility, it is important to concern the different forms and ionization states of this anesthetic. All mean values are indicated with their standard deviations. PMID:25338177

  5. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  6. Role of the cellular oxidation-reduction state in methotrexate binding to dihydrofolate reductase and dissociation induced by reduced folates.

    PubMed

    Matherly, L H; Anderson, L A; Goldman, I D

    1984-06-01

    5-Formyltetrahydrofolate promotes the net dissociation of methotrexate bound to dihydrofolate reductase in the Ehrlich ascites tumor (L. H. Matherly et al., Cancer Res., 43: 2694-2699, 1983). Treatment of Ehrlich tumor cells with glucose or inhibitors of electron transfer stabilized the association of the antifolate with dihydrofolate reductase as reflected by a 2-fold increased fraction of dihydrofolate reductase-bound methotrexate and an abolition of the 5-formyltetrahydrofolate-induced dissociation of the inhibitor-enzyme complex. Glucose and azide were also found to increase the intracellular ratio of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) in the tumor approximately 8- and 11-fold, respectively. However, other agents which enhanced the association between methotrexate and its target enzyme were less effective in increasing the intracellular level of NADPH relative to NADP+. Micromolar concentrations of NADPH promoted methotrexate binding to the purified Ehrlich tumor dihydrofolate reductase. Bound methotrexate could be dissociated from the purified enzyme by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate but less readily by 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and only in the presence of reduced levels of NADPH relative to NADP+. The tetraglutamate derivative of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was even more effective than the underivatized compound in dissociating methotrexate from dihydrofolate reductase. These findings suggest a critical role for the cellular oxidation-reduction state in determining the affinity of dihydrofolate reductase for methotrexate and thus the cellular sensitivity to the antifolate. In addition, the data are consistent with the possibility that dihydrofolate reductase is a key locus for intracellular competitive interactions between reduced folates and methotrexate during leucovorin rescue from the pharmacological effects of the antifolate. PMID:6609765

  7. Micropolar continuum in spatial description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Elena A.; Vilchevskaya, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Within the spatial description, it is customary to refer thermodynamic state quantities to an elementary volume fixed in space containing an ensemble of particles. During its evolution, the elementary volume is occupied by different particles, each having its own mass, tensor of inertia, angular and linear velocities. The aim of the present paper is to answer the question of how to determine the inertial and kinematic characteristics of the elementary volume. In order to model structural transformations due to the consolidation or defragmentation of particles or anisotropic changes, one should consider the fact that the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume may change. This means that an additional constitutive equation must be formulated. The paper suggests kinetic equations for the tensor of inertia of the elementary volume. It also discusses the specificity of the inelastic polar continuum description within the framework of the spatial description.

  8. Kilometric Continuum Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Boardsen, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Kilometric continuum (KC) is the high frequency component (approximately 100 kHz to approximately 800 kHz) of nonthermal continuum (NTC). Unlike the lower frequency portion of NTC (approximately 5 kHz to approximately 100 kHz) whose source is around the dawn sector, the source of KC occurs at all magnetic local times. The latitudinal beaming of KC as observed by GEOTAIL is, for most events, restricted to plus or minus 15 degrees magnetic latitude. KC has been observed during periods of both low and strong geomagnetic activity, with no significant correlation of wave intensity with K(sub p), index. However statistically the maximum observed frequency of KC emission tends to increase with K(sub p) index, the effect is more pronounced around solar maximum, but is also detected near solar minimum. There is strong evidence that the source region of KC is from the equatorial plasmapause during periods when a portion of the plasmapause moves significantly inwards from its nominal position. Case studies have shown that KC emissions are nearly always associated with plasmaspheric notches, shoulders, and tails. There is a recent focus on trying to understand the banded frequency structure of this emission and its relationship to plasmaspheric density ducts and irregularities in the source region.

  9. Continuum lowering - A new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. J. B.

    2014-12-01

    What is meant by continuum lowering and ionization potential depression (IPD) in a Coulomb system depends very much upon precisely what question is being asked. It is shown that equilibrium (equation of state) phenomena and non-equilibrium dynamical processes like photoionization are characterized by different values of the IPD. In the former, the ionization potential of an atom embedded in matter is the difference in the free energy of the many-body system between states of thermodynamic equilibrium differing by the ionization state of just one atom. Typically, this energy is less than that required to ionize the same atom in vacuo. Probably, the best known example of this is the IPD given by Stewart and Pyatt (SP). However, it is a common misconception that this formula should apply directly to the energy of a photon causing photoionization, since this is a local adiabatic process that occurs in the absence of a response from the surrounding plasma. To achieve the prescribed final equilibrium state, in general, additional energy, in the form of heat and work, is transferred between the atom and its surroundings. This additional relaxation energy is sufficient to explain the discrepancy between recent spectroscopic measurements of IPD in dense plasmas and the predictions of the SP formula. This paper provides a detailed account of an analytical approach, based on SP, to calculating thermodynamic and spectroscopic (adiabatic) IPDs in multicomponent Coulomb systems of arbitrary coupling strength with Te ≠ Ti. The ramifications for equilibrium Coulomb systems are examined in order to elucidate the roles of the various forms of the IPD and any possible connection with the plasma microfield. The formulation embodies an analytical equation of state (EoS) that is thermodynamically self-consistent, provided that the bound and free electrons are dynamically separable, meaning that the system is not undergoing pressure ionization. Apart from this restriction, the model is

  10. Some Continuum Aspects of Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Menard, Richard

    1999-01-01

    A long-sought goal in data assimilation is to build more fully the time dimension into the data assimilation process. Truly four-dimensional data assimilation requires evolving second-moment information, namely the estimation error covariance, along with the state estimate itself. The continuum evolution equations for the estimation error covariance constitute a system of partial differential equations in six space dimensions, forced by a model error covariance and by the observations themselves. The high dimensionality of this system poses a difficult computational problem. Numerous methods have been proposed for approximate, discrete solution of this system of equations. Four-dimensional variational schemes solve these equations indirectly, while schemes based on Kalman filtering solve the equations more directly, usually on a small subspace of the full six-dimensional space. In both cases, most proposed solution methods are not derived from the continuum covariance evolution equations themselves. Instead, most methods simply inherit the discretization used for evolving the state estimate, either in the form of a discrete tangent linear model or, in the case of ensemble schemes, in the form of a fully nonlinear discrete model. In this lecture we show that solutions of the continuum covariance evolution equations possess simple properties that are not readily satisfied upon discretization of the equations. we give numerical examples illustrating that "inherited" discretizations sometimes fail to produce meaningfully accurate solutions. Finally, we suggest alternative discretization methods that may yield more faithful approximate solutions of the continuum problem.

  11. Cellular resilience.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  12. Internal photopumping of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states in yttrium aluminum garnet by excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers and Fe3+ continuum emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Senin, A. A.; Eden, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Photoexcitation of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states by the broad (˜70 nm FWHM), near-infrared continuum provided by Fe3+ has been observed at 300 K in bulk yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystals doped with trace concentrations (<50 ppm) of Fe, Cr, and Eu. Irradiation of YAG at 248 nm with a KrF laser, which excites the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) in YAG having peak absorption at ˜240 nm, culminates in ODC→Fe3+ excitation transfer and subsequent Fe3+ emission. This internal optical pumping mechanism for rare earth ions is unencumbered by the requirement for donor-acceptor proximity that constrains conventional Förster-Dexter excitation transfer in co-doped crystals.

  13. Negative-continuum dielectronic recombination for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, A.N.; Yerokhin, V.A.; Beier, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Eichler, J.; Klasnikov, A.E.; Shabaev, V.M.; Stoehlker, T.

    2003-05-01

    The process of recombination of an electron with a bare heavy nucleus via the creation of a free-positron-bound-electron pair is considered. This process is denoted as 'negative-continuum dielectronic recombination' because it results in the capture of an incident electron into a bound state accompanied by a transition of a negative-continuum electron into a bound state. The calculations are performed for a wide range of incident electron energies for Z=82 and 92.

  14. Structured photoionization continuum of superheated cesium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Thomas, N.; Mathew, J.

    2015-08-01

    We studied the absorption spectrum of dense cesium vapor in an all-sapphire cell with a special emphasis on the highly structured photoionization continuum. This continuum appears to be composed of atomic and molecular contributions which can be separated by means of additional superheating of the cesium vapor in the sapphire cell. This was possible due to the small amount of cesium filling which completely evaporated at a temperature of around 450 °C. This enabled the overheating of cesium dimers which greatly reduced its concentration at a temperature of 900 °C, leaving almost pure atomic Cs vapor. The analysis of the thermal destruction indicated that the highly structured molecular component of the photoionization continuum can be entirely attributed to cesium dimers. We discuss the possible origin of the structured photoionization continuum as stemming from the absorption process from the ground state of the Cs2 molecule to the doubly excited Cs2** molecule located above Cs2+ molecular ionization limit. The corresponding potential curves are subjected to mutual interactions and autoionization.

  15. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Susan M.

    2014-09-04

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past use at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Its facile redox [Hg2+/0] chemistry, bonding to carbon [e.g. MeHg+] and unique physical properties [e.g., Hg0 volatility] underlie a complex global Hg cycle involving biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations in soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria make MeHg+, which is neurotoxic to wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship requires eliminating both MeHg+ and even more toxic Hg2+, which is also the substrate for methylation. The proteins encoded by the mer locus in aerobic and facultative mercury resistant (HgR) bacteria convert soil or waterborne Hg2+ or MeHg+ to less toxic, gaseous Hg0. HgR microbes live in highly Hg-contaminated sites and depress MeHg+ formation >500-fold in such zones. So, enhancing the capacity of natural HgR microbes to remove Hg2+/MeHg+ from wetlands and waterways is a logical component of contaminated site stewardship. To apply enhancement in the field requires knowing how the HgR pathway works including the metabolic demands it makes on the cell, i.e., the entire cell is the relevant catalytic unit. HgR loci occur in metabolically diverse bacteria and unique mer-host co-evolution has been found. In this project we extended our previous studies of mer enzymes in γ-proteobacteria, which are abundant in high Hg areas of the ORR to include studies of mer enzymes from HgR α-proteobacteria and HgR actinobacteria, which also increase in the high Hg regions of the ORR. Specifically, we (1) examined interactions between structural compoenents of MerA and MerB enzymes from γ-proteobacteria, (2) investigated effects of mutations on kinetic efficiency of Hg2+ reduction by γ-proteobacterial MerA, (3) cloned and performed initital characterization of MerA and MerB enzymes from Streptomyces lividans, an actinobacterium, (4) cloned and performed initial characterization of a fused MerB-MerA protein from Ochrobactrum anthropi, an α-proteobacterium, (5) investigate the extent of Hg isotope fractionation that occurs with purified γ-proteobacterial MerA.

  16. Cellular growth in biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.D.; Whitaker, S.

    1999-09-20

    In this paper the authors develop a macroscopic evolutionary equation for the growth of the cellular phase starting from a microscopic description of mass transport and a simple structured model for product formation. The methods of continuum mechanics and volume averaging are used to develop the macroscopic representation by carefully considering the fluxes of chemical species that pertain to cell growth. The concept of structured models is extended to include the transport of reacting chemical species at the microscopic scale. The resulting macroscopic growth model is similar in form to previously published models for the transport of a single substrate and electron donor and for the production of cellular mass and exopolymer. The method of volume averaging indicated under what conditions the developed growth model is valid and provides an explicit connection between the relevant microscopic model parameters and their corresponding macroscopic counterparts.

  17. Relativistic Continuum Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, Janina; Halderson, Dean

    2011-04-01

    The R-matrix formalism of Lane and Thomas has been extended to the relativistic case so that the many-coupled channels problem may be solved for systems in which binary breakup channels satisfy a relative Dirac equation. The formalism was previously applied to the relativistic impulse approximation RIA and now we applied it to Quantum Hadrodynamics QHD in the continuum Tamm-Dancoff approximation TDA with the classical meson fields replaced by one-meson exchange potentials. None of the published QHD parameters provide a decent fit to the 15 N + p elastic cross section. The deficiency is also evident in inability of the QHD parameters with the one meson exchange potentials to reproduce the QHD single particle energies. Results with alternate parameters sets are presented. A. M. Lane and R. G. Thomas, R-Matrix Theory of Nuclear Reactions, Reviews of Modern Physics, 30 (1958) 257

  18. Electron-ion continuum-continuum mixing in dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    In recent calculations on the dissociative recombination (DR) of the v=1 vibrational level of the ground state of N2(+), N2(+)(v=1) + e(-) yields N + N, we have observed an important continuun-continuum mixing process involving the open channels on both sides of N2(+)(v=1) + e(-) yields N2(+)(v=0) + e(-). In vibrational relaxation by electron impact (immediately above) the magnitude of the cross section depends upon the strength of the interaction between these continua. In DR of the v=1 ion level, these continua can also interact in the entrance channel, and the mixing can have a profound effect upon the DR cross section from v=1, as we illustrate in this paper. In our theoretical calculations of N2(+) DR using multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT), the reactants and products in the two above equations are described simultaneously. This allows us to calculate vibrational relaxation and excitation cross sections as well as DR cross sections. In order to understand the mixing described above, we first present a brief review of the prior results for DR of the v=0 level of N2(+).

  19. The Paranoid-Depressive Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty J.

    1977-01-01

    Few investigators have attempted to lay a conceptual base for comparative studies of paranoia and depression within a single general framework. The paranoid-depressive continuum is an attempt to develop such a framework. (Author)

  20. Stem cell-like ALDHbright cellular states in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-01

    The enrichment of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cellular states has not previously been considered to be a causative mechanism in the generalized progression of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) after an initial response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. To explore this possibility, we utilized a pre-clinical model of acquired erlotinib resistance established by growing NSCLC cells containing a TKI-sensitizing EGFR exon 19 deletion (ΔE746-A750) in the continuous presence of high doses of erlotinib. Genome-wide analyses using Agilent 44K Whole Human Genome Arrays were evaluated via bioinformatics analyses through GSEA-based screening of the KEGG pathway database to identify the molecular circuitries that were over-represented in the transcriptomic signatures of erlotinib-refractory cells. The genomic spaces related to erlotinib resistance included a preponderance of cell cycle genes (E2F1, -2, CDC2, -6) and DNA replication-related genes (MCM4, -5, -6, -7), most of which are associated with early lung development and poor prognosis. In addition, metabolic genes such as ALDH1A3 (a candidate marker for lung cancer cells with CSC-like properties) were identified. Thus, we measured the proportion of erlotinib-resistant cells expressing very high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity attributed to ALDH1/3 isoforms. Using flow cytometry and the ALDEFLUOR® reagent, we confirmed that erlotinib-refractory cell populations contained drastically higher percentages (>4500%) of ALDHbright cells than the parental erlotinib-responsive cells. Notably, strong decreases in the percentages of ALDHbright cells were observed following incubation with silibinin, a bioactive flavonolignan that can circumvent erlotinib resistance in vivo. The number of lung cancer spheres was drastically suppressed by silibinin in a dose-dependent manner, thus confirming the ability of this agent to inhibit the self-renewal of erlotinib-refractory CSC-like cells

  1. Uses of continuum radiation in the AXAF calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observatory at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis.

  2. Uses of Continuum Radiation in the AXAF Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Eisner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observatory at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis.

  3. Progress in Using Continuum radiation for AXAF Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.; Zhao, P.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the AXAF observatory at MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis. Further verification of AXAF response models will be presented.

  4. The Intraprofessional Continuum and Cleft.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Clyde B

    2016-08-01

    The continuum cleft is a costly and precarious gap that divides professions on the health professions' continuum. It is an interprofessional phenomenon that is encouraged because health care professions protect their members in professional silos and isolate competing professions in professional cysts. This article uses case studies of the allopathic, osteopathic, naturopathic, and chiropractic professions to contemplate the existence, consequences, and possible mitigation of intraprofessional silos, cysts, and clefts. PMID:27574493

  5. Multiscale modeling of cellular epigenetic states: stochasticity in molecular networks, chromatin folding in cell nuclei, and tissue pattern formation of cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jie; Cao, Youfang; Gürsoy, Gamze; Naveed, Hammad; Terebus, Anna; Zhao, Jieling

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequences provide the overall genetic blueprint of cells, but cells possessing the same genome can exhibit diverse phenotypes. There is a multitude of mechanisms controlling cellular epigenetic states and that dictate the behavior of cells. Among these, networks of interacting molecules, often under stochastic control, depending on the specific wirings of molecular components and the physiological conditions, can have a different landscape of cellular states. In addition, chromosome folding in three-dimensional space provides another important control mechanism for selective activation and repression of gene expression. Fully differentiated cells with different properties grow, divide, and interact through mechanical forces and communicate through signal transduction, resulting in the formation of complex tissue patterns. Developing quantitative models to study these multi-scale phenomena and to identify opportunities for improving human health requires development of theoretical models, algorithms, and computational tools. Here we review recent progress made in these important directions. PMID:27480462

  6. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect

    Ianconescu, Reuven

    2013-06-15

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  7. Atomistic to continuum modeling of solidification microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Karma, Alain; Tourret, Damien

    2015-09-26

    We summarize recent advances in modeling of solidification microstructures using computational methods that bridge atomistic to continuum scales. We first discuss progress in atomistic modeling of equilibrium and non-equilibrium solid–liquid interface properties influencing microstructure formation, as well as interface coalescence phenomena influencing the late stages of solidification. The latter is relevant in the context of hot tearing reviewed in the article by M. Rappaz in this issue. We then discuss progress to model microstructures on a continuum scale using phase-field methods. We focus on selected examples in which modeling of 3D cellular and dendritic microstructures has been directly linked to experimental observations. Finally, we discuss a recently introduced coarse-grained dendritic needle network approach to simulate the formation of well-developed dendritic microstructures. The approach reliably bridges the well-separated scales traditionally simulated by phase-field and grain structure models, hence opening new avenues for quantitative modeling of complex intra- and inter-grain dynamical interactions on a grain scale.

  8. Atomistic to continuum modeling of solidification microstructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Karma, Alain; Tourret, Damien

    2015-09-26

    We summarize recent advances in modeling of solidification microstructures using computational methods that bridge atomistic to continuum scales. We first discuss progress in atomistic modeling of equilibrium and non-equilibrium solid–liquid interface properties influencing microstructure formation, as well as interface coalescence phenomena influencing the late stages of solidification. The latter is relevant in the context of hot tearing reviewed in the article by M. Rappaz in this issue. We then discuss progress to model microstructures on a continuum scale using phase-field methods. We focus on selected examples in which modeling of 3D cellular and dendritic microstructures has been directly linked tomore » experimental observations. Finally, we discuss a recently introduced coarse-grained dendritic needle network approach to simulate the formation of well-developed dendritic microstructures. The approach reliably bridges the well-separated scales traditionally simulated by phase-field and grain structure models, hence opening new avenues for quantitative modeling of complex intra- and inter-grain dynamical interactions on a grain scale.« less

  9. Quantitative X-ray - UV Line and Continuum Spectroscopy with Application to AGN: State-Specific Hydrogenic Recombination Cooling Coefficients for a Wide Range of Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaMothe, J.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Recombination cooling, in which a free electron emits light while being captured to an ion, is an important cooling process in photoionized clouds that are optically thick or have low metallicity. State specific rather than total recombination cooling rates are needed since the hydrogen atom tends to become optically thick in high-density regimes such as Active Galactic Nuclei. This paper builds upon previous work to derive the cooling rate over the full temperature range where the process can be a significant contributor in a photoionized plasma. We exploit the fact that the recombination and cooling rates are given by intrinsically similar formulae to express the cooling rate in terms of the closely related radiative recombination rate. We give an especially simple but accurate approximation that works for any high hydrogenic level and can be conveniently employed in large-scale numerical simulations.

  10. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was used to obtain the relative continuum transition probabilities of atomic oxygen at 584 A for transitions from 3P ground state into the 4S, D2, and P2 states of the ion. Transition probability ratios for the D2 and P2 states relative to the S4 state of the ion are 1.57 + or - 0.14 and 0.82 + or - 0.07, respectively. In addition, transitions from excited O2(a 1 Delta g) state into the O2(+)(2 Phi u and 2 Delta g) were observed. The adiabatic ionization potential of O2(+)(2 Delta g) was measured as 18.803 + or - 0.006 eV.

  11. Continuum modeling of deformation and aggregation of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Daegeun; You, Donghyun

    2016-07-26

    In order to gain better understanding for rheology of an isolated red blood cell (RBC) and a group of multiple RBCs, new continuum models for describing mechanical properties of cellular structures of an RBC and inter-cellular interactions among multiple RBCs are developed. The viscous property of an RBC membrane, which characterizes dynamic behaviors of an RBC under stress loading and unloading processes, is determined using a generalized Maxwell model. The present model is capable of predicting stress relaxation and stress-strain hysteresis, of which prediction is not possible using the commonly used Kelvin-Voigt model. Nonlinear elasticity of an RBC is determined using the Yeoh hyperelastic material model in a framework of continuum mechanics using finite-element approximation. A novel method to model inter-cellular interactions among multiple adjacent RBCs is also developed. Unlike the previous modeling approaches for aggregation of RBCs, where interaction energy for aggregation is curve-fitted using a Morse-type potential function, the interaction energy is analytically determined. The present aggregation model, therefore, allows us to predict various effects of physical parameters such as the osmotic pressure, the thickness of a glycocalyx layer, the penetration depth, and the permittivity, on the depletion and electrostatic energy among RBCs. Simulations for elongation and recovery deformation of an RBC and for aggregation of multiple RBCs are conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the present continuum modeling methods. PMID:26706720

  12. Thermodynamically consistent continuum dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Dislocation based modeling of plasticity is one of the central challenges at the crossover of materials science and continuum mechanics. Developing a continuum theory of dislocations requires the solution of two long standing problems: (i) to represent dislocation kinematics in terms of a reasonable number of variables and (ii) to derive averaged descriptions of the dislocation dynamics (i.e. material laws) in terms of these variables. The kinematic problem (i) was recently solved through the introduction of continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD), which provides kinematically consistent evolution equations of dislocation alignment tensors, presuming a given average dislocation velocity (Hochrainer, T., 2015, Multipole expansion of continuum dislocations dynamics in terms of alignment tensors. Philos. Mag. 95 (12), 1321-1367). In the current paper we demonstrate how a free energy formulation may be used to solve the dynamic closure problem (ii) in CDD. We do so exemplarily for the lowest order CDD variant for curved dislocations in a single slip situation. In this case, a thermodynamically consistent average dislocation velocity is found to comprise five mesoscopic shear stress contributions. For a postulated free energy expression we identify among these stress contributions a back-stress term and a line-tension term, both of which have already been postulated for CDD. A new stress contribution occurs which is missing in earlier CDD models including the statistical continuum theory of straight parallel edge dislocations (Groma, I., Csikor, F.F., Zaiser, M., 2003. Spatial correlations and higher-order gradient terms in a continuum description of dislocation dynamics. Acta Mater. 51, 1271-1281). Furthermore, two entirely new stress contributions arise from the curvature of dislocations.

  13. Submillimeter Continuum Observations of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this proposal was to study the submillimeter continuum emission from comets. The study was based mainly on the exploitation of the world's leading submillimeter telescope, the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) on Mauna Kea. Submillimeter wavelengths provide a unique view of cometary physics for one main reason. The cometary size distribution is such that the scattering cross-section is dominated by small dust grains, while the mass is dominated by the largest particles. Submillimeter continuum radiation samples cometary particles much larger than those sampled by more common observations at shorter (optical and infrared) wavelengths and therefore provides a nearly direct measure of the cometary dust mass.

  14. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  15. Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G.  E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; et al

    2015-11-30

    When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here,more » we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.« less

  16. Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G.  E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June

    2015-11-30

    When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.

  17. Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G. E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June

    2016-03-01

    When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. However, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. In our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states.

  18. Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow.

    PubMed

    Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

    2012-05-01

    This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow d(s) is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided. PMID:23004869

  19. Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

    2012-05-01

    This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow ds is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided.

  20. The Influence of Metal Stress on the Availability and Redox State of Ascorbate, and Possible Interference with Its Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bielen, An; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, metals have been distributed to excessive levels in the environment due to industrial and agricultural activities. Plants growing on soils contaminated with excess levels of metals experience a disturbance of the cellular redox balance, which leads to an augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Even though the increased ROS levels can cause cellular damage, controlled levels play an important role in modulating signaling networks that control physiological processes and stress responses. Plants control ROS levels using their antioxidative defense system both under non-stress conditions, as well as under stress conditions such as exposure to excess metals. Ascorbate (AsA) is a well-known and important component of the plant’s antioxidative system. As primary antioxidant, it can reduce ROS directly and indirectly via ascorbate peroxidase in the ascorbate–glutathione cycle. Furthermore, AsA fulfills an essential role in physiological processes, some of which are disturbed by excess metals. In this review, known direct effects of excess metals on AsA biosynthesis and functioning will be discussed, as well as the possible interference of metals with the role of AsA in physiological and biochemical processes. PMID:23519107

  1. A Math Continuum, Part D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Del; And Others

    Evaluation sheets and developmental checklists, prepared by three special education departments, are provided to facilitate continuous measurement of student progress in elementary school mathematics. One hundred forty-three objectives are given, and each is followed by a continuum-oriented set of worksheet-type pages on mathematics skills. The…

  2. Learner Continuums and Speech Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amastae, Jon

    1981-01-01

    A method for analyzing acquisition-like patterns in the English consonants used by Spanish-English bilinguals is presented which allows a distinction to be made between individual and group phenomena. An analysis of a bilingual community in southern Texas shows that there is a continuum of use of the standard English consonants not occurring in…

  3. Steady-state and time-resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy: a versatile tool for probing cellular environment and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicke, Stefan; Ehlers, Jan-Eric; Niesner, Raluca; Quentmeier, Stefan; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2007-09-01

    In the last decade, the two-photon fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become an indispensable tool for the bioscientific and biomedical research. TPLSM techniques as well as their applications are currently experiencing a dramatic evolution and represent the focus of many biophysical research projects. In this work, we compare in detail two steady-state TPLSM techniques, i.e. single-beam scanning microscopy combined with point-detection (SB-PMT) and multi-beam scanning microscopy combined with synchronous detection (MB-CCD), as far as their technical characteristics relevant for the bioscientific research are concerned, i.e. optical performance and imaging speed. We demonstrate that the SB-PMT technique is more adequate for deep-tissue imaging (few 100 μm depth) than the MB-CCD technique, whereas only the MB-CCD technique enables high-speed imaging for characterizing the dynamics of fast biological phenomena. Novel applications of these techniques are additionally discussed. Moreover, we employ a time-resolved TPLSM technique, i.e. biexponential fluorescence lifetime imaging based on the cellular fluorescence of the nicotinamide pyridine dinucleotides NADH and NADPH, which allows us to probe for the first time the redox cellular metabolism of MIN6 cells (mutated insulin producing pancreatic β-cells) as well as to show the potential of this method for the specific and dynamic investigation of NADH- and NADPH-dependent cellular processes.

  4. The climate continuum revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Wang, J.; Partin, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    A grand challenge of climate science is to quantify the extent of natural variability on adaptation-relevant timescales (10-100y). Since the instrumental record is too short to adequately estimate the spectra of climate measures, this information must be derived from paleoclimate proxies, which may harbor a many-to-one, non-linear (e.g. thresholded) and non-stationary relationship to climate. In this talk, I will touch upon the estimation of climate scaling behavior from climate proxies. Two case studies will be presented: an investigation of scaling behavior in a reconstruction of global surface temperature using state-of- the-art data [PAGES2K Consortium, in prep] and methods [Guillot et al., 2015]. Estimating the scaling exponent β in spectra derived from this reconstruction, we find that 0 < β < 1 in most regions, suggesting long-term memory. Overall, the reconstruction-based spectra are steeper than the ones based on an instrumental dataset [HadCRUT4.2, Morice et al., 2012], and those estimated from PMIP3/CMIP5 models, suggesting the climate system is more energetic at multidecadal to centennial timescales than can be inferred from the short instrumental record or from the models developed to reproduce it [Laepple and Huybers, 2014]. an investigation of scaling behavior in speleothems records of tropical hydroclimate. We will make use of recent advances in proxy system modeling [Dee et al., 2015] and investigate how various aspects of the speleothem system (karst dynamics, age uncertainties) may conspire to bias the estimate of scaling behavior from speleothem timeseries. The results suggest that ignoring such complications leads to erroneous inferences about hydroclimate scaling. References Dee, S. G., J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, Allam, A., D. M. Thompson, and E. J. Steig (2015), J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., 07, doi:10.1002/2015MS000447. Guillot, D., B. Rajaratnam, and J. Emile-Geay (2015), Ann. Applied. Statist., pp. 324-352, doi:10.1214/14-AOAS794. Laepple, T

  5. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state.

    PubMed

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Products of lipid peroxidation have commonly been used as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress damage. Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of relatively stable decomposition end products, mainly α, β-unsaturated reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 2-propenal (acrolein) and isoprostanes, which can be measured in plasma and urine as an indirect index of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative/nitrosative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing antioxidative defences. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake, synthesis of endogenous enzymes or increased antioxidant utilization. Antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to maintain optimal body function. However, antoxidants exhibit pro-oxidant activity depending on the specific set of conditions. Of particular importance are their dosage and redox conditions in the cell. PMID:27456681

  6. Continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction into continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics. In contrast to discrete models in which each molecule keeps its identity, such descriptions are given in terms of averaged quantities per unit volume like the number density of a certain molecule. Starting with a discrete description for the assembly dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments, we derive the continuity equation, which serves as the basis of many continuum theories. We illustrate the use of this approach with an investigation of spontaneous cytoskeletal polymerization waves. Such waves have by now been observed in various cell types and might help to orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics during cell spreading and locomotion. Our analysis shows how processes at the scale of single molecules, namely, the nucleation of new filaments and filament treadmilling, can lead to the spontaneous appearance of coherent traveling waves on scales spanning many filament lengths. For readers less familiar with calculus, we include an informal introduction to the Taylor expansion. PMID:24565412

  7. Differential Complexes in Continuum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2015-04-01

    We study some differential complexes in continuum mechanics that involve both symmetric and non-symmetric second-order tensors. In particular, we show that the tensorial analogue of the standard grad-curl-div complex can simultaneously describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion of a continuum. The relation between this complex and the de Rham complex allows one to readily derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the compatibility of displacement gradient and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies.We also derive the local compatibility equations in terms of the Green deformation tensor for motions of 2D and 3D bodies, and shells in curved ambient spaces with constant curvatures.

  8. Continuum radiation in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    With the completion of the Voyager tour of the outer planets, radio and plasma wave instruments have executed the first survey of the wave spectra of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. One of the most notable conclusions of this survey is that there is a great deal of qualitative similarity in both the plasma wave and radio wave spectra from one magnetosphere to the next. In particular, in spite of detailed differences, most of the radio emissions at each of the planets have been tentatively classified into two primary categories. First, the most intense emissions are generally associated with the cyclotron maser instability. Second, a class of weaker emissions can be found at each of the magnetospheres which appears to be the result of conversion from intense electrostatic emissions at the upper hybrid resonance frequency into (primarily) ordinary mode radio emission. It is this second category, often referred to as nonthermal continuum radiation, which we will discuss in this review. We review the characteristics of the continuum spectrum at each of the planets, discuss the source region and direct observations of the generation of the emissions where available, and briefly describe the theories for the generation of the emissions. Over the past few years evidence has increased that the linear mode conversion of electrostatic waves into the ordinary mode can account for at least some of the continuum radiation observed. There is no definitive evidence which precludes the possibility that a nonlinear mechanism may also be important.

  9. 77 FR 45367 - Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application; Continuum of Care Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application; Continuum of Care Application... subject proposal. Pre-established communities, called Continuums of Care (CoC), will complete the Exhibit 1 of the Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance application which collects data about the...

