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Sample records for contraception status correlation

  1. Status of Contraceptive Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rajesh K.

    2008-01-01

    Problem This is a review of antisperm contraceptive vaccines (CV), and synthesis of human scFv antibodies that can be used as immunocontraceptives. Method of study Various methods of proteomics and genomics, peptide synthesis, phage display technology, and antibody engineering were used to obtain multi-epitope vaccines and human scFv antibodies from immunoinfertile and vasectomized men. The present review primarily focuses on the effect of multi-epitope vaccines and Izumo on fertility and synthesis and characterization of sperm specific human scFv antibodies. Results The immunization with Izumo peptides causes a contraceptive effect in female mice. The efficacy is enhanced by combination vaccination, including peptides based on other sperm antigens. Using phage display technology, we were able to synthesize at least four novel scFv antibodies with unique complimentarity determining regions (CDRs) that reacted with specific fertility-related sperm antigens. These antibodies inhibited human sperm function in vitro, and their immunocontraceptive effect in vivo is currently being investigated. Conclusions The multi-epitope vaccines may provide an efficacious and viable approach to contraception. The human scFv antibodies, if they block fertility in vivo, may provide unique and novel immunocontraceptives, the first of its kind for human use. The multi-epitope CV and preformed engineered antibodies of defined specificity may obliterate the concern related to inter-individual variability of the immune response. PMID:19086987

  2. [Current status of estrogen-progestational contraception].

    PubMed

    Tabaste, J L; Lesourd-Pontonnier, F

    1994-01-01

    The final decade of the century confirms the importance of latest generation progestogens in terms of decreased risks associated with the use of doses of ethinyl estradiol of 50 gamma or more, equally effective in contraception of this type. These new combination very considerably limit the untoward effects seen in the past regarding carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as cardiovascular disease. Concerning carcinogenesis, the long term protective effect against carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary is now accepted, while studies of breast cancer are not unanimous in their condemnation, the same applying to the risk of hepatocarcinoma. Regulation of cycles is satisfactory and the vaginal flora little affected. Moderate and stable fibroids seem to be well controlled, the same applying to mucosal hyperplasia. Pregnancy, particularly rare, is not influenced unfavourably and the effect on lactation appears to be nil. Provided that regular monitoring is ensured and contraindications are respected, age does not appear to be an absolute limiting factor to its use but the risk of concomitant smoking remains. PMID:7973341

  3. The legal status of emergency contraception in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) can contribute to reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, and ultimately, the number of unsafe abortions and maternal fatalities. In Latin America, where all countries are parties to international human rights treaties that recognize the rights to autonomy, privacy, and health, and recognize sexual and reproductive rights including the right to family planning, the legal status of EC has been discussed in the courts. This article focuses on the analysis of the principal arguments voiced in the courts: the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients, the scientific status of available research on EC, and the age at which people develop a legal right to make decisions about their personal health. The conclusion is that Latin American countries whose laws or regulations ban access to EC in the public and/or the private sector fail to fulfill their obligations under international human rights law. PMID:22088410

  4. Contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This chart sets forth brief descriptions of 14 contraceptive methods: male condom, female condom, vaginal diaphragm and cap, spermicides, oral contraceptives, hormonal implants, injectables, IUD, natural family planning, fertility awareness, breast feeding, withdrawal, sterilization, and emergency contraception. After presenting a short description of each method, the chart rates its degree of protection from pregnancy, the protection provided against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, its availability, and the method's advantages and disadvantages. PMID:12348240

  5. The Current Status of Oral Contraceptives: Progress and Recent Innovations.

    PubMed

    Golobof, Alexandra; Kiley, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Millions of women in the United States and abroad use oral contraceptive pills. These popular contraceptives are the most common reversible birth control method in the United States, and a wide variety of pills are available for prescription. Oral contraceptives provide safe and effective protection against pregnancy and offer several noncontraceptive benefits. Over the years, advances in the laboratory and knowledge gained through epidemiologic data promoted the development of new contraceptive preparations. Generations of oral contraceptives emerged over time, containing lower doses of estrogens and new and novel progestins. The current review discusses the clinical characteristics of oral contraceptives, with emphasis on basic pharmacology and the evolution of various contraceptive formulations and regimens. PMID:26960906

  6. State Variations in Women’s Socioeconomic Status and Use of Modern Contraceptives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamidi, Esther O.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. Objective I examined the variations in women’s socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Methods Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. Results The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women’s socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women’s participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Conclusion Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria. PMID:26258578

  7. Religious Correlates of Male Sexual Behavior and Contraceptive Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether religious beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males of differing sexual experience and to determine whether such beliefs could distinguish between older adolescent males differing in frequency of contraceptive use. Results are discussed and implications for health educators are set forth. (MT)

  8. Association between tribal status and spacing contraceptive use in rural Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Battala, Madhusudana; Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Dasgupta, Anindita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    This study examines associations between tribal status and spacing contraception use (SCU) in rural Maharashtra, India. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline survey data from non-sterilized married couples (n = 867) participating in the CHARM family planning evaluation study. Participants were aged 18-30 years and 67.6% were tribal; 27.7% reported current SCU. Crude regression analyses indicated that tribals were less likely to use contraception (AOR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.54); this association was lost after adjusting for education, higher parity and desire for pregnancy, factors associated with tribal status. Findings suggest that lower SCU among tribals is driven by social vulnerabilities and higher fertility preferences. PMID:26826050

  9. Iron status in 268 Danish women aged 18-30 years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method, and iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Clausen, J; Byg, K E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of menstruation, method of contraception, and iron supplementation on iron status in young Danish women, and to assess whether iron deficiency could be predicted from the pattern of menstruation. Iron status was examined by measuring serum (S-) ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) in 268 randomly selected, healthy, menstruating, nonpregnant Danish women aged 18-30 years. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin <16 microg/l) was observed in 9.7%, of the women, iron deficiency anemia (S-ferritin < 13 microg/l and Hb < 121 g/l) in 2.2%. Iron supplementation, predominantly as vitamin-mineral tablets containing 14-20 mg of ferrous iron was used by 35.1%. The median serum ferritin was similar in non-iron users and in iron users, whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency was 12.6% in nonusers vs. 4.3% in users, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia 3.4% in nonusers vs. 0%, in users (p=0.17) In non-iron-supplemented women, S-ferritin levels were inversely correlated with the duration of menstrual bleeding (rs= -0.25, p<0.001) and with the women's assessment of the intensity of menstrual bleeding (r(s)= -0.27, p<0.001), whereas no such correlations were found in iron-supplemented women. The results demonstrate that even moderate daily doses of ferrous iron can influence iron status in women with small iron stores. Women using hormonal contraceptives had menstrual bleeding of significantly shorter duration than those using intrauterine devices (IUD) or other methods. There was a high prevalence of small and absent body iron stores in young women, suggesting that preventive measures should be focused on those women whose menstruation lasts 5 days or longer, who have menstrual bleeding of strong intensity, who use an IUD without gestagen, and who are blood donors. PMID:9760147

  10. Contraceptive Equity

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act, introduced in Congress in 1997 and still unpassed, seeks to redress health insurers’ failure to pay for birth control as they pay for other prescription drugs, most paradoxically Viagra. In 1936 the International Workers Order (IWO), a fraternal society, became the first insurer to include contraception in its benefits package. A forerunner in the movement for prepaid medical care, the IWO offered its members primary care and contraceptive services for annual flat fees. Founded at a time when the legal status of contraception was in flux, the IWO’s Birth Control Center was the only such clinic to operate on an insurance system. Recent state laws and judicial actions have revived the IWO’s groundbreaking view of contraception as a basic preventive service deserving of insurance coverage. PMID:17761562

  11. Women at Risk for STDs: Correlates of Intercourse without Barrier Contraception

    PubMed Central

    PEIPERT, Jeffrey F.; L.LAPANE, Kate; ALLSWORTH, Jenifer E.; REDDING, Colleen A.; BLUME, Jeffrey L.; LOZOWSKI, Faye; STEIN, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlates of vaginal intercourse without barrier contraception (unprotected intercourse). Study Design Baseline data from a randomized trial were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with intercourse without barrier method use among women under 35 years old. Logistic regression models provided estimates of the association of demographic, reproductive, and sexual history variables with unprotected intercourse. Results Intercourse without barrier contraception was common: 65% of participants had two or more episodes of intercourse without barrier contraception use in the past month. Factors associated with increased odds of unprotected intercourse included: number of coital episodes, partner’s unwillingness to use condoms (Odds Ratio (OR)adj 4.1, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 2.3–6.9), and among women under 20 years, low condom use self-efficacy score (ORadj 1.6, 95%CI 1.0–2.9). Conclusion Risk factors for unprotected intercourse included coital frequency and the male partner’s unwillingness to use condoms. Self-efficacy for condom use was especially important for women under 20 years of age. PMID:17714677

  12. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  13. Prefrontal GABA concentration changes in women-Influence of menstrual cycle phase, hormonal contraceptive use, and correlation with premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    De Bondt, Timo; De Belder, Frank; Vanhevel, Floris; Jacquemyn, Yves; Parizel, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Prefrontal regions are involved in processing emotional stimuli and are a topic of interest in clinical and neurological research. Although sex steroids are potent neuromodulators, the influence of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive use is rarely taken into account in neuroimaging studies. Our purpose was to evaluate changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in women, as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with phases of the menstrual cycle and use of hormonal contraceptives, and to assess correlations with premenstrual symptoms.Three MRI sessions per cycle were obtained in the natural cycle group, and two sessions in the hormonal contraceptives group. In addition to an anatomical scan, single voxel MRS in the prefrontal area was performed. After quality control, 10 women with natural cycle and 21 women taking hormonal contraceptives were included for analysis. Peripheral blood samples were obtained to determine endogenous hormone concentrations. Subjects were asked to complete a daily rating of severity of problems questionnaire, to quantify premenstrual symptoms. In the natural cycle group, we found a significant increase in prefrontal GABA concentration at the time of ovulation. Conversely, in the hormonal contraceptives group, no differences were found between the pill phase and pill-free phase. GABA concentrations did not significantly correlate with endogenous hormone levels, nor with premenstrual symptoms. Our results indicate that spectroscopically measured GABA concentrations are higher during ovulation in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We suggest that neuroimaging studies should take into account this variability. PMID:25481417

  14. [Contraception news].

    PubMed

    Vincent-Rohfritsch, A; Pernin, E; Chabbert-Buffet, N

    2012-04-01

    Although contraception is widely available in France, contraceptive failure remains high. However a number of modifications in contraceptive methods have been developed and should help reduce contraceptive failure. Among those, information and improvement of access to contraception are very important. Recent advances in contraceptive practice have also contributed to improve clinical tolerance and subsequently compliance. Finally, emergency contraception has evolved as well. PMID:22079029

  15. Pro/antioxidant status in young healthy women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on pro/antioxidant status in the blood of healthy women aged 20-25 years. Individuals were divided into OCs users and OCs nonusers. Markers of oxidative stress in the blood such as Cu, Cu/Zn ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione oxidized (GSSG), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined. Antioxidants such as glutathione reduced (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Higher Cu concentrations, Cu/Zn ratio and GGT activity in women taking OCs were noted. A significant increase in MDA concentrations in oral OCs users was observed. Heightened activity of CAT in plasma was observed in OCs users, whereas SOD activity remained unchanged in plasma and erythrocyte lysate. A decline of GSH and GSSG in whole blood and glutathiono-dependent enzymes (GPx in plasma, GR in plasma and GST in lysate) was shown. Use of OCs leads to a pro/antioxidant imbalance. The results in the present study confirmed that GGT is an early marker of oxidative stress. Catalase is the main antioxidant, involved in the removal of free radicals in OCs users. PMID:26921793

  16. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives. PMID:12314886

  17. Effect of HIV status on fertility desire and knowledge of long-acting reversible contraception of postpartum Malawian women.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Michele S; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Stuart, Gretchen S; Miller, William C; Kaliti, Stephen M; Mwale, Mwawi; Bonongwe, Phylos P; Tang, Jennifer H

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the most recent pregnancy intentions and family planning preferences of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected postpartum Malawian women, and to assess whether HIV status is associated with fertility desire and knowledge of intrauterine contraception (IUC) and the subdermal contraceptive implant. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline characteristics of Malawian women enrolled in a prospective cohort study assessing postpartum contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women at a government hospital completed a baseline survey assessing reproductive history, family planning preferences, and knowledge of IUC and the implant. We used Pearson's chi-square tests to compare these parameters between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between HIV status and fertility desire and knowledge about IUC and the implant. Of 634 postpartum women surveyed, HIV-infected women were more likely to report their most recent pregnancy was unintended (49% vs. 37%, p = 0.004). Nearly all women (97%) did not want a child in the next 2 years, but HIV-infected women were more likely to desire no more children (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 1.89). HIV-infected women were also less likely to know that IUC (adjusted PR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84) and the implant (adjusted PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) are safe during breast-feeding. Postpartum women strongly desire family spacing and many HIV-infected postpartum women desire no more children, suggesting an important role for these long-acting methods. Education about the efficacy and safety of IUC and the implant particularly during breast-feeding may facilitate postpartum use. PMID:25367269

  18. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  19. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  20. MHC-correlated odour preferences in humans and the use of oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. Craig; Gosling, L. Morris; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans show that genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influence individual odours and that females often prefer odour of MHC-dissimilar males, perhaps to increase offspring heterozygosity or reduce inbreeding. Women using oral hormonal contraceptives have been reported to have the opposite preference, raising the possibility that oral contraceptives alter female preference towards MHC similarity, with possible fertility costs. Here we test directly whether contraceptive pill use alters odour preferences using a longitudinal design in which women were tested before and after initiating pill use; a control group of non-users were tested with a comparable interval between test sessions. In contrast to some previous studies, there was no significant difference in ratings between odours of MHC-dissimilar and MHC-similar men among women during the follicular cycle phase. However, single women preferred odours of MHC-similar men, while women in relationships preferred odours of MHC-dissimilar men, a result consistent with studies in other species, suggesting that paired females may seek to improve offspring quality through extra-pair partnerships. Across tests, we found a significant preference shift towards MHC similarity associated with pill use, which was not evident in the control group. If odour plays a role in human mate choice, our results suggest that contraceptive pill use could disrupt disassortative mate preferences. PMID:18700206

  1. [Effect of oral contraceptives on vaginal flora].