  10. Reconstructing and analysing cellular states, space and time from gene expression profiles of many cells and single cells.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Mirko; Lehner, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide gene expression profiling is a fast, cheap and standardised analysis that provides a high dimensional measurement of the state of a biological sample. In this review we describe computational methods that can be applied to identify and interpret sources of variance in gene expression in whole organisms, organs, tissues or single cells. This allows the identification of constituent cell types and states in complex mixtures, the reconstruction of temporal trajectories of development, differentiation and progression, and the reconstruction of spatial patterning. When applied to genetically variable samples, these methods allow the efficient investigation of how genetic variation influences gene expression and biological processes in space and time. PMID:26273952

  11. Divergent cellular responses during asymptomatic subclinical and clinical states of disease in cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) results in a chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease are not fully under...

  12. The Continuum and Current Controversies in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews policy developments in deinstitutionalization and community inclusion in North America, specifically the United States. It begins with a critique of the continuum concept and the associated principle of the least restrictive environment. Past and current controversies surrounding deinstitutionalization are then examined.…

  13. The New Cellular Immunology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  14. A continuum model of protrusion of pseudopod in leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, C; Skalak, R

    1988-01-01

    The morphology of human leukocytes, the biochemistry of actin polymerization, and the theory of continuum mechanics are used to model the pseudopod protrusion process of leukocytes. In the proposed model, the pseudopod is considered as a porous solid of F-actin network, the pores of which are full of aqueous solution. G-actin is considered as a "solute" transported by convection and diffusion in the fluid phase. The pseudopod grows as actin filaments elongate at their barbed ends at the tip of the pseudopod. The driving force of extension is hypothesized as being provided by the actin polymerization. It is assumed that elongation of actin filaments, powered by chemical energy liberated from the polymerization reaction, does mechanical work against opposing pressure on the membrane. This also gives rise to a pressure drop in the fluid phase at the tip of the pseudopod, which is formulated by an equation relating the work done by actin polymerization to the local state of pressure. The pressure gradient along the pseudopod drives the fluid filtration through the porous pseudopod according to Darcy's Law, which in turn brings more actin monomers to the growing tip. The main cell body serves as a reservoir of G-actin. A modified first-order equation is used to describe the kinetics of polymerization. The rate of pseudopod growth is modulated by regulatory proteins. A one-dimensional moving boundary problem based on the proposed mechanism has been constructed and approximate solutions have been obtained. Comparison of the solutions with experimental data shows that the model is compatible with available observations. The model is also applicable to growth of other cellular systems such as elongation of acrosomal process in sperm cells. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:3233268

  15. Modeling continuum of epithelial mesenchymal transition plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mousumi; Ghosh, Biswajoy; Anura, Anji; Mitra, Pabitra; Pathak, Tanmaya; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2016-02-01

    Living systems respond to ambient pathophysiological changes by altering their phenotype, a phenomenon called 'phenotypic plasticity'. This program contains information about adaptive biological dynamism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one such process found to be crucial in development, wound healing, and cancer wherein the epithelial cells with restricted migratory potential develop motile functions by acquiring mesenchymal characteristics. In the present study, phase contrast microscopy images of EMT induced HaCaT cells were acquired at 24 h intervals for 96 h. The expression study of relevant pivotal molecules viz. F-actin, vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin was carried out to confirm the EMT process. Cells were intuitively categorized into five distinct morphological phenotypes. A population of 500 cells for each temporal point was selected to quantify their frequency of occurrence. The plastic interplay of cell phenotypes from the observations was described as a Markovian process. A model was formulated empirically using simple linear algebra, to depict the possible mechanisms of cellular transformation among the five phenotypes. This work employed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative tools towards illustration and establishment of the EMT continuum. Thus, it provides a newer perspective to understand the embedded plasticity across the EMT spectrum. PMID:26762753

  16. Continuum Theory of Retroviral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Bruinsma, R. F.; Gelbart, W. M.

    2006-02-01

    We present a self-assembly phase diagram for the shape of retroviral capsids, based on continuum elasticity theory. The spontaneous curvature of the capsid proteins drives a weakly first-order transition from spherical to spherocylindrical shapes. The conical capsid shape which characterizes the HIV-1 retrovirus is never stable under unconstrained energy minimization. Only under conditions of fixed volume and/or fixed spanning length can the conical shape be a minimum energy structure. Our results indicate that, unlike the capsids of small viruses, retrovirus capsids are not uniquely determined by the molecular structure of the constituent proteins but depend in an essential way on physical constraints present during assembly.

  17. The Continuum of Pharmacist Prescriptive Authority.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alex J; Weaver, Krystalyn K

    2016-09-01

    Recently momentum has been building behind pharmacist prescriptive authority for certain products such as oral contraceptives or naloxone. To some, prescriptive authority by pharmacists represents a departure from the traditional role of pharmacists in dispensing medications. Nearly all states, however, currently enable pharmacist prescriptive authority in some form or fashion. The variety of different state approaches makes it difficult for pharmacists to ascertain the pros and cons of different models. We leverage data available from the National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (NASPA), a trade association that tracks pharmacy legislation and regulations across all states, to characterize models of pharmacist prescriptive authority along a continuum from most restrictive to least restrictive. We identify 2 primary categories of current pharmacist prescriptive authority: (1) collaborative prescribing and (2) autonomous prescribing. Collaborative prescribing models provide a broad framework for the treatment of acute or chronic disease. Current autonomous prescribing models have focused on a limited range of medications for which a specific diagnosis is not needed. Approaches to pharmacist prescriptive authority are not mutually exclusive. We anticipate that more states will pursue the less-restrictive approaches in the years ahead. PMID:27307413

  18. The Nuclear Three-Body Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Carl R.

    2001-04-01

    Experiments in the three-nucleon (3N) continuum provide important insights into the underlying nuclear forces, as theoretical calculations of 3N systems using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) and 3N interactions are now routinely possible. This talk will focus on experimental results at low energies, below ≈ 50 MeV. Measurements of p-d and n-d elastic scattering are generally in agreement with theoretical predictions, with the exception of large discrepancies found for the polarization observables Ay and iT_11. Studies of breakup reactions, such as n+darrow n+n+p, offer greater flexibility in the final state kinematics, providing additional sensitivity to quantities such as NN scattering lengths and perhaps to 3N forces. Some possibilities for future experiments will also be discussed.

  19. Human Mobility in a Continuum Approach

    PubMed Central

    Simini, Filippo; Maritan, Amos; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is investigated using a continuum approach that allows to calculate the probability to observe a trip to any arbitrary region, and the fluxes between any two regions. The considered description offers a general and unified framework, in which previously proposed mobility models like the gravity model, the intervening opportunities model, and the recently introduced radiation model are naturally resulting as special cases. A new form of radiation model is derived and its validity is investigated using observational data offered by commuting trips obtained from the United States census data set, and the mobility fluxes extracted from mobile phone data collected in a western European country. The new modeling paradigm offered by this description suggests that the complex topological features observed in large mobility and transportation networks may be the result of a simple stochastic process taking place on an inhomogeneous landscape. PMID:23555885

  20. Irregular Cellular Learning Automata.

    PubMed

    Esnaashari, Mehdi; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-08-01

    Cellular learning automaton (CLA) is a recently introduced model that combines cellular automaton (CA) and learning automaton (LA). The basic idea of CLA is to use LA to adjust the state transition probability of stochastic CA. This model has been used to solve problems in areas such as channel assignment in cellular networks, call admission control, image processing, and very large scale integration placement. In this paper, an extension of CLA called irregular CLA (ICLA) is introduced. This extension is obtained by removing the structure regularity assumption in CLA. Irregularity in the structure of ICLA is needed in some applications, such as computer networks, web mining, and grid computing. The concept of expediency has been introduced for ICLA and then, conditions under which an ICLA becomes expedient are analytically found. PMID:25291810

  1. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  2. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  3. Cellular Contraction and Polarization Drive Collective Cellular Motion.

    PubMed

    Notbohm, Jacob; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Utuje, Kazage J C; Gweon, Bomi; Jang, Hwanseok; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Jennifer; Butler, James P; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-06-21

    Coordinated motions of close-packed multicellular systems typically generate cooperative packs, swirls, and clusters. These cooperative motions are driven by active cellular forces, but the physical nature of these forces and how they generate collective cellular motion remain poorly understood. Here, we study forces and motions in a confined epithelial monolayer and make two experimental observations: 1) the direction of local cellular motion deviates systematically from the direction of the local traction exerted by each cell upon its substrate; and 2) oscillating waves of cellular motion arise spontaneously. Based on these observations, we propose a theory that connects forces and motions using two internal state variables, one of which generates an effective cellular polarization, and the other, through contractile forces, an effective cellular inertia. In agreement with theoretical predictions, drugs that inhibit contractility reduce both the cellular effective elastic modulus and the frequency of oscillations. Together, theory and experiment provide evidence suggesting that collective cellular motion is driven by at least two internal variables that serve to sustain waves and to polarize local cellular traction in a direction that deviates systematically from local cellular velocity. PMID:27332131

  4. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement.

  5. Teaching cellular engineering.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Daniel A; Waugh, Richard E

    2006-02-01

    Cellular engineering is one of the fastest growing subdisciplines in the field of Biomedical Engineering. It involves the application of engineering analysis to understand and control cellular behavior, with the ultimate objective of developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches for the clinic or harnessing cellular function for commercial applications. Well-educated students in this area need strong foundational knowledge in engineering science, chemistry, and cell and molecular biology. In undergraduate curricula, the challenge is to include essential engineering skills plus appropriate levels of training in chemistry and biology while satisfying accreditation-mandated breadth in engineering training. At the graduate level, educators must accommodate students with diverse backgrounds and provide them with both a state-of-the-art understanding of the life sciences and the most advanced engineering skills. Engineering curricular content should include mechanics and materials, physical chemistry, transport phenomena, and control theory. Training from faculty with appointments and research programs in the life sciences is generally recommended, and additional life science content should also be integrated within the engineering curriculum. A capstone course in cellular engineering that includes opportunities for students to have hands-on experiences with state-of-the-art laboratory techniques is highly recommended. PMID:16450196

  6. Dispersal state of multiwalled carbon nanotubes elicits profibrogenic cellular responses that correlate with fibrogenesis biomarkers and fibrosis in the murine lung.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Xia, Tian; Ntim, Susana Addo; Ji, Zhaoxia; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Chung, Choong-Heui; George, Saji; Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Meiying; Li, Ning; Yang, Yang; Castranova, Vincent; Mitra, Somenath; Bonner, James C; Nel, André E

    2011-12-27

    We developed a dispersal method for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that allows quantitative assessment of dispersion on profibrogenic responses in tissue culture cells and in mouse lung. We demonstrate that the dispersal of as-prepared (AP), purified (PD), and carboxylated (COOH) MWCNTs by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) influences TGF-β1, PDGF-AA, and IL-1β production in vitro and in vivo. These biomarkers were chosen based on their synergy in promoting fibrogenesis and cellular communication in the epithelial-mesenchymal cell trophic unit in the lung. The effect of dispersal was most noticeable in AP- and PD-MWCNTs, which are more hydrophobic and unstable in aqueous buffers than hydrophilic COOH-MWCNTs. Well-dispersed AP- and PD-MWCNTs were readily taken up by BEAS-2B, THP-1 cells, and alveolar macrophages (AM) and induced more prominent TGF-β1 and IL-1β production in vitro and TGF-β1, IL-1β, and PDGF-AA production in vivo than nondispersed tubes. Moreover, there was good agreement between the profibrogenic responses in vitro and in vivo as well as the ability of dispersed tubes to generate granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in airways. Tube dispersal also elicited more robust IL-1β production in THP-1 cells. While COOH-MWCNTs were poorly taken up in BEAS-2B and induced little TGF-β1 production, they were bioprocessed by AM and induced less prominent collagen deposition at sites of nongranulomatous inflammation in the alveolar region. Taken together, these results indicate that the dispersal state of MWCNTs affects profibrogenic cellular responses that correlate with the extent of pulmonary fibrosis and are of potential use to predict pulmonary toxicity. PMID:22047207

  7. Cellular Barcoding Links B-1a B Cell Potential to a Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell State at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Trine A; Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Elin; Zriwil, Alya; Björklund, Tomas; Daniel, Jeremy A; Sitnicka, Ewa; Soneji, Shamit; Bryder, David; Yuan, Joan

    2016-08-16

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a functional switch in neonatal mice hallmarked by a decrease in self-renewing divisions and entry into quiescence. Here, we investigated whether the developmental attenuation of B-1a cell output is a consequence of a shift in stem cell state during ontogeny. Using cellular barcoding for in vivo single-cell fate analyses, we found that fetal liver definitive HSCs gave rise to both B-1a and B-2 cells. Whereas B-1a potential diminished in all HSCs with time, B-2 output was maintained. B-1a and B-2 plasticity could be reinitiated in a subset of adult HSCs by ectopic expression of the RNA binding protein LIN28B, a key regulator of fetal hematopoiesis, and this coincided with the clonal reversal to fetal-like elevated self-renewal and repopulation potential. These results anchor the attenuation of B-1a cell output to fetal HSC behavior and demonstrate that the developmental decline in regenerative potential represents a reversible HSC state. PMID:27533015

  8. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin Sargsyan, Khachik Debusschere, Bert Najm, Habib N.

    2015-01-15

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker–Planck equation. The Fokker–Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  9. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2015-01-01

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  10. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  11. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discretemore » and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.« less

  12. Conductivity of continuum percolating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenull, Olaf; Janssen, Hans-Karl

    2001-11-01

    We study the conductivity of a class of disordered continuum systems represented by the Swiss-cheese model, where the conducting medium is the space between randomly placed spherical holes, near the percolation threshold. This model can be mapped onto a bond percolation model where the conductance σ of randomly occupied bonds is drawn from a probability distribution of the form σ-a. Employing the methods of renormalized field theory we show to arbitrary order in ɛ expansion that the critical conductivity exponent of the Swiss-cheese model is given by tSC(a)=(d-2)ν+max[φ,(1-a)-1], where d is the spatial dimension and ν and φ denote the critical exponents for the percolation correlation length and resistance, respectively. Our result confirms a conjecture that is based on the ``nodes, links, and blobs'' picture of percolation clusters.

  13. Continuum Fitting HST QSO Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method which we are using to fit and describe QSO spectra relies upon the fact that QSO continuum are generally very smooth and simple except for emission and absorption lines. To see this we need high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of QSOs at low redshift which have relatively few absorption lines in the Lyman-a forest. We need a large number of such spectra to use as the basis set for the PCA analysis which will find the set of principal component spectra which describe the QSO family as a whole. We have found that too few HST spectra have the required S/N and hence we need to supplement them with ground based spectra of QSOs at higher redshift. We have many such spectra and we have been working to make them suitable for this analysis. We have concentrated on this topic since 12/15/01.

  14. A Health Services Research Agenda for Cellular, Molecular and Genomic Technologies in Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Wideroff, Louise; Phillips, Kathryn A.; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Ambs, Anita; Armstrong, Katrina; Bennett, Charles L.; Brown, Martin L.; Donaldson, Molla S.; Follen, Michele; Goldie, Sue J.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Lewis, Graham; McLeod, Howard L.; Piper, Margaret; Powell, Isaac; Schrag, Deborah; Schulman, Kevin A.; Scott, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent decades, extensive resources have been invested to develop cellular, molecular and genomic technologies with clinical applications that span the continuum of cancer care. Methods In December 2006, the National Cancer Institute sponsored the first workshop to uniquely examine the state of health services research on cancer-related cellular, molecular and genomic technologies and identify challenges and priorities for expanding the evidence base on their effectiveness in routine care. Results This article summarizes the workshop outcomes, which included development of a comprehensive research agenda that incorporates health and safety endpoints, utilization patterns, patient and provider preferences, quality of care and access, disparities, economics and decision modeling, trends in cancer outcomes, and health-related quality of life among target populations. Conclusions Ultimately, the successful adoption of useful technologies will depend on understanding and influencing the patient, provider, health care system and societal factors that contribute to their uptake and effectiveness in ‘real-world’ settings. PMID:19367091

  15. Single attosecond pulse generation via continuum wave packet interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengpeng; Yang, Yujun; Ding, Dajun

    2016-07-01

    A single attosecond pulse generation via continuum-continuum interference is investigated theoretically by exposing a single-electron atom in a femtosecond laser field with the intensity in over-the-barrier ionization regime. We show that the ground state of the atom is depleted in such intense laser field and the high-order harmonics (HHG) via continuum to continuum coherence are generated. In a few-cycle monochromatic laser field (5 fs/800 nm, 1.2×1016 W cm-2), a single attosecond pulse with duration of 49 as is obtained from the HHG. With a two-color laser field combined by 1200 nm (8 fs/7.5×1015 W cm-2) and 800 nm (5 fs/1.0×1016 W cm-2), a shorter single pulse with duration of 29 as can further be produced by changing the relative carrier envelope phase of two laser pulses as a result of controlling the electronic quantum path in the intense electric field. Our results also show that a short single attosecond pulse can be generated in a wide range of the relative carrier envelope phase of the two laser pulses.

  16. Turbulent fluid motion 3: Basic continuum equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    A derivation of the continuum equations used for the analysis of turbulence is given. These equations include the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equations, and the heat transfer or energy equation. An experimental justification for using a continuum approach for the study of turbulence is given.

  17. A continuum model for interconnected lattice trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    A continuum model for interconnected lattice trusses based on the 1D Timoshenko beam approximation is developed using the NASA-LRC Phase Zero Evolutionary Model. The continuum model dynamics is presented in the canonical wave-equation form in a Hilbert space.

  18. Cellular Morphogenesis In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Troy; Chun, Young; Caicedo-Carvajal, Carlos; Foty, Ramsey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe a model that simulates spherical cells of different types that can migrate and interact either attractively or repulsively. We find that both expected morphologies and previously unreported patterns spontaneously self-assemble. Among the newly discovered patterns are a segmented state of alternating discs, and a “shish-kebab” state, in which one cell type forms a ring around a second type. We show that these unique states result from cellular attraction that increases with distance (e.g., as membranes stretch viscoelastically), and would not be seen in traditional, e.g., molecular, potentials that diminish with distance. Most of the states found computationally have been observed in vitro, and it remains to be established what role these self-assembled states may play in in vivo morphogenesis. PMID:19686642

  19. Non compact continuum limit of two coupled Potts models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Éric; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Saleur, Hubert

    2014-10-01

    We study two Q-state Potts models coupled by the product of their energy operators, in the regime 2 < Q ⩽ 4 where the coupling is relevant. A particular choice of weights for the square lattice is shown to be equivalent to the integrable a_3(2) vertex model. It corresponds to a selfdual system of two antiferromagnetic Potts models, coupled ferromagnetically. We derive the Bethe ansatz equations and study them numerically for two arbitrary twist angles. The continuum limit is shown to involve two compact bosons and one non compact boson, with discrete states emerging from the continuum at appropriate twists. The non compact boson entails strong logarithmic corrections to the finite-size behaviour of the scaling levels, an understanding of which allows us to correct an earlier proposal for some of the critical exponents. In particular, we infer the full set of magnetic scaling dimensions (watermelon operators) of the Potts model.

  20. Electron-pair excitations and the molecular Coulomb continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James

    2009-01-01

    Electron-pair excitations in the molecular hydrogen continuum are described by quantizing rotations of the momentum plane of the electron pair about by the pair's relative momentum. A helium-like description of the molecular pi.Joto double ionization is thus extended to higher angular momenta of the electron pair. A simple three-state superposition is found to account surprisingly well for recent observations of noncoplanar electron-pair, molecular-axis angular distributions.

  1. Continuum methods in lattice perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, Thomas G

    2002-11-15

    We show how methods of continuum perturbation theory can be used to simplify perturbative lattice calculations. We use the technique of asymptotic expansions to expand lattice loop integrals around the continuum limit. After the expansion, all nontrivial dependence on momenta and masses is encoded in continuum loop integrals and the only genuine lattice integrals left are tadpole integrals. Using integration-by-parts relations all of these can be expressed in terms of a small number of master integrals. Four master integrals are needed for bosonic one loop integrals, sixteen in QCD with Wilson or staggered fermions.

  2. Analysis of an optimization-based atomistic-to-continuum coupling method for point defects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olson, Derek; Shapeev, Alexander V.; Bochev, Pavel B.; Luskin, Mitchell

    2015-11-16

    Here, we formulate and analyze an optimization-based Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) coupling method for problems with point defects. Application of a potential-based atomistic model near the defect core enables accurate simulation of the defect. Away from the core, where site energies become nearly independent of the lattice position, the method switches to a more efficient continuum model. The two models are merged by minimizing the mismatch of their states on an overlap region, subject to the atomistic and continuum force balance equations acting independently in their domains. We prove that the optimization problem is well-posed and establish error estimates.

  3. Self-consistent continuum random-phase approximation calculations of {sup 4}He electromagnetic responses

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, V.; Co', G.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-09-15

    We study the electromagnetic responses of {sup 4}He within the framework of the self-consistent continuum random-phase approximation theory. In this approach, the ground-state properties are described by a Hartree-Fock calculation. The single-particle basis constructed in this manner is used in the calculations of the continuum responses of the system. Finite-range interactions are considered in the calculations. We compare our results with photon-absorption cross sections and electron-scattering quasielastic data. From this comparison, and also from the comparison with the results of microscopic calculations, we deduce that our approach describes well the continuum excitation.

  4. Azide vs Alkyne Functionalization in Pt(II) Complexes for Post-treatment Click Modification: Solid-State Structure, Fluorescent Labeling, and Cellular Fate.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Regina; White, Jonathan D; Moghaddam, Alan D; Ginzburg, Aurora L; Zakharov, Lev N; Haley, Michael M; DeRose, Victoria J

    2015-12-01

    Tracking of Pt(II) complexes is of crucial importance toward understanding Pt interactions with cellular biomolecules. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of functionalized Pt(II)-based agents using the bioorthogonal Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has recently been reported as a promising approach. Here we describe an azide-functionalized Pt(II) complex, cis-[Pt(2-azidobutyl)amido-1,3-propanediamine)Cl2] (1), containing the cis geometry and difunctional reactivity of cisplatin, and present a comparative study with its previously described alkyne-functionalized congener. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals a dramatic change in the solid-state arrangement with exchange of the alkyne for an azide moiety wherein 1 is dominated by a pseudo-chain of Pt-Pt dimers and antiparallel alignment of the azide substituents, in comparison with a circular arrangement supported by CH/π(C≡C) interactions in the alkyne version. In vitro studies indicate similar DNA binding and click reactivity of both congeners observed by fluorescent labeling. Interestingly, complex 1 shows in vitro enhanced click reactivity in comparison to a previously reported azide-appended Pt(II) complex. Despite their similar behavior in vitro, preliminary in cellulo HeLa studies indicate a superior imaging potential of azide-functionalized 1. Post-treatment fluorescent labeling of 1 observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy shows nuclear and intense nucleolar localization. These results demonstrate the potential of 1 in different cell line localization studies and for future isolation and purification of Pt-bound targets. PMID:26512733

  5. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Scott; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Robbins, Bruce; Robins, Lynne; Turner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each) as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1) The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence); (2) logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3) a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches) in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  6. Continuum source tungsten coil atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiyan; Donati, George L; Young, Carl G; Jones, Bradley T

    2011-04-01

    A simple continuum source tungsten coil atomic fluorescence spectrometer is constructed and evaluated. The heart of the system is the atomizer: a low-cost tungsten filament extracted from a 150 W light bulb. The filament is resistively heated with a small, solid-state, constant-current power supply. The atomizer is housed in a glass chamber and purged with a 1 L/min flow of a conventional welding gas mixture: 10% H(2)/Ar. A 25 μL sample aliquot is pipetted onto the tungsten coil, the liquid is dried at low current, and then the atomic vapor is produced by applying a current in the range 3.5-5.5 A. The atomization current does not produce temperatures high enough to excite atomic emission. Radiation from a 300 W xenon lamp is focused through the atomic vapor, exciting atomic fluorescence. Fluorescence signals are collected using a hand-held charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. Simultaneous determination of ten elements (Ag, Bi, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Mg, Mn, and Tl) results in detection limits in the range 0.3 to 10 ng. The application of higher atomization currents (10 A) leads to straightforward detection of atomic emission signals with no modifications to the instrument. PMID:21396184

  7. A continuum three-zone model for swarms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer M; Kolpas, Allison; Juchem Neto, Joao Plinio; Rossi, Louis F

    2012-03-01

    We present a progression of three distinct three-zone, continuum models for swarm behavior based on social interactions with neighbors in order to explain simple coherent structures in popular biological models of aggregations. In continuum models, individuals are replaced with density and velocity functions. Individual behavior is modeled with convolutions acting within three interaction zones corresponding to repulsion, orientation, and attraction, respectively. We begin with a variable-speed first-order model in which the velocity depends directly on the interactions. Next, we present a variable-speed second-order model. Finally, we present a constant-speed second-order model that is coordinated with popular individual-based models. For all three models, linear stability analysis shows that the growth or decay of perturbations in an infinite, uniform swarm depends on the strength of attraction relative to repulsion and orientation. We verify that the continuum models predict the behavior of a swarm of individuals by comparing the linear stability results with an individual-based model that uses the same social interaction kernels. In some unstable regimes, we observe that the uniform state will evolve toward a radially symmetric attractor with a variable density. In other unstable regimes, we observe an incoherent swarming state. PMID:21800229

  8. Periodic amplitude variations in Jovian continuum radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-12-01

    An analysis of periodic variations in the amplitude of continuum radiation near 3 kHz trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere shows structure with periods near both 5 and 10 horus. Contrary to a plausible initial idea, the continuum amplitudes are not organized by the position of the observer relative to the dense plasma sheet. Instead, there seem to be perferred orientations of system III longitude with respect to the direction to the sun which account for the peaks. This implies a clocklike modulation of the continuum radiation intensity as opposed to a searchlight effect. The importance of the dipole longitude solar wind alignment to the amplitude of the continuum radiation implies that the source region of the radiation is near the magnetopause and may indirectly tie the generation of the radio waves to the clocklike modulation of energetic electron fluxes from Jupiter.

  9. Commitment to Quality throughout the Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    This editorial by the president of the Council for Exceptional Children indicates the organization's support of a continuum of special education placements for students with special needs and calls for improving transition of students from one placement to another. (JDD)

  10. Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; McLachlan, B. G.

    1987-06-01

    This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.

  11. Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.

  12. Noise scaling in continuum percolating films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfunkel, G. A.; Weissman, M. B.

    1985-07-01

    Measurements of the scaling of 1/f noise magnitude versus resistance were made in metal films as the metal was removed by sandblasting. This procedure gives an approximate experimental realization of a Swiss-cheese continuum-percolation model, for which theory indicates some scaling properties very different from lattice percolation. The ratio of the resistance and noise exponents was in strong disagreement with lattice-percolation predictions and agreed approximately with simple continuum predictions.

  13. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-11-08

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.

  14. Nuclear reprogramming of luminal-like breast cancer cells generates Sox2-overexpressing cancer stem-like cellular states harboring transcriptional activation of the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lupu, Ruth; Alarcón, Tomás; Vellon, Luciano; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Leis, Olatz; Martín, Ángel G; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-09-15

    Energy metabolism plasticity enables stemness programs during the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state. This relationship may introduce a new era in the understanding of Warburg's theory on the metabolic origin of cancer at the level of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we used Yamanaka's stem cell technology in an attempt to create stable CSC research lines in which to dissect the transcriptional control of mTOR--the master switch of cellular catabolism and anabolism--in CSC-like states. The rare colonies with iPSC-like morphology, obtained following the viral transduction of the Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) stemness factors into MCF-7 luminal-like breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Rep), demonstrated an intermediate state between cancer cells and bona fide iPSCs. MCF-7/Rep cells notably overexpressed SOX2 and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 proteins; however, other stemness-related markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-1, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) were found at low to moderate levels. The transcriptional analyses of OSKM factors confirmed the strong but unique reactivation of the endogenous Sox2 stemness gene accompanied by the silencing of the exogenous Sox2 transgene in MCF-7/Rep cells. Some but not all MCF-7/Rep cells acquired strong alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with MCF-7 parental cells. SOX2-overexpressing MCF-7/Rep cells contained drastically higher percentages of CD44(+) and ALDEFLUOR-stained ALDH(bright) cells than MCF-7 parental cells. The overlap between differentially expressed mTOR signaling-related genes in 3 different SOX2-overexpressing CSC-like cell lines revealed a notable downregulation of 3 genes, PRKAA1 (which codes for the catalytic α 1 subunit of AMPK), DDIT4/REDD1 (a stress response gene that operates as a negative regulator of mTOR), and DEPTOR (a naturally occurring endogenous inhibitor of mTOR activity). The insulin-receptor gene (INSR) was differentially upregulated in MCF-7/Rep cells

  15. Angular correlation in the two-electron continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2006-02-15

    Following absorption of a single photon, angles of simultaneous emission of two electrons from a He(n {sup 1}S) atom become more correlated with increasing n. We find that the strength of this correlation is due to the two-electron continuum of the electron-impact ionization of the He{sup +}(ns) ion. The strength is determined by the width of the momentum profile of the ionic ns state but not the strength of the electron correlation in the He initial state. This can explain the increasing (over He) angular correlation strength found in double photoionization of targets such as Be, Ne, and H{sub 2}.

  16. Coherent population trapping via a continuum with a train of ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Kolesov, Roman; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2006-09-15

    We consider the coherent population trapping effect with a train of ultrashort pulses in a {lambda}-type system with two bound states and a continuum replacing the upper state. Population transfer to the continuum can be totally suppressed provided that the splitting between the bound states is a multiple of the pulse repetition rate. Compared to the traditional case with only two laser fields coupling the bound states to the continuum, CPT with a pulse train allows one to avoid incoherent population losses due to interaction of the fields with 'wrong' transitions, which results in only partial suppression of ionization. A method of suppression of excited-state absorption of pumping radiation in laser crystals, with pumping in the form of the pulse train, is proposed. As a particular example pumping dynamics of a Ti{sup 3+}:YAlO{sub 3} crystal using this technique is numerically analyzed.

  17. The John F. Maher Award Recipient Lecture 2006. The continuum of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: challenges and opportunities for chronic peritoneal dialysis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2007-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing renal replacement therapy have a high mortality rate and suffer from considerable morbidity. Degree of nutritional decline, disordered mineral metabolism, and vascular calcification are some of the abnormalities that predict an adverse outcome for ESRD patients. All these abnormalities begin early during the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), long before the need for maintenance dialysis. Thus, CKD represents a continuum of metabolic and vascular abnormalities. Treatment of these abnormalities early during the course of CKD and a timely initiation of dialysis have the potential of improving patient outcomes. However, the thesis that successful management of these abnormalities will favorably modify the outcomes of dialysis patients remains untested. The proportion of incident USA ESRD patients starting chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) has historically been low. Limited physician training and inadequate predialysis patient education appear to underlie the low CPD take-on in the USA. Furthermore, two key changes have occurred in the USA: steep decline in CPD take-on and progressive increase in the use of automated peritoneal dialysis. The decline in CPD take-on has afflicted virtually every subgroup examined and has occurred, paradoxically, when the CPD outcomes in the country have improved. Understanding the reasons for historically low CPD take-on and recent steep declines in utilization may allow the development of plans to reverse these trends. PMID:17299144

  18. Continuum physics: Correlation and fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herskind, B.

    1993-10-01

    It is well known that the main flow of the {gamma}-decay from high spin states passes through the regions of high level density several MeV above the yrast line. Nevertheless, only very limited information about the nuclear structure in this region is available, due to the extremely high complexity of the decay patterns. The new highly efficient {gamma}-spectrometer arrays, GASP, EUROGAM and GAMMASPHERE coming into operation these years, with several orders of magnitude higher selectivity for studying weakly populated states, offers new exiting possibilities also for a much more detailed study of the high spin quasi-continuum. It is of special interest to study the phase transition from the region of discrete regular rotational band structures found close to the yrast line, into the region of damped rotational motion at higher excitation energies and investigate the interactions responsible for the damping phenomena. Some of the first large data-sets to be analyzed are made on residues around e.g. {sup 152}Dy and {sup 168}Yb produced with EUROGAM in Daresbury, UK, in addition to {sup 143}Eu and {sup 182}Pt produced with GASP in Legnaro, Italy. These data-sets will for the first time contain enough counts to allow for a fluctuation analysis of 3-fold coincidence matrixes. The high spatial resolution in a cube of triples make it possible to select transitions from specific configurations using 2 of the detectors and measure the fluctuations caused by the simplicity of feeding the selected configuration by the 3. detector. Thus, weakly mixed structures in the damped region as e.g. superdeformed- or high-K bands are expected to show large fluctuations. Results from these experiments will be discussed.

  19. Cancer communication and informatics research across the cancer continuum.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Beckjord, Ellen; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Fagerlin, Angela; Cameron, Linda D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic changes brought about by a rapid diffusion of Internet technologies, cellular telephones, mobile devices, personal digital assistants, electronic health records, and data visualization have helped to create a revolution in health communication. To understand the implications of this communication revolution for cancer care, the National Cancer Institute launched an ambitious set of research priorities under its "extraordinary opportunities" program. We present an overview of some of the relevant behavioral research being conducted within the perspective of this extraordinary opportunity in cancer communication research. We begin by tracing the implications of this research for behavioral scientists across the continuum of cancer care from primary prevention (e.g., tobacco control, diet, exercise, sun protection, and immunization against human papilloma virus), to secondary prevention (e.g., screening for polyps, lesions, and early stage neoplasms), to diagnosis and treatment, posttreatment survivorship, and end of life. Along each point of the continuum, we describe a natural evolution of knowledge from studies on the traditional role of media to research on the changing role of new media and informatics, and we carefully highlight the role that psychological research has played in improving communication- and health-related outcomes along the way. We conclude with an appeal to psychologists of many different backgrounds to join with biomedical researchers, engineers, clinical practitioners, and others to accelerate progress against cancer. PMID:25730725

  20. Theories of elastoplasticity coupled with continuum damage mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    Inelastic material constitutive relations for elastoplasticity coupled with continuum damage mechanics are investigated. For elastoplasticity, continuum damage mechanics, and the coupled formulations, rigorous thermodynamic frameworks are derived. The elastoplasticity framework is shown to be sufficiently general to encompass J(sub 2) plasticity theories including general isotropic and kinematic hardening relations. The concepts of an intermediate undamaged configuration and a fictitious deformation gradient are used to develop a damage representation theory. An empirically-based, damage evolution theory is proposed to overcome some observed deficiencies. Damage deactivation, which is the negation of the effects of damage under certain loading conditions, is investigated. An improved deactivation algorithm is developed for both damaged elasticity and coupled elastoplasticity formulations. The applicability of coupled formulations is validated by comparing theoretical predictions to experimental data for a spectrum of materials and loads paths. The pressure-dependent brittle-to-ductile transitional behavior of concrete is replicated. The deactivation algorithm is validated using tensile and compression data for concrete. For a ductile material, the behavior of an aluminum alloy is simulated including the temperature-dependent ductile-to-brittle behavior features. The direct application of a coupled model to fatigue is introduced. In addition, the deactivation algorithm in conjunction with an assumed initial damage and strain is introduced as a novel method of simulating the densification phenomenon in cellular solids.

  1. Ensuring Congruency in Multiscale Modeling: Towards Linking Agent Based and Continuum Biomechanical Models of Arterial Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hayenga, Heather N.; Thorne, Bryan C.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop multiscale models of vascular adaptations to understand tissue level manifestations of cellular level mechanisms. Continuum based biomechanical models are well suited for relating blood pressures and flows to stress-mediated changes in geometry and properties, but less so for describing underlying mechanobiological processes. Discrete stochastic agent based models are well suited for representing biological processes at a cellular level, but not for describing tissue level mechanical changes. We present here a conceptually new approach to facilitate the coupling of continuum and agent based models. Because of ubiquitous limitations in both the tissue- and cell-level data from which one derives constitutive relations for continuum models and rule-sets for agent based models, we suggest that model verification should enforce congruency across scales. That is, multiscale model parameters initially determined from data sets representing different scales should be refined, when possible, to ensure that common outputs are consistent. Potential advantages of this approach are illustrated by comparing simulated aortic responses to a sustained increase in blood pressure predicted by continuum and agent based models both before and after instituting a genetic algorithm to refine 16 objectively bounded model parameters. We show that congruency-based parameter refinement not only yielded increased consistency across scales, it also yielded predictions that are closer to in vivo observations. PMID:21809144

  2. 34 CFR 300.115 - Continuum of alternative placements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuum of alternative placements. 300.115 Section... Continuum of alternative placements. (a) Each public agency must ensure that a continuum of alternative... services. (b) The continuum required in paragraph (a) of this section must— (1) Include the...

  3. Sacrifice Along the Energy Continuum: A Call for Energy Justice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The confluence of energy supply- and demand-side dynamics links vulnerable communities along the spectrum of energy production and consumption. The disproportionate burden borne by vulnerable communities along the energy continuum are seldom examined simultaneously. Yet, from a justice perspective there are important parallels that merit further exploration in the United States and beyond. A first step is to understand links to vulnerability and justice along the energy continuum by way of theoretical constructs and practical applications. The present article posits energy as a social and environmental justice issue and advances our current understanding of the links between energy and vulnerability, particularly in the U.S. context. Drawing on several emerging concepts including, “energy sacrifice zones,” “energy insecurity” and “energy justice,” this article lays a foundation for examining critical sacrifices along the energy continuum. To conclude, four basic rights are proposed as a starting point to achieve recognition and equity for vulnerable populations in the realm of energy. PMID:27053980

  4. Control of density fluctuations in atomistic-continuum simulations of dense liquids.

    PubMed

    Kotsalis, E M; Walther, J H; Koumoutsakos, P

    2007-07-01

    We present a control algorithm to eliminate spurious density fluctuations associated with the coupling of atomistic and continuum descriptions for dense liquids. A Schwartz domain decomposition algorithm is employed to couple molecular dynamics for the simulation of the atomistic system with a continuum solver for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The lack of periodic boundary conditions in the molecular dynamics simulations hinders the proper accounting for the virial pressure leading to spurious density fluctuations at the continuum-atomistic interface. An ad hoc boundary force is usually employed to remedy this situation. We propose the calculation of this boundary force using a control algorithm that explicitly cancels the density fluctuations. The results demonstrate that the present approach outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. The conceptual and algorithmic simplicity of the method makes it suitable for any type of coupling between atomistic and continuum descriptions of dense fluids. PMID:17677596

  5. Observations of continuum depression in warm dense matter with x-ray Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, L B; Kritcher, A L; Pak, A; Ma, T; Döppner, T; Fortmann, C; Divol, L; Jones, O S; Landen, O L; Scott, H A; Vorberger, J; Chapman, D A; Gericke, D O; Mattern, B A; Seidler, G T; Gregori, G; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H

    2014-04-11

    Detailed measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of compressed CH shells approaching pressures of 50 Mbar are achieved with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Laser-produced 9 keV x-rays probe the plasma during the transient state of three-shock coalescence. High signal-to-noise x-ray scattering spectra show direct evidence of continuum depression in highly degenerate warm dense matter states with electron densities ne>1024  cm-3. The measured densities and temperatures agree well with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling when accounting for continuum lowering in calculations that employ detailed configuration accounting. PMID:24765979

  6. Semianalytic continuum spectra of Type 2 supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montes, Marcos J.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    We extend the approximate radiative transfer analysis of Hershkowitz, Linder, & Wagoner (1986) to a more general class of supernova model atmospheres, using a simple fit to the effective continuum opacity produced by lines (Wagoner, Perez, & Vasu 1991). At the low densities considered, the populations of the excited states of hydrogen are governed mainly by photoionization and recombination, and scattering dominates absorptive opacity. We match the asymptotic expressions for the spectral energy density J(sub nu) at the photosphere, whose location at each frequency is determined by a first-order calculation of the deviation of J(sub nu) from the Planck function B(sub nu). The emergent spectral luminosity then assumes the form L(sub nu) = 4 pi(squared)r(squared)(sub *) zeta(squared)B(sub nu)(T(sub p)), where T(sub p)(nu) is the photospheric temperature zeta is the dilution factor, and r(sub *) is a fiducial radius (ultimately taken to be the photospheric radius r(sub p)(nu)). The atmosphere is characterized by an effective temperature T(sub e) (varies as L(sup 1/4)r(sup -1/2)(sub *)) and hydrogen density n(sub H) = dependence of zeta on frequency nu and the parameters T(sub p), r(sub p), and alpha. The resulting understanding of the dependence of the spectral luminosity on observable parameters which characterize the relevant physical conditions will be of particular use in assessing the reliability of the expanding photosphere method of distance determination. This is particularly important at cosmological distances, where no information about the progenitor star will be available. This technique can also be applied to other low-density photosphere.

  7. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  8. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  9. Continuum damping of ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1993-08-01

    A perturbation theory based on the two dimensional (2D) ballooning transform is systematically developed for ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). A formula, similar to the Fermi golden rule for decaying systems in quantum mechanics, is derived for the continuum damping rate of the TAE; the decay (damping) rate is expressed explicitly in terms of the coupling of the TAE to the continuum spectrum. Numerical results are compared with previous calculations. It is found that in some narrow intervals of the parameter m{cflx {epsilon}} the damping rate varies very rapidly. These regions correspond precisely to the root missing intervals of the numerical solution by Rosenbluth et al.

  10. Hadron resonances with a quark core embedded in the continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Kiyotaka; Takeuchi, Sachiko; Takizawa, Makoto

    2011-05-06

    We investigate the excited baryons and mesons which cannot be described in terms of a simple constituent quark model, such as {Lambda}(1405) and X(3872) as a resonance in a coupled channel hadron-hadron (baryon-meson or meson-meson) scattering with a 'bound state embedded in the continuum' (BSEC). For this purpose, we solve the Lippmann-Schwinger equation including a BSEC in the momentum space. This BSEC is introduced by hand, as a state not originated from a simple baryon-meson or meson-meson system. We assume it comes from the three-quark state or quark-anti quark state and show such a picture can describe the {Lambda}(1405) and X(3872) resonances.

  11. Hydrologic ramifications of an increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Much of the Intermountain West now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive che...

  12. Vibrationally-resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Model GFP Chromophore Anion Revealing the Photoexcited S-1 State being both Vertically and Adiabatically Bound against the Photodetached D-0 Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, GuanXin; Yang, Yan; Zheng, Weijun; Sun, Zhenrong; Zhang, De-Qing; Wang, Xue B.

    2014-06-19

    The first excited state of the model green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore anion (S1) and its energy level against the electron-detached neutral radical, D0 state are crucial in determining the photophysics and the photo-induced dynamics of GFP. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies, particularly several very recent gas phase investigations concluded that S1 is a bound state in the Franck-Condon vertical region with respect to D0. However, what remains unknown and challenging is if S1 is bound adiabatically, primarily due to lack of accurate experimental measurements, as well as due to close proximity in energy for these two states that even sophisticated high-level ab initio calculations can’t reliably predict. Here, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy study on the model GFP chromophore anion, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone anion (HBDI–). Despite the considerable size and low symmetry of the molecule, well resolved vibrational structures were obtained with the 0–0 transition being the most intense peak. The adiabatic (ADE) and vertical detachment energy (VDE) therefore are determined, both to be 2.73 ± 0.01 eV, indicating the detached D0 state is 0.16 eV higher in energy than the photon excited S1 state. The accurate ADE and VDE values and the well-resolved photoelectron spectra reported here provide much needed, robust benchmarks for future theoretical investigations.

  13. A continuum of compass spin models on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Haiyuan; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Quantum spin models with spatially dependent interactions, known as compass models, play an important role in the study of frustrated quantum magnetism. One example is the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice with spin-liquid ground states. Another example is the geometrically frustrated quantum 120° model whose ground state has not been unambiguously established. To generalize the Kitaev model beyond the exactly solvable limit and connect it with other models, we propose a new model, dubbed ``the tripod model,'' which contains a continuum of compass-type models. It not only unifies paradigmatic spin models, but also enables the study of their quantum phase transitions. We obtain the phase diagram of the tripod model numerically by tensor networks in the thermodynamic limit. We show that the ground state of the quantum 120° model has long-range dimer order. Moreover, we find an extended spin-disordered (spin-liquid) phase between the dimer phase and an antiferromagnetic phase. The unification and solution of a continuum of frustrated spin models as outline here may be useful to exploring new domains of other quantum spin or orbital models.

  14. A continuum of compass spin models on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Haiyuan; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Quantum spin models with spatially dependent interactions, known as compass models, play an important role in the study of frustrated quantum magnetism. One example is the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice with spin-liquid (SL) ground states and anyonic excitations. Another example is the geometrically frustrated quantum 120° model on the same lattice whose ground state has not been unambiguously established. To generalize the Kitaev model beyond the exactly solvable limit and connect it with other compass models, we propose a new model, dubbed ‘the tripod model’, which contains a continuum of compass-type models. It smoothly interpolates the Ising model, the Kitaev model, and the quantum 120° model by tuning a single parameter {θ }\\prime , the angle between the three legs of a tripod in the spin space. Hence it not only unifies three paradigmatic spin models, but also enables the study of their quantum phase transitions. We obtain the phase diagram of the tripod model numerically by tensor networks in the thermodynamic limit. We show that the ground state of the quantum 120° model has long-range dimer order. Moreover, we find an extended spin-disordered (SL) phase between the dimer phase and an antiferromagnetic phase. The unification and solution of a continuum of frustrated spin models as outline here may be useful to exploring new domains of other quantum spin or orbital models.

  15. Cellular Stress Responses and Monitored Cellular Activities.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Naito, Yoshifumi; Kato, Hideya; Amaya, Fumimasa

    2016-08-01

    To survive, organisms require mechanisms that enable them to sense changes in the outside environment, introduce necessary responses, and resist unfavorable distortion. Consequently, through evolutionary adaptation, cells have become equipped with the apparatus required to monitor their fundamental intracellular processes and the mechanisms needed to try to offset malfunction without receiving any direct signals from the outside environment. It has been shown recently that eukaryotic cells are equipped with a special mechanism that monitors their fundamental cellular functions and that some pathogenic proteobacteria can override this monitoring mechanism to cause harm. The monitored cellular activities involved in the stressed intracellular response have been researched extensively in Caenorhabditis elegans, where discovery of an association between key mitochondrial activities and innate immune responses was named "cellular associated detoxification and defenses (cSADD)." This cellular surveillance pathway (cSADD) oversees core cellular activities such as mitochondrial respiration and protein transport into mitochondria, detects xenobiotics and invading pathogens, and activates the endocrine pathways controlling behavior, detoxification, and immunity. The cSADD pathway is probably associated with cellular responses to stress in human inflammatory diseases. In the critical care field, the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes (e.g., respiratory distress syndromes and sepsis) involves the disturbance of mitochondrial respiration leading to cell death. Up-to-date knowledge about monitored cellular activities and cSADD, especially focusing on mitochondrial involvement, can probably help fill a knowledge gap regarding the pathogenesis of lethal inflammatory syndromes in the critical care field. PMID:26954943

  16. Modal kinematics for multisection continuum arms.

    PubMed

    Godage, Isuru S; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo A; Branson, David T; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel spatial kinematic model for multisection continuum arms based on mode shape functions (MSF). Modal methods have been used in many disciplines from finite element methods to structural analysis to approximate complex and nonlinear parametric variations with simple mathematical functions. Given certain constraints and required accuracy, this helps to simplify complex phenomena with numerically efficient implementations leading to fast computations. A successful application of the modal approximation techniques to develop a new modal kinematic model for general variable length multisection continuum arms is discussed. The proposed method solves the limitations associated with previous models and introduces a new approach for readily deriving exact, singularity-free and unique MSF's that simplifies the approach and avoids mode switching. The model is able to simulate spatial bending as well as straight arm motions (i.e., pure elongation/contraction), and introduces inverse position and orientation kinematics for multisection continuum arms. A kinematic decoupling feature, splitting position and orientation inverse kinematics is introduced. This type of decoupling has not been presented for these types of robotic arms before. The model also carefully accounts for physical constraints in the joint space to provide enhanced insight into practical mechanics and impose actuator mechanical limitations onto the kinematics thus generating fully realizable results. The proposed method is easily applicable to a broad spectrum of continuum arm designs. PMID:25969947

  17. An oculomotor continuum from exploration to fixation

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L.; Langston, Rachel E.; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2013-01-01

    During visual exploration, saccadic eye movements scan the scene for objects of interest. During attempted fixation, the eyes are relatively still but often produce microsaccades. Saccadic rates during exploration are higher than those of microsaccades during fixation, reinforcing the classic view that exploration and fixation are two distinct oculomotor behaviors. An alternative model is that fixation and exploration are not dichotomous, but are instead two extremes of a functional continuum. Here, we measured the eye movements of human observers as they either fixed their gaze on a small spot or scanned natural scenes of varying sizes. As scene size diminished, so did saccade rates, until they were continuous with microsaccadic rates during fixation. Other saccadic properties varied as function of image size as well, forming a continuum with microsaccadic parameters during fixation. This saccadic continuum extended to nonrestrictive, ecological viewing conditions that allowed all types of saccades and fixation positions. Eye movement simulations moreover showed that a single model of oculomotor behavior can explain the saccadic continuum from exploration to fixation, for images of all sizes. These findings challenge the view that exploration and fixation are dichotomous, suggesting instead that visual fixation is functionally equivalent to visual exploration on a spatially focused scale. PMID:23533278

  18. Clinical Integration Managing across the care continuum.

    PubMed

    Karash, Julius A; Larson, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    In the changing world of health care, the traditional boundaries are vanishing and hospitals and others must integrate care within their own organizations, as well as externally, across the care continuum. Here are three approaches to accomplishing just that. PMID:27468454

  19. Parental Involvement to Parental Engagement: A Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Janet; Montgomery, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature of the field, this article traces a continuum between parental involvement with schools, and parental engagement with children's learning. The article seeks to shed light on an area of confusion; previous research has shown that different stakeholder groups understand "parental engagement" in different ways.…

  20. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-01

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents. PMID:17362100

  1. Continuum treatment of electronic polarization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Luo, Ray

    2007-03-01

    A continuum treatment of electronic polarization has been explored for in molecular mechanics simulations in implicit solvents. The dielectric constant for molecule interior is the only parameter in the continuum polarizable model. A value of 4 is found to yield optimal agreement with high-level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for the tested molecular systems. Interestingly, its performance is not sensitive to the definition of molecular volume, in which the continuum electronic polarization is defined. In this model, quantum mechanical electrostatic field in different dielectric environments from vacuum, low-dielectric organic solvent, and water can be used simultaneously in atomic charge fitting to achieve consistent treatment of electrostatic interactions. The tests show that a single set of atomic charges can be used consistently in different dielectric environments and different molecular conformations, and the atomic charges transfer well from training monomers to tested dimers. The preliminary study gives us the hope of developing a continuum polarizable force field for more consistent simulations of proteins and nucleic acids in implicit solvents.

  2. A Multiscale Morphing Continuum Description for Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James; Wonnell, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Turbulence is a flow physics phenomena invlolving multiple length scales. The popular Navier- Stokes equations only possess one length/time scale. Therefore, extremely fine mesh is needed for DNS attempting to resolve the small scale motion, which comes with a burden of excessive computational cost. For practical application with complex geometries, the research society rely on RANS and LES, which requre turbulence model or subgrid scale (SGS) model for closure problems. Different models not only lead to different results but usually are invalidated on solid physical grounds, such as objectivity and entropy principle.The Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) is a high-order continuum theory formulated under the framework of thermalmechanics for physics phenomena involving microstructure. In this study, a theoretical perspective for the multiscale nature of the Morphing Continuum Theory is connected with the multiscale nature of turbulence physics. The kinematics, balance laws, constitutive equations and a Morphing Continuum description of turbulence are introduced. The equations were numerically implemented for a zero pressure gradient flat plate. The simulations are compate with the laminar, transitional and turbulence cases.

  3. Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Walter H.

    A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

  4. 3D holography: from discretum to continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Dittrich, Bianca

    2016-03-01

    We study the one-loop partition function of 3D gravity without cosmological constant on the solid torus with arbitrary metric fluctuations on the boundary. To this end we employ the discrete approach of (quantum) Regge calculus. In contrast with similar calculations performed directly in the continuum, we work with a boundary at finite distance from the torus axis. We show that after taking the continuum limit on the boundary — but still keeping finite distance from the torus axis — the one-loop correction is the same as the one recently found in the continuum in Barnich et al. for an asymptotically flat boundary. The discrete approach taken here allows to identify the boundary degrees of freedom which are responsible for the non-trivial structure of the one-loop correction. We therefore calculate also the Hamilton-Jacobi function to quadratic order in the boundary fluctuations both in the discrete set-up and directly in the continuum theory. We identify a dual boundary field theory with a Liouville type coupling to the boundary metric. The discrete set-up allows again to identify the dual field with degrees of freedom associated to radial bulk edges attached to the boundary. Integrating out this dual field reproduces the (boundary diffeomorphism invariant part of the) quadratic order of the Hamilton-Jacobi functional. The considerations here show that bulk boundary dualities might also emerge at finite boundaries and moreover that discrete approaches are helpful in identifying such dualities.

  5. Structured photoionization continuum of cesium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Goran; Makdisi, Yacoub; Kokaj, Jahja; Thomas, Nicky; Mathew, Joseph; AMIP Team

    2015-05-01

    We studied absorption spectrum of dense cesium vapor in an all-sapphire cell with a special emphasis on the highly structured photoionization continuum. This continuum appears to be composed of atomic and molecular contributions which can be separated by means of additional superheating of the sapphire cell. This was possible due to the small amount of cesium filling which completely evaporated at temperature of about 450 °C. This enabled the overheating of cesium dimers which almost disappeared at a temperature of 900 °C leaving pure atomic Cs vapor. The analysis of the thermal destruction indicated that the highly structured molecular component of the photoionization continuum can be entirely attributed to cesium dimers. We discuss the possible origin of the structured photoionization continuum as stemming from the absorption process from the ground Cs2 molecule to the doubly excited Cs2** molecule located above the molecular ionization limit Cs2+.The corresponding potential curves are subjected to a mutual interactions and autoionization.

  6. Mentorship: The Education-Research Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D

    2008-05-29

    recommendation for learning science stated: 'The Nature of Science includes the scientific world view, scientific methods of inquiry, and the nature of the scientific enterprise'. All three elements of the 'Nature of Science' are pivotal aspects of a research internship under the mentorship of an experienced and trusted advisor. In addition to internships for undergraduates, an important ingredient in realizing 'Science for All' is collaboration involving educators and scientists as they engage science students and the public at large to promote science literacy and to develop the next generation of STEM professionals. The DOE National Laboratories, individually and collectively, form an ideal nexus for nurturing these complementary collaborations. My 'Science for All' experiences at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the last 30 years have spanned pre-college, college, and postdoctoral activities, including mentoring of undergraduate students. Early in my mentoring career, I became aware that undergraduates in particular needed help in answering the question 'what path (or paths) will lead to a challenging and rewarding STEM career'? For many, a successful path included a research internship that would result in expanded skills and training in addition to those received from their academic education. These internship skills were helpful whether the student's next Education-Research Continuum decision was graduate school or STEM employment. My experience at LLNL mirrors that of my colleagues at other DOE National Laboratories--internships with a dedicated mentor provide undergraduates with a unique set of skills that can underpin their future options and serve to improve the number, quality, and successful outcomes of students who enter STEM careers. 'Science for All' can also be found in the goals of 'The America COMPETES Act', which call for renewed efforts to increase investments in scientific research and development, strengthen education, and encourage

  7. Continuum modeling of large lattice structures: Status and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The status and some recent developments of continuum modeling for large repetitive lattice structures are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects including definition of an effective substitute continuum; characterization of the continuum model; and the different approaches for generating the properties of the continuum, namely, the constitutive matrix, the matrix of mass densities, and the matrix of thermal coefficients. Also, a simple approach is presented for generating the continuum properties. The approach can be used to generate analytic and/or numerical values of the continuum properties.

  8. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  9. Global properties of cellular automata

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, E.

    1986-04-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence.

  10. Coherently controlled adiabatic passage to multiple continuum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2006-09-15

    We present a solution to the multichannel quantum control problem, where selective and complete population transfer from an initial bound state to M energetically degenerate continuum channels is achieved under loss-free conditions. The control is affected by adiabatic passage proceeding via N bound intermediate states, where even in the presence of real loss from these states, the control efficiency remains significant, about 40-50%. We illustrate the viability of the method by computationally controlling the CH{sub 3}(v)+I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})<-CH{sub 3}I{yields}CH{sub 3}(v)+I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) multichannel photodissociation process.

  11. Reduced-representation Phosphosignatures Measured by Quantitative Targeted MS Capture Cellular States and Enable Large-scale Comparison of Drug-induced Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Abelin, Jennifer G; Patel, Jinal; Lu, Xiaodong; Feeney, Caitlin M; Fagbami, Lola; Creech, Amanda L; Hu, Roger; Lam, Daniel; Davison, Desiree; Pino, Lindsay; Qiao, Jana W; Kuhn, Eric; Officer, Adam; Li, Jianxue; Abbatiello, Susan; Subramanian, Aravind; Sidman, Richard; Snyder, Evan; Carr, Steven A; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2016-05-01

    Profiling post-translational modifications represents an alternative dimension to gene expression data in characterizing cellular processes. Many cellular responses to drugs are mediated by changes in cellular phosphosignaling. We sought to develop a common platform on which phosphosignaling responses could be profiled across thousands of samples, and created a targeted MS assay that profiles a reduced-representation set of phosphopeptides that we show to be strong indicators of responses to chemical perturbagens.To develop the assay, we investigated the coordinate regulation of phosphosites in samples derived from three cell lines treated with 26 different bioactive small molecules. Phosphopeptide analytes were selected from these discovery studies by clustering and picking 1 to 2 proxy members from each cluster. A quantitative, targeted parallel reaction monitoring assay was developed to directly measure 96 reduced-representation probes. Sample processing for proteolytic digestion, protein quantification, peptide desalting, and phosphopeptide enrichment have been fully automated, making possible the simultaneous processing of 96 samples in only 3 days, with a plate phosphopeptide enrichment variance of 12%. This highly reproducible process allowed ∼95% of the reduced-representation phosphopeptide probes to be detected in ∼200 samples.The performance of the assay was evaluated by measuring the probes in new samples generated under treatment conditions from discovery experiments, recapitulating the observations of deeper experiments using a fraction of the analytical effort. We measured these probes in new experiments varying the treatments, cell types, and timepoints to demonstrate generalizability. We demonstrated that the assay is sensitive to disruptions in common signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK, PI3K/mTOR, and CDK). The high-throughput, reduced-representation phosphoproteomics assay provides a platform for the comparison of perturbations across a range of

  12. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  13. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  14. Emission Lines and the High Energy Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Quasars show many striking relationships between line and continuum radiation whose origins remain a mystery. FeII, [OIII], Hbeta, and HeII emission line properties correlate with high energy continuum properties such as the relative strength of X-ray emission, and X-ray continuum slope. At the same time, the shape of the high energy continuum may vary with luminosity. An important tool for studying global properties of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) is the co-addition of data for samples of QSOS. We use this to show that X-ray bright (XB) QSOs show stronger emission lines in general, but particularly from the narrow line region. The difference in the [OIII]/Hbeta ratio is particularly striking, and even more so when blended FeII emission is properly subtracted. Weaker narrow forbidden lines ([OII] and NeV) are enhanced by factors of 2 to 3 in both UV and optical XB composite spectra. The physical origin of these diverse and interrelated correlations has yet to be determined. Unfortunately, many physically informative trends intrinsic to QSOs may be masked by dispersion in the data due to either low signal-to-noise or variability. An important tool for studying global properties of QSOs is the co-addition of data for samples of QSOS. We use this to show that X-ray bright (XB) QSOs show stronger emission lines in general, but particularly from the narrow line region. The difference in the [OIII]/Hbeta ratio is particularly striking, and even more so when blended Fell emission is properly subtracted. Weaker narrow forbidden lines ([OII] and NeV) are enhanced by factors of 2 to 3 in both UV and optical XB composite spectra. We describe a large-scale effort now underway to probe these effects in large samples, using both data and analysis as homogeneous as possible. Using an HST FOS Atlas of QSO spectra, with primary comparison to ROSAT PSPC spectral constraints, we will model the Big Blue Bump, its relationship to luminosity and QSO type, and we will analyze and

  15. Continuum emission in the 1980 July 1 solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.; Neidig, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of continuum measurements of the July 1, 1980 flare at Big Bear Solar Observatory and Sacramento Peak Observatory show strong blue emission kernels with the ratio of Balmer continuum (Bac):3862 A continuum:continuum above 4275 A to be about 10:5:1. The blue continuum at 3862 A is too strong to be explained by unresolved lines. The Bac intensity was 2.5 times the photosphere and the strongest 3826 A continuum was 2 times the photosphere. The brightest continuum kernel occurred late in the flare, after the hard X-ray peak and related in time to an isolated peak in the 2.2 MeV line, suggesting that that continuum was excited by protons above 20 MeV.

  16. Mirrored continuum and molecular scale simulations of the ignition of gamma phase RDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Joshi, Kaushik; Lee, Kiabek

    2015-06-01

    We consider the ignition of a high-pressure gamma-phase of an explosive crystal of RDX which forms during overdriven shock initiation. Molecular dynamics (MD), with first-principles based or reactive force field based molecular potentials, provides a description of the chemistry as an extremely complex reaction network. The results of the molecular simulation is analyzed by sorting molecular product fragments into high and low molecular groups, to represent identifiable components that can be interpreted by a continuum model. A continuum model based on a Gibbs formulation, that has a single temperature and stress state for the mixture is used to represent the same RDX material and its chemistry. Each component in the continuum model has a corresponding Gibbs continuum potential, that are in turn inferred from molecular MD informed equation of state libraries such as CHEETAH, or are directly simulated by Monte Carlo MD simulations. Information about transport, kinetic rates and diffusion are derived from the MD simulation and the growth of a reactive hot spot in the RDX is studied with both simulations that mirror the other results to provide an essential, continuum/atomistic link. Supported by N000014-12-1-0555, subaward-36561937 (ONR).

  17. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spill, F; Guerrero, P; Alarcon, T; Maini, P K; Byrne, H M

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. PMID:24615007

  18. Models of Uranium continuum radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Joseph H.; Evans, David R.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Warwick, James W.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium continuum radio emission detected by the Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment during the January 1986 encounter is considered. The continuum emissions comprised four components (equatorial emissions, anomaly emissions, strong nightside emissions, and weak nightside emissions) associated with different sources. The equatorial emissions appeared most prominently during the days before closest approach and extended from 40 kHz or below to about 120 kHz. The anomaly emissions were seen about 12 hours before closest approach and extended to about 250 kHz. The agreement found between Miranda's phase and strong radio emission at 20.4 kHz, just after closest approach, suggests intense dynamic activity on the Miranda L shell.

  19. Continuum of Collaboration: Little Steps for Little Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mini-article outlines a continuum of collaboration for faculty within a department of the same discipline. The goal of illustrating this continuum is showcase different stages of collaboration so that faculty members can assess where they are as a collective and consider steps to collaborate more. The separate points along a continuum of…

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of continuum neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    We survey recent analytical approaches to studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of continuum neural fields. Neural fields model the large-scale dynamics of spatially structured biological neural networks in terms of nonlinear integrodifferential equations whose associated integral kernels represent the spatial distribution of neuronal synaptic connections. They provide an important example of spatially extended excitable systems with nonlocal interactions and exhibit a wide range of spatially coherent dynamics including traveling waves oscillations and Turing-like patterns.