    PubMed

    Batashki, I; Markova, D; Milchev, N; Uchikova, E; Gŭrova, A

    2006-01-01

    The contraceptive and non contraceptive advantages of oral chormonal contraceptives as well as the good control on fertility, make it one of the most preffered method of contraception. The normal vaginal flora is a dynamic ecosystem and itsequilibrium and status of eubyosis amongst its inhabitants is an important mechanism against exogenous infections. The use of oral contraceptives is not associated with significant changes in the vaginal microbial flora; the normal concentration of the lactobacillli is preserved. PMID:16889189

  2. Socio-economic correlates of fertility and contraceptive practices amongst target couples of a rural community.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, M; Joshi, P L; Raj, B

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the sociological characteristics, fertility patterns, and contraceptive practices of a random sample of the target population of a family planning program in Allahabad, India. The program's target population of 16,3000 married couple of reproductive age lived in the Jasara block of the city. Family planning services were provided at a hospital clinic located in the Jasara block. A questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of 500 couples. 91.4% of the respondents were Hindu, 98.5% were uneducated, and the modal age of the sample was 20-30 years. The average number of children ever born to the respondents was 3.66, and the mean child loss was 0.54/couple. 25 couples had no children. The mean age at marriage for the women was 14.58 years, and parity decreased as marriage age increased. Among couples married 1-5 years, the mean number of children was 1.7, and among couples married 25 years or more, the mean number of children was 5.6. Women between the ages of 25-29 years had 3.67 children, and those over 40 years of age had 5.59 children. 310 couples lived in nuclear families, and the remaining couples lived in joint families. The average number of children decreased as the educational level of the father increased. Parity was higher among low income groups than among moderate income groups. 68% of the fathers were cultivators, 22% were agricultural laborers, and 9% were service workers. No differences in parity were observed for the occupational groups. The mean number of children among Muslim couples was 4.8, 3.7 among Hindus belonging to lower castes, and 3.1 among Hindus belong to upper castes. Social class was not related to parity. Only 52% of the couples ever used contraception. 36% of the 500 couples ever used condoms, 8.2% relied on tubectomies, and 5.4% ever used oral contraceptive (OCs) or IUDs. Condom use was equally distributed among different educational groups. 30% of couples with high school educations and 4% of

  3. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  4. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  5. [Initiation and monitoring of contraception].

    PubMed

    Sannisto, Tuire; Kuortti, Marjo; Kuukankorpi, Aki; Niitty, Siina

    2012-01-01

    The majority of those requiring contraception may safely use any available contraceptive method. Each method has, however, its particular contraindications, which should be screened by applying careful anamnesis and focused status, when contraception is being initiated. Gynecologic examination is not a prerequisite for the initiation of hormonal contraception, but measurement and monitoring of blood pressure is important. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases is readily worthwhile. Follow-up visits provide a chance for comprehensive support for a woman or a young person concerning sexual health. PMID:22822602

  6. Emergency thoracotomy: survival correlates with physiologic status.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, H P; Steinmetz, B; Lieberman, J; Schecoter, W P; Macho, J R

    1992-06-01

    Emergency thoracotomy is a standard procedure in the management of cardiac arrest in patients sustaining severe trauma. We examined the records of 463 moribund trauma patients treated at our institution from 1980 to 1990 to refine indications for emergency thoracotomy. Patients underwent thoracotomy either in the emergency department (ED) (n = 424) or in the operating room (OR) (n = 39) as a component of continuing resuscitation after hospital arrival. The survival rate was 13% (61 of 463) overall, 2% (3 of 193) for blunt, 22% (58 of 269) for all penetrating, 8% (10 of 131) for gunshot, 34% (48 of 141) for stab-wound patients, and 54% (21 of 39) for patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy in the OR. Survival correlated with the physiologic status of patients both on initial evaluation in the field by paramedics and on arrival at the ED. Patients with penetrating trauma and in profound shock (BP less than 60 mm Hg) or mild shock (BP 60-90 mm Hg) with subsequent cardiac arrest had survival rates of 64% (27 of 42) and 56% (30 of 54), respectively. None of the patients with absent signs of life, defined as full cardiopulmonary arrest with absent reflexes (n = 215), on initial assessment by paramedics in the field, survived. We conclude that (1) no emergency thoracotomy should be performed if no signs of life are present on the initial prehospital field assessment; (2) emergency thoracotomy is an indicated procedure in most patients sustaining penetrating trauma; (3) blunt traumatic cardiac arrest is a relative contraindication to emergency thoracotomy. PMID:1613839

  7. Contraceptive Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others

    The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…

  8. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States. PMID:12160366

  9. Contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, and self-esteem among Navy personnel.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C K; Lall, R; Johnson, W B

    1997-04-01

    This study evaluated the sexual knowledge (including contraceptive and reproductive knowledge), contraceptive use, and self-esteem among a sample of 158 male and female United States Navy sailors assigned to Navy ships. In spite of the fact that men and women viewed themselves as relatively knowledgeable with respect to contraception, results showed substantial knowledge deficits. Women demonstrated significantly greater sexual knowledge than men, and contraceptive/ reproductive knowledge was highly correlated with self-reported use of contraceptives. Finally, self-esteem was highly correlated with sexual knowledge and certain contraceptive use behaviors. PMID:9110557

  10. Correlates of short interbirth intervals in Peninsular Malaysia: their pathways of influence through breastfeeding and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Da Vanzo, J; Starbird, E H

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children born before and after short birth intervals run a considerably greater risk of dying in infancy or childhood than do others. This report investigates which women have short interbirth intervals, under what circumstances, and for what reasons. The analysis uses data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey to examine influences on the two main behaviors--breastfeeding and contraceptive use--that affect birth interval length, and assesses the the impact of these same variables on the probability of having a birth interval of less than 15 months. The analysis shows that many of the independent variables affect breastfeeding and contraceptive use in opposite directions, with no significant net effect on the likelihood of a short interval. For example, a woman's education is negatively related to the probability that she breastfeeds, positively related to the probability that she uses contraceptives, and has no significant effect on the likelihood that the interpregnancy interval is less than 15 months. Having a family planning clinic nearby is associated with less breastfeeding, offsetting whatever positive effects family planning clinics have on contraceptive use in terms of the percentage of birth intervals that are so short as to be detrimental to infant and child health. Hence, factors that increase contraceptive use do not necessarily reduce the incidence of short interbirth intervals, because they are also associated with reduced breastfeeding. We simulate the proportion of intervals that would be short for alternative combinations of breastfeeding and contraceptive use in the population and show that over the period covered by the data (1961-75), breastfeeding had a considerably greater effect on preventing short interbirth intervals than did contraceptive use. PMID:1949106

  11. Correlations and Fluctuations: Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Volker; Koch, Volker

    2008-04-15

    We will provide an overview of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. Observables, which have been discussed in the literature will be briefly reviewed and put in context with experiment and information from Lattice QCD. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region.

  12. Active Correlation Technique: Status and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, Yury

    2010-04-30

    During the recent years, at the FLNR (JINR) a successful cycle of experiments has been accomplished on the synthesis of the superheavy elements with Z = 112-118 with {sup 48}Ca beam. From the viewpoint of the detection of rare decays and background suppression, this success was achieved due to the application of a new radical technique--the method of active correlations. The method employs search in a real-time mode for a pointer to a probable correlation like recoil-alpha for switching the beam off. In the case of detection in the same detector strip an additional alpha-decay event, of 'beam OFF' time interval is prolonged automatically.

  13. A correlational approach to predicting operator status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shingledecker, Clark A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a research approach for identifying and validating candidate physiological and behavioral parameters which can be used to predict the performance capabilities of aircrew and other system operators. In this methodology, concurrent and advance correlations are computed between predictor values and criterion performance measures. Continuous performance and sleep loss are used as stressors to promote performance variation. Preliminary data are presented which suggest dependence of prediction capability on the resource allocation policy of the operator.

  14. Contraception today.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2006-12-01

    Modern contraceptive methods represent more than a technical advance: they are the instrument of a true social revolution-the "first reproductive revolution" in the history of humanity, an achievement of the second part of the 20th century, when modern, effective methods became available. Today a great diversity of techniques have been made available and-thanks to them, fertility rates have decreased from 5.1 in 1950 to 3.7 in 1990. As a consequence, the growth of human population that had more than tripled, from 1.8 to more than 6 billion in just one century, is today being brought under control. At the turn of the millennium, all over the world, more than 600 million married women are using contraception, with nearly 500 million in developing countries. Among married women, contraceptive use rose in all but two developing countries surveyed more than once since 1990. Among unmarried, sexually active women, it grew in 21 of 25 countries recently surveyed. Hormonal contraception, the best known method, first made available as a daily pill, can today be administered through seven different routes: intramuscularly, intranasally, intrauterus, intravaginally, orally, subcutaneously, and transdermally. In the field of oral contraception, new strategies include further dose reduction, the synthesis of new active molecules, and new administration schedules. A new minipill (progestin-only preparation) containing desogestrel has been recently marketed in a number of countries and is capable of consistently inhibiting ovulation in most women. New contraceptive rings to be inserted in the vagina offer a novel approach by providing a sustained release of steroids and low failure rates. The transdermal route for delivering contraceptive steroids is now established via a contraceptive patch, a spray, or a gel. The intramuscular route has also seen new products with the marketing of improved monthly injectable preparations containing an estrogen and a progestin. After the first

  15. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A

    2000-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy remain a challenge for health care providers. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after-pill" or postcoital contraception, is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In the United States, three forms of emergency contraception currently are available: high-dose combination estrogen and progestin pills, high-dose progestin-only pills, and postcoital insertion of a copper intrauterine device. The postcoital intrauterine device is used infrequently. When emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, they reduce the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%. However, they are most effective if taken within 24 hours of coitus. Eleven brands of pills currently are marketed in the United States that conform to the regimens approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this indication. Recently, two prepackaged ECPs were approved by the FDA. The only medical contraindication to prescribing ECPs is pregnancy. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, followed by menstrual disturbances, breast tenderness, abdominal cramping, dizziness, headache, and mood changes. Because vomiting can compromise the efficacy of ECPs, routine pretreatment with an antiemetic is recommended. Primary care providers can reduce unintended adolescent pregnancy by routinely counseling adolescents at all office visits about the existence of emergency contraception and by prescribing it in advance and over the telephone. PMID:10959448

  16. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  17. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  18. Intrauterine Contraception.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Jennifer K; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are only two basic types of intrauterine devices (IUDs): copper and hormonal. However, other types of IUDs are under development, some of which are in clinical trials around the world. Continued development has focused on increasing efficacy, longer duration of use, and noncontraceptive benefits. This review discusses currently available intrauterine contraceptives, such as the Cu380A IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems; novel intrauterine contraceptives that are available in select parts of the world including the intrauterine ball, low-dose copper products, frameless devices, and intrauterine delivery systems impregnated with noncontraceptive medication; and novel products currently in development. PMID:26947701

  19. Abortion and contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: how women plan their families.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Don

    2011-03-01

    Based on available evidence, this review article posits that contemporary use of abortion in sub-Saharan Africa often substitutes for and sometimes surpasses modern contraceptive practice. Some studies and some data sets indicate that this occurs not only among adolescents but also within older age groups. In several sub-Saharan cities, particularly where contraceptive use is low and access to clinical abortion is high (though largely illegal), abortion appears to be the method of choice for limiting or spacing births. Even in rural areas, women may regularly resort to abortion, often using extremely unsafe procedures, instead of contraception. Available data seem to indicate that relatively high levels of abortion correlate with low access to modern contraception, low status of women, strong sanctions against out-of-wedlock pregnancy, traditional tolerance of abortion, and availability of modern abortion practices. Abortion has been and will likely continue to be used to plan families within much of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21987933

  20. [Progestational contraception].