  1. Steering continuum electron dynamics by low-energy attosecond streaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Ji-Wei; Xiong, Wei-Hao; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Gong, Qihuang; Peng, Liang-You

    2016-08-01

    A semiclassical model is developed to understand the electronic dynamics in the low-energy attosecond streaking. Under a relatively strong infrared (IR) pulse, the low-energy part of photoelectrons initialized by a single attosecond pulse (SAP) can either rescatter with the ionic core and induce interferences structures in the momentum spectra of the ionized electrons or be recaptured into the Rydberg states. The Coulomb potential plays essential roles in both the electron rescattering and recapturing processes. We find that by changing the time delay between the SAP and the IR pulse, the photoelectrons yield or the population of the Rydberg states can be effectively controlled. The present study demonstrates a fascinating way to steer the electron motion in the continuum.

  2. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morchenko, E.; Bychkov, K.; Livshits, M.

    2015-06-01

    The emission spectrum has been calculated of a homogeneous pure hydrogen layer, which parameters are typical for a flare on a red dwarf. The ionization and excitation states were determined by the solution of steady-state equations taking into account the continuum and all discrete hydrogen levels. We consider the following elementary processes: electron-impact transitions, spontaneous and induced radiative transitions, and ionization by the bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself. The Biberman-Holstein approximation was used to calculate the scattering of line radiation. Asymptotic formulae for the escape probability are obtained for a symmetric line profile taking into account the Stark and Doppler effects. The approximation for the core of the H- α line by a Gaussian curve has been substantiated.

  3. The emission line - continuum connection in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodre, Laerte; Albernaz-Sirico, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    Star-forming galaxies with a blue continuum tend to present prominent emission lines, whereas in red galaxies emission lines are associated mostly to nuclear activity or to certain stellar populations, like post-AGB stars. In this work we have used tools of machine learning to investigate how theemission line equivalent widths of galaxies are related to their optical continuum. From the analysis of a sample of high S/N spectra of SDSS/DR9 we show that indeed it is possible to estimate with good accuracy the equivalent width of the most intense emission lines from galaxy continuum information only for star-forming galaxies and AGNs (LINERS and Seyfer 2 emitters) by using simple relationships (linear and/or polynomial models) between the EWs and the relative flux at certain wavelengths. An important motivation for this work is to produce realistic spectra to test the data reduction pipelines of the new generation of galaxy surveys, like J-PAS and PFS/SuMIRe.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for continuum multicomponent flow.

    PubMed

    Halliday, I; Hollis, A P; Care, C M

    2007-08-01

    We present a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation for continuum fluid mechanics, paying particular attention to the component segregation part of the underlying algorithm. In the principal result of this paper, the dynamics of a component index, or phase field, is obtained for a segregation method after U. D'Ortona [Phys. Rev. E 51, 3718 (1995)], due to Latva-Kokko and Rothman [Phys. Rev. E 71 056702 (2005)]. The said dynamics accord with a simulation designed to address multicomponent flow in the continuum approximation and underwrite improved simulation performance in two main ways: (i) by reducing the interfacial microcurrent activity considerably and (ii) by facilitating simulational access to regimes of flow with a low capillary number and drop Reynolds number [I. Halliday, R. Law, C. M. Care, and A. Hollis, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056708 (2006)]. The component segregation method studied, used in conjunction with Lishchuk's method [S. V. Lishchuk, C. M. Care, and I. Halliday, Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)], produces an interface, which is distributed in terms of its component index; however, the hydrodynamic boundary conditions which emerge are shown to support the notion of a sharp, unstructured, continuum interface. PMID:17930175

  5. A Continuum Theory of Thermal Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielenberg, James; Brenner, Howard

    2003-11-01

    A rational, continuum mechanical description is given for the pressure drop that develops in a closed capillary tube subject to an imposed temperature gradient. This phenomenon, termed thermal transpiration, has been experimentally demonstrated in systems at vanishing Knudsen numbers, yet no purely continuum mechanical description has, until now, been given. Previous hybrid solutions (dating back to Maxwell in 1879) have utilized the classical, incompressible flow equations along with molecularly derived slip boundary conditions. This solution approach will be briefly discussed and shown to be dynamically consistent yet energetically flawed. Subsequently, we will apply a novel reformulation of continuum-mechanics and -thermodynamics, which clearly distinguishes between the Lagrangian (tracer) and the barycentric velocities, to generate a solution for the thermal pressure drop developed in a closed system. Explicitly, the phenomena at hand will be shown to be entirely analogous to Poiseuille flow in tube, albeit with the tacit recognition that the ``flow'' we are speaking of is defined in a dynamic sense rather than in the more traditional, kinematic mass-flux based sense. This solution will be show to be free of ad hoc parameters, consistent with experimental results, and in accordance with classical macroscopic thermodynamics. Beyond its purely scientific importance, this phenomenon may find applications in the emerging area of micro-fluidic pumping.

  6. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  7. Polymer Fluid Dynamics: Continuum and Molecular Approaches.

    PubMed

    Bird, R B; Giacomin, A J

    2016-06-01

    To solve problems in polymer fluid dynamics, one needs the equations of continuity, motion, and energy. The last two equations contain the stress tensor and the heat-flux vector for the material. There are two ways to formulate the stress tensor: (a) One can write a continuum expression for the stress tensor in terms of kinematic tensors, or (b) one can select a molecular model that represents the polymer molecule and then develop an expression for the stress tensor from kinetic theory. The advantage of the kinetic theory approach is that one gets information about the relation between the molecular structure of the polymers and the rheological properties. We restrict the discussion primarily to the simplest stress tensor expressions or constitutive equations containing from two to four adjustable parameters, although we do indicate how these formulations may be extended to give more complicated expressions. We also explore how these simplest expressions are recovered as special cases of a more general framework, the Oldroyd 8-constant model. Studying the simplest models allows us to discover which types of empiricisms or molecular models seem to be worth investigating further. We also explore equivalences between continuum and molecular approaches. We restrict the discussion to several types of simple flows, such as shearing flows and extensional flows, which are of greatest importance in industrial operations. Furthermore, if these simple flows cannot be well described by continuum or molecular models, then it is not necessary to lavish time and energy to apply them to more complex flow problems. PMID:27276553

  8. Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qiao; Ben-Zhuo, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson- Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of the biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulations. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and the PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230106) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Program for Cross & Cooperative Team of the Science & Technology Innovation.

  9. Electronic continuum model for molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Leontyev, I V; Stuchebrukhov, A A

    2009-02-28

    A simple model for accounting for electronic polarization in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is discussed. In this model, called molecular dynamics electronic continuum (MDEC), the electronic polarization is treated explicitly in terms of the electronic continuum (EC) approximation, while the nuclear dynamics is described with a fixed-charge force field. In such a force-field all atomic charges are scaled to reflect the screening effect by the electronic continuum. The MDEC model is rather similar but not equivalent to the standard nonpolarizable force-fields; the differences are discussed. Of our particular interest is the calculation of the electrostatic part of solvation energy using standard nonpolarizable MD simulations. In a low-dielectric environment, such as protein, the standard MD approach produces qualitatively wrong results. The difficulty is in mistreatment of the electronic polarizability. We show how the results can be much improved using the MDEC approach. We also show how the dielectric constant of the medium obtained in a MD simulation with nonpolarizable force-field is related to the static (total) dielectric constant, which includes both the nuclear and electronic relaxation effects. Using the MDEC model, we discuss recent calculations of dielectric constants of alcohols and alkanes, and show that the MDEC results are comparable with those obtained with the polarizable Drude oscillator model. The applicability of the method to calculations of dielectric properties of proteins is discussed. PMID:19256627

  10. MILLIMETER-WAVE EMISSIVITY OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A general analysis has been presented of the millimeter-wave and farinfrared spectroscopic properties of in vivo cellular systems, and of the boson radiative equilibrium with steady-state nonequilibrium molecular systems. The frequency threshhold of spectroscopic properties assoc...

  11. Graduate Medical Education: Its Role in Achieving a True Medical Education Continuum.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrener, Carol A; Ast, Cori; Kirch, Darrell G

    2015-09-01

    Nearly half a century ago, Lowell T. Coggeshall recommended, through what has come to be known as the Coggeshall Report, that physician education-medical school (or undergraduate medical education [UME]), residency training (or graduate medical education [GME]), and continuing medical education (CME)-be "planned and provided as a continuum." While the dream of a true continuum remains unfulfilled, recent innovations focused on defining and assessing meaningful outcomes at last offer the anchor for the creation of a seamless, flexible, and ongoing pathway for the preparation of physicians. Recent innovations, including a widely accepted competency framework and entrustable professional activities (EPAs), provide key tools for creating a continuum. The competency framework is being leveraged in UME, GME, and CME and is serving as the foundation for the continuum. Learners and those who assess them are increasingly relying on observable behaviors (e.g., EPAs) to determine progress. The GME community in the United States and Canada has played-and continues to play-a leading role in the creation of these tools and a true medical education continuum. Despite some systemic challenges to implementation (e.g., premedical learner formation, time-in-step requirements), the GME community is already operationalizing these tools as a basis for other innovations that are improving transitions across the continuum (e.g., competency-based progression of residents). The medical education community's greatest responsibility in the years ahead will be to build on these efforts in GME-joining together to learn from one another and develop a continuum that serves the public and the profession. PMID:26177531

  12. Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H bond Activation. Understanding the electronic continuum of C-H bond activation through transition-state and reaction pathway interaction energy decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Goddard, William A.; Periana, Roy A.

    2010-10-29

    The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal-ligand-mediated alkane C-H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7-9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d8, d6, d4, and d0), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal-ligand fragment and the coordinated C-H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C-H bond allows classification of C-H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C-H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C-H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d6 Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe3)Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C-H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in

  13. Rural Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Their Role in the Breast Cancer Care Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Kathleen M.; Edwards, Joellen

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rural women in the United States experience disparity in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment when compared to their urban counterparts. Given the 11% chance of lifetime occurrence of breast cancer for women overall, the continuum of breast cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery are of legitimate concern to rural women and…

  14. Continuum-mediated dark matter-baryon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Andrey; Reece, Matthew; Sajjad, Aqil

    2016-06-01

    Many models of dark matter scattering with baryons may be treated either as a simple contact interaction or as the exchange of a light mediator particle. We study an alternative, in which a continuum of light mediator states may be exchanged. This could arise, for instance, from coupling to a sector which is approximately conformal at the relevant momentum transfer scale. In the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter-baryon scattering, which is useful for parametrizing direct detection signals, the effect of such continuum mediators is to multiply the amplitude by a function of the momentum transfer q, which in the simplest case is just a power law. We develop the basic framework and study two examples: the case where the mediator is a scalar operator coupling to the Higgs portal (which turns out to be highly constrained) and the case of an antisymmetric tensor operator Oμν that mixes with the hypercharge field strength and couples to dark matter tensor currents, which has an interesting viable parameter space. We describe the effect of such mediators on the cross sections and recoil energy spectra that could be observed in direct detection.

  15. Minimal continuum theories of structure formation in dense active fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Bär, Markus; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-04-01

    Self-sustained dynamical phases of living matter can exhibit remarkable similarities over a wide range of scales, from mesoscopic vortex structures in microbial suspensions and motility assays of biopolymers to turbulent large-scale instabilities in flocks of birds or schools of fish. Here, we argue that, in many cases, the phenomenology of such active states can be efficiently described in terms of fourth- and higher-order partial differential equations. Structural transitions in these models can be interpreted as Landau-type kinematic transitions in Fourier (wavenumber) space, suggesting that microscopically different biological systems can share universal long-wavelength features. This general idea is illustrated through numerical simulations for two classes of continuum models for incompressible active fluids: a Swift-Hohenberg-type scalar field theory, and a minimal vector model that extends the classical Toner-Tu theory and appears to be a promising candidate for the quantitative description of dense bacterial suspensions. We discuss how microscopic symmetry-breaking mechanisms can enter macroscopic continuum descriptions of collective microbial motion near surfaces, and conclude by outlining future applications.

  16. Calculating Free Energy Changes in Continuum Solvation Models.

    PubMed

    Ho, Junming; Ertem, Mehmed Z

    2016-02-25

    We recently showed for a large data set of pKas and reduction potentials that free energies calculated directly within the SMD continuum model compares very well with corresponding thermodynamic cycle calculations in both aqueous and organic solvents [ Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 17 , 2859 ]. In this paper, we significantly expand the scope of our study to examine the suitability of this approach for calculating general solution phase kinetics and thermodynamics, in conjunction with several commonly used solvation models (SMD-M062X, SMD-HF, CPCM-UAKS, and CPCM-UAHF) for a broad range of systems. This includes cluster-continuum schemes for pKa calculations as well as various neutral, radical, and ionic reactions such as enolization, cycloaddition, hydrogen and chlorine atom transfer, and SN2 and E2 reactions. On the basis of this benchmarking study, we conclude that the accuracies of both approaches are generally very similar-the mean errors for Gibbs free energy changes of neutral and ionic reactions are approximately 5 and 25 kJ mol(-1), respectively. In systems where there are significant structural changes due to solvation, as is the case for certain ionic transition states and amino acids, the direct approach generally afford free energy changes that are in better agreement with experiment. PMID:26878566

  17. Covariance Propagation and Partial Eigendecomposition Filtering on the Continuum: The Cases of Advective Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, S.

    2002-01-01

    As a motivation for this lecture, we begin by stating a paradox that challenges our fundamental understanding of covariance evolution (at least it challenged my own). Attempting to resolve this 'divergence paradox' leads us to introduce the continuum fundamental solution operator for the dynamics under consideration, which will be advection dynamics in this lecture. This operator is the object that is approximated by the discrete 'tangent linear model. We then show how the fundamental solution operator can be used to describe the solution of the continuum covariance evolution equation. This description is complete enough to resolve fully the divergence paradox.

  18. Xtoys: Cellular automata on xwindows

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1995-08-15

    Xtoys is a collection of xwindow programs for demonstrating simulations of various statistical models. Included are xising, for the two dimensional Ising model, xpotts, for the q-state Potts model, xautomalab, for a fairly general class of totalistic cellular automata, xsand, for the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfield model of self organized criticality, and xfires, a simple forest fire simulation. The programs should compile on any machine supporting xwindows.

  19. A robust, coupled approach for atomistic-continuum simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Sylvie; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Wagner, Gregory John; Klein, Patrick A.; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Kimmer, Christopher J.

    2004-09-01

    This report is a collection of documents written by the group members of the Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF), Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project titled 'A Robust, Coupled Approach to Atomistic-Continuum Simulation'. Presented in this document is the development of a formulation for performing quasistatic, coupled, atomistic-continuum simulation that includes cross terms in the equilibrium equations that arise due to kinematic coupling and corrections used for the calculation of system potential energy to account for continuum elements that overlap regions containing atomic bonds, evaluations of thermo-mechanical continuum quantities calculated within atomistic simulations including measures of stress, temperature and heat flux, calculation used to determine the appropriate spatial and time averaging necessary to enable these atomistically-defined expressions to have the same physical meaning as their continuum counterparts, and a formulation to quantify a continuum 'temperature field', the first step towards constructing a coupled atomistic-continuum approach capable of finite temperature and dynamic analyses.

  20. Hydrogen line and continuum emission in young stellar objects. I - Excitation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, John; Alonso-Costa, Jose L.

    1988-01-01

    Two mechanisms that populate the n = 2 level of hydrogen after the Lyman continuum is depleted are identified. They are ionization of N I from its excited states, followed by charge-exchange between N II and H I, and Ly-beta line wing absorption. Both processes involve absorption of the sub-Lyman continuum between 11 and 13.6 eV. With population in level n = 2 thus maintained, the strong Brackett line fluxes observed are then produced as a result of Balmer photoionization. The magnitude of the sub-Lyman continuum dictates the fraction of Balmer continuum that will be absorbed. Numerical calculations for four young stellar objects with luminosity ranging from 10 to 10,000 solar are performed, and it is concluded that this two-step process of sub-Lyman continuum absorption followed by Balmer photoionization can account for the great majority of observed Brackett line fluxes. The location and mass of the emitting as as determined from the Brackett line fluxes are reported. The Br-alpha luminosity is calculated as a function of the mass loss rate.

  1. Sexual Orientation: Categories or Continuum? Commentary on Bailey et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2016-09-01

    Bailey et al. (2016) have provided an excellent, state-of-the-art overview that is a major contribution to our understanding of sexual orientation. However, whereas Bailey and his coauthors have examined the physiological, behavioral, and self-report data of sexual orientation and see categories, I see a sexual and romantic continuum. After noting several objections concerning the limitations of the review and methodological shortcomings characteristic of sexual-orientation research in general, I present evidence from research investigating in-between sexualities to support an alternative, continuum-based perspective regarding the nature of sexual orientation for both women and men. A continuum conceptualization has potential implications for investigating the prevalence of nonheterosexuals, sexual-orientation differences in gender nonconformity, causes of sexual orientation, and political issues. PMID:27113561

  2. Relaxation of a steep density gradient in a simple fluid: Comparison between atomistic and continuum modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pourali, Meisam; Maghari, Ali; Meloni, Simone; Magaletti, Francesco; Casciola, Carlo Massimo; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2014-10-21

    We compare dynamical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and continuum simulations of the dynamics of relaxation of a fluid system characterized by a non-uniform density profile. Results match quite well as long as the lengthscale of density nonuniformities are greater than the molecular scale (∼10 times the molecular size). In presence of molecular scale features some of the continuum fields (e.g., density and momentum) are in good agreement with atomistic counterparts, but are smoother. On the contrary, other fields, such as the temperature field, present very large difference with respect to reference (atomistic) ones. This is due to the limited accuracy of some of the empirical relations used in continuum models, the equation of state of the fluid in the present example.

  3. Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Cells Impinges on the Cysteines Redox State of Human XRCC3 Protein and on Its Cellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Graindorge, Dany; Smirnova, Violetta; Rigolet, Pascal; Francesconi, Stefania; Scanlon, Susan; Sage, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, XRCC3 is one of the five Rad51 paralogs that plays a central role in homologous recombination (HR), a key pathway for maintaining genomic stability. While investigating the potential role of human XRCC3 (hXRCC3) in the inhibition of DNA replication induced by UVA radiation, we discovered that hXRCC3 cysteine residues are oxidized following photosensitization by UVA. Our in silico prediction of the hXRCC3 structure suggests that 6 out of 8 cysteines are potentially accessible to the solvent and therefore potentially exposed to ROS attack. By non-reducing SDS-PAGE we show that many different oxidants induce hXRCC3 oxidation that is monitored in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells by increased electrophoretic mobility of the protein and in human cells by a slight decrease of its immunodetection. In both cell types, hXRCC3 oxidation was reversed in few minutes by cellular reducing systems. Depletion of intracellular glutathione prevents hXRCC3 oxidation only after UVA exposure though depending on the type of photosensitizer. In addition, we show that hXRCC3 expressed in CHO cells localizes both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Mutating all hXRCC3 cysteines to serines (XR3/S protein) does not affect the subcellular localization of the protein even after exposure to camptothecin (CPT), which typically induces DNA damages that require HR to be repaired. However, cells expressing mutated XR3/S protein are sensitive to CPT, thus highlighting a defect of the mutant protein in HR. In marked contrast to CPT treatment, oxidative stress induces relocalization at the chromatin fraction of both wild-type and mutated protein, even though survival is not affected. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the DNA repair protein hXRCC3 is a target of ROS induced by environmental factors and raise the possibility that the redox environment might participate in regulating the HR pathway. PMID:24116071

  4. Interpreting angina: symptoms along a gender continuum

    PubMed Central

    Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Shannon, Harry S; Velianou, James L; Giacomini, Mita

    2016-01-01

    Background ‘Typical’ angina is often used to describe symptoms common among men, while ‘atypical’ angina is used to describe symptoms common among women, despite a higher prevalence of angina among women. This discrepancy is a source of controversy in cardiac care among women. Objectives To redefine angina by (1) qualitatively comparing angina symptoms and experiences in women and men and (2) to propose a more meaningful construct of angina that integrates a more gender-centred approach. Methods Patients were recruited between July and December 2010 from a tertiary cardiac care centre and interviewed immediately prior to their first angiogram. Symptoms were explored through in-depth semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed concurrently using a modified grounded theory approach. Angiographically significant disease was assessed at ≥70% stenosis of a major epicardial vessel. Results Among 31 total patients, 13 men and 14 women had angiograpically significant CAD. Patients describe angina symptoms according to 6 symptomatic subthemes that array along a ‘gender continuum’. Gender-specific symptoms are anchored at each end of the continuum. At the centre of the continuum, are a remarkably large number of symptoms commonly expressed by both men and women. Conclusions The ‘gender continuum’ offers new insights into angina experiences of angiography candidates. Notably, there is more overlap of shared experiences between men and women than conventionally thought. The gender continuum can help researchers and clinicians contextualise patient symptom reports, avoiding the conventional ‘typical’ versus ‘atypical’ distinction that can misrepresent gendered angina experiences. PMID:27158523

  5. Modelling cellular behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  6. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  7. Dust continuum spectra from model HII regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, P. A.; Emery, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared spectrum emitted by nebular dust, heated by the ionizing stars in H II blisters and spherical H II regions, is calculated for various model parameters. Absorption of the non-ionizing radiation in a neutral layer is included. Heating by the Lyman alpha photon field is taken into account. The dust is composed of silicate and graphite grains, and evaporation of the grains in the inner region is considered. The models are presented with a view to interpretation of infrared observations of dusty H II regions and can be applied directly to the infrared astronomy satellite survey data. The continuum emission is compared with calculated fine structure line emission.

  8. Continuum modeling of clustering of myxobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Alber, Mark; Tsimring, Lev S.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop a continuum theory of clustering in ensembles of self-propelled inelastically colliding rods with applications to collective dynamics of common gliding bacteria Myxococcus Xanthus. A multiphase hydrodynamic model that couples densities of oriented and isotropic phases is described. This model is used for the analysis of an instability that leads to spontaneous formation of directionally moving dense clusters within initially dilute isotropic “gas” of myxobacteria. Numerical simulations of this model confirm the existence of stationary dense moving clusters and also elucidate the properties of their collisions. The results are shown to be in a qualitative agreement with experiments. PMID:23712128

  9. Continuum regularization of gauge theory with fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.S.

    1987-03-01

    The continuum regularization program is discussed in the case of d-dimensional gauge theory coupled to fermions in an arbitrary representation. Two physically equivalent formulations are given. First, a Grassmann formulation is presented, which is based on the two-noise Langevin equations of Sakita, Ishikawa and Alfaro and Gavela. Second, a non-Grassmann formulation is obtained by regularized integration of the matter fields within the regularized Grassmann system. Explicit perturbation expansions are studied in both formulations, and considerable simplification is found in the integrated non-Grassmann formalism.

  10. Perspective: Polarizable continuum models for quantum-mechanical descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-01

    Polarizable continuum solvation models are nowadays the most popular approach to describe solvent effects in the context of quantum mechanical calculations. Unexpectedly, despite their widespread use in all branches of quantum chemistry and beyond, important aspects of both their theoretical formulation and numerical implementation are still not completely understood. In particular, in this perspective we focus on the numerical issues of their implementation when applied to large systems and on the theoretical framework needed to treat time dependent problems and excited states or to deal with electronic correlation. Possible extensions beyond a purely electrostatic model and generalizations to environments beyond common solvents are also critically presented and discussed. Finally, some possible new theoretical approaches and numerical strategies are suggested to overcome the obstacles which still prevent a full exploitation of these models.

  11. Simulations of plasma sheaths using continuum kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Hakim, Ammar

    2015-11-01

    Understanding plasma sheath physics is important for the performance of devices such as Hall thrusters due to the effect of energetic particles on electrode erosion. Plasma sheath physics is studied using kinetic and multi-fluid models with relevance to secondary electron emissions and plasma-surface interactions. Continuum kinetic models are developed to directly solve the Vlasov-Poisson equation using the discontinuous Galerkin method for each of the ion and electron species. A steady-state sheath is simulated by including a simple model for a neutral fluid. Multi-fluid simulations for the plasma sheath are also performed using the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve a complete set of fluid equations for each of the ion and electron species. The kinetic plasma sheath is compared to a multi-fluid plasma sheath. Supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  12. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  13. Polarized Continuum Radiation from Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Continuum scattering by free electrons can be significant in early type stars, while in late type stars Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen atoms or molecules may be important. Computer programs used to construct models of stellar atmospheres generally treat the scattering of the continuum radiation as isotropic and unpolarized, but this scattering has a dipole angular dependence and will produce polarization. We review an accurate method for evaluating the polarization and limb darkening of the radiation from model stellar atmospheres. We use this method to obtain results for: (i) Late type stars, based on the MARCS code models (Gustafsson et al. 2008), and (ii) Early type stars, based on the NLTE code TLUSTY (Lanz and Hubeny 2003). These results are tabulated at http://www.astro.umd.edu/~jph/Stellar_Polarization.html. While the net polarization vanishes for an unresolved spherical star, this symmetry is broken by rapid rotation or by the masking of part of the star by a binary companion or during the transit of an exoplanet. We give some numerical results for these last cases.

  14. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  15. The Urban Watershed Continuum: Biogeochemistry of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; Smith, C.; Newcomb, K.; Newcomer, T. A.; Smith, R.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time. We explore the relationship between infrastructure and ecosystem function relevant to the inorganic and organic carbon cycle along urban watersheds across spatial and temporal dimensions. We provide examples from watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological (LTER) and Washington D.C. Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA EX) sites with varying land use and contrasting sanitary sewer systems. At a stream and river network scale, there are distinct longitudinal patterns in dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate carbon concentrations from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized receiving waters. There are also distinct changes in stable isotopic signatures of organic carbon and inorganic carbon suggesting shifts in carbon sources and processing throughout urban stream and river networks. Longitudinal patterns appear to be related to in-stream transformations, as suggested by high frequency sensor measurements, mass balances, and diurnal sampling. We suggest that stream and river networks act as "transformers" of watershed nitrogen and phosphorus pollution to increasingly generate carbon throughout the urban watershed continuum via biological processes. Additionally, sources and quality of carbon may vary with watershed inputs from suburban headwaters to progressively urbanized downstream reaches. The role of the urban watershed continuum as a "transporter" and "transformer" of organic matter has important implications for anticipating changes in the forms and reactivity of carbon delivered to receiving waters and coastal zones.

  16. Accurate Molecular Polarizabilities Based on Continuum Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholls, Anthony; Iftimie, Radu I.; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for representing the intramolecular polarizability as a continuum dielectric is introduced to account for molecular electronic polarization. It is shown, using a finite-difference solution to the Poisson equation, that the Electronic Polarization from Internal Continuum (EPIC) model yields accurate gas-phase molecular polarizability tensors for a test set of 98 challenging molecules composed of heteroaromatics, alkanes and diatomics. The electronic polarization originates from a high intramolecular dielectric that produces polarizabilities consistent with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and experimental values when surrounded by vacuum dielectric. In contrast to other approaches to model electronic polarization, this simple model avoids the polarizability catastrophe and accurately calculates molecular anisotropy with the use of very few fitted parameters and without resorting to auxiliary sites or anisotropic atomic centers. On average, the unsigned error in the average polarizability and anisotropy compared to B3LYP are 2% and 5%, respectively. The correlation between the polarizability components from B3LYP and this approach lead to a R2 of 0.990 and a slope of 0.999. Even the F2 anisotropy, shown to be a difficult case for existing polarizability models, can be reproduced within 2% error. In addition to providing new parameters for a rapid method directly applicable to the calculation of polarizabilities, this work extends the widely used Poisson equation to areas where accurate molecular polarizabilities matter. PMID:23646034

  17. Multiple Scattering Approach to Continuum State with Generally Shaped Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Tenore, Antonio; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero

    2007-02-02

    We present a new scheme for solving the scattering problem for an arbitrarily shaped potential cell that avoids the well known convergence problems in the angular momentum expansion of the cell shape function. Tests of the method against analytically soluble separable model potentials, with and without shape truncation, have been performed with success. By a judicious choice of the shape of the cells partitioning the whole molecular space and use of empty cells when necessary, we set up a multiple scattering scheme that leads to a straightforward generalization of the same equations in the muffin-tin approximation. For example lmax in the angular momentum expansion can still be chosen according to the rule lmax {approx} kR, where R is the radius of the bounding sphere of the cell and all the matrices appearing in the theory are square matrices.

  18. In vivo monitoring of cellular energy metabolism using SoNar, a highly responsive sensor for NAD(+)/NADH redox state.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuzheng; Wang, Aoxue; Zou, Yejun; Su, Ni; Loscalzo, Joseph; Yang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    NADH and its oxidized form NAD(+) have a central role in energy metabolism, and their concentrations are often considered to be among the most important readouts of metabolic state. Here, we present a detailed protocol to image and monitor NAD(+)/NADH redox state in living cells and in vivo using a highly responsive, genetically encoded fluorescent sensor known as SoNar (sensor of NAD(H) redox). The chimeric SoNar protein was initially developed by inserting circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (cpYFP) into the NADH-binding domain of Rex protein from Thermus aquaticus (T-Rex). It functions by binding to either NAD(+) or NADH, thus inducing protein conformational changes that affect its fluorescent properties. We first describe steps for how to establish SoNar-expressing cells, and then discuss how to use the system to quantify the intracellular redox state. This approach is sensitive, accurate, simple and able to report subtle perturbations of various pathways of energy metabolism in real time. We also detail the application of SoNar to high-throughput chemical screening of candidate compounds targeting cell metabolism in a microplate-reader-based assay, along with in vivo fluorescence imaging of tumor xenografts expressing SoNar in mice. Typically, the approximate time frame for fluorescence imaging of SoNar is 30 min for living cells and 60 min for living mice. For high-throughput chemical screening in a 384-well-plate assay, the whole procedure generally takes no longer than 60 min to assess the effects of 380 compounds on cell metabolism. PMID:27362337

  19. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  20. Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: rsainz@iac.es

    2014-03-20

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.

  1. State-of-the-art on basic and applied stem cell therapy; Stem Cell Research Italy-International Society for Cellular Therapy Europe, Joint Meeting, Montesilvano (PE)-Italy, June 10-12, 2011.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Pandolfi, Assunta; Galderisi, Umberto

    2012-03-20

    Over 160 stem cell-based therapeutic products are undergoing development for the treatment of several diseases, ranging from cardiac and artery diseases to immune and neurodegenerative pathologies, including diabetes, spinal cord injury. Therefore, stem cell therapy plays a key role for developing new cell-based drugs for the future molecular and regenerative medicine. The second meeting organized by Stem Cell Research Italy (SCR Italy) and by the International Society for Cellular Therapy-Europe (ISCT) in Montesilvano/Città S. Angelo (Pescara)-Italy, on June 10th-12th, 2011, focused on the state-of-the-art of stem cell therapy and associated novel findings on stem cell research ( www.stemcellitaly.org ). PMID:22035042

  2. Continuum capture in the three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I A

    1980-01-01

    The three-body problem, especially the problem of electron capture to the continuum in heavy particle collisions is reviewed. Major topics covered include: second born-induced asymmetry in electron capture to the continuum; historical context, links to other tests of atomic scattering theory; experiments characterizing the velocity distribution of ECC electrons; other atomic physics tests of high velocity Born expansions; atom capture; capture by positrons; and pion capture to the continuum. (GHT)

  3. Analysis of downregulation of cellular energy demand by 2D measurements of intracapillary HbO2, Hb, pO2, and redox state of cytochromes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Alfons; Kessler, Manfred D.; Hoeper, Jens; Zellner, S.; Sourdoulaud, Valerie

    1995-04-01

    Rapid microlightguide spectrometers (EMPHO IIa/b) and a multiwire pO2 electrode are applied for measurements of heterogeneous distribution of tissue oxygenation and redox state of respiratory enzymes in heart and rat liver. Optical and pO2 measurements are noninvasively performed by use of sensors placed on the surface of tissue. Measurements in isolated perfused rat and in dog heart in situ were performed in order to investigate the relation between myocardial oxygenation and function. The tissue monitoring in liver was initiated by optical and polarographic monitoring in the hemoglobin free perfused organ. Subsequently, erythrocytes were added to the perfusate in several steps. The experiments reveal clear evidence that a protective system of tissue is activated when critical pO2 values at the lethal corner of micro vessels fall off a critical threshold around 5 mmHg, thus causing a depletion of oxidative metabolism.

  4. CELLULAR MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Andrea M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium, the second most abundant cellular cation after potassium, is essential to regulate numerous cellular functions and enzymes, including ion channels, metabolic cycles, and signaling pathways, as attested by more than 1000 entries in the literature. Despite significant recent progress, however, our understanding of how cells regulate Mg2+ homeostasis and transport still remains incomplete. For example, the occurrence of major fluxes of Mg2+ in either direction across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells following metabolic or hormonal stimuli has been extensively documented. Yet, the mechanisms ultimately responsible for magnesium extrusion across the cell membrane have not been cloned. Even less is known about the regulation in cellular organelles. The present review is aimed at providing the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms enacted by eukaryotic cells to regulate cellular Mg2+ homeostasis and how these mechanisms are altered under specific pathological conditions. PMID:21640700

  5. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Use in Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous wrp to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in Life Extending Controls (LEC) studies. The work is based on zero mean stress local strain cyclic damage modeling. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modeling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models are also presented. Application of these models to LEC applications is considered. Progress toward a nonzero mean stress based continuum model is presented. Also, new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are also derived for this case.

  6. Importance of self-consistency in relativistic continuum random-phase approximation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ding; Cao Ligang; Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu

    2010-11-15

    A fully consistent relativistic continuum random phase approximation (RCRPA) is constructed, where the contribution of the continuum spectrum to nuclear excitations is treated exactly by the single-particle Green's function technique. The full consistency of the calculations is achieved that the same effective Lagrangian is adopted for the ground state and the excited states. The negative energy states in the Dirac sea are also included in the single-particle Green's function in the no-sea approximation. The currents from the vector meson and photon exchanges and the Coulomb interaction in RCRPA are treated exactly. The spin-orbit interaction is included naturally in the relativistic frame. Numerical results of the RCRPA are checked with the constrained relativistic mean-field theory. We study the effects of the inconsistency, particularly the currents and Coulomb interaction in various collective multipole excitations.

  7. Significance of decay mechanism into continuum in dynamical Wannier-Stark ladder

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Yuya; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-04

    We examine the resonance structure of photodressed electron states of laser-driven Wannier-Stark ladder, namely, dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder, in terms of the excess density of states (DOS) closely related to a lifetime of the state of concern. It is revealed that the resonance structure in the strong laser-field region shows clear dependence on the ratio, η, of a Bloch-frequency to a laser frequency. As the laser strength increases, for η = 1, the excess DOS becomes involved with a lot of newly-growing resonance peaks. This result would be understood from the viewpoint of a Fano-like decay-mechanism caused by a multichannel continuum effect, in marked contrast to the cases of larger η’s; for η = 3, the excess DOS just is found to show a pronounced red-shift of a single dominant peak caused by a single-channel continuum effect.

  8. Broadly continuously tunable slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Zeng, Yong Quan; Liang, Guozhen; Hu, Xiao Nan; Rodriguez, Etienne; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-09-14

    We report our progress in the development of broadly tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design. The electroluminescence spectrum of the continuum-to-continuum active region design has a full width at half maximum of 440 cm{sup −1} at center wavelength ∼10 μm at room temperature (300 K). Devices using the optimized slot waveguide structure and the continuum-to-continuum design can be tuned continuously with a lasing emission over 42 cm{sup −1}, from 9.74 to 10.16 μm, at room temperature by using only current tuning scheme, together with a side mode suppression ratio of above 15 dB within the whole tuning range.

  9. The evolution of the quasar continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.

    1992-01-01

    We now have in hand a large data base of Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), optical, and IR complementary data. We are in the process of obtaining a large amount of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data for the same quasar sample. For our complementary sample at high redshifts, where the UV was redshifted into the optical, we have just had approved large amounts of observing time to cover the quasar continuum in the near-IR using the new Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) array spectrographs. Ten micron, optical, and VLA radio, data also have approved time. An ISO US key program was approved to extend this work into the far-IR, and the launch of ASTRO-D (early in 1993) promises to extend it to higher energy X-rays.

  10. Continuum Theory of Beta-Sheet Ribbons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafouri, Rouzbeh

    2005-03-01

    We present a continuum description for the β-sheet ribbons encountered in amyloid fibrils, allowing both stretching and bending of the ribbon in response to chiral twist. The theory leads to a non-linear variant of the Worm-Like Chain (WLC). At a critical value of the ratio of the bending and stretching moduli, the Foppl-von K'arm'an Number, we encounter a continuous buckling transition from a straight Helicoid to a Spiral Ribbon. Two of the three persistence lengths of the ribbon become very short at the transition point indicating strong thermal shape fluctuations. The transition becomes discontinuous if the ribbon width is treated as a free thermodynamic variable.

  11. The polarization of escaping terrestrial continuum radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Calvert, W.; Huff, R. L.; Jones, D.; Sugiura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The polarization of an escaping terrestrial continuum radiation event that occurred on March 2, 1982, was determined using plasma wave measurements from the DE-1 spacecraft. The source of the radiation was determined to be located near the magnetic equator on the nightside of the earth at a radial distance of about 2.8-3.5 earth radii. Two meridional beams were detected, one directed north at an angle of about 20-30 deg with respect to the magnetic equator, and the other directed south at a comparable angle. Polarization measurements indicated that the radiation is right-hand polarized with respect to an outward directed E plane normal in the Northern Hemisphere and left-hand polarized in the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Polymer quantum mechanics and its continuum limit

    SciTech Connect

    Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose A.

    2007-08-15

    A rather nonstandard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation, has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle, and a simple cosmological model.

  13. Precompound nucleon angular distributions in the continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Scobel, W.; Plechaty, E.

    1985-08-01

    Angular distributions for nucleon induced reactions (incident energies 14 to 90 MeV) leading to precompound nucleon emission in the continuum (emitted particle energies 9-70 MeV) are calculated based on nucleon-nucleon scattering kinematics for an incident nucleon on a Fermi gas. Analytic expressions due to Kikuchi and Kawai are used for the single scattering kernel. The geometry dependent hybrid model is used to generate the differential cross sections for first, second, etc. order scattering, these weightings being used to fold the single scattering kernel. Results are found to reproduce all experimental angular distributions quite well at angles in the 20/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ range. Ad-hoc modifications to approximate quantal effects and Coulomb deflections are explored, but the results do not seem to offer a consistent means of reproducing back angle yields, and give generally poorer results at very forward angles.

  14. Continuum modeling of cooperative traffic flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoduy, D.; Hoogendoorn, S. P.; Liu, R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a continuum approach to model the dynamics of cooperative traffic flow. The cooperation is defined in our model in a way that the equipped vehicle can issue and receive a warning massage when there is downstream congestion. Upon receiving the warning massage, the (up-stream) equipped vehicle will adapt the current desired speed to the speed at the congested area in order to avoid sharp deceleration when approaching the congestion. To model the dynamics of such cooperative systems, a multi-class gas-kinetic theory is extended to capture the adaptation of the desired speed of the equipped vehicle to the speed at the downstream congested traffic. Numerical simulations are carried out to show the influence of the penetration rate of the equipped vehicles on traffic flow stability and capacity in a freeway.

  15. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms. PMID:27002071

  16. PAD in women: the ischemic continuum.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Amy West

    2015-06-01

    Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is part of the ischemic continuum of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Compared to men, women with PAD are more likely to have asymptomatic disease or atypical symptoms. PAD in women is associated with decreased exercise capacity, reduced quality of life, increased risk of depression, as well as a greater risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality than male counterparts. Ensuring an appropriate diagnosis of women with PAD offers an opportunity to begin risk factor modification therapy, improve walking capacity and make a timely referral for revascularization if needed. It is critical to highlight the sex-based disparities in lower extremity PAD so that we may work to improve outcomes for women with PAD. PMID:25939674

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group. Final report, 1990 - 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hougen, J.T.

    1993-12-31

    Spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of the methyl group in acetaldehyde. We now understand the torsion-rotation levels from all 3 torsional states below the top of the torsional barrier. Investigations of four ordinary vibrational states in acetaldehyde are in progress.

  18. Altering the Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis (mtFASII) Pathway Modulates Cellular Metabolic States and Bioactive Lipid Profiles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Hayley B.; Parl, Angelika K.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Singh, Larry; Bell, Lauren N.; Murdock, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of a cytosolic fatty acid synthesis pathway, mitochondria have retained their own means of creating fatty acids via the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFASII) pathway. The reason for its conservation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, to better understand the role of mtFASII in the cell, we used thin layer chromatography to characterize the contribution of the mtFASII pathway to the fatty acid composition of selected mitochondrial lipids. Next, we performed metabolomic analysis on HeLa cells in which the mtFASII pathway was either hypofunctional (through knockdown of mitochondrial acyl carrier protein, ACP) or hyperfunctional (through overexpression of mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase, MECR). Our results indicate that the mtFASII pathway contributes little to the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial lipid species examined. Additionally, loss of mtFASII function results in changes in biochemical pathways suggesting alterations in glucose utilization and redox state. Interestingly, levels of bioactive lipids, including lysophospholipids and sphingolipids, directly correlate with mtFASII function, indicating that mtFASII may be involved in the regulation of bioactive lipid levels. Regulation of bioactive lipid levels by mtFASII implicates the pathway as a mediator of intracellular signaling. PMID:26963735

  19. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  20. Continuum beliefs about psychotic symptoms are a valid, unidimensional construct: Construction and validation of a revised continuum beliefs questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Schlier, Björn; Scheunemann, Jakob; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-07-30

    Growing evidence supports a continuum model of psychosis, with mild psychotic symptoms being frequently experienced by the general population. Moreover, believing in the continuum model correlates with less stigmatization of schizophrenia. This study explores whether continuum beliefs are a valid construct and develops a continuum beliefs scale. First, expert-generated items were reduced to a candidate scale (study 1, n=95). One-dimensionality was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (study 2, n=363). Convergent validity was tested with a previous continuum beliefs scale, essentialist beliefs, and stigmatization (study 2), while self-reported psychotic experiences (i.e. frequency and conviction) served to test discriminant validity (study 3, n=229). A nine item questionnaire that assesses continuum beliefs about schizophrenia symptoms showed acceptable to good psychometric values, high correlations with a previous continuum beliefs scale and small correlations with essentialist beliefs, stereotypes, and desired social distance. No correlations with psychotic experiences were found. Thus, continuum beliefs can be considered a valid construct. The construed CBQ-R asks about symptoms rather than the abstract category "schizophrenia", which may increase understandability of the scale. Validation confirms previous studies and highlights the difference between continuum beliefs and personal psychotic experiences. PMID:27175910

  1. Continuum modeling of a neuronal cell under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Jérusalem, Antoine; Dao, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic brain injuries have recently been put under the spotlight as one of the most important causes of accidental brain dysfunctions. Significant experimental and modeling efforts are thus underway to study the associated biological, mechanical and physical mechanisms. In the field of cell mechanics, progress is also being made at the experimental and modeling levels to better characterize many of the cell functions, including differentiation, growth, migration and death. The work presented here aims to bridge both efforts by proposing a continuum model of a neuronal cell submitted to blast loading. In this approach, the cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane (plus cortex) are differentiated in a representative cell geometry, and different suitable material constitutive models are chosen for each one. The material parameters are calibrated against published experimental work on cell nanoindentation at multiple rates. The final cell model is ultimately subjected to blast loading within a complete computational framework of fluid-structure interaction. The results are compared to the nanoindentation simulation, and the specific effects of the blast wave on the pressure and shear levels at the interfaces are identified. As a conclusion, the presented model successfully captures some of the intrinsic intracellular phenomena occurring during the cellular deformation under blast loading that potentially lead to cell damage. It suggests, more particularly, that the localization of damage at the nucleus membrane is similar to what has already been observed at the overall cell membrane. This degree of damage is additionally predicted to be worsened by a longer blast positive phase duration. In conclusion, the proposed model ultimately provides a new three-dimensional computational tool to evaluate intracellular damage during blast loading. PMID:22562014

  2. Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…

  3. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  4. 48 CFR 15.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Best value continuum. 15.101 Section 15.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Best value continuum. An agency can obtain best value in negotiated acquisitions by using any one or...

  5. 48 CFR 15.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Best value continuum. 15.101 Section 15.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Best value continuum. An agency can obtain best value in negotiated acquisitions by using any one or...

  6. 48 CFR 15.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Best value continuum. 15.101 Section 15.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Best value continuum. An agency can obtain best value in negotiated acquisitions by using any one or...

  7. 48 CFR 15.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Best value continuum. 15.101 Section 15.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Best value continuum. An agency can obtain best value in negotiated acquisitions by using any one or...

  8. 48 CFR 15.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Best value continuum. 15.101 Section 15.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Best value continuum. An agency can obtain best value in negotiated acquisitions by using any one or...

  9. Teaching Continuum Mechanics in a Mechanical Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a graduate course, continuum mechanics, which is designed for and taught to graduate students in a Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. The significance of continuum mechanics in engineering education is demonstrated and the course structure is described. Methods used in teaching this course such as topics, class…

  10. Curriculum Building for the Continuum in Social Welfare Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Michael J., Ed.; And Others

    During 1970 Florida's University and Community College Systems held a workshop to discuss the idea of a curriculum continuum that would begin at the community college level and extend through the upper levels of graduate work. It was acknowledged that any continuum involving more than 1 level of education should include flexible opportunities for…

  11. Statistical Mechanics of Surjective Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kari, Jarkko; Taati, Siamak

    2015-09-01

    Reversible cellular automata are seen as microscopic physical models, and their states of macroscopic equilibrium are described using invariant probability measures. We establish a connection between the invariance of Gibbs measures and the conservation of additive quantities in surjective cellular automata. Namely, we show that the simplex of shift-invariant Gibbs measures associated to a Hamiltonian is invariant under a surjective cellular automaton if and only if the cellular automaton conserves the Hamiltonian. A special case is the (well-known) invariance of the uniform Bernoulli measure under surjective cellular automata, which corresponds to the conservation of the trivial Hamiltonian. As an application, we obtain results indicating the lack of (non-trivial) Gibbs or Markov invariant measures for "sufficiently chaotic" cellular automata. We discuss the relevance of the randomization property of algebraic cellular automata to the problem of approach to macroscopic equilibrium, and pose several open questions. As an aside, a shift-invariant pre-image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map between shifts of finite type turns out to be always a Gibbs measure. We provide a sufficient condition under which the image of a Gibbs measure under a pre-injective factor map is not a Gibbs measure. We point out a potential application of pre-injective factor maps as a tool in the study of phase transitions in statistical mechanical models.

  12. Electrodiffusion: A continuum modeling framework for biomolecular systems with realistic spatiotemporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Benzhuo; Zhou, Y. C.; Huber, Gary A.; Bond, Stephen D.; Holst, Michael J.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A computational framework is presented for the continuum modeling of cellular biomolecular diffusion influenced by electrostatic driving forces. This framework is developed from a combination of state-of-the-art numerical methods, geometric meshing, and computer visualization tools. In particular, a hybrid of (adaptive) finite element and boundary element methods is adopted to solve the Smoluchowski equation (SE), the Poisson equation (PE), and the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation (PNPE) in order to describe electrodiffusion processes. The finite element method is used because of its flexibility in modeling irregular geometries and complex boundary conditions. The boundary element method is used due to the convenience of treating the singularities in the source charge distribution and its accurate solution to electrostatic problems on molecular boundaries. Nonsteady-state diffusion can be studied using this framework, with the electric field computed using the densities of charged small molecules and mobile ions in the solvent. A solution for mesh generation for biomolecular systems is supplied, which is an essential component for the finite element and boundary element computations. The uncoupled Smoluchowski equation and Poisson-Boltzmann equation are considered as special cases of the PNPE in the numerical algorithm, and therefore can be solved in this framework as well. Two types of computations are reported in the results: stationary PNPE and time-dependent SE or Nernst-Planck equations solutions. A biological application of the first type is the ionic density distribution around a fragment of DNA determined by the equilibrium PNPE. The stationary PNPE with nonzero flux is also studied for a simple model system, and leads to an observation that the interference on electrostatic field of the substrate charges strongly affects the reaction rate coefficient. The second is a time-dependent diffusion process: the consumption of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by

  13. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans. PMID:27050288

  14. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  15. Detection of nonthermal continuum radiation in Saturn's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kuth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.; Sullivan, J.D.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed analysis of high resolution wideband data from the Voyager 1 and 2 plasma wave receivers has revealed the presence of heretofore undiscovered nonthermal continuum radiation trapped within the Saturnian magnetosphere. The discovery of Saturnian trapped continuum radiation fills a disturbing void in the Saturnian radio spectrum. On the basis of observations at both the Earth and Jupiter it was expected that continuum radiation should be a pervasive signature of planetary magnetospheres in general. Special processing of the Voyager 1 plasma wave data at Saturn has now confirmed the existence of weak emissions that have a spectrum characteristic of trapped continuum radiation. Similar radiation was also detected by Voyager 2; however, in this case it is not certain that Saturn was the only source. Considerable evidence exists which suggests that Saturn may have been immersed in the Jovian tail during the Voyager 2 encounter, so that Jupiter may provide an additional source of the continuum radiation detected by Voyager 2.

  16. An Optimization-based Atomistic-to-Continuum Coupling Method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olson, Derek; Bochev, Pavel B.; Luskin, Mitchell; Shapeev, Alexander V.

    2014-08-21

    In this paper, we present a new optimization-based method for atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) coupling. The main idea is to cast the latter as a constrained optimization problem with virtual Dirichlet controls on the interfaces between the atomistic and continuum subdomains. The optimization objective is to minimize the error between the atomistic and continuum solutions on the overlap between the two subdomains, while the atomistic and continuum force balance equations provide the constraints. Separation, rather then blending of the atomistic and continuum problems, and their subsequent use as constraints in the optimization problem distinguishes our approach from the existing AtC formulations. Finally,more » we present and analyze the method in the context of a one-dimensional chain of atoms modeled using a linearized two-body potential with next-nearest neighbor interactions.« less

  17. An Optimization-based Atomistic-to-Continuum Coupling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Derek; Bochev, Pavel B.; Luskin, Mitchell; Shapeev, Alexander V.

    2014-08-21

    In this paper, we present a new optimization-based method for atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) coupling. The main idea is to cast the latter as a constrained optimization problem with virtual Dirichlet controls on the interfaces between the atomistic and continuum subdomains. The optimization objective is to minimize the error between the atomistic and continuum solutions on the overlap between the two subdomains, while the atomistic and continuum force balance equations provide the constraints. Separation, rather then blending of the atomistic and continuum problems, and their subsequent use as constraints in the optimization problem distinguishes our approach from the existing AtC formulations. Finally, we present and analyze the method in the context of a one-dimensional chain of atoms modeled using a linearized two-body potential with next-nearest neighbor interactions.

  18. Continuum and molecular-dynamics simulation of nanodroplet collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardia, Raunak; Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2016-05-01

    The extent to which the continuum treatment holds in binary droplet collisions is examined in the present work by using a continuum-based implicit surface capturing strategy (volume-of-fluid coupled to Navier-Stokes) and a molecular dynamics methodology. The droplet pairs are arranged in a head-on-collision configuration with an initial separation distance of 5.3 nm and a velocity of 3 ms-1. The size of droplets ranges from 10-50 nm. Inspecting the results, the collision process can be described as consisting of two periods: a preimpact phase that ends with the initial contact of both droplets, and a postimpact phase characterized by the merging, deformation, and coalescence of the droplets. The largest difference between the continuum and molecular dynamics (MD) predictions is observed in the preimpact period, where the continuum-based viscous and pressure drag forces significantly overestimate the MD predictions. Due to large value of Knudsen number in the gas (Kngas=1.972 ), this behavior is expected. Besides the differences between continuum and MD, it is also observed that the continuum simulations do not converge for the set of grid sizes considered. This is shown to be directly related to the initial velocity profile and the minute size of the nanodroplets. For instance, for micrometer-size droplets, this numerical sensitivity is not an issue. During the postimpact period, both MD and continuum-based simulations are strikingly similar, with only a moderate difference in the peak kinetic energy recorded during the collision process. With values for the Knudsen number in the liquid (Knliquid=0.01 for D =36 nm ) much closer to the continuum regime, this behavior is expected. The 50 nm droplet case is sufficiently large to be predicted reasonably well with the continuum treatment. However, for droplets smaller than approximately 36 nm, the departure from continuum behavior becomes noticeably pronounced, and becomes drastically different for the 10 nm droplets.

  19. Buckling of graded coatings: A continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Tz-Cheng

    2000-12-01

    Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that utilize ceramic coatings on metal substrates. An alternative concept to homogeneous ceramic coatings is the functionally graded materials (FGM) in which the composition of the coating is intentionally graded to improve the bonding strength and to reduce the magnitude of the residual and thermal stresses. A widely observed failure mode in such layered systems is known to be interface cracking that leads to spallation fracture. In most cases, the final stage of the failure process for a thin coating appears to be due to buckling instability under thermally or mechanically induced compressive stress. The objective of this study is to develop a solution to the buckling instability problem by using continuum elasticity rather than a structural mechanics approach. The emphasis in the solution will be on the investigation of the effect of material inhomogeneity in graded coatings on the instability load, the postbuckling behavior, and fracture mechanics parameters such as the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate. In this analysis, a nonlinear continuum theory is employed to examine the interface crack problem. The analytical solution of the instability problem permits the study of the effect of material inhomogeneity upon the inception of buckling and establishes benchmark results for the numerical solutions of related problems. To study the postbuckling behavior and to calculate the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate a geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure with enriched crack-tip element is developed. Both plane strain and axisymmetric interface crack problems in TBCs with either homogeneous or graded coating are then considered by using the finite element procedure. It is assumed that the

  20. MIRO Continuum Calibration for Asteroid Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2011-01-01

    MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter) is a lightweight, uncooled, dual-frequency heterodyne radiometer. The MIRO encountered asteroid Steins in 2008, and during the flyby, MIRO used the Asteroid Mode to measure the emission spectrum of Steins. The Asteroid Mode is one of the seven modes of the MIRO operation, and is designed to increase the length of time that a spectral line is in the MIRO pass-band during a flyby of an object. This software is used to calibrate the continuum measurement of Steins emission power during the asteroid flyby. The MIRO raw measurement data need to be calibrated in order to obtain physically meaningful data. This software calibrates the MIRO raw measurements in digital units to the brightness temperature in Kelvin. The software uses two calibration sequences that are included in the Asteroid Mode. One sequence is at the beginning of the mode, and the other at the end. The first six frames contain the measurement of a cold calibration target, while the last six frames measure a warm calibration target. The targets have known temperatures and are used to provide reference power and gain, which can be used to convert MIRO measurements into brightness temperature. The software was developed to calibrate MIRO continuum measurements from Asteroid Mode. The software determines the relationship between the raw digital unit measured by MIRO and the equivalent brightness temperature by analyzing data from calibration frames. The found relationship is applied to non-calibration frames, which are the measurements of an object of interest such as asteroids and other planetary objects that MIRO encounters during its operation. This software characterizes the gain fluctuations statistically and determines which method to estimate gain between calibration frames. For example, if the fluctuation is lower than a statistically significant level, the averaging method is used to estimate the gain between the calibration frames. If the

  1. Effect of Successive Observation on Quantum Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuya; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio

    2007-08-01

    A quantum cellular automaton, which is extended from a classical cellular automaton with Wolfram’s rule 150, is studied. In contrast to the classical cellular automaton, all possible configurations exist in a quantum superposition before measurement. We show that measuring the state of only one qubit significantly aeffects the time evolution in the quantum cellular automaton. In particular, we demonstrate that, occasionally, repeating the measurement enhances the appearance of the configurations found in the classical cellular automaton. The occurrence of this enhancement is primarily determined by the results of the measurement in the early time steps, and it is sustained by a feedback mechanism.

  2. Optical continuum generation on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Bahram; Boyraz, Ozdal; Koonath, Prakash; Raghunathan, Varun; Indukuri, Tejaswi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Although the Raman effect is nearly two orders of magnitude stronger than the electronic Kerr nonlinearity in silicon, under pulsed operation regime where the pulse width is shorter than the phonon response time, Raman effect is suppressed and Kerr nonlinearity dominates. Continuum generation, made possible by the non-resonant Kerr nonlinearity, offers a technologically and economically appealing path to WDM communication at the inter-chip or intra-chip levels. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, a 2 fold spectral broadening is obtained by launching ~4ps optical pulses with 2.2GW/cm2 peak power into a conventional silicon waveguide. Theoretical calculations, that include the effect of two-photon-absorption, free carrier absorption and refractive index change indicate that up to >30 times spectral broadening is achievable in an optimized device. The broadening is due to self phase modulation and saturates due to two photon absorption. Additionally, we find that free carrier dynamics also contributes to the spectral broadening and cause the overall spectrum to be asymmetric with respect to the pump wavelength.

  3. Compact continuum brain model for human electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Shin, H.-B.; Robinson, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    A low-dimensional, compact brain model has recently been developed based on physiologically based mean-field continuum formulation of electric activity of the brain. The essential feature of the new compact model is a second order time-delayed differential equation that has physiologically plausible terms, such as rapid corticocortical feedback and delayed feedback via extracortical pathways. Due to its compact form, the model facilitates insight into complex brain dynamics via standard linear and nonlinear techniques. The model successfully reproduces many features of previous models and experiments. For example, experimentally observed typical rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are reproduced in a physiologically plausible parameter region. In the nonlinear regime, onsets of seizures, which often develop into limit cycles, are illustrated by modulating model parameters. It is also shown that a hysteresis can occur when the system has multiple attractors. As a further illustration of this approach, power spectra of the model are fitted to those of sleep EEGs of two subjects (one with apnea, the other with narcolepsy). The model parameters obtained from the fittings show good matches with previous literature. Our results suggest that the compact model can provide a theoretical basis for analyzing complex EEG signals.

  4. Detection of radio continuum emission from Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Simon, Theodore; Brown, Alexander

    1993-01-01

    We have detected the F5 IV-V star Procyon as a weak and variable 3.6 cm radio continuum source using the VLA. The inferred radio luminosity is similar to, though some-what higher than, the X-band luminosity of the active and flaring sun. The 33 micro-Jy flux density level at which we detected Procyon on four of five occasions is close to the 36 micro-Jy radio flux density expected from a model in which the radio emission consists of two components: optically thick 'stellar disk' emission with a 3.6 cm brightness temperature of 20,000 K that is 50 percent larger than the solar value, and optically thin coronal emission with an emission measure the same as that indicated by Einstein and EXOSAT X-ray flux measurements in 1981 and 1983. The maximum mass-loss rate of a warm stellar wind is less than 2 x 10 exp -11 solar mass/yr. An elevated flux density of 115 micro-Jy observed on a single occasion provides circumstantial evidence for the existence of highly localized magnetic fields on the surface of Procyon.

  5. Controllable infrared continuum source for multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mauro, C.; Alfieri, D.; Arrigoni, M.; Armstrong, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2010-02-01

    We report on multiphoton imaging of biological samples performed with continuum infrared source generated in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). We studied the spectra generated in PCFs with dispersion profiles designed to maximize the power density in the 700-1000 nm region, where the two-photon absorption cross sections of the most common dyes lie. Pumping in normal dispersion region, with <140 femtosecond pulses delivered by a tunable Ti:Sa laser (Chameleon Ultra II by Coherent Inc.), results in a limitation of nonlinear broadening up to a mean power density above 2 mW/nm. Axial and lateral resolution obtained with a scanning multiphoton system has been measureed to be near the theoretical limit. The possibility of simultaneous two-photon excitation of different dyes in the same sample and high image resolution are demonstrated at tens of microns in depth. Signal-to-noise ratio and general performances are found to be comparable with those of a single wavelength system, used for comparison.

  6. Second law violations, continuum mechanics, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The violations of the second law are relevant as the length and/or time scales become very small. The second law then needs to be replaced by the fluctuation theorem and mathematically, the irreversible entropy is a submartingale. First, we discuss the consequences of these results for the axioms of continuum mechanics, arguing in favor of a framework relying on stochastic functionals of energy and entropy. We next determine a Lyapunov function for diffusion-type problems governed by stochastic rather than deterministic functionals of internal energy and entropy, where the random field coefficients of diffusion are not required to satisfy the positive definiteness everywhere. Next, a formulation of micropolar fluid mechanics is developed, accounting for the lack of symmetry of stress tensor on molecular scales. This framework is then applied to employed to show that spontaneous random fluctuations of the microrotation field will arise in Couette—and Poiseuille-type flows in the absence of random (turbulence-like) fluctuations of the classical velocity field. Finally, while the permeability is classically modeled by the Darcy law or its modifications, besides considering the violations of the second law, one also needs to account for the spatial randomness of the channel network, implying a modification of the hierarchy of scale-dependent bounds on the macroscopic property of the network.

  7. Identity of Particles and Continuum Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2001-04-01

    Why all electrons are the same? Unlike other objects, particles and atoms (same isotopes) are forbidden to have individuality or personal history (or reveal their hidden variables, even if they do have them). Or at least, what we commonly call physics so far was unable to disprove particle's sameness (Berezin and Nakhmanson, Physics Essays, 1990). Consider two opposing hypotheses: (A) particles are indeed absolutely same, or (B) they do have individuality, but it is beyond our capacity to demonstrate. This dilemma sounds akin to undecidability of Continuum Hypothesis of existence (or not) of intermediate cardinalities between integers and reals (P.Cohen). Both yes and no of it are true. Thus, (alleged) sameness of electrons and atoms may be a physical translation (embodiment) of this fundamental Goedelian undecidability. Experiments unlikely to help: even if we find that all electrons are same within 30 decimal digits, could their masses (or charges) still differ in100-th digit? Within (B) personalized informationally rich (infinitely rich?) digital tails (starting at, say, 100-th decimal) may carry individual record of each particle history. Within (A) parameters (m, q) are indeed exactly same in all digits and their sameness is based on some inherent (meta)physical principle akin to Platonism or Eddington-type numerology.

  8. Continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.

    1986-04-01

    Possible nonperturbative continuum regularization schemes for quantum field theory are discussed which are based upon the Langevin equation of Parisi and Wu. Breit, Gupta and Zaks made the first proposal for new gauge invariant nonperturbative regularization. The scheme is based on smearing in the ''fifth-time'' of the Langevin equation. An analysis of their stochastic regularization scheme for the case of scalar electrodynamics with the standard covariant gauge fixing is given. Their scheme is shown to preserve the masslessness of the photon and the tensor structure of the photon vacuum polarization at the one-loop level. Although stochastic regularization is viable in one-loop electrodynamics, two difficulties arise which, in general, ruins the scheme. One problem is that the superficial quadratic divergences force a bottomless action for the noise. Another difficulty is that stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing is incompatible with Zwanziger's gauge fixing, which is the only known nonperturbaive covariant gauge fixing for nonabelian gauge theories. Finally, a successful covariant derivative scheme is discussed which avoids the difficulties encountered with the earlier stochastic regularization by fifth-time smearing. For QCD the regularized formulation is manifestly Lorentz invariant, gauge invariant, ghost free and finite to all orders. A vanishing gluon mass is explicitly verified at one loop. The method is designed to respect relevant symmetries, and is expected to provide suitable regularization for any theory of interest. Hopefully, the scheme will lend itself to nonperturbative analysis. 44 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Selective spectral detection of continuum terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Marcon, R.; Marun, A.; Kudaka, A. S.; Bortolucci, E.; Zakia, M. B.; Diniz, J. A.; Cassiano, M. M.; Pereyra, P.; Godoy, R.; Timofeevsky, A. V.; Nikolaev, V. A.; Pereira Alves da Silva, A. M.; Fernandes, L. O. T.