    PubMed

    Bercovici, J P

    1987-09-21

    Synthetic progestins derived from nortestosterone provide a promising contraceptive alternative for women with contraindications for estrogens. Progesterone and synthetic progestins reduce vasodilatation and edema induced by estrogens and stop estrogen-dependent cellular multiplication in target tissue. Progestins have 2 kinds of contraceptive affect: antigonadotropic action at sufficient doses, and peripheral action at lower doses. The cervical mucus is modified in composition and volume, becoming hostile to sperm; the endometrial mucus atrophies; and tubal motility is slowed. High dose progestins are administered from the 5th or 10th to the 25th cycle day, with the earlier date preferred for women with shorter cycles. They are an ideal method for women with endometrial hyperplasia or benign breast disease or histories of breast or uterine cancer, as well as for women over 40 with dysovulatory cycles. Contraindications to high dose progestins include obesity, hypertension, lipid metabolic anomalies, and diabetes. Low dose progestin-only pills are administered at the exact same time each day including during menstruation. They are attractive for some women because they contain no estrogen, a reduced progestin dose causing fewer headaches and less somnolence, and fewer metabolic effects. Low dose progestins are indicated for lactating women, those with contraindications to estrogens such as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, and those with renal or cardiac insufficiency with valvulopathy. Low dose progestins are also indicated for nulliparas and other women for whom IUDS are contraindicated. Women using low dose progestins should never take drugs that act as enzymatic inductors, which speed hepatic degradation of steroids and reduce their efficiency. A resulting pregnancy is likely to be extrauterine because of slowed tubal transport. The failure rate of low dose progestins ranges from .9-3%, with higher failure rates among younger women. About 30

  1. [Contraceptive pancreopathy].

    PubMed

    Riederer, J

    1973-01-26

    In a private practice an increasing number of young women or girls are being observed with sudden onset of acute stomach pains of unknown origin. Clinically the pancreas is sensitive to pressure and there is an alpha-amylase elevation in the urine often accompanied by moderate leukocytosis. A slight elevation of the transaminase count is usual in such cases. There are no indications of alchohol abuse or pancreatic disorders in the anamnese and x-rays reveal an adequately functionning gall bladder without stones. Without exception all the women have been on oral contraceptives. With spasmolytics and a diet low in fats the symptoms disappear, often without discontinuation of the contraceptive. More data are needed on this problem, and prospective research should determine which additional factors must be present for the activation of such pancreatic disorders. PMID:4684016

  2. Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. PMID:27261868

  3. Emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Donald B.; Allen, Michael; Whelan, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which Nova Scotian FPs prescribe and provide emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and to explore their knowledge of and attitudes toward ECPs. Design Survey of Nova Scotian FPs using a modified Dillman method. Setting All regions of Nova Scotia. Participants Family physicians registered with Dalhousie University’s Division of Continuing Medical Education. Main outcome measures Sex differences in the provision of ECPs and knowledge and attitudes about the ECP Plan B. Results Of 913 eligible FPs, 155 (17.0%) participated in the survey. Respondents resembled the sampling frame closely. Most physicians (64.0%) had prescribed ECPs in the previous year (mean number of prescriptions, 4.92); only 12.9% provided ECPs in advance of need. Knowledge about Plan B was quite good, except for knowledge of the time frame for potential effectiveness; only 29.2% of respondents answered that question correctly. Respondents generally supported nonprescription availability of ECPs, but 25.0% of FPs were concerned that this could lead to less use of more effective methods of contraception, and 39.2% believed that it would encourage repeat use. Younger FPs provided ECPs more often than their older colleagues, while female respondents had better knowledge about Plan B. In multivariate analysis being younger than 40 years was marginally associated with prescribing Plan B and with prescribing any form of ECP. Conclusion Most Nova Scotian FPs provided ECPs and had generally good knowledge about and attitudes toward providing such contraception without prescription. However, FPs were poorly informed about the length of time that Plan B can be effective, which could potentially affect use when patients consult several days after unprotected sex. There were some concerns about nonprescription availability of ECPs, which could have implications for recommending it to patients. Rarely were ECPs prescribed for advance use, which might represent a lost

  4. Contraceptive practices.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E; Rao, P S

    1976-08-01

    A family life education program (FLEP) providing contraceptive services within a comprehensive health care organization for low-income, inner-city adolescents is described. Each female patient attending in the July 1-September 30, 1974, period was included in a study undertaken to identify and serve the unmet needs of the teen-age population in the community of East Harlem. Of the 334 females interviewed, almost 1/2 were black, 37% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 2% were Oriental, totals representative of the surrounding community. The questionnaire included information on demographic and social background, sexual history, reproductive history, and contraceptive experience. Comparisons are made on the answers between groups. Personal contacts and school outreach were the 2 main sources of referral to the clinic. Sexual history was found to be associated with social background rather than physiological factors. More than 1/2 the teen-agers had never used contraception prior to their 1st clinic visit and another 1/4 of the girls were using unreliable methods. The study indicated that teen-agers will use good programs which are designed to meet their needs. For teen-agers, a free-standing clinic offering comprehensive health care is the ideal situation. PMID:1066531

  5. Emergency Contraception Website

    MedlinePlus

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website is ...

  6. Immaculate contraception.

    PubMed

    Smith, K

    The city of Dundee has the highest teen pregnancy and abortion rate in Scotland. In the heart of the city, The Corner is a health and information drop-in center for people aged 12-25 years which has provided a range of health promotion activities, contraception services, and general information and advice since April 1996. 8000 inquiries were posed from young people in Dundee and the surrounding areas in The Corner's first full year of operation, one-third on sexual health. A survey conducted last December found that 55% of the center's clients were aged 12-15. Young people helped to design the center, creating a cafe atmosphere in the main drop-in area with tables, chairs, and loungers. Reference literature is on display, music plays, and a series of computers is linked to health information databases. In this environment, clients can hang out, ask questions, and receive condoms or other contraceptive services without the embarrassment of attending a local family planning clinic. The examination and counseling rooms are also relaxed and warmly-appointed. The Corner has also offered emergency contraception since January, one of the few places in Scotland where nurses can provide it. While The Corner has received some local criticism, it is operating within the laws and codes of professional practices. The center is jointly funded by Tayside Health Board, Dundee City Council, and the Scottish Office. Finally, the center has a travel program which offers a package of activities based upon a different foreign country each week. PMID:9326014

  7. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Kingston, Melissa L; Tsang, Candy W S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Baxter, Leslie C; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    Ethinyl Estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. We evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory as well as basal forebrain cholinergic integrity using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  8. Understanding the cognitive impact of the contraceptive estrogen Ethinyl Estradiol: tonic and cyclic administration impairs memory, and performance correlates with basal forebrain cholinergic system integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mennenga, Sarah E.; Gerson, Julia E.; Koebele, Stephanie V.; Kingston, Melissa L.; Tsang, Candy W.S.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Ethinyl estradiol (EE), a synthetic, orally bio-available estrogen, is the most commonly prescribed form of estrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in at least 30 different contraceptive formulations currently prescribed to women as well as hormone therapies prescribed to menopausal women. Thus, EE is prescribed clinically to women at ages ranging from puberty to reproductive senescence. Here, in two separate studies, the cognitive effects of cyclic or tonic EE administration following ovariectomy (Ovx) were evaluated in young female rats. Study I assessed the cognitive effects of low and high doses of EE, delivered tonically via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Study II evaluated the cognitive effects of low, medium, and high doses of EE administered via a daily subcutaneous injection, modeling the daily rise and fall of serum EE levels with oral regimens. Study II also investigated the impact of low, medium and high doses of EE on the basal forebrain cholinergic system. The low and medium doses utilized here correspond to the range of doses currently used in clinical formulations, and the high dose corresponds to doses prescribed to a generation of women between 1960 and 1970, when oral contraceptives first became available. Here, we evaluate cognition using a battery of maze tasks tapping several domains of spatial learning and memory and basal forebrain cholinergic integrity by using immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology to estimate the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-producing cells in the medial septum and vertical/diagonal bands. At the highest dose, EE treatment impaired multiple domains of spatial memory relative to vehicle treatment, regardless of administration method. When given cyclically at the low and medium doses, EE did not impact working memory, but transiently impaired reference memory during the learning phase of testing. Of the doses and regimens tested here, only EE at the highest dose impaired several domains of memory

  9. Intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, D

    1992-08-01

    Currently 85 million women use an intrauterine device (IUD), making it the most widely used, reliable, reversible contraceptive method worldwide. Although the exact mechanisms by which copper-bearing IUDs produce contraceptive action are not completely defined, recent evidence indicates that they act primarily to prevent sperm from fertilizing ova. The future of the IUD is brighter than it has been for the past 20 years. The latest generation of IUDs, such as the TCu 380A (Paragard, GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ), are safer and more effective than ever. In World Health Organization large, multicenter trials, pregnancy rates for the TCu 380A are 1.0, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 at 3, 5, 7, and 9 years of use, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rates and removal for pelvic inflammatory disease are very low. The device may soon be the major IUD available in most countries. The acceptability of IUD use can be increased by good clinical management, sympathetic counseling, careful client selection, proper device selection, careful insertion, timing of insertion, and regular follow-up with quick access to medical care. PMID:1324024

  10. Do changes in transcardiac impedance modulation correlate with haemodynamic status?

    PubMed

    Weiss, S M; Einstein, R; Matthews, R J; Leer, T W; Cincunegui, J L; McCulloch, R

    1992-06-01

    Implantable cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators have the ability to revert a variety of arrhythmias to normal sinus rhythm. For correct operation, such devices require accurate arrhythmia classification. Arrhythmia classification by these devices could be improved with the addition of a suitable haemodynamic sensor. This study investigated the use of transcardiac impedance for haemodynamic sensing. Ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, electro-mechanical dissociation and five rates of ventricular pacing, each having a different associated level of haemodynamic compromise, were induced in each of seven mongrel dogs. The amplitude responses of the modulations of transcardiac impedance were compared with those of arterial pulse pressure (an established measure of haemodynamic status), and changes in cycle length. The correlation coefficient for changes in transcardiac impedance modulation amplitude and arterial pulse pressure was found to be 0.89. For transcardiac impedance modulation amplitude and cycle length, the correlation coefficient was 0.77, and for arterial pulse pressure and cycle length, the correlation coefficient was 0.85. In the acute anaesthetised dog, changes in the amplitude of transcardiac impedance modulations were shown to reflect different levels of haemodynamic status. PMID:1642572

  11. Contraception: a social revolution.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2007-03-01

    Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to

  12. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  13. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? How could oral contraceptives influence cancer risk? How ... oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? Two types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills) ...

  14. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  15. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. PMID:26598305

  16. Modern trends in contraception.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    1990-12-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in oral contraceptives, a new injectable contraceptive (Norplant), and the intrauterine device (IUD). Major risks with oral contraceptives have declined substantially, and a number of noncontraceptive health benefits have been discovered. Norplant is probably the first new contraceptive in recent years, and offers long-term contraception with high efficacy and modest risks. The IUD, by carefully selecting users, is a safe and efficacious contraceptive method. The major risk, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), is far less common if one avoids use in the presence of risk factors for PID. PMID:2128711

  17. [Emergency contraception].

    PubMed

    Bastianelli, C; Farris, M; Di Miscia, A

    2006-06-01

    A specific formulation has been approved for use in Italy for emergency contraception (EC) in 2000. As expected, marketing of this levonorgestrel (LNG) only formulation has been accompanied by an increased interest and, often, controversies leading to even strong opposition on the part of those ethically opposed to the use of any method that may act after fertilization. At present, several trials on the exact mechanism of action and safety have been conducted, giving good reason for simplifying access, providing it free or over the counter, in several European countries. EC, also known as ''the morning after pill'' or postcoital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of an unwanted pregnancy after unprotected intercourse and thus, probably, of reducing the number of voluntary pregnancy terminations. Two different forms are available: the hormonal and the intrauterine. Hormonal estrogen only EC was first proposed in the 60s and in 1974 Yuzpe following his studies proposed for the first time his combined regimen, that showed better efficacy and lower side effects. More recently, a new regimen, consisting of LNG, administered alone at the dose of 1.5 mg, was introduced and found in clinical trials to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen, if taken as early as possible, within 72 h, thereby replacing the latter in common use. Mechanism of action of both hormonal preparations used for EC is inhibiting or delaying ovulation, therefore a prefertilization action. No effect has been reported on the process of implantation nor on an ongoing pregnancy. The WHO have developed a third regimen based on the use of the selective progesterone receptor modulator (antiprogestin) Mifepristone and conducted trials with different dosages, reporting similar efficacy and safety compared to LNG. Intrauterine EC was first proposed by Lippes in 1976. It has the advantage of being effective if inserted within 5 days after unprotected intercourse and the disadvantage

  18. Biological variability and impact of oral contraceptives on vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate status in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Jennifer O; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B(6), B(12), folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B(6), B(12)and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%-25.7% and 31.7%-62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  19. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  20. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report. PMID:25266430