    2010-07-01

    The knowledge of THz continuum spectra is essential to investigate the emission mechanisms by high energy particle acceleration processes. Technical challenges appear for obtaining selective spectral sensing in the far infrared range to diagnose radiation produced by solar flare burst emissions measured from space as well as radiation produced by high energy electrons in laboratory accelerators. Efforts are been carried out intended for the development of solar flare high cadence radiometers at two THz frequencies to operate outside the terrestrial atmosphere (i.e. at 3 and 7 THz). One essential requirement is the efficient suppression of radiation in the visible and near infrared. Experimental setups have been assembled for testing (a) THz transmission of "low-pass" filters: rough surface mirrors; membranes Zitex G110G and TydexBlack; (b) a fabricated 2.4 THz resonant grid band-pass filter transmission response for polarization and angle of incidence; (c) radiation response from distinct detectors: adapted commercial microbolometer array using HRFZ-Si window, pyroelectric module and Golay cell; qualitative detection of solar radiation at a sub-THz frequency has been tested with a microbolometer array placed at the focus of the 1.5 m reflector for submillimeter waves (SST) at El Leoncito, Argentina Andes.

  10. Edge gyrokinetic theory and continuum simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A.; Bodi, K.; Candy, J.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Colella, P.; Kerbel, G. D.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Nevins, W. M.; Qin, H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; Umansky, M. V.

    2007-08-01

    The following results are presented from the development and application of TEMPEST, a fully nonlinear (full-f) five-dimensional (3d2v) gyrokinetic continuum edge-plasma code. (1) As a test of the interaction of collisions and parallel streaming, TEMPEST is compared with published analytic and numerical results for endloss of particles confined by combined electrostatic and magnetic wells. Good agreement is found over a wide range of collisionality, confining potential and mirror ratio, and the required velocity space resolution is modest. (2) In a large-aspect-ratio circular geometry, excellent agreement is found for a neoclassical equilibrium with parallel ion flow in the banana regime with zero temperature gradient and radial electric field. (3) The four-dimensional (2d2v) version of the code produces the first self-consistent simulation results of collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic modes and zonal flow (Rosenbluth-Hinton residual) with Boltzmann electrons using a full-f code. The electric field is also found to agree with the standard neoclassical expression for steep density and ion temperature gradients in the plateau regime. In divertor geometry, it is found that the endloss of particles and energy induces parallel flow stronger than the core neoclassical predictions in the SOL.

  11. Continuum Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Dorr, M R; Hittinger, J A; Bodi, K; Candy, J; Cohen, B I; Cohen, R H; Colella, P; Kerbel, G D; Krasheninnikov, S; Nevins, W M; Qin, H; Rognlien, T D; Snyder, P B; Umansky, M V

    2007-01-09

    The following results are presented from the development and application of TEMPEST, a fully nonlinear (full-f) five dimensional (3d2v) gyrokinetic continuum edge-plasma code. (1) As a test of the interaction of collisions and parallel streaming, TEMPEST is compared with published analytic and numerical results for endloss of particles confined by combined electrostatic and magnetic wells. Good agreement is found over a wide range of collisionality, confining potential, and mirror ratio; and the required velocity space resolution is modest. (2) In a large-aspect-ratio circular geometry, excellent agreement is found for a neoclassical equilibrium with parallel ion flow in the banana regime with zero temperature gradient and radial electric field. (3) The four-dimensional (2d2v) version of the code produces the first self-consistent simulation results of collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic modes and zonal flow (Rosenbluth-Hinton residual) with Boltzmann electrons using a full-f code. The electric field is also found to agree with the standard neoclassical expression for steep density and ion temperature gradients in the banana regime. In divertor geometry, it is found that the endloss of particles and energy induces parallel flow stronger than the core neoclassical predictions in the SOL. (5) Our 5D gyrokinetic formulation yields a set of nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic equations that are for both neoclassical and turbulence simulations.

  12. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  13. Auxin and Cellular Elongation.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Estevez, José M

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  14. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State.

    PubMed

    Mata, Juan

    2016-08-16

    In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism. PMID:27533178

  15. Determining decision thresholds and evaluating indicators when conservation status is measured as a continuum.

    PubMed

    Connors, B M; Cooper, A B

    2014-12-01

    Categorization of the status of populations, species, and ecosystems underpins most conservation activities. Status is often based on how a system's current indicator value (e.g., change in abundance) relates to some threshold of conservation concern. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves can be used to quantify the statistical reliability of indicators of conservation status and evaluate trade-offs between correct (true positive) and incorrect (false positive) classifications across a range of decision thresholds. However, ROC curves assume a discrete, binary relationship between an indicator and the conservation status it is meant to track, which is a simplification of the more realistic continuum of conservation status, and may limit the applicability of ROC curves in conservation science. We describe a modified ROC curve that treats conservation status as a continuum rather than a discrete state. We explored the influence of this continuum and typical sources of variation in abundance that can lead to classification errors (i.e., random variation and measurement error) on the true and false positive rates corresponding to varying decision thresholds and the reliability of change in abundance as an indicator of conservation status, respectively. We applied our modified ROC approach to an indicator of endangerment in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) (i.e., percent decline in geometric mean abundance) and an indicator of marine ecosystem structure and function (i.e., detritivore biomass). Failure to treat conservation status as a continuum when choosing thresholds for indicators resulted in the misidentification of trade-offs between true and false positive rates and the overestimation of an indicator's reliability. We argue for treating conservation status as a continuum when ROC curves are used to evaluate decision thresholds in indicators for the assessment of conservation status. PMID:25155174

  16. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A.

    2013-11-01

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 Å, 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 Å channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 Å channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 Å channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 Å and 211 Å passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  17. Multi-Scale Continuum Modeling of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Kekenes-Huskey, P; Hake, JE; Holst, MJ; McCammon, JA; Michailova, AP

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of multi-scale modeling at the molecular to cellular scale, with new results for heart muscle cells. A finite element-based simulation package (SMOL) was used to investigate the signaling transduction at molecular and sub-cellular scales (http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/smol/, http://FETK.org) by numerical solution of time-dependent Smoluchowski equations and a reaction-diffusion system. At the molecular scale, SMOL has yielded experimentally-validated estimates of the diffusion-limited association rates for the binding of acetylcholine to mouse acetylcholinesterase using crystallographic structural data. The predicted rate constants exhibit increasingly delayed steady-state times with increasing ionic strength and demonstrate the role of an enzyme’s electrostatic potential in influencing ligand binding. At the sub-cellular scale, an extension of SMOL solves a non-linear, reaction-diffusion system describing Ca2+ ligand buffering and diffusion in experimentally-derived rodent ventricular myocyte geometries. Results reveal the important role for mobile and stationary Ca2+ buffers, including Ca2+ indicator dye. We found that the alterations in Ca2+-binding and dissociation rates of troponin C (TnC) and total TnC concentration modulate subcellular Ca2+ signals. Model predicts that reduced off-rate in whole troponin complex (TnC, TnI, TnT) versus reconstructed thin filaments (Tn, Tm, actin) alters cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics under control conditions or in disease-linked TnC mutations. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop scalable methods and theories for integration of molecular-scale information into simulations of cellular-scale systems. PMID:23505398

  18. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics.

    PubMed

    Amani, Ehsan; Movahed, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. PMID:27155300

  19. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling With Application to Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method has been proposed for developing structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with equivalent-continuum models. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As important examples with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the design of nanotube-based devices, the modeling technique has been applied to determine the effective-continuum geometry and bending rigidity of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the chemical structure of graphene has been substituted with equivalent-truss and equivalent continuum models. As a result, an effective thickness of the continuum model has been determined. This effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the interatomic spacing of graphite. The effective thickness has been shown to be significantly larger than the inter-planar spacing of graphite. The effective bending rigidity of the equivalent-continuum model of a graphene sheet was determined by equating the vibrational potential energy of the molecular model of a graphene sheet subjected to cylindrical bending with the strain energy of an equivalent continuum plate subjected to cylindrical bending.

  20. A Population of Dark Clouds Detected in Radio Continuum Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Using the VLA and GBT, radio continuum images of the inner Galaxy reveal the presence of numerous dark features. These dark features coincide with dense molecular and dust clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds or extinction clouds at optical wavelengths, these features which we call ``radio dark clouds'' are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different pathlengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the strength of diffuse magnetic field of molecular clouds. We present several examples of radio dark clouds and demonstrate an anti-correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. The level at which the continuum flux is suppressed in these sources suggests that the depth of the molecular cloud is similar to the size of the continuum emission within a factor of two. These examples suggest that radio continuum survey images can be powerful probes of interacting molecular clouds with massive stars and supernova remnants in the Galaxy as well as in the nuclei of active galaxies.

  1. 77 FR 23491 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Continuum of Care Homeless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application--Continuum of Care Registration AGENCY: Office of the Chief... reporting burden associated with registration requirements that Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance...

  2. 77 FR 44653 - Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-Technical Submission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application-- Technical Submission AGENCY... the original Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant Application. DATES: Comments Due Date: August... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance...

  3. 77 FR 24214 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Continuum of Care Homeless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Continuum of Care... following information: Title of Proposal: Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance--Technical Submission... technical information not contained in the original Continuum of Care Homeless Assistance Grant...

  4. The Continuum and Dynamics of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, Christian; Feldstein, Steven B.

    2005-09-01

    This study presents an alternative interpretation for Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns. Rather than comprising several different recurrent regimes, this study suggests that there is a continuum of teleconnection patterns. This interpretation indicates either that 1) all members of the continuum can be expressed in terms of a linear combination of a small number of real physical modes that correspond to basis functions or 2) that most low-frequency patterns within the continuum are real physical patterns, each having its own spatial structure and frequency of occurrence.Daily NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data are used that cover the boreal winters of 1958-97. A set of nonorthogonal basis functions that span the continuum is derived. The leading basis functions correspond to well-known patterns such as the Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Atlantic Oscillation. Evidence for the continuum perspective is based on the finding that 1) most members of the continuum tend to have similar variance and autocorrelation time scales and 2) that members of the continuum show dynamical characteristics that are intermediate between those of the surrounding basis functions. The latter finding is obtained by examining the streamfunction tendency equation both for the basis functions and some members of the continuum.The streamfunction tendency equation analysis suggests that North Pacific patterns (basis functions and continuum) are primarily driven by their interaction with the climatological stationary eddies and that North Atlantic patterns are primarily driven by transient eddy vorticity fluxes. The decay mechanism for all patterns is similar, being due to the impact of low-frequency (period greater than 10 days) transient eddies and horizontal divergence. Analysis with outgoing longwave radiation shows that tropical convection is found to play a much greater role in exciting North Pacific patterns. A plausible explanation for these differences between the North

  5. Contemporary continuum QCD approaches to excited hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Amongst the bound states produced by the strong interaction, radially excited meson and nucleon states offer an important phenomenological window into the long-range behavior of the coupling constant in Quantum Chromodynamics. We here report on some technical details related to the computation of the bound state's eigenvalue spectrum in the framework of Bethe-Salpeter and Faddeev equations.

  6. Understanding cellular architecture in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Tang, Chao

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the development of cancer is an important goal for today's science. The morphology of cellular organelles, such as the nucleus, the nucleoli and the mitochondria, which is referred to as cellular architecture or cytoarchitecture, is an important indicator of the state of the cell. In particular, there are striking difference between the cellular architecture of a healthy cell versus a cancer cell. In this work we present a dynamical model for the evolution of organelles morphology in cancer cells. Using a dynamical systems approach, we describe the evolution of a cell on its way to cancer as a trajectory in a multidimensional morphology state. The results provided by this work may increase our insight on the mechanism of tumorigenesis and help build new therapeutic strategies.

  7. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part II. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Laursen, T.A.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes the key continuum mechanics concepts required for the systematic prescription and numerical solution of finite deformation solid mechanics problems. Topics surveyed include measures of deformation appropriate for media undergoing large deformations, stress measures appropriate for such problems, balance laws and their role in nonlinear continuum mechanics, the role of frame indifference in description of large deformation response, and the extension of these theories to encompass two dimensional idealizations, structural idealizations, and rigid body behavior. There are three companion reports that describe the problem formulation, constitutive modeling, and finite element technology for nonlinear continuum mechanics systems.

  8. The submillimeter radio continuum of Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, D.; Luu, J. MIT, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-12-01

    Observations of Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf in the submillimeter radio continuum are presented. The observations were taken using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, and include the first truly submillimeter detection of a comet, and the first submillimeter continuum spectrum. The submillimeter radiation is attributed to thermal emission from a transient population of large grains with a total mass of (1-10) x 10 to the 9th kg. The large grains may be produced by catastrophic failure of part of the refractory mantle on the surface of the cometary nucleus. Models of the submillimeter continuum are discussed. 49 refs.

  9. Fabrication of cellular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Garg, Rajeev

    1996-02-01

    Nature uses cellular materials in applications requiring strength while, simultaneously, minimizing raw materials requirements. Minimizing raw materials is efficient both in terms of the energy expended by the organism to synthesize the structure and in terms of the strength- to-weight ratio of the structure. Wood is the most obvious example of cellular bio-materials, and it is the focus of other presentations in this symposium. The lightweight bone structure of birds is another excellent example where weight is a key criterion. The anchoring foot of the common muscle [Mytilus edulis] whereby it attaches itself to objects is a further example of a biological system that uses a foam to fill space and yet conserve on raw materials. In the case of the muscle the foam is water filled and the foot structure distributes stress over a larger area so that the strength of the byssal thread from which it is suspended is matched to the strength of interfacial attachment of the foot to a substrate. In these examples the synthesis and fabrication of the cellular material is directed by intercellular, genetically coded, biochemical reactions. The resulting cell sizes are microns in scale. Cellular materials at the next larger scale are created by organisms at the next higher level of integration. For example an African tree frog lays her eggs in a gas/fluid foam sack she builds on a branch overhanging a pond. The outside of the foam sack hardens in the sun and prevents water evaporation. The foam structure minimizes the amount of fluid that needs to be incorporated into the sack and minimizes its weight. However, as far as the developing eggs are concerned, they are in an aqueous medium, i.e. the continuous fluid phase of the foam. After precisely six days the eggs hatch, and the solidified outer wall re-liquefies and dumps the emerging tadpoles into the pond below. The bee honeycomb is an example of a cellular material with exquisite periodicity at millimeter length scales. The

  10. Scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation-quantified continuum generation in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for broadband coherent optical sources.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-12-20

    We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060

  11. Scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation-quantified continuum generation in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for broadband coherent optical sources

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Sharma, Utkarsh; Siegel, Martin; Kopf, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources. PMID:21197060

  12. Microstructural and continuum evolution modeling of sintering.

    SciTech Connect

    Braginsky, Michael V.; Olevsky, Eugene A.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Tikare, Veena; Garino, Terry J.; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2003-12-01

    All ceramics and powder metals, including the ceramics components that Sandia uses in critical weapons components such as PZT voltage bars and current stacks, multi-layer ceramic MET's, ahmindmolybdenum & alumina cermets, and ZnO varistors, are manufactured by sintering. Sintering is a critical, possibly the most important, processing step during manufacturing of ceramics. The microstructural evolution, the macroscopic shrinkage, and shape distortions during sintering will control the engineering performance of the resulting ceramic component. Yet, modeling and prediction of sintering behavior is in its infancy, lagging far behind the other manufacturing models, such as powder synthesis and powder compaction models, and behind models that predict engineering properties and reliability. In this project, we developed a model that was capable of simulating microstructural evolution during sintering, providing constitutive equations for macroscale simulation of shrinkage and distortion during sintering. And we developed macroscale sintering simulation capability in JAS3D. The mesoscale model can simulate microstructural evolution in a complex powder compact of hundreds or even thousands of particles of arbitrary shape and size by 1. curvature-driven grain growth, 2. pore migration and coalescence by surface diffusion, 3. vacancy formation, grain boundary diffusion and annihilation. This model was validated by comparing predictions of the simulation to analytical predictions for simple geometries. The model was then used to simulate sintering in complex powder compacts. Sintering stress and materials viscous module were obtained from the simulations. These constitutive equations were then used by macroscopic simulations for simulating shrinkage and shape changes in FEM simulations. The continuum theory of sintering embodied in the constitutive description of Skorohod and Olevsky was combined with results from microstructure evolution simulations to model shrinkage and

  13. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals

  14. Cellular dysfunction in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Mervyn

    2008-12-01

    Cellular dysfunction is a commonplace sequelum of sepsis and other systemic inflammatory conditions. Impaired energy production (related to mitochondrial inhibition, damage, and reduced protein turnover) appears to be a core mechanism underlying the development of organ dysfunction. The reduction in energy availability appears to trigger a metabolic shutdown that impairs normal functioning of the cell. This may well represent an adaptive mechanism analogous to hibernation that prevents a massive degree of cell death and thus enables eventual recovery in survivors. PMID:18954700

  15. Radiolabeled cellular blood elements

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Ezikowitz, M.D.; Hardeman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers delivered by guest lectures and participants at the Advanced Study Institute's colloquium on Radiolabeled Cellular Blood Elements at Maratea, Italy on August 29, to September 9, 1982. The book includes chapters on basic cell physiology and critical reviews of data and experience in the preparation and use of radiolabeled cells, as well as reports on very recent developments, from a faculty that included experts on cell physiology in health and disease and on the technology of in vivo labeling.

  16. Organic carbon cycling in landfills: Model for a continuum approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Lagerkvist, A.

    1997-09-01

    Organic carbon cycling in landfills can be addressed through a continuum model where the end-points are conventional anaerobic digestion of organic waste (short-term analogue) and geologic burial of organic material (long-term analogue). Major variables influencing status include moisture state, temperature, organic carbon loading, nutrient status, and isolation from the surrounding environment. Bioreactor landfills which are engineered for rapid decomposition approach (but cannot fully attain) the anaerobic digester end-point and incur higher unit costs because of their high degree of environmental isolation and control. At the other extreme, uncontrolled land disposal of organic waste materials is similar to geologic burial where organic carbon may be aerobically recycled to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, anaerobically converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} during early diagenesis, or maintained as intermediate or recalcitrant forms into geologic time (> 1,000 years) for transformations via kerogen pathways. A family of improved landfill models are needed at several scales (molecular to landscape) which realistically address landfill processes and can be validated with field data.

  17. Two-temperature continuum thermomechanics of deforming amorphous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrin, Ken; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2014-12-01

    There is an ever-growing need for predictive models for the elasto-viscoplastic deformation of solids. Our goal in this paper is to incorporate recently developed out-of-equilibrium statistical concepts into a thermodynamically consistent, finite-deformation, continuum framework for deforming amorphous solids. The basic premise is that the configurational degrees of freedom of the material - the part of the internal energy/entropy that corresponds to mechanically stable microscopic configurations - are characterized by a configurational temperature that might differ from that of the vibrational degrees of freedom, which equilibrate rapidly with an external heat bath. This results in an approximate internal energy decomposition into weakly interacting configurational and vibrational subsystems, which exchange energy following a Fourier-like law, leading to a thermomechanical framework permitting two well-defined temperatures. In this framework, internal variables, that carry information about the state of the material equilibrate with the configurational subsystem, are explicitly associated with energy and entropy of their own, and couple to a viscoplastic flow rule. The coefficients that determine the rate of flow of entropy and heat between different internal systems are proposed to explicitly depend on the rate of irreversible deformation. As an application of this framework, we discuss two constitutive models for the response of glassy materials, a simple phenomenological model and a model related to the concept of Shear-Transformation-Zones as the basis for internal variables. The models account for several salient features of glassy deformation phenomenology. Directions for future investigation are briefly discussed.

  18. Fuzzy cellular automata models in immunology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, E.

    1996-10-01

    The self-nonself character of antigens is considered to be fuzzy. The Chowdhury et al. cellular automata model is generalized accordingly. New steady states are found. The first corresponds to a below-normal help and suppression and is proposed to be related to autoimmune diseases. The second corresponds to a below-normal B-cell level.

  19. Predictability in cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Chira, Camelia; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Modelled as finite homogeneous Markov chains, probabilistic cellular automata with local transition probabilities in (0, 1) always posses a stationary distribution. This result alone is not very helpful when it comes to predicting the final configuration; one needs also a formula connecting the probabilities in the stationary distribution to some intrinsic feature of the lattice configuration. Previous results on the asynchronous cellular automata have showed that such feature really exists. It is the number of zero-one borders within the automaton's binary configuration. An exponential formula in the number of zero-one borders has been proved for the 1-D, 2-D and 3-D asynchronous automata with neighborhood three, five and seven, respectively. We perform computer experiments on a synchronous cellular automaton to check whether the empirical distribution obeys also that theoretical formula. The numerical results indicate a perfect fit for neighbourhood three and five, which opens the way for a rigorous proof of the formula in this new, synchronous case. PMID:25271778

  20. Probabilistic cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Agapie, Alexandru; Andreica, Anca; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-09-01

    Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case-connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders-the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata. PMID:24999557

  1. Quantum cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porod, Wolfgang; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.

    1994-06-01

    The Notre Dame group has developed a new paradigm for ultra-dense and ultra-fast information processing in nanoelectronic systems. These Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA's) are the first concrete proposal for a technology based on arrays of coupled quantum dots. The basic building block of these cellular arrays is the Notre Dame Logic Cell, as it has been called in the literature. The phenomenon of Coulomb exclusion, which is a synergistic interplay of quantum confinement and Coulomb interaction, leads to a bistable behavior of each cell which makes possible their use in large-scale cellular arrays. The physical interaction between neighboring cells has been exploited to implement logic functions. New functionality may be achieved in this fashion, and the Notre Dame group invented a versatile majority logic gate. In a series of papers, the feasibility of QCA wires, wire crossing, inverters, and Boolean logic gates was demonstrated. A major finding is that all logic functions may be integrated in a hierarchial fashion which allows the design of complicated QCA structures. The most complicated system which was simulated to date is a one-bit full adder consisting of some 200 cells. In addition to exploring these new concepts, efforts are under way to physically realize such structures both in semiconductor and metal systems. Extensive modeling work of semiconductor quantum dot structures has helped identify optimum design parameters for QCA experimental implementations.

  2. Combining conformational flexibility and continuum electrostatics for calculating pK(a)s in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Alexov, Emil G; Gunner, Marilyn R

    2002-01-01

    Protein stability and function relies on residues being in their appropriate ionization states at physiological pH. In situ residue pK(a)s also provides a sensitive measure of the local protein environment. Multiconformation continuum electrostatics (MCCE) combines continuum electrostatics and molecular mechanics force fields in Monte Carlo sampling to simultaneously calculate side chain ionization and conformation. The response of protein to charges is incorporated both in the protein dielectric constant (epsilon(prot)) of four and by explicit conformational changes. The pK(a) of 166 residues in 12 proteins was determined. The root mean square error is 0.83 pH units, and >90% have errors of <1 pH units whereas only 3% have errors >2 pH units. Similar results are found with crystal and solution structures, showing that the method's explicit conformational sampling reduces sensitivity to the initial structure. The outcome also changes little with protein dielectric constant (epsilon(prot) 4-20). Multiconformation continuum electrostatics titrations show coupling of conformational flexibility and changes in ionization state. Examples are provided where ionizable side chain position (protein G), Asn orientation (lysozyme), His tautomer distribution (RNase A), and phosphate ion binding (RNase A and H) change with pH. Disallowing these motions changes the calculated pK(a). PMID:12324397

  3. Combining conformational flexibility and continuum electrostatics for calculating pK(a)s in proteins.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Alexov, Emil G; Gunner, Marilyn R

    2002-10-01

    Protein stability and function relies on residues being in their appropriate ionization states at physiological pH. In situ residue pK(a)s also provides a sensitive measure of the local protein environment. Multiconformation continuum electrostatics (MCCE) combines continuum electrostatics and molecular mechanics force fields in Monte Carlo sampling to simultaneously calculate side chain ionization and conformation. The response of protein to charges is incorporated both in the protein dielectric constant (epsilon(prot)) of four and by explicit conformational changes. The pK(a) of 166 residues in 12 proteins was determined. The root mean square error is 0.83 pH units, and >90% have errors of <1 pH units whereas only 3% have errors >2 pH units. Similar results are found with crystal and solution structures, showing that the method's explicit conformational sampling reduces sensitivity to the initial structure. The outcome also changes little with protein dielectric constant (epsilon(prot) 4-20). Multiconformation continuum electrostatics titrations show coupling of conformational flexibility and changes in ionization state. Examples are provided where ionizable side chain position (protein G), Asn orientation (lysozyme), His tautomer distribution (RNase A), and phosphate ion binding (RNase A and H) change with pH. Disallowing these motions changes the calculated pK(a). PMID:12324397

  4. Failure of brittle heterogeneous materials: Intermittency or continuum regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barés, Jonathan; Bonamy, Daniel; Barbier, Luc

    2014-03-01

    The problem of the solid fracture has occupied scientists and engineers for centuries. This phenomenon is classically addressed within the framework of continuum mechanics. Still, stress enhancement at crack tips makes the failure behavior observed at the continuum-level scale extremely dependent on the presence of microstructure inhomogeneities down to very small scales. This yields statistical aspects which, by essence, cannot be addressed using the conventional engineering continuum approaches. We addressed the problem numerically. The simulations invoke a recent statistical model mapping heterogeneous fracture with the depinning transition of an elastic manifold in a random potential. The numerical exploration of the parameter space allowed us to unravel when (i.e. which loading conditions, microstructure material parameters, material constants...) regular dynamics compatible with continuum approaches are expected to be observed, and when crackling dynamics calling for statistical approaches are observed. In this latter case, we have characterized quantitatively the dynamics statistic and its variations as a function of the input parameters.

  5. Equivalent-Continuum Modeling of Nano-Structured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Gregory M.; Gates, Thomas S.; Nicholson, Lee M.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for modeling structure-property relationships of nano-structured materials. This method serves as a link between computational chemistry and solid mechanics by substituting discrete molecular structures with an equivalent-continuum model. It has been shown that this substitution may be accomplished by equating the vibrational potential energy of a nano-structured material with the strain energy of representative truss and continuum models. As an important example with direct application to the development and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the model has been applied to determine the effective continuum geometry of a graphene sheet. A representative volume element of the equivalent-continuum model has been developed with an effective thickness. This effective thickness has been shown to be similar to, but slightly smaller than, the interatomic spacing of graphite.

  6. Propagation of continuum damage in a viscoelastic ice bar

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J.G. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering); Karr, D.G. . Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    An initial value problem of a semi-infinite nonlinear viscoelastic bar is solved with continuum damage evolution. The evolution law of the continuum damage for a viscoelastic material is used in order to explore the propagation of two crushing mechanisms: grain boundary cracking and transgranular cracking. Using the method of characteristics, the speed of propagation is found to be dependent on the continuum damage. On the wave front, the delayed elastic strain is zero, and only the continuum damage due to the transgranular cracking evolves. A finite difference method is developed to solve the governing equations on the obtained characteristic lines, and gives a stable solution for the propagation of the stress, strain, and damage. Numerical results are obtained and discussed using the material properties of polycrystalline ice.

  7. Continuum discretised BCS approach for weakly bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, J. A.; Alonso, C. E.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) formalism is extended by including the single-particle continuum in order to analyse the evolution of pairing in an isotopic chain from stability up to the drip-line. We propose a continuum discretised generalised BCS based on single-particle pseudostates (PS). These PS are generated from the diagonalisation of the single-particle Hamiltonian within a transformed harmonic oscillator basis. The consistency of the results versus the size of the basis is studied. The method is applied to neutron rich oxygen and carbon isotopes and compared with similar previous works and available experimental data. We make use of the flexibility of the proposed model in order to study the evolution of the occupation of the low-energy continuum when the system becomes weakly bound. We find an increasing influence of the non-resonant continuum as long as the Fermi level approaches the neutron separation threshold.

  8. Internal noise-driven generalized Langevin equation from a nonlocal continuum model.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Saikat; Chowdhury, Shubhankar Roy; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2015-08-01

    Starting with a micropolar formulation, known to account for nonlocal microstructural effects at the continuum level, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for a particle, describing the predominant motion of a localized region through a single displacement degree of freedom, is derived. The GLE features a memory-dependent multiplicative or internal noise, which appears upon recognizing that the microrotation variables possess randomness owing to an uncertainty principle. Unlike its classical version, the present GLE qualitatively reproduces the experimentally measured fluctuations in the steady-state mean square displacement of scattering centers in a polyvinyl alcohol slab. The origin of the fluctuations is traced to nonlocal spatial interactions within the continuum, a phenomenon that is ubiquitous across a broad class of response regimes in solids and fluids. This renders the proposed GLE a potentially useful model in such cases. PMID:26382386

  9. Internal noise-driven generalized Langevin equation from a nonlocal continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Chowdhury, Shubhankar Roy; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2015-08-01

    Starting with a micropolar formulation, known to account for nonlocal microstructural effects at the continuum level, a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for a particle, describing the predominant motion of a localized region through a single displacement degree of freedom, is derived. The GLE features a memory-dependent multiplicative or internal noise, which appears upon recognizing that the microrotation variables possess randomness owing to an uncertainty principle. Unlike its classical version, the present GLE qualitatively reproduces the experimentally measured fluctuations in the steady-state mean square displacement of scattering centers in a polyvinyl alcohol slab. The origin of the fluctuations is traced to nonlocal spatial interactions within the continuum, a phenomenon that is ubiquitous across a broad class of response regimes in solids and fluids. This renders the proposed GLE a potentially useful model in such cases.

  10. PowderSim: Lagrangian Discrete and Mesh-Free Continuum Simulation Code for Cohesive Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott; Walton, Otis; Settgast, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    PowderSim is a calculation tool that combines a discrete-element method (DEM) module, including calibrated interparticle-interaction relationships, with a mesh-free, continuum, SPH (smoothed-particle hydrodynamics) based module that utilizes enhanced, calibrated, constitutive models capable of mimicking both large deformations and the flow behavior of regolith simulants and lunar regolith under conditions anticipated during in situ resource utilization (ISRU) operations. The major innovation introduced in PowderSim is to use a mesh-free method (SPH-based) with a calibrated and slightly modified critical-state soil mechanics constitutive model to extend the ability of the simulation tool to also address full-scale engineering systems in the continuum sense. The PowderSim software maintains the ability to address particle-scale problems, like size segregation, in selected regions with a traditional DEM module, which has improved contact physics and electrostatic interaction models.

  11. An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütter, Geralf

    2016-05-01

    Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.

  12. Spectral structure and stability studies on microstructure-fiber continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xun; Kimmel, Mark; Zeek, Erik; Shreenath, Aparna P.; Trebino, Rick P.; Windeler, Robert S.

    2003-07-01

    Although previous direct measurements of the microstructure-fiber continuum have all showed a smooth and stable spectrum, our cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (XFROG) full-intensity-and-phase characterization of the continuum pulse, utilizing sum-frequency-generation with a pre-characterized reference pulse and the angle-dithered-crystal technique, indicates that fine-scale spectral structure exists on a single-shot basis, contrary to previous observations. In particular, deep and fine oscillations are found in the retrieved spectrum, and the retrieved trace contains a "measles" pattern, whereas the measured trace and the independently-measured spectrum are rather smooth. The discrepancy is shown to be the result of unstable single-shot spectral structure. Although the XFROG measurement is not able to directly measure the single-shot fine structure in the trace, the redundancy of information in FROG traces enables the retrieval algorithm to correctly recognize the existence of the spectral fine structure, and restore the structure in the retrieved trace and spectrum. Numerical simulations have supported our hypothesis, and we directly observed the fine spectral structure in single-shot measurements of the continuum spectrum and the structure was seen to be highly unstable, the continuum spectrum appearing smooth only when many shots are averaged. Despite the structure and instability in the continuum spectrum, coherence experiments also reveal that the spectral phase is rather stable, being able to produce well-defined spectral fringes across the entire continuum bandwidth.

  13. Relativistic corrections and non-Gaussianity in radio continuum surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Maartens, Roy; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Raccanelli, Alvise E-mail: Gong-bo.Zhao@port.ac.uk E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-02-01

    Forthcoming radio continuum surveys will cover large volumes of the observable Universe and will reach to high redshifts, making them potentially powerful probes of dark energy, modified gravity and non-Gaussianity. We consider the continuum surveys with LOFAR, WSRT and ASKAP, and examples of continuum surveys with the SKA. We extend recent work on these surveys by including redshift space distortions and lensing convergence in the radio source auto-correlation. In addition we compute the general relativistic (GR) corrections to the angular power spectrum. These GR corrections to the standard Newtonian analysis of the power spectrum become significant on scales near and beyond the Hubble scale at each redshift. We find that the GR corrections are at most percent-level in LOFAR, WODAN and EMU surveys, but they can produce O(10%) changes for high enough sensitivity SKA continuum surveys. The signal is however dominated by cosmic variance, and multiple-tracer techniques will be needed to overcome this problem. The GR corrections are suppressed in continuum surveys because of the integration over redshift — we expect that GR corrections will be enhanced for future SKA HI surveys in which the source redshifts will be known. We also provide predictions for the angular power spectra in the case where the primordial perturbations have local non-Gaussianity. We find that non-Gaussianity dominates over GR corrections, and rises above cosmic variance when f{sub NL}∼>5 for SKA continuum surveys.

  14. Integrated Radio Continuum Spectra of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer; Eilek, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of -0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, -0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and -0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = -0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later types

  15. Integrated radio continuum spectra of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer; Eilek, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of –0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, –0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and –0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = –0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later

  16. Physical modeling of traffic with stochastic cellular automata

    SciTech Connect

    Schreckenberg, M.; Nagel, K. |

    1995-09-01

    A new type of probabilistic cellular automaton for the physical description of single and multilane traffic is presented. In this model space, time and the velocity of the cars are represented by integer numbers (as usual in cellular automata) with local update rules for the velocity. The model is very efficient for both numerical simulations and analytical investigations. The numerical results from extensive simulations reproduce very well data taken from real traffic (e.g. fundamental diagrams). Several analytical results for the model are presented as well as new approximation schemes for stationary traffic. In addition the relation to continuum hydrodynamic theory (Lighthill-Whitham) and the follow-the-leader models is discussed. The model is part of an interdisciplinary research program in Northrhine-Westfalia (``NRW Forschungsverbund Verkehrssimulation``) for the construction of a large scale microsimulation model for network traffic, supported by the government of NRW.

  17. A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.

  18. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade

  19. Continuum Approaches to Understanding Ion and Peptide Interactions with the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Latorraca, Naomi R.; Callenberg, Keith M.; Boyle, Jon P.; Grabe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies have shown that cellular membranes deform to stabilize the inclusion of transmembrane (TM) proteins harboring charge. Recent analysis suggests that membrane bending helps to expose charged and polar residues to the aqueous environment and polar head groups. We previously used elasticity theory to identify membrane distortions that minimize the insertion of charged TM peptides into the membrane. Here, we extend our work by showing that it also provides a novel, computationally efficient method for exploring the energetics of ion and small peptide penetration into membranes. First, we show that the continuum method accurately reproduces energy profiles and membrane shapes generated from molecular simulations of bare ion permeation at a fraction of the computational cost. Next, we demonstrate that the dependence of the ion insertion energy on the membrane thickness arises primarily from the elastic properties of the membrane. Moreover, the continuum model readily provides a free energy decomposition into components not easily determined from molecular dynamics. Finally, we show that the energetics of membrane deformation strongly depend on membrane patch size both for ions and peptides. This dependence is particularly strong for peptides based on simulations of a known amphipathic, membrane binding peptide from the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. In total, we address shortcomings and advantages that arise from using a variety of computational methods in distinct biological contexts. PMID:24652510

  20. Formin’ cellular structures

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Sven; Schultz, Jörg; Grosshans, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Diaphanous (Dia) protein family are key regulators of fundamental actin driven cellular processes, which are conserved from yeast to humans. Researchers have uncovered diverse physiological roles in cell morphology, cell motility, cell polarity, and cell division, which are involved in shaping cells into tissues and organs. The identification of numerous binding partners led to substantial progress in our understanding of the differential functions of Dia proteins. Genetic approaches and new microscopy techniques allow important new insights into their localization, activity, and molecular principles of regulation. PMID:24719676

  1. Control of cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl; El Yacoubi, Samira

    2012-12-01

    We study the problem of master-slave synchronization and control of totalistic cellular automata. The synchronization mechanism is that of setting a fraction of sites of the slave system equal to those of the master one (pinching synchronization). The synchronization observable is the distance between the two configurations. We present three control strategies that exploit local information (the number of nonzero first-order Boolean derivatives) in order to choose the sites to be synchronized. When no local information is used, we speak of simple pinching synchronization. We find the critical properties of control and discuss the best control strategy compared with simple synchronization.

  2. Cellular mechanics and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  3. CRITIQUE OF DUAL CONTINUUM FORMULATIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtner, P.C.

    2000-02-01

    Subsurface flow processes may take place at many different scales. The different scales refer to rock pore structure, micro-fractures, distinct fracture networks ranging from small to large fracture spacing, and even faults. Presently, there is no satisfactory methodology for describing quantitatively flow and reactive transport in multi-scale media. Approaches commonly applied to model fractured systems include single continuum models (SCM), equivalent continuum models (ECM), discrete fracture models (DFM), and various forms of dual continuum models (DCM). The SCM describes flow in the fracture network only and is valid in the absence of fracture-matrix interaction. The ECM, on the other hand, requires pervasive interaction between fracture and matrix and is based on averaging their properties. The ECM is characterized by equal fracture and matrix solute concentrations, but generally different mineral concentrations. The DFM is perhaps the most rigorous, but would require inordinate computational resources for a highly fractured rock mass. The DCM represents a fractured porous medium as two interacting continua with one continuum corresponding to the fracture network and the other the matrix. A coupling term provides mass transfer between the two continua. Vidues for mineral and solute concentrations and other properties such as liquid saturation state maybe assigned individually to fracture and matrix. Two forms of the DCM are considered characterized by connected and disconnected matrix blocks. The former is referred to as the DCCM (dual continuum connected matrix) model and the latter as the DCDM (dual continuum disconnected matrix) model. In contrast to the DCCM model in which concentration gradients in the matrix are allowed only parallel to the fracture, the DFM provides for matrix concentration gradients perpendicular to the fracture. The DFM and DCCM models can agree with each other only in the case where both reduce to the ECM. The DCCM model exhibits the

  4. Continuum ionization transition probabilities of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Petrosky, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in the investigation. Atomic oxygen was produced in a microwave discharge operating at a power of 40 W and at a pressure of approximately 20 mtorr. The photoelectron spectrum of the oxygen with and without the discharge is shown. The atomic states can be clearly seen. In connection with the measurement of the probability for transitions into the various ionic states, the analyzer collection efficiency was determined as a function of electron energy.

  5. Cellular differentiation: the violin strikes up another tune.

    PubMed

    Cook, Michael A; Tyers, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A switch in cellular identity in budding yeast requires the ubiquitin-dependent elimination of pre-existing master regulators encoded by the MAT locus. Failure to disassemble the prior state not only impairs the cell type transition but imparts a hybrid cellular fate. This theme will undoubtedly arise in many developmental and disease contexts. PMID:14711426

  6. Genomic Study of Cardiovascular Continuum Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Makeeva, O. A.; Sleptsov, A. A.; Kulish, E. V.; Barbarash, O. L.; Mazur, A. M.; Prokhorchuk, E. B.; Chekanov, N. N.; Stepanov, V. A.; Puzyrev, V. P.

    2015-01-01

    Comorbidity or a combination of several diseases in the same individual is a common and widely investigated phenomenon. However, the genetic background for non–random disease combinations is not fully understood. Modern technologies and approaches to genomic data analysis enable the investigation of the genetic profile of patients burdened with several diseases (polypathia, disease conglomerates) and its comparison with the profiles of patients with single diseases. An association study featuring three groups of patients with various combinations of cardiovascular disorders and a control group of relatively healthy individuals was conducted. Patients were selected as follows: presence of only one disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD); a combination of two diseases, IHD and arterial hypertension (AH); and a combination of several diseases, including IHD, AH, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hypercholesterolemia (HC). Genotyping was performed using the “My Gene” genomic service (www.i–gene.ru). An analysis of 1,400 polymorphic genetic variants and their associations with the studied phenotypes are presented. A total of 14 polymorphic variants were associated with the phenotype “IHD only,” including those in the APOB, CD226, NKX2–5, TLR2, DPP6, KLRB1, VDR, SCARB1, NEDD4L, and SREBF2 genes, and intragenic variants rs12487066, rs7807268, rs10896449, and rs944289. A total of 13 genetic markers were associated with the “IHD and AH” phenotype, including variants in the BTNL2, EGFR, CNTNAP2, SCARB1, and HNF1A genes, and intragenic polymorphisms rs801114, rs10499194, rs13207033, rs2398162, rs6501455, and rs1160312. A total of 14 genetic variants were associated with a combination of several diseases of cardiovascular continuum (CVC), including those in the TAS2R38, SEZ6L, APOA2, KLF7, CETP, ITGA4, RAD54B, LDLR, and MTAP genes, along with intragenic variants rs1333048, rs1333049, and rs6501455. One common genetic marker was identified for the

  7. An atomistic-continuum Cosserat rod model of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandraseker, Karthick; Mukherjee, Subrata; Paci, Jeffrey T.; Schatz, George C.

    2009-06-01

    The focus of the present work is an atomistic-continuum model of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based on an elastic rod theory which can exhibit geometric as well as material nonlinearity [Healey, T.J., 2002. Material symmetry and chirality in nonlinearly elastic rods. Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids 7, 405-420]. In particular, the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is modeled as a one-dimensional elastic continuum with some finite thickness bounded by the lateral surface. Exploitation of certain symmetries in the underlying atomic structure leads to suitable representations of the continuum elastic strain energy density in terms of strain measures that capture extension, twist, bending, and shear deformations [Healey, T.J., 2002. Material symmetry and chirality in nonlinearly elastic rods. Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids 7, 405-420]. Bridging between the atomic scale and the effective continuum is carried out by parameterization of the continuum elastic energy and determination of the parameters using unit cell atomistic simulations over a range of deformation magnitudes and types. Specifically, the proposed model takes into account (a) bending, (b) twist, (c) shear, (d) extension, (e) coupled extension and twist, and (f) coupled bending and shear deformations. The extracted parameters reveal benefits of accounting for important anisotropic and large-strain effects as improvements over employing traditional, linearly elastic, isotropic, small-strain, continuum models to simulate deformations of atomic systems such as SWNTs. It is envisioned that the proposed approach and the extracted model parameters can serve as a useful input to simulations of SWNT deformations using existing nonlinearly elastic continuum codes based, for example, on the finite element method (FEM).

  8. Imprints of Molecular Clouds in Radio Continuum Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    2012-11-01

    We show radio continuum images of several molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy and report the presence of dark features that coincide with dense molecular clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds, these features which we call "radio dark clouds" are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic-ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different path lengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the magnetic field of molecular clouds when compared to those of the surrounding hot plasma radiating at radio wavelengths. The study of five molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy, Sgr A, Sgr B2, radio Arc, the Snake filament, and G359.75-0.13 demonstrates an anti-correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. Radio dark clouds are identified in Green Bank Telescope maps and Very Large Array images taken with uniform sampling of uv coverage. The level at which the continuum flux is suppressed in these sources suggests that the depth of the molecular cloud is similar to the size of the continuum emission within a factor of two. These examples suggest that high-resolution, high-dynamic-range continuum images can be powerful probes of interacting molecular clouds with massive stars and supernova remnants in regions where the kinematic distance estimates are ambiguous as well as in the nuclei of active galaxies.

  9. A Description of the Continuum of Eating Disorders: Implications for Intervention and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarano, Gina M.; Kalodner-Martin, Cynthia R.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an eating disorders continuum. Describes groups on the continuum by highlighting behavioral, cognitive-attitudinal, and self-esteem differences. Discusses relationship between continuum and developmental course of eating disorders. Presents prevention, early intervention, and treatment programs for various continuum groups. Offers…

  10. Revisiting the Continuum Hypothesis: Toward an In-Depth Exploration of Executive Functions in Korsakoff Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brion, Mélanie; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Korsakoff syndrome (KS) is a neurological state mostly caused by alcohol-dependence and leading to disproportionate episodic memory deficits. KS patients present more severe anterograde amnesia than Alcohol-Dependent Subjects (ADS), which led to the continuum hypothesis postulating a progressive increase in brain and cognitive damages during the evolution from ADS to KS. This hypothesis has been extensively examined for memory but is still debated for other abilities, notably executive functions (EF). EF have up to now been explored by unspecific tasks in KS, and few studies explored their interactions with memory. Exploring EF in KS by specific tasks based on current EF models could thus renew the exploration of the continuum hypothesis. This paper will propose a research program aiming at: (1) clarifying the extent of executive dysfunctions in KS by tasks focusing on specific EF subcomponents; (2) determining the differential EF deficits in ADS and KS; (3) exploring EF-memory interactions in KS with innovative tasks. At the fundamental level, this exploration will test the continuum hypothesis beyond memory. At the clinical level, it will propose new rehabilitation tools focusing on the EF specifically impaired in KS. PMID:25071526

  11. Revisiting the continuum hypothesis: toward an in-depth exploration of executive functions in korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brion, Mélanie; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Korsakoff syndrome (KS) is a neurological state mostly caused by alcohol-dependence and leading to disproportionate episodic memory deficits. KS patients present more severe anterograde amnesia than Alcohol-Dependent Subjects (ADS), which led to the continuum hypothesis postulating a progressive increase in brain and cognitive damages during the evolution from ADS to KS. This hypothesis has been extensively examined for memory but is still debated for other abilities, notably executive functions (EF). EF have up to now been explored by unspecific tasks in KS, and few studies explored their interactions with memory. Exploring EF in KS by specific tasks based on current EF models could thus renew the exploration of the continuum hypothesis. This paper will propose a research program aiming at: (1) clarifying the extent of executive dysfunctions in KS by tasks focusing on specific EF subcomponents; (2) determining the differential EF deficits in ADS and KS; (3) exploring EF-memory interactions in KS with innovative tasks. At the fundamental level, this exploration will test the continuum hypothesis beyond memory. At the clinical level, it will propose new rehabilitation tools focusing on the EF specifically impaired in KS. PMID:25071526

  12. Integrated cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  13. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  14. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multispectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/sq m, which compared to the 4 W/sq m magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/sq m estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude

  15. Do subglacial bedforms comprise a size and shape continuum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Jeremy C.; Clark, Chris D.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Stokes, Chris R.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Dunlop, Paul; Hess, Dale

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the evolution of the ice-bed interface is fundamentally important for gaining insight into the dynamics of ice masses and how subglacial landforms are created. However, the formation of the suite of landforms generated at this boundary - subglacial bedforms - is a contentious issue that is yet to be fully resolved. Bedforms formed in aeolian, fluvial, and marine environments either belong to separate morphological populations or are thought to represent a continuum of forms generated by the same governing processes. For subglacial bedforms, a size and shape continuum has been hypothesised, yet it has not been fully tested. Here we analyse the largest data set of subglacial bedform size and shape measurements ever collated (96,900 bedforms). Our results show that flutes form a distinct population of narrow bedforms. However, no clear distinction was found between drumlins and megascale glacial lineations (MSGLs), which form a continuum of subglacial lineations. A continuum of subglacial ribs also exists, with no clear size or shape distinctions indicating separate populations. Furthermore, an underreported class of bedform with no clear orientation to ice flow (quasi-circular bedforms) overlaps with the ribbed and lineation continua and typically occurs in spatial transition zones between the two, potentially merging these three bedform types into a larger continuum.

  16. Measuring the continuum polarization with ESPaDOnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, A.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Martioli, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Our goal is to test the feasibility of obtaining accurate measurements of the continuum polarization from high-resolution spectra using the spectropolarimetric mode of ESPaDOnS. Methods: We used the new pipeline OPERA to reduce recent and archived ESPaDOnS data. Several polarization standard stars and science objects were tested for the linear mode. In addition, the circular mode was tested using several objects from the archive with expected null polarization. Synthetic broad-band polarization was computed from the ESPaDOnS continuum polarization spectra and compared with published values (when available) to quantify the accuracy of the instrument. Results: The continuum linear polarization measured by ESPaDOnS is consistent with broad-band polarimetry measurements available in the literature. The accuracy in the degree of linear polarization is around 0.2-0.3% considering the full sample. The accuracy in polarization position angle using the most polarized objects is better than 5°. Consistent with this, the instrumental polarization computed for the circular continuum polarization is also between 0.2-0.3%. Our results suggest that measurements of the continuum polarization using ESPaDOnS are viable and can be used to study many astrophysical objects. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  17. Empirical water vapor continuum models for infrared propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michael E.

    1995-06-01

    The characterization of the water vapor continuum remains an important problem concerning infrared propagation in the atmosphere. Radiometric imaging within the atmosphere in the 8 to 12 micrometers and 3 - 5 micrometers regions, and eye safe lidar in the 2 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers window regions require accurate knowledge of the water vapor continuum. Although the physical nature of the continuum is a complex problem, the observed frequency, pressure and temperature dependence can be represented reasonably well by simple mathematical functions consistent with far wing theories. This approach is the basis for current models used in LOWTRAN/MODTRAN and for the models listed in the SPIE/ERIM EO/IR Systems Handbook (Volume 2 Chapter 1). However, these models are based solely on a limited, but high quality, data set collected by a spectrometer and White cell. Additional information on oxygen broadening and temperature dependence is available from numerous laser measurements of the water vapor continuum. A survey of relevant experimental data is made to determine the best available measurements of the water vapor continuum in various atmospheric window regions. Then the data are fit to an empirical model over the entire window region. A good fit is obtained for typical atmospheric conditions covering the 8 to 12 micrometers and 3 to 5 micrometers regions. No experimental data, covering atmospheric conditions, exist in the 2 micrometers and 1.6 micrometers regions. However, models can be proposed based on far wing extrapolations of the bordering vibrational water vapor bands.

  18. Return of the Quantum Cellular Automata: Episode VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Hillberry, Logan E.; Rall, Patrick; Halpern, Nicole Yunger; Bao, Ning; Montangero, Simone

    2016-05-01

    There are now over 150 quantum simulators or analog quantum computers worldwide. Although exploring quantum phase transitions, many-body localization, and the generalized Gibbs ensemble are exciting and worthwhile endeavors, there are totally untapped directions we have not yet pursued. One of these is quantum cellular automata. In the past a principal goal of quantum cellular automata was to reproduce continuum single particle quantum physics such as the Schrodinger or Dirac equation from simple rule sets. Now that we begin to really understand entanglement and many-body quantum physics at a deeper level, quantum cellular automata present new possibilities. We explore several time evolution schemes on simple spin chains leading to high degrees of quantum complexity and nontrivial quantum dynamics. We explain how the 256 known classical elementary cellular automata reduce to just a few exciting quantum cases. Our analysis tools include mutual information based complex networks as well as more familiar quantifiers like sound speed and diffusion rate. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

  19. Engineering Cellular Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-10

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals. However, making cells into efficient factories is challenging because cells have evolved robust metabolic networks with hard-wired, tightly regulated lines of communication between molecular pathways that resist efforts to divert resources. Here, we will review the current status and challenges of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation. PMID:26967285

  20. Cellular Plasticity in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jadaan, Dima Y.; Jadaan, Mutaz M.; McCabe, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET), a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC) bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues. Results. The review included nineteen studies. More than 60% of the studies used ≤20 bone metastasis samples, and there were several sources of heterogeneity between studies. Overall, most stem cell markers analysed, except for CXCR4, were positively expressed in bone metastasis tissues, while the expression of EMT and MET markers was heterogeneous between and within samples. Several EMT and stemness markers that are involved in osteomimicry, such as Notch, Met receptor, and Wnt/β pathway, were highly expressed in bone metastases. Conclusions. Clinical findings support the role of cellular plasticity in PC bone metastasis and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal states cannot be taken in isolation when targeting PC bone metastasis. The paper also highlights several challenges in the clinical detection of cellular plasticity. PMID:26146569

  1. Acanthamoeba castellanii: cellular changes induced by chlorination.

    PubMed

    Mogoa, Emerancienne; Bodet, Charles; Legube, Bernard; Héchard, Yann

    2010-09-01

    Chlorination is a well-known disinfection method, used in water treatment to inactivate various microorganisms, it induces numerous cellular changes. Even though Acanthamoebae are frequently found in water, the cellular changes induced in Acanthamoebae have not been described in the literature. Acanthamoebae are pathogenic amoebae and may provide a reservoir for pathogenic bacteria such as Legionellapneumophila; it is consequently important to understand the response of this amoeba to chlorination, and our study was indeed aimed at examining cellular changes in Acanthamoebae following chlorination. Acanthamoeba trophozoites were treated at various chlorine concentrations (1-5mg/L). A 3-log reduction in Acanthamoebae population was achieved with 5mg/L of free chlorine. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry experiments indicated that chlorination induced cell permeabilization, size reduction and likely intracellular thiol concentration. Our data show that among the non-cultivable cells some remained impermeabilized (negative staining with propidium iodide), thereby suggesting that these cells might remained viable. A similar state is described in other microorganisms as a VBNC (viable but not cultivable) state. Electron microscopy observations illustrate drastic morphological changes: the pseudopods disappeared and subcellular components, such as mitochondrion, were pronouncedly affected. In conclusion, depending on the concentration used, chlorination leads to many cellular effects on Acanthamoeba that could well arise in cell inactivation. PMID:20034490

  2. Inducing cellular senescence using defined genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Opitz, Oliver G

    2007-01-01

    Cellular senescence is generally defined as an irreversible state of G1 cell cycle arrest in which cells are refractory to growth factor stimulation. Cellular senescence can be induced through several different mechanisms. Primary mammalian cells display a finite life span, suggesting a mechanism that counts cell divisions. Those cells initially proliferate but eventually enter a state of permanent growth arrest, called replicative senescence. Erosion of telomeric DNA has emerged as a key factor in replicative senescence, which is antagonized during cell immortalization. Nevertheless, besides telomere shortening, there are other mechanisms inducing a growth arrest similar to the replicative senescencent phenotype. Oncogenic or mitogenic signals as well as DNA damage can induce such a phenotype of cellular senescence. All forms of cellular senescence share common signaling pathways and morphological features. Thereby, p53 seems to be essential for the senescence response. Many of these senescence inducing mechanisms can be experimentally recapitulated by the introduction of defined genetic elements. Replicative senescence due to telomere shortening can, for example, be induced by a dominant negative version of telomerase, premature senescence by the overexpression of oncogenic ras, or p16. PMID:17634581

  3. On Equilibrium Configurations in Continuum Mechanics of Structural Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H.

    We consider the determination of the theory by a second order tensor field gik and affinity fik. By variational principle for Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian solid state equilibrium positions of the ideal and real crystal will be described. On account of external Galilei-invariance this theory affords an invariant three dimensional geometry at most being able to produce a stable static equilibrium of defects. The motion of defects is related to the theory of invariants of the internal group of field equations produced by this theory in strong analogy to Maxwell's electrodynamics. The elastic ether concept for the theory of light affords the idea of a gauge field approximation of continuum mechanics fitting linearized Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian approach. The stress and strain space duality has to be understood on this background.Translated AbstractÜber Gleichgewichtskonfigurationen in der Kontinuumsmechanik der StrukturdefekteWir betrachten die Determinierung der Theorie durch ein Tensorfeld zweiter Ordnung gik und eine Affinität fik. Mit dem Variationsprinzip für die Einstein-Hilbertsche Lagrangefunktion werden Gleichgewichtszustände des idealen und realen Kristalls beschrieben. Auf Grund der äußeren Galilei-Invarianz liefert die Theorie eine invariante dreidimensionale Geometrie, welche höchstens stabile statische Gleichgewichtszustände hervorbringen kann. Die Bewegung der Defekte hängt mit der Invariantentheorie der inneren Gruppe der Feldgleichungen der Theorie in enger Analogie zur Maxwellschen Elektrodynamik zusammen. Das Konzept eines elastischen Äthers für die elektromagnetische Theorie des Lichtes liefert die Idee für einen eichfeldtheoretischen Zugang zur Kontinuumsmechanik, der die lineare Näherung des geometrischen Zugangs mit der Einstein-Hilbertschen Lagrangefunktion darstellt. Die Dualität des Spannungs- und Dehnungsraumes ist vor diesem Hintergrund zu sehen.

  4. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. III. Optical Continuum Emission and Broadband Time Delays in NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Denney, K. D.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Bottorff, M. C.; Carini, M. T.; Croxall, K. V.; De Rosa, G.; Goad, M. R.; Horne, Keith; Joner, M. D.; Kaspi, S.; Kim, M.; Klimanov, S. A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Leonard, D. C.; Netzer, H.; Peterson, B. M.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.-K.; Zu, Y.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Brewer, B. J.; Cackett, E. M.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Gonzalez, L.; Gorjian, V.; Grier, C. J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Jensen, J. J.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, S. C.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Lee, J. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pei, L.; Pogge, R. W.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schimoia, J. S.; Siegel, M.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Treu, T.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.

    2016-04-01

    We present ground-based optical photometric monitoring data for NGC 5548, part of an extended multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The light curves have nearly daily cadence from 2014 January to July in nine filters (BVRI and ugriz). Combined with ultraviolet data from the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift, we confirm significant time delays between the continuum bands as a function of wavelength, extending the wavelength coverage from 1158 Å to the z band (~9160 Å). We find that the lags at wavelengths longer than the V band are equal to or greater than the lags of high-ionization-state emission lines (such as He ii λ 1640 and λ 4686), suggesting that the continuum-emitting source is of a physical size comparable to the inner broad-line region (BLR). The trend of lag with wavelength is broadly consistent with the prediction for continuum reprocessing by an accretion disk with τ \\propto {λ }4/3. However, the lags also imply a disk radius that is 3 times larger than the prediction from standard thin-disk theory, assuming that the bolometric luminosity is 10% of the Eddington luminosity (L=0.1{L}{{Edd}}). Using optical spectra from the Large Binocular Telescope, we estimate the bias of the interband continuum lags due to BLR emission observed in the filters. We find that the bias for filters with high levels of BLR contamination (~20%) can be important for the shortest continuum lags and likely has a significant impact on the u and U bands owing to Balmer continuum emission.

  5. PACCE: Perl Algorithm to Compute Continuum and Equivalent Widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogério; Borges Vale, Tibério

    2011-05-01

    We present Perl Algorithm to Compute continuum and Equivalent Widths (pacce). We describe the methods used in the computations and the requirements for its usage. We compare the measurements made with pacce and "manual" ones made using iraf splot task. These tests show that for SSP models the equivalent widths strengths are very similar (differences <0.2A) for both measurements. In real stellar spectra, the correlation between both values is still very good, but with differences of up to 0.5A. pacce is also able to determine mean continuum and continuum at line center values, which are helpful in stellar population studies. In addition, it is also able to compute the uncertainties in the equivalent widths using photon statistics.

  6. Water vapor continuum: Whether collision-induced absorption is involved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigasin, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    In a series of recent publications, the idea is pursued to shed a new light on the theory of the water vapor continuum absorption invoking the mechanism of collision-induced absorption. In the opinion of the present author, a portion of theoretical suggestions on this subject is biased and may thus lead to untenable conclusions about the nature of the continuum. The most typical drawback consists of improper consideration of statistics in the ensemble of interacting monomers that lead to embedding incorrect statistical weights to various types of molecular pairs which can form. The current note aims at clarifying the term “collision-induced absorption” in order to avoid incongruity in understanding the nature of the water vapor continuum.

  7. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H., Jr.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Fredrickson, L.H.; Mushet, D.M.; Swanson, G.A.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Nelson, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a conceptual model, the wetland continuum, which allows wetland managers, scientists, and ecologists to consider simultaneously the influence of climate and hydrologic setting on wetland biological communities. Although multidimensional, the wetland continuum is most easily represented as a two-dimensional gradient, with ground water and atmospheric water constituting the horizontal and vertical axis, respectively. By locating the position of a wetland on both axes of the continuum, the potential biological expression of the wetland can be predicted at any point in time. The model provides a framework useful in the organization and interpretation of biological data from wetlands by incorporating the dynamic changes these systems undergo as a result of normal climatic variation rather than placing them into static categories common to many wetland classification systems. While we developed this model from the literature available for depressional wetlands in the prairie pothole region of North America, we believe the concept has application to wetlands in many other geographic locations.

  8. A polarizable continuum model for molecules at spherical diffuse interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Remigio, Roberto; Mozgawa, Krzysztof; Cao, Hui; Weijo, Ville; Frediani, Luca

    2016-03-01

    We present an extension of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate solvent effects at diffuse interfaces with spherical symmetry, such as nanodroplets and micelles. We derive the form of the Green's function for a spatially varying dielectric permittivity with spherical symmetry and exploit the integral equation formalism of the PCM for general dielectric environments to recast the solvation problem into a continuum solvation framework. This allows the investigation of the solvation of ions and molecules in nonuniform dielectric environments, such as liquid droplets, micelles or membranes, while maintaining the computationally appealing characteristics of continuum solvation models. We describe in detail our implementation, both for the calculation of the Green's function and for its subsequent use in the PCM electrostatic problem. The model is then applied on a few test systems, mainly to analyze the effect of interface curvature on solvation energetics.

  9. Micropolar continuum modelling of bi-dimensional tetrachiral lattices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Liu, X. N.; Hu, G. K.; Sun, Q. P.; Zheng, Q. S.