  1. Correlates of the health statuses of the faculty at midlife

    PubMed Central

    Galeon, Galvin Alaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between the school years of 2009-2012, the turnover record of the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R), Cebu City, Philippines showed that permanent faculty members who left the institution were all midlifers. Their reasons varied from health issues to greener pasture elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This study then sought to explore the health statuses of the faculty midlifers of the USJ-R. The data were collected through survey conducted among the 106 faculty midlifers of the university. This study applied multivariate analyses to the survey data using Pearson-moment of correlation to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic profile of the research participants and their health statuses. Results: This research revealed that faculty midlifers are generally well physically. They showed emotional maturity and have positive outlook toward midlife. More so, their health conditions are significantly related with their sex, age, years of teaching, educational attainment, and income. Conclusion: At midlife, the faculty members of USJ-R can still generally be considered physically well. Thus, if they are well-managed, they can become relevant and better contributors to the attainment of the basic goals and objectives of the educational institution and the educational system in general. PMID:27134476

  2. Permanent contraception for women.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Permanent methods of contraception are used by an estimated 220 million couples worldwide, and are often selected due to convenience, ease of use and lack of side effects. A variety of tubal occlusion techniques are available for female permanent contraception, and procedures can be performed using a transcervical or transabdominal approach. This article reviews currently available techniques for female permanent contraception and discusses considerations when helping patients choose a contraceptive method and tubal occlusion technique. PMID:26626698

  3. Contraceptive revolution.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J

    1994-06-01

    Global population will increase by almost 1 billion people in the 1990s, the largest 10-year increase ever recorded. In 1994 alone, population will surpass 5.7 billion. The prospect of double-digit billions of people is worrisome, especially since these numbers may affect global warming, supplies of fresh water, destruction of rain forests, industrial pollution, and sustainable development. Yet, many indicators of quality of life show that people enjoy a better quality of life today than they did 100 years ago. Between India's independence and now, life expectancy increased by 20 years, infant mortality decreased 2-fold, literacy increased, and the food supply stabilized. Even though India's population has almost tripled since 1947, its economy increased rapidly and is 1 of the world's top 10 economies. University enrollment stands at 4.5 million. Agricultural production has exceeded demand. India represents the potential for human achievement through technological advancement and social organization. If the world's first national family planning program had been more successful when it began in 1952 in an India of 350 million people, India's population would be around 500 million instead of the expected 1 billion in 2000. All countries need to achieve a sustainable balance between human numbers and needs and natural resources. Family planning is an essential, cost-effective part of any development strategy. Family planning use has reduced fertility from 6 to 3.6 in developing countries. In 1965, only 8% used contraception, while more than 50% use it now. The most remarkable family planning/fertility reduction successes are Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. Sufficient investment in family planning is needed if significant declines in fertility are to occur. More than 90% of the developing world's people are in countries with official family planning programs. Cost-effective assistance by donors and developing countries implementing

  4. Searching for Ideal Contraceptives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djerassi, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem of adolescent pregnancy and focuses on improving contraception as a practical solution. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods (the condom, the pill, and the contraceptive sponge). Predicts that the development of a fundamentally new contraceptive, such as a monthly menses-inducer pill, will not occur…

  5. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding. PMID:26457854

  6. Contraception and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afsana, Faria

    2016-09-01

    Contraception for women with diabetes mellitus is an important issue mainly as the pregnancy outcome depends on glycaemic control before conception among women with diabetes. Type of diabetes as type 1 or type 2 Diabetes, women with history of gestational diabetes and breast feeding diabetic mothers may be a consideration in selecting a contraceptive .On the other hand presence of diabetic complications is a significant determinant. Different methods of contraception as oral, injectable, implant, intrauterine devices are available. Patient\\'s choice and health issues both should be considered while prescribing a contraceptive to a woman with diabetes. Emergency contraception is sometimes required in situations where there is chance of contraceptive failure. This review article highlights different contraceptive methods, their use and limitations and will guide to make a rational choice for a woman with diabetes. PMID:27582166

  7. Transdermal delivery of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Friend, D R

    1990-01-01

    Contraceptive agents are administered to the body through a variety of routes. Research has recently been directed at examining the transdermal route for systemic delivery of contraceptive agents, including estrogens and progestins. The transdermal route has several potential advantages over the other routes of administration: (1) improved compliance, (2) once-weekly administration, (3) delivery is easily terminated, and (4) some side effects can be alleviated based on more constant delivery rates. This article reviews the permeability of skin toward contraceptive steroids and how skin permeability is evaluated. The metabolism of contraceptive steroids is also considered. Transdermal delivery systems used to deliver contraceptives are presented, followed by a detailed discussion of several delivery systems for specific contraceptive agents such as levonorgestrel and estradiol. The potential problem of skin irritation is presented as it relates to transdermal contraceptive delivery systems, all of which will be worn chronically. PMID:2272099

  8. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome [AIDS]) and other sexually transmitted diseases.Some brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat ... your doctor.Oral contraceptives come in many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different ...

  9. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  10. Unexpected sequelae of contraception.

    PubMed

    Dunn, H P

    1996-01-01

    Dissident Roman Catholic theologians who promote the use of contraception have ignored the fact that contraception separates the loving aspect of sex from its fertile nature (which does not imply fecundity). While there is no obligation for Roman Catholics to achieve pregnancy, no interference with fertility is allowed. The importance of this seeming technicality can be seen when considering that contraception offers sex without babies and in vitro fertilization allows babies to be conceived without sexual intercourse. Barrier methods of contraception make sexual intercourse impure in a way similar to masturbation, oral contraceptives generally suppress ovulation but may also act as an abortifacient, and the IUD is an abortifacient, as are other hormonal methods and menstrual extraction. Sterilization and abortion are serious moral faults. Contraception is the first step towards the prevailing antinatalism that will cause demographic collapse in rich countries because there is a progression from contraception to sterilization to abortion. Rather than leading to fewer abortions, acceptance of contraception leads to more. This distressing sequence can be extended to include masturbation at one end and homosexuality at the other. Acceptance of contraception encourages all premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse and has depreciated the value of marriage. Rejection of child-bearing has exacerbated the estrangement of teenagers from parents who chose sterile sex and money over siblings for their children. Contraception fuels fears about a population explosion when people should be regarded as important resources. Finally, contraception has contributed to the shortage of those choosing religious vocations because it has demeaned their sacrifice of celibacy. The only permitted method of family limitation, therefore, is ovulation detection. PMID:12320545

  11. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

    PubMed Central

    Bodde, Amy E; Beebe, Timothy J; Chen, Laura P; Jenkins, Sarah; Perez-Vergara, Kelly; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI) classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese) in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self) reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual’s BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent’s self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight loss. PMID:25525400

  12. Emergency contraception pill--controversies and use.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, C; Sivalingam, N

    2007-03-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) are effective, safe and cheap, with profound global health and economic benefits. Patient education and easy access to ECP will contribute immensely to avoiding unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Issues related to morality, its perceived status as an abortifacient and harmful behaviour should it be easily available, has limited the widespread use of ECP in many countries. PMID:17682587

  13. Oral contraceptive drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Baciewicz, A M

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 50 million women use oral contraceptives (OC). Studies and case reports demonstrate that OC failure may be caused by rifampin, anticonvulsant drugs, and possibly some antibiotics. Contraceptive steroids may interfere with the metabolism of the benzodiazepines, theophylline, and the glucocorticoids. Future investigation will document the clinical significance of other OC interactions as well as give rise to new interactions. PMID:2859674

  14. [Contraception and obesity].

    PubMed

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure. PMID:26527416

  15. Social marketing of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B

    1986-12-01

    Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups. PMID:12341233

  16. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  17. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  18. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  19. Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

  20. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  1. Diabetes and oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Gourdy, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically worldwide, resulting in more and more women of reproductive age being affected by either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Management of contraception is a major issue due to the specific risks associated with pregnancy and those potentially induced by hormonal contraceptives in diabetic women. This review emphasizes the urgent need to improve the use of contraception in women with diabetes. There is no consistent evidence that combined oral contraceptives significantly influence the risk of developing diabetes, even in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Furthermore, although data from specific studies remain sparse, no worsening effect has been reported in diabetic women, either in glycemic control or on the course of microvascular complications. Thus, the use of estroprogestive pills is now recognized as a safe and effective option for preconception care of women with uncomplicated diabetes. According to recent guidelines, these contraceptives must be avoided in case of associated cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease or severe microvascular complications such as nephropathy with proteinuria or active proliferative retinopathy. Prescription of combined hormonal contraception in type 2 diabetic women must also be considered with caution due to a frequent association with obesity and vascular risk factors which increase both thromboembolic and arterial risks. Thanks to their metabolic and vascular safety profile, progestin-only contraceptives, as well as non-hormonal methods, represent alternatives according to patient wishes. PMID:23384747

  2. Adolescent Contraception: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pavilanis, Alan V.

    1988-01-01

    Adolescents are sexual beings who are undergoing important biological and social changes. Physicians must recognize the need for contraception in their teenage patients and realize when teenagers are asking for contraception. In order to deal effectively with the question of birth control, the physician must be comfortable with the issues of adolescent development and sexuality, as well as with his of her own sexuality. The birth-control pill remains the contraceptive prescription of choice, but other methods of birth control are discussed as well. Physicians must also be prepared to validate a teenager's decision not to engage in intercourse. PMID:21253171

  3. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 µg oral contraceptive pills

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Odom, Susan D.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare menstrual, physiologic, and psychologic symptoms over 2 years among women initiating use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or an oral contraceptive pill with a reduced pill-free interval, and those not using hormonal contraception. Methods A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months. Longitudinal relationships between symptoms and contraceptives were assessed after adjusting for age, visits, and baseline status of symptoms. Results Oral contraceptive pills were protective against mastalgia (OR = 0.7), cramping (OR = 0.5), hair loss (OR = 0.6), acne (OR = 0.4), nervousness (OR = 0.5), and mood swings (OR = 0.7). DMPA was protective against bloating (OR = 0.5) and mood swings (OR = 0.7), but caused weight gain (OR = 2.3), bleeding episodes >20 days (OR = 13.4), and missed periods (OR = 96.9). Both methods caused intermenstrual bleeding. Conclusion Evidence-based data regarding beneficial and adverse symptoms associated with these methods may help clinicians counsel patients appropriately prior to contraceptive initiation. PMID:18599013

  4. Differential correlates of nutritional status in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, W E; Mock, N B; Franklin, R R

    1988-09-01

    In an effort to search for causes of malnutrition in the urban environment to guide intervention efforts, a study of more than 2000 mother/child pairs was conducted in Kinshasa, Zaire. Under the auspices of the Zairian National Nutrition Planning Center a representative sample of a large lower class urban population was interviewed at two points in time. One phase covered morbidity and nutritional status measurements for all children under five years of age. A second phase examined a complex set of socioeconomic and behavioural variables possibly linked to nutritional outcomes for a 20% sample of the households. After merging the data sets bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed twice, using the youngest child and the household as the unit of analysis respectively. Results showed that different complexes of variables predicted malnutrition as measured by three separate anthropometric measures. For so-called acute malnutrition (weight-for-height) morbidity, migration, and diarrhoeal knowledge, all emerged as significant predictors. Chronic malnutrition (height-for-age), however, was only significantly predicted by zone of residence, a level of living score, and recent morbidity when all major variables were considered in the regression model. Factors that were significant predictors of each of these two indices also were predictors of the third nutritional indicator, weight-for-age. Birth interval also was associated with this index. The findings here suggest more careful scrutiny of the nature, causes, interpretation and use of these widely accepted measures of nutritional status. PMID:3145250

  5. Contraceptive use in acne.

    PubMed

    Lam, Charlene; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of the pilosebaceous follicle. It is well established that androgen hormones play a major role in sebum production and excretion, and are vital in the pathogenesis of acne. Isotretinoin notwithstanding, hormonal therapies such as combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and spironolactone are the only treatments that can affect sebum production and the androgen component of acne. Contraceptives are also used during isotretinoin therapy for pregnancy prevention. It is important for a dermatologist to be familiar with all the available methods of contraception to provide essential counseling to patients. The aim of this paper is to review the role of hormones in acne pathogenesis, discuss the use of hormonal therapies for acne, and detail various alternative contraceptive methods in relation to isotretinoin treatment and pregnancy prevention. PMID:25017461

  6. Contraception and Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, age, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, desire to have children in the future, and family history of certain diseases. Individuals should consult their health care provider to ... methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically ...

  7. Contraception in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1967-01-01

    Population control and the use of contraceptives were discusses at the biannual meeting of the Turkish Academy of Medicine in September 1966. This was of special importance because contraception and dissemination of information about it were illegal in Turkey for many years before 1965. Thus, until quite recently Turkish doctors had only limited experience of modern contraceptive methods. Oral contraceptives and IUDs were discussed at the Academy meeting, and Dr Nusret Fisek has sent the Bulletin a summary of the main points raises. Oral contraceptives: Only minor side-effects were found and were ignored or easily treated; they disappeared when the oral contraception was stopped. Serious conditions such as liver dysfunction, thromboembolic phenomena, and diabetes have not been found. Intra-uterine devices: Endometritis requiring treatment is infrequent. In 23 of 45 women who had used IUDs for six months, endometrial histology showed diffuse bleeding, endometrial oedema or lymphocyctic endometritis. Expulsion and medical removal rates for IUDs over a six-month period were 5% in one clinic and 12% in another, with a pregnancy rate of between 1.2%. There was only one perforation in 6000 insertions. The doctor's attitude had a great influence on removal and discontinuation rates. In a large maternity hospital the Medical Board accepted, as a medical reason for induced abortion, accidental pregnancies that occurred in women wearing IUDs. PMID:12304991

  8. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  9. Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity. PMID:22709401

  10. Statement on postcoital contraception.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    For the woman exposed to a single unexpected and unprotected act of sexual intercourse, postcoital contraception can be used to avoid an unwanted pregnancy. Since the mid-1960s postcoital contraception using orally administered hormones has been found to be highly effective. This should be, however, considered as a 1-time procedure rather than a routine approach to contraception. The recommended oral methods are combined oral contraceptives (OCs) containing ethinyl estradiol 50 mcg and levonorgestrel 0.25 mg. Other similar formulations may also have high efficacy. The dosage schedule is 2 tablets at once followed by 2 tablets after 12 hours. This method is indicated in women exposed to unexpected and unprotected sexual intercourse, such as in cases of rape. It is effective only if it is instituted within 72 hours of the exposure. Data suggest this regime is as effective as that using diethylstilbestrol but with fewer side effects. As with all hormonal contraceptives, the method is contraindicated where a pregnancy is already established. Possible side effects include nausea and vomiting, irregular uterine bleeding, breast tenderness, and headache. The woman should be advised to return after 1 month to reinforce the need for elective contraception or, in the case of failure, to diagnose pregnancy and initiate counseling. In the event of a pregnancy, the woman should be reassured that no evidence exists to associate this regime of OC steroid administration with teratogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that effective postcoital contraceptive can be achieved by the insertion of a copper-containing IUD within 5 days of unprotected, mid-cycle sexual intercourse. PMID:12263975

  11. Re-testing theories on the correlations of health status, life satisfaction and happiness

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew; Morris, Chloe; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Background: Empirical evidences have shown that happiness, life satisfaction and health status are strongly correlated with each other. In Jamaica, we continue to collect data on health status to guide policies and intervention programs, but are these wise? Aims: The current study aims to fill the gap in the literature by examining life satisfaction, health status, and happiness in order to ascertain whether they are equivalent concepts in Jamaica as well as the coverage of the estimates. Materials and Methods: The current study used a cross-sectional survey of 2000 men 55 years and older from the parish of St. Catherine in 2007 which is it also generalizable to the island. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. The instrument was sub-divided into general demographic profile of the sample; past and Current Good Health Status; health-seeking behavior; retirement status; social and functional status. Ordinal logistic regression techniques were utilized to examine determinants of happiness, life satisfaction and health status. Results: Happiness was correlated with life satisfaction - Pseudo r-squared = 0.311, -2LL = 810.36, χ2 = 161.60, P < 0.0001. Life satisfaction was determined by happiness - Pseudo r-squared = 0.321, -2LL = 1069.30, χ2 = 178.53, P < 0.0001. H ealth status was correlated with health status age, income, education and area of residence - Pseudo r-squared = 0.313, -2LL = 810.36, χ2 = 161.60, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The current study refuted the empirical finding that self-reported happiness depends on perceived health status for older men in Jamaica. PMID:22558580

  12. Brain size is correlated with endangerment status in mammals.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Eric S

    2016-02-24

    Increases in relative encephalization (RE), brain size after controlling for body size, comes at a great metabolic cost and is correlated with a host of cognitive traits, from the ability to count objects to higher rates of innovation. Despite many studies examining the implications and trade-offs accompanying increased RE, the relationship between mammalian extinction risk and RE is unknown. I examine whether mammals with larger levels of RE are more or less likely to be at risk of endangerment than less-encephalized species. I find that extant species with large levels of encephalization are at greater risk of endangerment, with this effect being strongest in species with small body sizes. These results suggest that RE could be a valuable asset in estimating extinction vulnerability. Additionally, these findings suggest that the cost-benefit trade-off of RE is different in large-bodied species when compared with small-bodied species. PMID:26888034

  13. Introducing new contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J; Coutinho, E

    1986-12-01

    At this time, private research efforts to discover new contraceptives are threatened. Drug companies, particularly in the US, have reduced their interest in contraceptive development due to concern over the rising cost of product liability insurance, the cost of lawsuits in defense of liability claims, and the fear of extremely high awards by juries in product liability cases. The current form of private-public collaboration, now threatened by the liability crisis, works under a few simple principles of agreement. Private industry agrees to supply its patented chemical compounds for assessment as contraceptive agents, to be willing to enter into negotiations with public sector organizations to develop the contraceptive drugs if initial tests warrant it, and to release compounds to another company if the patent-holder declines to proceed with contraceptive development. The public-sector program agrees to fund the studies, keep the industry informed, and maintain confidentiality. When the technology is discovered by the public sector and is of potential interest to private industry, the collaboration involves other issues. The public agency agrees to supply manufacturing know-how and all biological and clinical information, to license under applicable patents, and to permit cross reference to regulatory agency filings. Private industry agrees to use its best efforts to bring the product to market, to manufacture the product at reduced cost for public sector use, or to provide know-how for others to do so. It also agrees to assume product liability and to grant the public sector agency licenses to any patented improvement in its product. Contraceptive research both within and outside the US is feeling the effects of the US litigious atmosphere. Companies from abroad now wish to steer clear of contraceptive research, even though these companies would be prepared to meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration. Contraceptives, considered to be high risk

  14. Contraception in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riphagen, F E; von Schoultz, B

    1989-06-01

    In 1987, a survey of contraceptive use, knowledge and attitudes was conducted in Sweden by the International Health Foundation (IHF) as part of a multi-country study that has so far involved six other countries in Europe. The women involved, who were aged 15-44, completed a standard questionnaire. The overall percentage use of contraceptive methods, especially the reliable ones, was found to be high (95%). Oral contraception was the most frequently used method, followed by barrier methods and the intrauterine device (IUD). Contraceptive methods were chosen or abandoned mainly because of health reasons and better reliability. Knowledge of fertility proved to be generally good. Medical methods such as oral contraceptives and IUDs were associated with health hazards. In the case of the pill, fears of cardiovascular risks, thrombosis and cancer were widespread, while infection risk and menorrhagia were the most frequently quoted perceived disadvantages of the IUD. Indeed, these two methods suffer from a very negative image among Swedish users. PMID:2752752

  15. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the ... mucus and the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of ...

  16. Contraception in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Shoupe, D

    1996-06-01

    Contraceptive technology has recently provided the market place with new barrier methods, new progestin oral contraceptives, an injectable contraceptive, the female condom, new male condoms, and the contraceptive implant. During the last decade, epidemiologists have clearly defined the non-contraceptive benefits of current contraceptive methods that include decreased infections, protection from various cancers, protection from many gynecologic problems that lead to surgery, as well as symptomatic relief from many gynecologic conditions. In conjunction with medical specialists, contraceptive researchers have established the increased safety and benefits of various contraceptive choices in women with medical conditions that, until recently, were contra-indications for their use. That these advances have occurred despite multiple legal and scientific assaults gives hope that the field will continue to grow. PMID:8818532

  17. Erythropoiesis: Correlations Between Iron Status Markers During Normal Pregnancy in Women with and without Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Byg, KELD-ERIK; Milman, NILS; Ole Agger, ANDERS

    2000-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate relationships between iron status markers (haemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin saturation, serum ferritin) in normal pregnancy. Iron status markers were measured at 4-week-intervals during pregnancy and postpartum in 120 healthy women; 62 had daily treatment with tablets containing 66 mg ferrous iron, 58 were treated with placebo. Placebo-treated: Ferritin displayed positive correlations with transferrin saturation during 2nd and 3rd trimester. There were positive correlations between ferritin, erythrocyte MCV and MCH during 2nd and 3rd trimester and postpartum. Prior to delivery and postpartum, ferritin demonstrated positive correlations with haemoglobin. Transferrin saturation showed positive correlations with MCV, MCH and MCHC during 2nd and 3rd trimester and postpartum. Transferrin saturation displayed positive correlations with haemoglobin prior to delivery and postpartum. Iron-treated: In general, there were no correlations between iron status markers. Positive correlations appeared postpartum between ferritin, transferrin saturation and MCHC but not with haemoglobin. Transferrin saturation showed a positive correlation with MCH postpartum, but not with haemoglobin. Conclusion: The patterns of relationships in placebo-treated women were consistent with iron deficient erythropoiesis. PMID:11399596

  18. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and ER status in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weisun; Nie, Weiwei; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanru; Zhu, Aiyu; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The ER signaling pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer. ER signaling pathway-related proteins, such as TRX, AR, and cyclin D1, may have an important function in breast cancer. However, the ways that they influence breast cancer development and progression are still unclear. Patients and methods A total of 101 Chinese female patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast adenocarcinoma were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The expression levels of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed via correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the expression status of ER, PR, and HER2. Results The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 was not associated with the patient’s age, menopausal status, tumor size, or histological differentiation (P>0.05), but was positively correlated with ER and PR (P<0.001, respectively). Most (66/76, 86.8) TRX-positive patients were also HER2-positive (P=0.003). Of AR- or cyclin D1-positive patients, most had relatively earlier I–II tumor stage (P=0.005 and P=0.047, respectively) and no metastatic lymph node involvement (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion TRX was found to be positively correlated with ER and PR expression, whereas it was negatively correlated with HER2 expression. In addition, we found that the positive expression of AR and cyclin D1 was correlated with lower TNM stage and fewer metastatic lymph nodes, and it was more common in ER-positive breast cancer than in the basal-like subtype. This may indicate that AR and cyclin D1 are good predictive and prognostic factors and closely interact with ER signaling pathway. Further studies will be necessary to investigate the response and clinical outcomes of treatment targeting TRX, AR, and cyclin D1. PMID:27499632

  19. [Test your knowledge: contraceptives].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    A brief self-administered quiz on contraceptive knowledge is presented. The 7 questions ask the reader to explain the mechanism of action of combined oral contraceptives, and why estrogens are used with progestins, and to indicate the main secondary effects of Depo-Provera and implants and the dosage of the "morning-after pill." A multiple-choice question concerns absolute contraindications to combined OC use. One clinical case involves selection of OCs for a woman with a family history of breast cancer and the other requires development of a strategy for reducing high-risk pregnancies and risk of AIDS. PMID:12321847

  20. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  1. Intention to use contraceptives and subsequent contraceptive behavior in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S L; Westoff, C F

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between stated intention to use contraceptives and subsequent use during a three-year period in Morocco is examined. Longitudinal data are drawn from two Demographic and Health Surveys: the 1992 Morocco DHS and the 1995 Morocco Panel Survey. Reported contraceptive intentions in 1992 have a strong predictive effect on subsequent contraceptive use even after controlling for other characteristics of respondents, and the strength of the effect is second only to that of previous contraceptive use. Women who in 1992 said they intended to use contraceptives in the future but did not do so are the most likely to have had an unmet need for contraception in 1995. Weakly held fertility preferences reported by some of the women surveyed in 1992 appear to have been a contributing factor in the subsequent failure of these women to act upon their intention to practice contraception. PMID:8923652

  2. New aspects of injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious and safe contraceptive agents, not all women's contraceptive needs are being met. An injectable contraceptive method offers convenience and encourages compliance, both very important aspects for women seeking ideal contraception. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a long-acting injectable, and is highly effective; one injection provides 3 months of contraception. Drawbacks of DMPA include irregular bleeding and a slow return to fertility. A new monthly injectable contraceptive agent is medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate suspension (Lunelle). It provides menstrual regulation and a rapid return to fertility. The estrogen ensures a withdrawal bleed monthly; however, women with contraindications to estrogen-containing contraception are not candidates for Lunelle. PMID:11294618

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  4. Contraceptive Beach Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Edith B.; Miller, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstinence-based sexuality education includes a discussion about the various types of contraception available today. This lesson addresses the knowledge and skills identified in the National Health Education Standards, and can be used with two different audiences-students and teachers. Included in the lesson are step-by-step procedures, a…

  5. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  6. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  7. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  8. Correlation between T-Wave Alternans and Cardiac Volume Status via Intrathoracic Impedance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Jose'; Hickey, Kathleen; Garan, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The presence of T-wave alternans (TWA) has been shown to correlate with a higher risk for sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of TWA may be related to abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling, which is a mechanism in heart failure and associated arrhythmias as well. However, an association between TWA and cardiac volume status has not been demonstrated. Methods Used. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a dilated cardiomyopathy who had a biventricular defibrillator system implanted with intrathoracic impedance measurement capability. We performed baseline TWA testing, which was normal and was associated with normal clinical status and normal intrathoracic impedance. We followed intrathoracic impedance measurements, and when the measurement suggested volume overload eight months later, we repeated the TWA test. TWA was grossly positive, and volume overload was corroborated with clinical heart failure. The patient was diuresed, and when clinical status and intrathoracic impedance returned to normal a month later, we repeated TWA, which was again negative. Conclusion. This case demonstrates a correlation between cardiac volume status, as measured by intrathoracic impedance measurements, and TWA status. This data suggests that conditions of volume overload such as heart failure could be causally related to increased TWA, perhaps by the common mechanism of altered intracellular calcium handling. PMID:24826235