    2014-01-01

    The in-plane behaviour of tetrachiral lattices should be characterized by bi-dimensional orthotropic material owing to the existence of two orthogonal axes of rotational symmetry. Moreover, the constitutive model must also represent the chirality inherent in the lattices. To this end, a bi-dimensional orthotropic chiral micropolar model is developed based on the theory of irreducible orthogonal tensor decomposition. The obtained constitutive tensors display a hierarchy structure depending on the symmetry of the underlying microstructure. Eight additional material constants, in addition to five for the hemitropic case, are introduced to characterize the anisotropy under Z2 invariance. The developed continuum model is then applied to a tetrachiral lattice, and the material constants of the continuum model are analytically derived by a homogenization process. By comparing with numerical simulations for the discrete lattice, it is found that the proposed continuum model can correctly characterize the static and wave properties of the tetrachiral lattice. PMID:24808754

  10. Mechanosensitive Channels: Insights from Continuum-Based Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuye; Yoo, Jejoong; Yethiraj, Arun; Cui, Qiang; Chen, Xi

    2009-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays an important role in regulating cell functions and it is an active topic of research in biophysics. Despite recent advances in experimental and numerical techniques, the intrinsic multiscale nature imposes tremendous challenges for revealing the working mechanisms of mechanosensitive channels. Recently, a continuum-mechanics based hierarchical modeling and simulation framework has been established and applied to study the mechanical responses and gating behaviors of a prototypical mechanosensitive channel, the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) in bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), from which several putative gating mechanisms have been tested and new insights deduced. This article reviews these latest findings using the continuum mechanics framework and suggests possible improvements for future simulation studies. This computationally efficient and versatile continuum-mechanics based protocol is poised to make contributions to the study of a variety of mechanobiology problems. PMID:18787764

  11. A polarizable continuum model for molecules at spherical diffuse interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Remigio, Roberto; Mozgawa, Krzysztof; Cao, Hui; Weijo, Ville; Frediani, Luca

    2016-03-28

    We present an extension of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate solvent effects at diffuse interfaces with spherical symmetry, such as nanodroplets and micelles. We derive the form of the Green's function for a spatially varying dielectric permittivity with spherical symmetry and exploit the integral equation formalism of the PCM for general dielectric environments to recast the solvation problem into a continuum solvation framework. This allows the investigation of the solvation of ions and molecules in nonuniform dielectric environments, such as liquid droplets, micelles or membranes, while maintaining the computationally appealing characteristics of continuum solvation models. We describe in detail our implementation, both for the calculation of the Green's function and for its subsequent use in the PCM electrostatic problem. The model is then applied on a few test systems, mainly to analyze the effect of interface curvature on solvation energetics. PMID:27036423

  12. Mechanics of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures: Atomistic, continuum, and multi-scale approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Arash

    nanotubes and carbon nanocones subject to different loadings and boundary conditions. This finite element technique is also used to study the natural frequencies of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures and comparing the results with those of a homogenized isotropic continuum shell. Conclusion is that, replacing the atomic lattice with an isotropic continuum shell for a graphene sheet does not significantly affect the vibration frequencies while in the case of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanocones there is a significant difference between the natural frequencies of the atomistic model and its continuum counterpart. In the case of the carbon nanotube, continuum model successfully captures the beam bending vibration modes while overestimating frequencies of the modes in which the cross-section undergoes significant deformation. Furthermore, in the case of carbon nanotubes, the continuum shell exhibits a torsional mode which appears to be an artifact resulting from the small nominal thickness typically used in the continuum shell approximation of these nanostructures. Results of this study indicate that isotropic continuum shell models, while simple and useful in static analysis, cannot accurately predict the vibration frequencies of these nanostructures. We have studied the bistable nature of single-walled carbon nanotubes by investigating the change in the tube's energy as it is compressed between flat rigid indenters of various widths. Assuming the nanotube deformed uniformly along its length and modeling the cross-section as an inextensible, non-linear beam we found that tubes with a radius greater than 12 A are bistable and that tubes with a radius greater than 25 A have a lower energy in the collapsed state than in the inflated state. The difference in energy between the collapsed and inflated states decreases nearly linearly with increasing tube radius. While the inflated state remains stable for tubes of all diameters, the energy barrier keeping the tube from

  13. Continuum Polarizable Force Field within the Poisson-Boltzmann Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yu-Hong; Tan, Chunhu; Wang, Junmei; Luo, Ray

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and tested a complete set of nonbonded parameters for a continuum polarizable force field. Our analysis shows that the new continuum polarizable model is consistent with B3LYP/cc-pVTZ in modeling electronic response upon variation of dielectric environment. Comparison with experiment also shows that the new continuum polarizable model is reasonable, with similar accuracy as B3LYP/cc-pVTZ in reproduction of dipole moments of selected organic molecules in the gas phase. We have further tested the validity to interchange the Amber van der Waals parameters between the explicit and continuum polarizable force fields with a series of dimers. It can be found that the continuum polarizable model agrees well with MP2/cc-pVTZ, with deviations in dimer binding energies less than 0.9 kcal/mol in the aqueous dielectric environment. Finally we have optimized atomic cavity radii with respect to experimental solvation free energies of 177 training molecules. To validate the optimized cavity radii, we have tested these parameters against 176 test molecules. It is found that the optimized PB atomic cavity radii transfer well from the training set to the test set, with an overall root-mean-squared deviation of 1.30 kcal/mol, unsigned average error of 1.07 kacl/mol, and correlation coefficient of 92% for all 353 molecules in both the training and test sets. Given the development documented here, the next natural step is the construction of a full protein/nucleic acid force field within the new continuum polarization framework. PMID:18507452

  14. Cellular lifespan and senescence: a complex balance between multiple cellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Dolivo, David; Hernandez, Sarah; Dominko, Tanja

    2016-07-01

    The study of cellular senescence and proliferative lifespan is becoming increasingly important because of the promises of autologous cell therapy, the need for model systems for tissue disease and the implication of senescent cell phenotypes in organismal disease states such as sarcopenia, diabetes and various cancers, among others. Here, we explain the concepts of proliferative cellular lifespan and cellular senescence, and we present factors that have been shown to mediate cellular lifespan positively or negatively. We review much recent literature and present potential molecular mechanisms by which lifespan mediation occurs, drawing from the fields of telomere biology, metabolism, NAD(+) and sirtuin biology, growth factor signaling and oxygen and antioxidants. We conclude that cellular lifespan and senescence are complex concepts that are governed by multiple independent and interdependent pathways, and that greater understanding of these pathways, their interactions and their convergence upon specific cellular phenotypes may lead to viable therapies for tissue regeneration and treatment of age-related pathologies, which are caused by or exacerbated by senescent cells in vivo. PMID:27417120

  15. The gamma ray continuum spectrum from the galactic center disk and point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

    1992-01-01

    A light curve of gamma-ray continuum emission from point sources in the galactic center region is generated from balloon and satellite observations made over the past 25 years. The emphasis is on the wide field-of-view instruments which measure the combined flux from all sources within approximately 20 degrees of the center. These data have not been previously used for point-source analyses because of the unknown contribution from diffuse disk emission. In this study, the galactic disk component is estimated from observations made by the Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) instrument in Oct. 1988. Surprisingly, there are several times during the past 25 years when all gamma-ray sources (at 100 keV) within about 20 degrees of the galactic center are turned off or are in low emission states. This implies that the sources are all variable and few in number. The continuum gamma-ray emission below approximately 150 keV from the black hole candidate 1E1740.7-2942 is seen to turn off in May 1989 on a time scale of less than two weeks, significantly shorter than ever seen before. With the continuum below 150 keV turned off, the spectral shape derived from the HEXAGONE observation on 22 May 1989 is very peculiar with a peak near 200 keV. This source was probably in its normal state for more than half of all observations since the mid-1960's. There are only two observations (in 1977 and 1979) for which the sum flux from the point sources in the region significantly exceeds that from 1E1740.7-2942 in its normal state.

  16. The High-energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.; VonMintigny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approx. = 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approx. = 5 x 10(exp 21)/ sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approx. 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approx. = 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approx. 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  17. The High-Energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approximate 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approximately 5 x 10(exp 21) /sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approximately 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with EGRET. The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approximately 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approximately 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  18. FUV Continuum in Flare Kernels Observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Kowalski, Adam; Allred, Joel C.; Cauzzi, Gianna

    2016-05-01

    Fits to Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectra observed from bright kernels during the impulsive phase of solar flares are providing long-sought constraints on the UV/white-light continuum emission. Results of fits of continua plus numerous atomic and molecular emission lines to IRIS far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of bright kernels are presented. Constraints on beam energy and cross sectional area are provided by cotemporaneous RHESSI, FERMI, ROSA/DST, IRIS slit-jaw and SDO/AIA observations, allowing for comparison of the observed IRIS continuum to calculations of non-thermal electron beam heating using the RADYN radiative-hydrodynamic loop model.

  19. Diffuse Galactic low energy gamma ray continuum emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, J. G.; Ramaty, R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the origin of diffuse low-energy Galactic gamma-ray continuum down to about 30 keV. We calculate gamma-ray emission via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering by propagating an unbroken electron power law injection spectrum and employing a Galactic emmissivity model derived from COSB observations. To maintain the low energy electron population capable of producing the observed continuum via bremsstrahlung, a total power input of 4 x 10 exp 41 erg/s is required. This exceeds the total power supplied to the nuclear cosmic rays by about an order of magnitude.

  20. Improving the Capabilities of a Continuum Laser Plasma Interaction Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hittinger, J F; Dorr, M R

    2006-06-15

    The numerical simulation of plasmas is a critical tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). We have been working to improve the predictive capability of a continuum laser plasma interaction code pF3d, which couples a continuum hydrodynamic model of an unmagnetized plasma to paraxial wave equations modeling the laser light. Advanced numerical techniques such as local mesh refinement, multigrid, and multifluid Godunov methods have been adapted and applied to nonlinear heat conduction and to multifluid plasma models. We describe these algorithms and briefly demonstrate their capabilities.

  1. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators.

    PubMed

    Gravagne, Ian A; Walker, Ian D

    2002-06-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance. PMID:12492083

  2. Coherent Detector Arrays for Continuum and Spectral Line Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the requirements for improved coherent detector arrays for use in continuum and spectral line applications. With detectors approaching fundamental limits, large arrays offer the only path to sensitivity improvement. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology offers a straightforward path to massive focal plane millimeter wave arrays: The technology will readily support continuum imagers, polarimeters and spectral line receivers from 30-110 GHz. Science programs, particularly large field blind surveys will benefit from simultaneous observations of hundreds or thousands of pixels 1000 element array is competitive with a cost less than $2M.

  3. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  4. The nature of the continuum limit in strongly coupled quenched [ital QED

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, M.; Kogut, J.B. ); Kocic, A. ); Wang, K.C. )

    1992-02-05

    We review the results of large scale simulations of noncompact quenched [ital QED] which use spectrum and Equation of State calculations to determine the theory's phase diagram, critical indices, and continuum limit. The resulting anomalous dimensions are in good agreement with Schwinger-Dyson solutions of the ladder graphs of conventional [ital QED] and they satisfy the hyperscaling relations expected of a relativistic renormalizable field theory. The spectroscopy results satisfy the constraints of the Goldstone mechanism and PCAC, and may be indicative of Technicolor versions of the Standard Model which are strongly coupled at short distances.

  5. Continuum Level Formulation and Implementation of a Multi-scale Model for Vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-08-17

    A multi-scale approach is used to construct a continuum strength model for vanadium. The model is formulated assuming plastic deformation by dislocation motion and strain hardening due to dislocation interactions. Dislocation density is adopted as the state variable in the model. Information from molecular statics, molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulations is combined to create kinetic relations for dislocation motion, strain hardening relations and evolution equations for the dislocation density. Implicit time integration of the constitutive equations is described in the context of implementation in a finite element code. Results are provided illustrating the strain, strain rate, temperature and pressure dependence of the constitutive model.

  6. Coexistence and Coupling of Zero-Dimensional, Two-Dimensional and Continuum Resonances in Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a matrix exhibit a coexistence of 'zero-dimensional' (0D) bound electron and hole states on the dot with 'three-dimensional' (3D) continuum states of the surrounding matrix. In epitaxial QDs one encounters also 'two-dimensional' (2D) states of a quantum well-like supporting structure (wetting layer). This coexistence of 0D, 2D, and 3D states leads to interesting electronic consequences explored here using multiband atomistic pseudopotential calculations. We distinguish strained dots (InAs in GaAs) and strain-free dots (InAs in GaSb) finding crucial differences: in the former case 'potential wings' appear in the electron confining potential in the vicinity of the dot. This results in the appearance of localized electronic states that lie above the threshold of the 3D continuum. Such resonances are 'strain-induced localized states' (SILSs) appearing in strained systems, whereas in strain-free systems the dot resonances in the continuum are the usual 'virtual bound states' (VBSs). The SILSs were found to occur regardless of the thickness of the wetting layer and even in interdiffused dots, provided that the interdiffusion length is small compared to the QD size. Thus, the SILSs are well isolated from the environment by the protective potential wings, whereas the VBSs are strongly interacting. These features are seen in our calculated intraband as well as interband absorption spectra. Furthermore, we show that the local barrier created around the dot by these potential wings suppresses the 0D-2D (dot-wetting layer) hybridization of the electron states. Consequently, in contrast to findings of simple model calculations of envelope function, 0D-to-2D 'crossed transitions' (bound hole-to-wetting layer electron) are practically absent because of their spatially indirect character. On the other hand, since no such barrier exists in the hole confining potential, a strong 0D-2D hybridization is present for the hole states. We show this to be the

  7. Doing Away with Occupation Probability: A New Way to Model Continuum Lowering at White Dwarf Photosphere Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Thomas A.; Winget, Donald E.; Montgomery, Michael H.; Kilcrease, Dave; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are interesting for a number of applications including studying equations of state, stellar pulsations, and determining the age of the universe.These interesting applications require accurate determination of surface conditions: temperatures and surface gravity (or mass).The most common technique to estimate the temperature and gravity is to find the model spectrun that best fits the observed spectra of a star (known as the spectroscopic method); however, this model rests on our ability to accurately model the hydrogen spectrum at high densities.There are currently disagreements between the spectroscopic method and other techniques to determine mass.We seek to resolve this issue by exploring the continuum lowering (or disappearance of states) of the hydrogen atom.The current formalism, called "occupation probability," defines some criteria for the isolated atom's bound state to be ionized, then extrapolates the continuous spectrum to the same energy threshold.The two are then combined to create the final cross-section.I introduce a new way of calculating the atomic spectrum by doing some averaging of the plasma interaction potential energy (previously used in the physics community) and directly integrating the Schrodinger equation.This technique is a major improvement over the Taylor expansion used to describe the ion-emitter interaction and removes the need of the occupation probability and treats continuum states and discrete states on the same footing in the spectrum calculation.The resulting energy spectrum is in fact many discrete states that when averaged over the electric field distribution in the plasma appears to be a continuum.In the low density limit, the two methods are in agreement, but show some differences at high densities (above 10$^{17} e/cc$) including line shifts near the ``continuum'' edge.

  8. Cellular energy metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, M.

    1991-06-01

    Studies have been carried out on adenylate kinase which is an important enzyme in determining the concentrations of the adenine nucleotides. An efficient method has been developed to clone mutant adenylate kinase genes in E. coli. Site-specific mutagenesis of the wild type gene also has been used to obtain forms of adenylate kinase with altered amino acids. The wild type and mutant forms of adenylate kinase have been overexpressed and large quantities were readily isolated. The kinetic and fluorescence properties of the different forms of adenylate kinase were characterized. This has led to a new model for the location of the AMP and ATP bindings sites on the enzyme and a proposal for the mechanism of substrate inhibition. Crystals of the wild type enzyme were obtained that diffract to at least 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Experiments were also initiated to determine the function of adenylate kinase in vivo. In one set of experiments, E. coli strains with mutations in adenylate kinase showed large changes in cellular nucleotides after reaching the stationary phase in a low phosphate medium. This was caused by selective proteolytic degradation of the mutant adenylate kinase caused by phosphate starvation.

  9. Molecular and Cellular Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Meyer B.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular and Cellular Biophysics provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a foundation in the basic concepts of biophysics. Students who have taken physical chemistry and calculus courses will find this book an accessible and valuable aid in learning how these concepts can be used in biological research. The text provides a rigorous treatment of the fundamental theories in biophysics and illustrates their application with examples. Conformational transitions of proteins are studied first using thermodynamics, and subsequently with kinetics. Allosteric theory is developed as the synthesis of conformational transitions and association reactions. Basic ideas of thermodynamics and kinetics are applied to topics such as protein folding, enzyme catalysis and ion channel permeation. These concepts are then used as the building blocks in a treatment of membrane excitability. Through these examples, students will gain an understanding of the general importance and broad applicability of biophysical principles to biological problems. Offers a unique synthesis of concepts across a wide range of biophysical topics Provides a rigorous theoretical treatment, alongside applications in biological systems Author has been teaching biophysics for nearly 25 years

  10. Electrosurgery with cellular precision.

    PubMed

    Palanker, Daniel V; Vankov, Alexander; Huie, Philip

    2008-02-01

    Electrosurgery, one of the most-often used surgical tools, is a robust but somewhat crude technology that has changed surprisingly little since its invention almost a century ago. Continuous radiofrequency is still used for tissue cutting, with thermal damage extending to hundreds of micrometers. In contrast, lasers developed 70 years later, have been constantly perfected, and the laser-tissue interactions explored in great detail, which has allowed tissue ablation with cellular precision in many laser applications. We discuss mechanisms of tissue damage by electric field, and demonstrate that electrosurgery with properly optimized waveforms and microelectrodes can rival many advanced lasers. Pulsed electric waveforms with burst durations ranging from 10 to 100 micros applied via insulated planar electrodes with 12 microm wide exposed edges produced plasma-mediated dissection of tissues with the collateral damage zone ranging from 2 to 10 microm. Length of the electrodes can vary from micrometers to centimeters and all types of soft tissues-from membranes to cartilage and skin could be dissected in liquid medium and in a dry field. This technology may allow for major improvements in outcomes of the current surgical procedures and development of much more refined surgical techniques. PMID:18270030

  11. Active Cellular Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkaemper, Christoph; Garcia, Simon; Yevick, Hannah; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal; Biology inspired physics at mesoscales Team; Physical approach of biological problems Team

    We study the emergence of a nematic order in a two-dimensional tissue of apolar elongated fibroblast cells. Initially, these cells are very motile and the monolayer is characterized by giant density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming large perfectly oriented domains while the cellular movements slow down and eventually freeze. Therefore topological defects characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times, preventing the development of infinite domains. By analogy with classical non-active nematics, we have investigated the role of boundaries and we have shown that cells confined in stripes of width smaller than typically 500 µm are perfectly aligned in the stripe direction. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation. Reference: Duclos G., Garcia S., Yevick H.G. and Silberzan P., ''Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells'', Soft Matter, 10, 14, 2014

  12. Low Energy Continuum and Lattice Effective Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar

    In this thesis we investigate several constraints and their impacts on the short-range potentials in the low-energy limits of quantum mechanics.We also present lattice Monte Carlo calculations using the adiabatic projection method. In the first part we consider the constraints of causality and unitarity for the low-energy interactions of particles. We generalize Wigner's causality bound to the case of non-vanishing partial-wave mixing. Specifically we analyze the system of the low-energy interactions between protons and neutrons. We derive a general theorem that non-vanishing partial-wave mixing cannot be reproduced with zero-range interactions without violating causality or unitarity. We also analyze low-energy scattering for systems with arbitrary short-range interactions plus an attractive 1/ralpha tail for alpha ≥ 2. In particular, we focus on the case of alpha = 6 and we derive the constraints of causality and unitarity also for these systems and find that the van derWaals length scale dominates over parameters characterizing the short-distance physics of the interaction. This separation of scales suggests a separate universality class for physics characterizing interactions with an attractive 1{r6 tail. We argue that a similar universality class exists for any attractive potential 1/ralpha for alpha ≥ 2. In the second part of the thesis we present lattice Monte Carlo calculations of fermion-dimer scattering in the limit of zero-range interactions using the adiabatic projection method. The adiabatic projection method uses a set of initial cluster states and Euclidean time projection to give a systematically improvable description of the low-lying scattering cluster states in a finite volume. We use Luscher's finite-volume relations to determine the s-wave, p-wave, and d-wave phase shifts. For comparison, we also compute exact lattice results using Lanczos iteration and continuum results using the Skorniakov-Ter-Martirosian equation. For our Monte Carlo

  13. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows - Part 2: Sensitivity analysis featuring crowd movement phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.

  14. Modeling the anxiety-depression continuum hypothesis in domestic fowl chicks.

    PubMed

    Sufka, Kenneth J; Feltenstein, Matthew W; Warnick, Jason E; Acevedo, Edmund O; Webb, Heather E; Cartwright, Courtney M

    2006-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are currently classified as separate clinical syndromes despite considerable similarities in their symptoms, pathophysiological substrates and response to treatment interventions. An alternative hypothesis views anxiety and depression along a temporal continuum, a construct that the current research attempts to model in a preclinical setting. In experiment 1, socially raised domestic fowl chicks separated from conspecifics demonstrated a pattern of distress vocalizations that sequentially models anxiety-like and depressive-like states. In addition, administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine provided pharmacological validation for the model in that they were capable of dissociating the anxiety-like and depressive-like states. In experiment 2, corticosterone levels were quantified across the isolation test session to provide convergent validity to the model. These findings fit well with the human clinical literature on the anxiety-depression continuum perspective, and suggest the consideration of a nosology that emphasizes the inter-relatedness of these clinical states rather than their boundaries. PMID:17110794

  15. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular...

  16. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cellular markets. 22.909 Section 22.909... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular...

  17. Levels of Mental Health Continuum and Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Nosratabadi, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Empirically, mental health and mental illness are not opposite ends of a single measurement continuum. In view of this fact, Keyes ("J Health Soc Behav," 43:207-202, 2002) operationalizes mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of both positive feelings (emotional well-being) and positive functioning (psychological and social well-being) in life.…

  18. Online Learning Interaction Continuum (OLIC): A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Mohamad Hisyam Mohd.; Hashim, Yusup; Esa, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to explore the use of Blackboard Learning System (BLS) in enhancing interaction in online teaching and learning enviornment. This paper discusses the conceptual framework of Online Learning Interaction Continuum (OLIC) which explains the five levels of interactions. The OLIC was conceptualized as a result of…

  19. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…

  20. Characterizing the radio continuum emission from intense starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, T. J.; Seymour, N.; Filipović, M. D.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Marvil, J.; Drouart, G.; Symeonidis, M.; Huynh, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic thermal (free-free) and non-thermal (synchrotron) emission components that comprise the radio continuum of galaxies represent unique, dust-free measures of star formation rates (SFR). Such high SFR galaxies will dominate the deepest current and future radio surveys. We disentangle the thermal and non-thermal emission components of the radio continuum of six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LFIR > 1012.5 L⊙) at redshifts of 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.5 and 22 IR selected galaxies. Radio data over a wide frequency range (0.8 < ν < 10 GHz) are fitted with a star-forming galaxy model comprising of thermal and non-thermal components. The luminosities of both radio continuum components are strongly correlated to the 60 μm luminosity across many orders of magnitude (consistent with the far-IR to radio correlation). We demonstrate that the spectral index of the radio continuum spectral energy distribution is a useful proxy for the thermal fraction. We also find that there is an increase in mean and scatter of the thermal fraction with FIR to radio luminosity ratio which could be influenced by different time-scales of the thermal and non-thermal emission mechanisms.

  1. Searching for the Center on the Mathematics-Science Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, Kay I.; Warden, Melissa A.

    1998-01-01

    The history of mathematics and science integration in American schools is a continuum which runs from math for math's sake to science for science's sake. While examples of the integration of process skills are common, integration of content is not. Presents two lessons developed around radioactive decay and efficiency. Suggests that changes in…

  2. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin

    2008-08-26

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume"element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate"granular element" defined at the scale of observed dynamical correlations (roughly three to five particle diameters) has a reasonable continuum interpretation. By viewing all the simulations as an ensemble of granular elements which deform and move with the flow, we can track material evolution at a local level. Our results confirm some of the hypotheses of classical plasticity theory while contradicting others and suggest a subtle physical picture of granular failure, combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-like dependence on strain. Our computational methods and results can be used to guide the development of more realistic continuum models, based on observed local relationships betweenaverage variables.

  3. JCMT COADD: UKT14 continuum and photometry data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David; Oliveira, Firmin J.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim

    2014-11-01

    COADD was used to reduce photometry and continuum data from the UKT14 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the 1990s. The software can co-add multiple observations and perform sigma clipping and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Additional information on the software is available in the JCMT Spring 1993 newsletter (large PDF).

  4. JCMTDR: Applications for reducing JCMT continuum data in GSD format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, John F.; Harrison, Paul A.; Meyerdierks, Horst; Jenness, Tim

    2014-06-01

    JCMTDR reduces continuum on-the-fly mapping data obtained with UKT14 or the heterodyne instruments using the IFD on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. This program reduces archive data and heterodyne beam maps and was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  5. Comment on the conductivity exponent in continuum percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, J.

    1988-05-01

    The field theory introduced by Lubensky and Tremblay [Phys. Rev. B 34, 3408 (1986)] for continuum percolation is reanalyzed. Dynamical exponents are found which agree with those found by Straley [J. Phys. C 15, 2343 (1982)] and Machta et al. [Phys. Rev. B 33, 4818 (1986)] using a nodes-links-blobs approach.

  6. 48 CFR 215.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Best value continuum. 215.101 Section 215.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 215.101 Best...

  7. 48 CFR 215.101 - Best value continuum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Best value continuum. 215.101 Section 215.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 215.101 Best...

  8. Continuum of Medical Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohner, Charles W.; Hunter, Charles A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past eight years the obstetric and gynecology specialty has applied a system model of instructional planning to the continuum of medical education. The systems model of needs identification, preassessment, instructional objectives, instructional materials, learning experiences; and evaluation techniques directly related to objectives was…

  9. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  10. Written Language Developmental Continuum: Preschool-Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The purpose of this "Written Language Developmental Continuum" brochure for preschool-second grade is to provide helpful information for parents, teachers, and other adults as they work with young children to advance and refine written language (writing) competence. The brochure is intended to be a useful tool for assessing children's development…

  11. Continuum modeling of dense granular flow down heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henann, David; Liu, Daren

    Dense, dry granular flows display many manifestations of grain-size dependence, or nonlocality, in which the finite-size of grains has an observable impact on flow phenomenology. Such behaviors make the formulation of an accurate continuum model for dense granular flow particularly difficult, since local continuum models are not equipped to describe size-effects. One example of grain-size dependence is seen when avalanches occur on a granular heap - a situation which is frequently encountered in industry, as in rotating drums, as well as in nature, such as in landslides. In this case, flow separates into a thin, quickly flowing surface layer and a slowly creeping bulk. While existing local granular flow models are capable of capturing aspects of the flowing surface layer, they fail to even predict the existence of creeping flow beneath, much less being able to quantitatively describe the flow fields. Recently, we have proposed a new, scale-dependent continuum model - the nonlocal granular fluidity (NGF) model - that successfully predicted steady, slow granular flow fields, including grain-size-dependent shear-band widths in a variety of flow configurations. In this talk, we extend our model to the rapid flow regime and show that the model is capable of quantitatively predicting all aspects of gravity-driven heap flow. In particular, the model predicts the coexistence of a rapidly flowing, rate-dependent top surface layer and a rate-independent, slowly creeping bulk - a feature which is beyond local continuum approaches.

  12. Space shuttle ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-01-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  13. Space shuttle Ram glow: Implication of NO2 recombination continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, S.

    1985-09-01

    The ram glow data gathered to data from imaging experiments on space shuttle suggest the glow is a continuum (within 34 angstrom resolution); the continuum shape is such that the peak is near 7000 angstroms decreasing to the blue and red, and the average molecular travel leading to emission after leaving the surface is 20 cm (assuming isotropic scattering from the surface). Emission continuum is rare in molecular systems but the measured spectrum does resemble the laboratory spectrum of NO2 (B) recombination continuum. The thickness of the observed emission is consistent with the NO2 hypothesis given an exit velocity of approx. 2.5 km/sec (1.3 eV) which leaves approx. 3.7 eV of ramming OI energy available for unbonding the recombined NO2 from the surface. The NO2 is formed in a 3-body recombination of OI + NO + m = NO2 + m where OI originates from the atmosphere and NO is chemically formed on the surface from atmospheric NI and OI. The spacecraft surface then acts as the n for the reaction: Evidence exists from orbital mass spectrometer data that the NO and NO2 chemistry described in this process does occur on surfaces of spectrometer orifices in orbit. Surface temperature effects are likely a factor in the NO sticking efficiency and, therefore, glow intensities.

  14. Continuum estimates of rotational dielectric friction and polar solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Maroncelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamical solvation data recently obtained with the probe solute coumarin 153 are used to test the reliability of dielectric continuum models for estimating dielectric friction effects. In particular, the predictions of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig theory of rotational dielectric friction are examined in some detail. The analysis undertaken here uncovers an error made in virtually all previous applications of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig formalism. The error involves neglect of the solvent{close_quote}s electronic polarizability when calculating dielectric friction constants. In highly polar solvents the effect of this neglect is shown to be minor, so that the results of past studies should not be appreciably altered. However, in weakly polar and especially in nondipolar solvents, the proper inclusion of electronic polarizability terms is essential. The equivalence between the Nee{endash}Zwanzig theory of dielectric friction and more general continuum treatments of polar solvation dynamics is also demonstrated. This equivalence enables the use of solvation data to test the reliability of the Nee{endash}Zwanzig description of electrical interactions between a solute and solvent that form the core of this and related continuum theories of dielectric friction. Comparisons to experimental data show that, with the important exception of nondipolar solvents, such continuum treatments provide reasonably accurate ({plus_minus}40{percent}) predictors of time-dependent solvation and/or dielectric friction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. RADMC: A 2-D Continuum Radiative Transfer Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullemond, C. P.

    2011-08-01

    RADMC is a 2-D Monte-Carlo code for dust continuum radiative transfer circumstellar disks and envelopes. It is based on the method of Bjorkman & Wood (ApJ 2001, 554, 615), but with several modifications to produce smoother results with fewer photon packages.

  16. Continuum Response and Reaction in Neutron-Rich Be Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Ueda, Manabu; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2004-02-27

    We study E1 resonances, breakup and fusion reactions for weakly bound Be nuclei. The absorbing-boundary condition (ABC) is used to describe both the outgoing and incoming boundary conditions. The neutron continuum plays important roles in response and reaction of neutron drip-line nuclei.

  17. Rape nitrogen nutrition diagnosis using continuum-removed hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Tian, Qingjiu

    2008-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance for rape fresh leaves and data of chlorophyll and total nitrogen content were acquired in primary growth stages under different nitrogen levels in order to monitor rape status and diagnose nitrogen using remote sensing method. A new method was developed for estimating the nitrogen nutrition of rape using continuum-removed method, which generally used in spectral analysis on rock and mineral. Based on the continuum-removed treatment and the correlation between absorption feature parameters and total nitrogen content of fresh leaves, results show that reflectance at the visible region decreased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, and continuum-removed operation can magnify the subtle difference in spectral absorption characteristics arose from the nitrogen stress on rape. During the seeding stage, bud-emerging stage and flowering stage of rape, total area of absorption peak, area left of the absorption peak and area right of the absorption peak in 550-750 nm region increased with increasing in the nitrogen fertilization, but it was opposite for the area-normalized maximal absorption depth. The correlation analysis indicated that it is at seeding stage that the relation between absorption characteristics parameters and leaf total nitrogen was best close. The research demonstrated that continuum-removed method is a feasible method for quantificational evaluation of rape nitrogen nutrition, and the seeding stage of rape is the best stage for assessment of rape nitrogen nutrition based on absorption characteristics of fresh leaves.

  18. Rosuvastatin along the cardiovascular continuum: from JUPITER to AURORA.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major causes of atherosclerosis, although in the last few years an increase in cholesterol control rates has been reported. However, results from the European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) surveys indicate that approximately 50% of the patients with ischemic heart disease still do not attain LDL-cholesterol goals despite the use of lipid-lowering therapy (including statins). Rosuvastatin is a new and potent statin that produces greater reductions of LDL-cholesterol when compared with other agents in this class. Furthermore, rosuvastatin provides additional benefits in the lipid profile such as increased HDL-cholesterol, and decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein B:A-1 ratio. Cardiovascular disease is a continuum: from risk factors to subclinical organ damage and finally to overt clinical cardiovascular disease. Several trials have investigated the effects of rosuvastatin along this cardiovascular continuum. The results provided by the GALAXY program emphasize the importance of the early treatment with rosuvastatin in the cardiovascular continuum to achieve the greatest benefit. In this paper, the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin along the cardiovascular continuum is reviewed. PMID:19900015

  19. Adaptive resolution refinement for high-fidelity continuum parameterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Khamayseh, A.; Jean, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm the adaptively samples a parametric continuum so that a fidelity metric is satisfied. Using the divide-and-conquer strategy of adaptive sampling eliminates the guesswork of traditional uniform parameterization techniques. The space and time complexity of parameterization are increased in a controllable manner so that a desired fidelity is obtained.

  20. Isospin Mixing and the Continuum Coupling in Weakly Bound Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ploszajczak, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the near-threshold behavior of one-nucleon spectroscopic factors in mirror nuclei using the Gamow Shell Model, which simultaneously takes into account many-body correlations and continuum effects. We demonstrate that for weakly bound or unbound systems, the mirror symmetry-breaking effects are appreciable, and they manifest in large differences of spectroscopic factors in a mirror pair.