  9. Correlation between T-Wave Alternans and Cardiac Volume Status via Intrathoracic Impedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dizon, Jose'; Hickey, Kathleen; Garan, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The presence of T-wave alternans (TWA) has been shown to correlate with a higher risk for sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of TWA may be related to abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling, which is a mechanism in heart failure and associated arrhythmias as well. However, an association between TWA and cardiac volume status has not been demonstrated. Methods Used. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a dilated cardiomyopathy who had a biventricular defibrillator system implanted with intrathoracic impedance measurement capability. We performed baseline TWA testing, which was normal and was associated with normal clinical status and normal intrathoracic impedance. We followed intrathoracic impedance measurements, and when the measurement suggested volume overload eight months later, we repeated the TWA test. TWA was grossly positive, and volume overload was corroborated with clinical heart failure. The patient was diuresed, and when clinical status and intrathoracic impedance returned to normal a month later, we repeated TWA, which was again negative. Conclusion. This case demonstrates a correlation between cardiac volume status, as measured by intrathoracic impedance measurements, and TWA status. This data suggests that conditions of volume overload such as heart failure could be causally related to increased TWA, perhaps by the common mechanism of altered intracellular calcium handling. PMID:24826235

  10. Factors affecting the use and non use of contraception.

    PubMed

    Utomo, B; Alimoeso, S; Park, C B

    1983-12-01

    Data from the 1982 Jakarta Modular Survey were used to study the factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception. Specific study objectives were: to present some characteristics of contraceptors and noncontraceptors; to identify the major factors affecting contraceptive use; to determine the causal structure between the factors and contraceptive use; and to understand the relationship among these factors. The data collected were organized into 4 modules: socioeconomic and migration module; contraceptive prevalence and fertility module; mortality, morbidity, nutrition, and health practice module; and contraceptive continuation module. The first 3 modules were used for collecting information from all currently married women aged 15-49 years. The last module was used for collecting information from women who used some contraceptive method through the services of a family planning clinic during the 1977-82 period. Data on 2727 women were analyzed. Users and nonusers distributed differently depending on their characteristics. The characteristics selected included age, respondent's education, husband's education, working status of the respondent, age at 1st marriage, number of living children, and experience of abortion. These variables were considered to be associated with use and nonuse of contraceptives. Compared to the nonusers, the current users were slightly older in age more educated (and had husbands who were more educated), were older when 1st married, had more living children, and had more experience in abortion. Log-linear analysis was performed on 2 groups of women. Group I included all currently married women aged 15-49 years; Group II included only "high risk" women, i.e., currently married women aged 15-34 years, not pregnant, not in menopausal stage, and have had at least 1 live birth. Contraceptive use rates were lower in Group I than in Group II. Within both groups, the users rates differed significantly according to age, age at marriage, number

  11. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  12. [Contraception and endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Brun, G

    1993-01-01

    Choosing a contraceptive method for a woman with endometriosis is an uncommon problem because endometriosis is relatively rare and because an estimated 30-50% of women with endometriosis are infertile. Uterine or internal endometriosis or adenomyosis is characterized by a congestive and pseudoinflammatory uterus slightly increased in volume. It must be distinguished from pelvic or external or peritoneo-ovarian endometriosis. Pelvic implants may involve destruction of the ovaries by cysts or their imprisonment in adhesions. They may cause stenosis in the proximal portion of the tubes or entrap them in adhesions. 4 stages of endometriosis have been distinguished according to the significance of the lesions and a scoring system. Stage 4 patients with scores over 70 or with a score over 50 for adhesions have been unable to conceive despite treatment. No contraception is necessary in these cases. The choice of a contraceptive for other patients is conditioned by the features of endometriosis. Endometriosis refers to the abnormal localization of a normal endometrium. The implants are sensitive to estrogen. Each implant behaves like a miniature uterus; the mucus proliferates and bleeds if estrogen secretions are present, or atrophies if not. Endometriosis may be completely asymptomatic, or cause sterility, or be accompanied by pain and metrorrhagia. Several earlier treatments of endometriosis have been abandoned because of side effects. The current treatment of choice is an LHRH analog administered by parenteral injections every 4 weeks to bring about a state of pseudomenopause. The treatment produces a rapid desensitization of the pituitary LHRH receptors and a diminution of gonadotrophins, estrogens, and progesterone. The secondary effects are those of hypoestrogenism: hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and increased bone loss after 6 months of treatment. It is also an expensive medication. Contraception is provided by the treatment itself for the first 6 months

  13. Risk of cancer with combined oral contraceptive use among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Vaisy, Afasaneh; Lotfinejad, Shirin; Zhian, Faegh

    2014-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is the most common type of contraception. More than 300 million women worldwide take oral contraceptives every day. However, there is a concern about the relationship with the incidence of cancer. This analytical retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of cervical and breast cancers and oral contraceptive use in 128 Iranian patients with cervical cancer, 235 with breast cancer and equal numbers of controls. Data were collected through interviews with an organized set of questions. Details were also extracted from patient files. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and Pearson's correlation analysis. The result revealed correlations between both cervical and breast cancers and history of contraceptive pills use. While cervical cancer significantly correlated with duration of use of pills, breast cancer had significant correlations with the type of oral contraceptive and age at first use. No significant relationships were found between the two types of cancer and age at discontinuation of oral contraceptives, patterns of use, and intervals from the last use. The use of oral contraceptives may triple the incidence of cervical cancer and doubles the incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, performing Pap smears every six months and breast cancer screening are warranted for long-term oral contraceptive users. PMID:25081657

  14. Marketing contraceptives by mail.

    PubMed

    Farley, J U; Harvey, P D

    1972-10-01

    7 ads (3" x 2") for information on nonprescription mail-order contraceptives were run in 51 college newspapters. Ads with specific product offerings, apparently directed to males and including offers of birth control literature, drew the most inquiries. Inquiries were also higher from ads placed in papers with larger circulations, and in rural areas. There were no discernible objections from the audience, and no difficulties were encountered in placing copy. About 207 of the inquiries resulted in orders. PMID:12276312

  15. Contraceptive characteristics: the perceptions and priorities of men and women.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Klepinger, D H; Nelson-Wally, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of gender on the importance of contraceptive characteristics and on how specific contraceptive methods are evaluated by men and women. In particular, the study examines how gender is related to both the importance that individuals assign to seven specific contraceptive characteristics when choosing a method, and to perceptions on the extent to which the five common method types possess each of these characteristics. The data used were derived from two companion surveys conducted in 1991, which included a sample of 1189 men and 740 women who belong to the 20-27 age group. Findings revealed that 90% of women rank pregnancy prevention as the first and single most important contraceptive characteristic when choosing a method, followed by sexually transmitted disease (STD) protection. Among men, STD prevention for themselves and their partner and pregnancy protection were of equal importance. Furthermore, both men and women have a correct understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of a particular method but differ significantly with their perceptions on the relative attractiveness of each method. Gender differences in perceptions on the specific characteristics of contraceptive methods often vary by marital status. These results clearly indicate that gender greatly affects contraceptive method perceptions and priorities. PMID:10435215

  16. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use. PMID:8059447

  17. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials. PMID:25673544

  18. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    PubMed Central

    Antonietta, Costantino; Giulia, Gava; Marta, Berra; Cristina, Meriggiola Maria

    2014-01-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials. PMID:25673544

  19. [Choosing contraception for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Wemeau-jacquemont, C

    1985-02-01

    Earlier and more frequent sexual activity and the significant risk of pregnancy have increased the need for contraception among young adolescent girls. The problem for the physician is to choose a contraceptive method which will not affect future fertility or the psychological and biological maturity of adolescents. Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides are quite effective if used correctly; they have no deleterious side effects, and they provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases. They appear to be well-adapted to the sporadic sexual activity of adolescents. The efficacy of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) is also high. Side effects depend on the synthetic estrogen component and are dose dependent. Absolute contraindications to OC use in women of any age include thromboembolic disease, cerebral vascular accidents, severe cardiac or hepatic disorders, breast or genital cancer, pregnancy, undiagnosed genital bleeding, and pituitary adenoma. Relative contraindications include hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, history of hepatitis, migraines, epilepsy, asthma, renal insufficiency, cystic breast disease, and mammary fibroadenomas. Combined OCs do not seem to interfere with subsequent maturation of the hypothalamopituitary axis. The frequency of ovulatory cycles in adolescents who have discontinued pill use is the same as that in adolescents who have never used pills. However, estrogens accelerate the process of maturation in the bones, so combined OCs should never be prescribed for girls who have not terminated their growth. Minidose OCs containing 30-45 mcg of ethinyl estradiol aggravate the relative hyperestrogenism of adolescents and are associated with menstrual problems, functional ovarian cysts, and breast problems. They should only be prescribed for adolescents with regular sexual activity, no less than 3 years following menarche, with regular ovulatory menstrual cycles and no history of breast disorders. Otherwise, a standard

  20. Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Divani, Afshin A.; Luo, Xianghua; Datta, Yvonne H.; Flaherty, James D.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old) who were combined oral contraceptives users (n = 29), combined vaginal contraceptive users (n = 20), and nonusers (n = 30) with CRP values of ≤1 (n = 46) or ≥3 (n = 33). Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P < 0.0001), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P < 0.01). When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users. PMID:25861161

  1. Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition

    PubMed Central

    DOMINGUES, Roberta Santos; FERRAZ, Bruna Fidêncio Rahal; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; PASSANEZI, Euloir; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2012-01-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC) on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods Twenty-five women (19-35 years old) taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcular bleeding index (SBI) and plaque index (Pl.I). Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson's correlation test and Spearman's correlation test. Results The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001) and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001) than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11). The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001). No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation. PMID:22666846

  2. Unmet contraceptive needs among refugees

    PubMed Central

    Aptekman, Marina; Rashid, Meb; Wright, Vanessa; Dunn, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe what women of reproductive age who received primary care at a refugee health clinic were using for contraception upon arrival to the clinic, and to quantify the unmet contraceptive needs within that population. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Crossroads Clinic in downtown Toronto, Ont. Participants Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) who first presented for care between December 1, 2011, and December 1, 2012. To be included, a woman had to have had 2 or more clinic visits or an annual health examination. Exclusion criteria for the contraception prevalence calculation were female sexual partner, menopause, hysterectomy, pregnancy, or trying to conceive. Main outcome measures Contraception use prevalence was measured, as was unmet contraceptive need, which was calculated using a modified version of the World Health Organization’s definition: the number of women with an unmet need was expressed as a percentage of women of reproductive age who were married or in a union, or who were sexually active. Results Overall, 52 women met the criteria for inclusion in the contraceptive prevalence calculation. Of these, 16 women (30.8%) did not use any form of contraception. Twelve women were pregnant at some point in the year and stated the pregnancy was unwanted or mistimed. An additional 14 women were not using contraception but had no intention of becoming pregnant within the next 2 years. There were no women with postpartum amenorrhea not using contraception and who had wanted to delay or prevent their previous pregnancy. In total, 97 women were married or in a union, or were sexually active. Unmet need was calculated as follows: (12 + 14 + 0)/97 = 26.8%. Conclusion There was a high unmet contraceptive need in the refugee population in our study. All women of reproductive age should be screened for contraceptive need when first seeking medical care in Canada. PMID:25642489

  3. Selenoprotein P Status Correlates to Cancer-Specific Mortality in Renal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Carsten; Stoedter, Mette; Behrends, Thomas; Wolff, Ingmar; Jung, Klaus; Schomburg, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Selenoproteins have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor development. Selenoprotein P (SePP) serves as the major Se transport protein in blood and as reliable biomarker of Se status in marginally supplied individuals. Among the different malignancies, renal cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the Se status in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients and whether it correlates to cancer-specific mortality. To this end, serum samples of RCC patients (n = 41) and controls (n = 21) were retrospectively analyzed. Serum Se and SePP concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence and an immunoassay, respectively. Clinical and survival data were compared to serum Se and SePP concentrations as markers of Se status by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. In our patients, higher tumor grade and tumor stage at diagnosis correlated to lower SePP and Se concentrations. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that low Se status at diagnosis (SePP<2.4 mg/l, bottom tertile of patient group) was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of 20% only. We conclude that SePP and Se concentrations are of prognostic value in RCC and may serve as additional diagnostic biomarkers identifying a Se deficit in kidney cancer patients potentially affecting therapy regimen. As poor Se status was indicative of high mortality odds, we speculate that an adjuvant Se supplementation of Se-deficient RCC patients might be beneficial in order to stabilize their selenoprotein expression hopefully prolonging their survival. However, this assumption needs to be rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23056383

  4. Selenoprotein P status correlates to cancer-specific mortality in renal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hellmuth A; Endermann, Tobias; Stephan, Carsten; Stoedter, Mette; Behrends, Thomas; Wolff, Ingmar; Jung, Klaus; Schomburg, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Selenoproteins have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor development. Selenoprotein P (SePP) serves as the major Se transport protein in blood and as reliable biomarker of Se status in marginally supplied individuals. Among the different malignancies, renal cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the Se status in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients and whether it correlates to cancer-specific mortality. To this end, serum samples of RCC patients (n = 41) and controls (n = 21) were retrospectively analyzed. Serum Se and SePP concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence and an immunoassay, respectively. Clinical and survival data were compared to serum Se and SePP concentrations as markers of Se status by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. In our patients, higher tumor grade and tumor stage at diagnosis correlated to lower SePP and Se concentrations. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that low Se status at diagnosis (SePP<2.4 mg/l, bottom tertile of patient group) was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of 20% only. We conclude that SePP and Se concentrations are of prognostic value in RCC and may serve as additional diagnostic biomarkers identifying a Se deficit in kidney cancer patients potentially affecting therapy regimen. As poor Se status was indicative of high mortality odds, we speculate that an adjuvant Se supplementation of Se-deficient RCC patients might be beneficial in order to stabilize their selenoprotein expression hopefully prolonging their survival. However, this assumption needs to be rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23056383

  5. Induced abortion and contraception use

    PubMed Central

    du Prey, Beatrice; Talavlikar, Rachel; Mangat, Rupinder; Freiheit, Elizabeth A.; Drummond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine what proportion of women seeking induced abortion in the Calgary census metropolitan area were immigrants. Design For 2 months, eligible women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Women who refused were asked to provide their country of birth (COB) to assess for selection bias. Setting Two abortion clinics in Calgary, Alta. Participants Women presenting at or less than 15 weeks’ gestational age for induced abortion for maternal indications. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of women seeking induced abortion services who were immigrants. Secondary outcomes compared socioeconomic characteristics and contraception use between immigrant and Canadian-born women. Results A total of 752 women either completed a questionnaire (78.6%) or provided their COB (21.4%). Overall, 28.9% of women living in the Calgary census metropolitan area who completed the questionnaire were immigrants, less than the 31.2% background proportion of immigrant women of childbearing age. However, 46.0% of women who provided only COB were immigrants. When these data were combined, 34.2% of women presenting for induced abortion identified as immigrant, a proportion not significantly different from the background proportion (P = .127). Immigrant women presenting for induced abortion tended to be older, more educated, married with children, and have increased parity. They were similar to Canadian-born women in number of previous abortions, income status, and employment status. Conclusion This study suggests that immigrant women in Calgary are not presenting for induced abortion in disproportionately higher numbers, which differs from existing European literature. This is likely owing to differing socioeconomic characteristics among the immigrant women in our study from what have been previously described in the literature (typically lower socioeconomic status). Much still needs to be explored with regard to factors influencing the use of

  6. Statement on injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  7. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    PubMed

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  8. [Young men's contraceptive habits].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B; Hansen, K; Johansen, J B; Nielsen, M B

    1992-10-01

    A total of 379 men from the greater Copenhagen area were invited to fill out a questionnaire about sexual habits and use of contraception in connection with conscription for military duty. A total of 334 (88%) answered the questionnaire. In the autumn of 1988, a total of 27 men answered the test questionnaire, while in the spring of 1989, when the real study was conducted, 307 men answered it. The median age of 334 participants was 18 years (range of 17-29 years). 33% of the group stated that they had used condoms during first intercourse, while 47% had not. 1 person reported to be exclusively attracted sexually to men, 5 persons were attracted both to men and women, but 97% were exclusively attracted to women. 82% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with women. 1.8% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with men. 8% had no sexual experience, and 8% did not answer the question. Oral contraceptives were used by 60% and the condom by 56%. 10% had used coitus interruptus at one time or another; 15% had used no contraception; 5% used the IUD; and 5% used the diaphragm. Some gave several answers. 1% used spermicidal lotion. 60% thought that it was the responsibility of both men and women to be concerned about contraception, 12% opined that it was exclusively men's duty, and 2% that it was exclusively women's, while 26% did not answer. 68% wanted to use the condom in the future for protection, 24% did not know, but 8% did not want to use it more extensively. 64% did not think that the fear of AIDS would affect their sexual life, but 36% thought it would. Several of the subjects indicated that they would be more careful about choosing a partner, and every 10th suggested that they would use the condom with a new partner. One person (0.3%) was a drug addict, 89% had never injected drugs, but about 11% did not answer about drugs. 97% and 95%, respectively, indicated that the condom provided good protection against pregnancy and venereal diseases. PMID

  9. [Chronic illness and contraception].

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, S

    1987-01-01

    In recent years sterilization that can cause problems of the psyche and marital life has been recommended much less frequently with respect to chronic diseases. As regards heart and hypertensive diseases pregnancy is always contraindicated in case of 3rd and 4th disease categories and sterilization is recommended according to the New York Heart Association. As far as 1st and 2nd category patients are concerned if the load carrying capacity is normal pregnancy could be undertaken. Combination pills are not recommended for contraception because they can cause fluid retention or increase the risk of thrombosis. If the patient has a higher-than-normal risk of developing thrombosis or infection, for instance, those who wear pacemakers only tablets containing progesterone or subdermal capsule implants can be used. In those with blood pressure problems the additional use of the IUD is also advised. Among diseases of neurological and psychic origin the effect of hormonal contraceptives is weakened by antiepileptics, but even in such cases older combination pills of larger doses of active ingredients can be employed. Migraine is exacerbated in 1/3 of patients; here IUDs can be used. Even the contraceptive tablets themselves can induce depression. In psychosis methods requiring regular attention can be easily forgotten, therefore the IUD is the most suitable device. In diabetes progesterone and other progestogens reduce insulin response, harm carbohydrate metabolism; therefore in young people the IUD is preferred an in older women with children even sterilization can be employed. Hormonal tablets must not be used in hyperlipidemia and liver diseases. Caution must be exercised in hyperthyroidism and in endocrine disorders (e.g., Cushing's syndrome); if it is accompanied by blood pressure disorders appropriate treatment is required. In kidney diseases pregnancy is contraindicated if it is accompanied by blood pressure increase or a higher level of creatine. On the other hand

  10. [An implantable contraceptive: Norplant].

    PubMed

    Munyakazi, A

    1989-08-01

    The Norplant contraceptive system consists of 6 silastic capsules 34 mm long by 2.4 mm in diameter each containing 36 mg of levonorgestrel. Norplant provides a constant daily dose of 30 mcg of levonorgestrel beginning 24 hours after insertion and lasting for 5 years. 3 contraceptive effects are provided: the cervical mucus becomes less permeable for sperm, the endometrium atrophies, and ovulation is inhibited in about 50% of cycles. The failure rate is lower than those of pills and IUDs. It is somewhat higher for women weighing over 70 kg than for those weighing less. The safety of Norplant is due to the absence of estrogen. It has no effect on blood pressure, and the risks of ectopic pregnancies or infection at the insertion site are minor. The principal side effect is disturbance of the menstrual cycle, which usually decreases after 3-6 months of use. Other minor effects should not cause termination of the method if the user has been forewarned. Women using Norplant should be followed regularly. Norplant is particularly indicated for women desiring longterm contraception or a very effective method for spacing, postpartum women, and women with contraindications to oral contraceptives and IUDs. Contraindications include pregnancy or suspicion of pregnancy, unexplained vaginal bleeding, liver or cardiovascular disorders, jaundice or pruritus during the last pregnancy, thrombophlebitis or pulmonary embolism, falciform anemia, and breast cancer. Studies are underway to verify that Norplant does not affect lactation. Norplant should be removed immediately if the woman develops migraine headaches or visual problems, signs of thrombophlebitis or hepatic disorders, increased blood pressure, or if she becomes pregnant or must undergo a surgical procedure requiring lengthy bed rest. Norplant should be inserted under scrupulously aseptic conditions during the 1st 7 cycle days under local anesthesia. Large studies in Egypt, Indonesia, Chile and elsewhere have confirmed

  11. Correlation of Alzheimer Disease Neuropathologic Changes With Cognitive Status: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bouras, Constantin; Braak, Heiko; Cairns, Nigel J.; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Crain, Barbara J.; Davies, Peter; Del Tredici, Kelly; Duyckaerts, Charles; Frosch, Matthew P.; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hof, Patrick R.; Hulette, Christine M.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Kövari, Enikö; Kukull, Walter A.; Leverenz, James B.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Mann, David M.; Masliah, Eliezer; McKee, Ann C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Morris, John C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Thal, Dietmar R.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woltjer, Randall L.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although Aβ plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles. PMID:22487856

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between antiretrovirals and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Tittle, Victoria; Bull, Lauren; Boffito, Marta; Nwokolo, Nneka

    2015-01-01

    More than 50 % of women living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries are of reproductive age, but there are limitations to the administration of oral contraception for HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy due to drug-drug interactions caused by metabolism via the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and glucuronidation. However, with the development of newer antiretrovirals that use alternative metabolic pathways, options for contraception in HIV-positive women are increasing. This paper aims to review the literature on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral hormonal contraceptives when given with antiretroviral agents, including those currently used in developed countries, older ones that might still be used in salvage regimens, or those used in resource-limited settings, as well as newer drugs. Nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), the usual backbone to most combined antiretroviral treatments (cARTs) are characterised by a low potential for drug-drug interactions with oral contraceptives. On the other hand non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) may interact with oral contraceptives. Of the NNRTIs, efavirenz and nevirapine have been demonstrated to cause drug-drug interactions; however, etravirine and rilpivirine appear safe to use without dose adjustment. PIs boosted with ritonavir are not recommended to be used with oral contraceptives, with the exception of boosted atazanavir which should be used with doses of at least 35 µg of estrogen. Maraviroc, an entry inhibitor, is safe for co-administration with oral contraceptives, as are the integrase inhibitors (INIs) raltegravir and dolutegravir. However, the INI elvitegravir, which is given in combination with cobicistat, requires a dose of estrogen of at least 30 µg. Despite the growing evidence in this field, data are still lacking in terms of large cohort studies, randomised trials and correlations to real clinical outcomes, such as pregnancy rates, in women

  13. Contraceptive Characteristics of Women Living with HIV in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyimah, Akosua A.; Nakua, Emmanuel K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Otupiri, Easmon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Contraceptive use among women living with HIV is important to prevent the transmission of the infection to their partners, prevent unintended pregnancies and prevent the mother-to-child transmission of the infection. The study sought to determine the contraceptive characteristics of women living with HIV in the Kumasi metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2012 at two HIV/AIDS clinics in the Kumasi Metropolis in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Interviewer- administered questionnaires were used to collect data from two hundred and ninety five women. Data from one hundred and eighty three women living with HIV and who were sexually active were analyzed. Factors associated with contraceptive use were examined using logistic regression. Results: The overall contraceptive use was high; 84.7% were using a modern contraceptive method. The male condom was the commonest contraceptive method (77.0%) used and this was the main contraceptive method promoted at the HIV/AIDS clinic. Dual method usage was low (4.4%). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictor of contraceptive use was HIV status disclosure to partner (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07-0.87; p = 0.03). Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The integration of family planning and HIV/AIDS services could stress dual method use and encourage HIV status disclosure to partner.

  14. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  15. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  16. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D F

    1981-04-01

    Dermatologists often prescribe oral tetracycline for the control of acne, primarily, and to a much lesser extent, for the treatment of cutaneous infections. A number of the patients taking tetracycline are also taking birth control pills. A recent article in the British Medical Journal (1980;1:293) indicates that this combination can lead to a failure of the (OC) oral contraceptive. Such failure had been associated with ampicillin as well. It is believed that the mechanism for this was the disturbance in normal gut flora, with consequent effects on bacterial hydrolysis of steroid conjugates. This would interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids, resulting in a less than normal concentration of circulating steroids. It was recommended that women taking low-dose OCs take extra precautions against pregnancy during any cycle in which antibiotics are given. In regard to our care of and responsibilities to our patients, and in an era when malpractice suits for all types of reasons are more common, it certainly behooves dermatologists to recognize and be concerned about this potential consequence of prescribing oral antibiotics. PMID:7212735

  17. Intrauterine steroid contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Scholten, P C; Christaens, G C; Haspels, A A

    1987-11-15

    Progestagen releasing IUDs were specially developed to diminish the problems of bleeding and pain with inert and copper containing IUDs. The intrauterine release of the progestagen causes endometrial atrophy, resulting in impairment of nidation, and interferes with transport of the ovum and the spermatozoa. Two available types, Progestasert, Biograviplan (Alza Corporation, California; Grünenthal) and Levonorgestrel Nova-T (Leiras Pharmaceuticals, Finland), have been sufficiently tested in multinational trials. Compared with Progestasert, LNG Nova-T showed lower pregnancy rates (Pearl Index 0.30), less risk for ectopic pregnancy and a longer effective lifetime (7 years). With both IUDs the amount and duration of menstrual blood loss is decreased. Amenorrhea is a frequent occurring side effect of LNG Nova-T, caused by endometrial atrophy. Intermenstrual blood loss and spotting incidences are not uniformly reduced and are still a frequent reason for removal. Preinsertion counselling may improve the acceptance of these non-health-threatening side effects. With both IUDs a decrease of menstrual cramps during periods is percepted and a low incidence of PID is found. Basically, the progestagen releasing IUD can be recommended to all women who wish an IUD for contraception and to women with contraindications for oral contraceptives, especially to those with menorrhagia, anaemia or risk for anaemia. PMID:3131966

  18. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  19. [Contraception and pregnancy in adolescence

    PubMed

    Herter, L D; Accetta, S G

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss different contraceptive methods currently used by adolescents, and also discuss adolescent pregnancy, including the associated risks and the importance of prenatal care. METHODS: Review of literature and clinical experience with different contraceptive methods and with adolescent pregnancy. RESULTS: The oral contraceptive pill is the most common method used by teenagers due to its low failure rate and other non-contraceptive effects. Emergency contraception is a good option in cases of rape, unplanned sexual intercourse, condom rupture, nonuse of oral contraceptives during short intervals. In this case, the pill should be taken within 72 hours after the intercourse (preferably before 24 hours for best effect). Most problems related to adolescent pregnancy have a social or economic origin; however, some medical complications such as preterm labor and anemia are frequently reported. CONCLUSIONS: The use of male and female condoms combined with other contraceptive methods should be encouraged to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. If pregnancy is confirmed, prenatal care must be implemented as soon as possible in order to minimize the risks of complication and to allow for an effective multidisciplinary approach. PMID:14676880

  20. Contraceptive prevalence and preference in a cohort of south–east Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    Egede, John Okafor; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Dimejesi, Ikechukwu Benedict Okechukwu; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni

    2015-01-01

    Background Rates of fertility, population growth, and maternal deaths in Nigeria are among the highest in the world, with an estimated 4% of all births being unwanted and 7% mistimed. These are caused mainly by nonuse, inappropriate choice, and difficulty in accessing contraceptive commodities. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing the choice and sources of contraceptive options among market women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 330 market women of reproductive age in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A survey was carried out to identify their knowledge, use, and sources of contraception and the factors that influence their contraceptive practices. Results Knowledge of contraception was high (275 [83.3%]), and 229 (69.4%) of the study population approved of contraceptive use. However, only 93 (28.3%) of the respondents were currently using any form of contraception. Fifty-four women (16.3%) were using modern methods. The commonly used forms of modern contraception were the barrier method (male condoms, 27 [8.2%]), the oral contraceptive pill (10 [3.0%]), injectables (8 [2.5%]), and the intrauterine contraceptive device (7 [2.0%]). The most common source of contraceptive products was patent medicine dealers (58 [51%]). The main barriers to use of contraception were desire for more children (86 [26.1%]), religious prohibition (62 [18.8%]), spousal disapproval (32 [9.7%]), and the perceived side effects of modern contraceptives (25 [7.6%]). There was a significant association for approval of contraception when the model was adjusted for religion (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.84; P=0.02); educational status (OR 2.84, 95% CI 0.96–8.40; P=0.04); parity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.09–2.85; P=0.03); and social class (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.26–5.11; P=0.01). Conclusion There is good knowledge about contraception among Nigerian

  1. Emergency contraception: Focus on the facts.

    PubMed

    Najera, Deanna Bridge

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress on contraception, and in particular emergency contraception, has been made in the past decade. Emergency contraception was first introduced as a stand-alone prescription in 1998, and the interaction of politics and medicine meant a tumultuous course to the drug becoming available over the counter. This article reviews how emergency contraception works, the effectiveness of different methods, pros and cons, and the history of emergency contraception. PMID:26656383

  2. New contraceptive choices across reproductive life.

    PubMed

    Foran, Therese M

    2003-06-16

    The range of contraceptive options and consumer awareness of new contraceptive methods have both increased significantly over the past 10 years. New methods available in Australia include lower-dose oral contraceptive pills, new oral progestogens, progestogen implants, a progestogen-bearing intrauterine device and polyurethane female condoms. Contraceptive options which may soon be introduced in Australia include novel methods of administering combined (oestrogen-progestogen) contraception, such as dermal patches and vaginal rings. PMID:12797848

  3. Does the knowledge of emergency contraception affect its use among high school adolescents?

    PubMed

    Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; Santos, Osmara Alves Dos; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test how knowledge on emergency contraception (according to age at sexual initiation, type of school, and knowing someone that has already used emergency contraception) influences the method's use. This was a cross-sectional study in a probabilistic sample of students 15-19 years of age enrolled in public and private middle schools in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil (n = 307). Data were collected in 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equations model was used for the data analysis. Considering age at sexual initiation and type of school, knowledge of emergency contraception was not associated with its use, but knowing someone that had used the method showed a significant mean effect on use of emergency contraception. Peer group conversations on emergency contraception appear to have greater influence on use of the method than knowledge itself, economic status, or sexual experience. PMID:26886186

  4. [Pregnancy contraception (Current Care Guideline)].

    PubMed

    Halttunen-Nieminen, Mervi; Piltonen, Terhi; Alenius, Heidi; Apukka, Laura; Kosunen, Elise; Pietilä, Kirsi; Sihvo, Sinikka; Vuorela, Piia; Väänänen, Eija; Yli-Kivistö, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    There are no age limits for the start or use of contraception. Prior gynecological examination or cervical smear is not needed. Condom is the only method that protects from sexually transmitted diseases. An increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated only with combined contraceptives. However, the risk is remarkably higher with pregnancy, puerperium or with smoking. The most effective reversible methods are intrauterine devices (IUD) and implants, as these do not depend on daily memory. Natural family planning methods are not reliable, and effective contraception should be easily available for all at all times. PMID:27382829

  5. Correlates of functional status, self-management, and developmental competence outcomes in adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents with spina bifida (SB), a congenital spinal cord impairment, are at high risk for negative outcomes. Even those with favorable cognitive status often fail to achieve independence, exhibiting poor functional and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation outcomes (functional status, self-management, and developmental competence) and SB condition-specific, adolescent protective factors, and family protective factors in a sample of adolescents with SB. Individual, interpersonal, and social developmental competence were explored. Sixty-six adolescent/parent pairs were interviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and partial correlations controlling for age. All instruments had acceptable reliabilities. Factors associated with outcomes generally fell into two patterns. SB condition-specific variables and adolescent activities (e.g., decision-making, household responsibilities) were related to functional status, self-management, and social competence. In contrast, adolescent beliefs (hope, attitude, and communication efficacy) were predominantly related to individual, interpersonal, and overall developmental competence. PMID:14626030

  6. Barrier methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Skrine, R L

    1985-05-01

    Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline

  7. Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives-besides being well established contraceptives-seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD). Particular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia). Through perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers. In conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are - besides being reliable forms of contraception - are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice. PMID:23853619

  8. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  9. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  10. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  11. Socioeconomic Status Correlates with the Prevalence of Advanced Coronary Artery Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Nahed, Brian V.; Walcott, Brian P.; Coumans, Jean-Valery C. E.; Onuma, Oyere K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasingly studies have identified socioeconomic factors adversely affecting healthcare outcomes for a multitude of diseases. To date, however, there has not been a study correlating socioeconomic details from nationwide databases on the prevalence of advanced coronary artery disease. We seek to identify whether socioeconomic factors contribute to advanced coronary artery disease prevalence in the United States. Methods and Findings State specific prevalence data was queried form the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2009. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft were identified as principal procedures. Non-cardiac related procedures, lung lobectomy and hip replacement (partial and total) were identified and used as control groups. Information regarding prevalence was then merged with data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the largest, on-going telephone health survey system tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated for individual socioeconomic variables including employment status, level of education, and household income. Household income and education level were inversely correlated with the prevalence of percutaneous coronary angioplasty (−0.717; −0.787) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (−0.541; −0.618). This phenomenon was not seen in the non-cardiac procedure control groups. In multiple linear regression analysis, socioeconomic factors were significant predictors of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (p<0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions Socioeconomic status is related to the prevalence of advanced coronary artery disease as measured by the prevalence of percutaneous coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:23050011

  12. Contraceptive challenges in adolescents living with or at risk of HIV.

    PubMed

    Kancheva Landolt, Nadia; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents living with or without HIV are sexually active and in need of continuous free access to a variety of contraceptive methods. Dual contraception, condom use together with reversible effective contraception (hormonal contraception [HC] or intrauterine device), seems to be the most effective option for female adolescents for protection from unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. When counselling on specific contraceptive choice, healthcare providers should be aware about possible interactions of some types of HC with the immune system, with possible changes in infectivity, as well as about drug interactions between mainly efavirenz and some types of progestins. Adding HC to HIV-positive status and antiretroviral therapy could have additive effects on metabolism. At the same time, the possible disadvantages of using HC in women living with HIV should be balanced against the advantages of very reliable methods of preventing unintended pregnancies. To reach and deliver a contraceptive service to more young women, it has proven effective to organise adolescent-friendly clinics and/or integrate them with HIV services. Diverse approaches, including community-based contraceptive service provision and the use of modern technologies, can complement the effort of providing contraceptive services to this target group of female adolescents living with HIV or at risk of HIV. PMID:27482440

  13. [Guidance on use of contraceptive methods. What contraceptive method should be used?].

    PubMed

    Osler, M

    1991-02-18

    Advice on contraceptive methods must take into consideration the general health status of the woman, including adiposity, blood pressure, smoking, and medications used. Age and previous births or abortions, for instance, have a bearing on choosing the IUD. The stability of the relationship with the partner or spouse is important with regard to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The couple's preference is of prime importance. Information about different methods for all age groups is available in the form of books, videos, and films. Educational materials for students is a high priority, because a timely and through knowledge of protection prevents future problems. The sensational stories and unbalanced reports on sexuality by the daily press is often harmful. The method chosen has to be effective, easy to use, inexpensive and free of risks and side effects. The introduction of low-dose oral contraceptives has minimized risks, and fears about side effects have been exaggerated. A detailed tallying of the risks and benefits creates uncertainty in the patient, and thus increases the risk of noncompliance. The correct use of the condom and the diaphragm requires care. If some basic rules were observed, the number of abortions per year could decrease from 20,000 to 10,000-15,000. These guidelines include: high efficacy, protection against STDs, postcoital contraception in case of omission, regular annual medical checkups, taking no chances with unprotected sex and considering sterilization when family size has been completed. PMID:2008750

  14. [Oral contraceptives: knowledge and compliance].

    PubMed

    Koch, T; Marslew, U; Nielsen, M R

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and twenty (120) women, taking contraceptive pills, underwent a structured interview with a view elucidating their knowledge of the physiology of menstruation, the action and side effects of contraceptive pills and their compliance in the taking of contraceptive pills. The most important sources of information were the medical letters in magazines and the women's own doctors, while the teaching in the Folkeskole (primary and lower secondary school) had not had any major influence on the level of information. Well over one third of the interviewed women knew the most important action mechanism of the contraceptive pill, and half of the women could give a satisfactory explanation of the physiology of menstruation. Twenty-four percent (24%) thought that pregnancy could not occur until 1-2 months after the woman had ceased taking the pill. There was high compliance among the women i.e. that their behavior was correct when they had forgotten to take one or two contraceptive pills, when bleeding was irregular, and when beginning on a new package of pills. Eighty-three percent (83%) had experienced side effects that could be related to contraceptive pills. The investigation shows that there is a need for more efficient information about the effects of the Pill and about the physiology of menstruation. PMID:8236575

  15. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. PMID:26947703

  16. Antecedents of Adolescent Initiation of Sex, Contraceptive Use, and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature to identify the most important antecedents associated with adolescent initiation of sex, contraception use, and pregnancy. Results indicate that over 100 antecedents create a complex, detailed picture of the correlates of adolescent sexual behaviors. They describe characteristics of adolescents themselves, their partners,…

  17. Contraceptive practices among women seeking termination of pregnancy in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ebenezer O.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significantly high contraceptive knowledge in South Africa, but the uptake of contraceptives is average to low with resultant soaring of unplanned pregnancy and rising statistics of termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. This study aimed to establish the contraceptive practices among women in the South African population seeking TOP in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among women seeking TOP in a women’s clinic. Self-administered questionnaires were used as data collection tool, and the data collected were entered into SPSS software for analysis, using descriptive statistics to calculate frequencies and percentages while chi-square test was used to determine the associations between the socio-demography and contraceptive practices of the participants. Results Majority of the women were aged between 20 and 29 years, had secondary education, unemployed, single and resided in townships. Contraceptive uptake prior to termination of pregnancy (CTOP) among them was 44.1%, but 85.8% had good contraceptives knowledge. Their contraceptive practices are determined by partner’s opinion, source and availability of contraceptives, previous CTOP, side effect of contraceptives and having children. Age group, educational level and employment status were found to be related to the contraceptive practices of the participants but were not statistically significant. Conclusion To reduce unplanned pregnancies and subsequent number of women seeking CTOP, the socio-economic factors associated with contraceptive practices as well as the programmes, policies and guidelines of contraceptives need to be improved on for any improvement on the factors determining contraceptive practices. PMID:27608676

  18. Balancing the present and the future: a study of contraceptive use in Calcutta's slums.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2011-01-01

    Calcutta, an important metropolitan city in eastern India, has a large slum population. Despite the poor economic status of this population, analysis of DHS data (2004-2005) reveals that contraceptive use levels in Calcutta slums is quite high, with a large proportion preferring terminal methods. Econometric analysis reveals that cultural factors are important determinants of contraceptive use. Results also indicate that respondents attempt to balance current needs (by trying to limit family size through use of contraceptives) but also try to provide for the future (by having at least one son before adopting family planning methods). PMID:21677526

  19. Urban adolescent females' views on the implant and contraceptive decision-making: a double paradox.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H; Miller, S; Martinez, E; Loeb, L; Darney, P

    1997-01-01

    Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to explore the decline in popularity of the contraceptive implant in a clinic-based sample of 41 ethnically diverse, urban, sexually active adolescents. While these teenagers' socioeconomic status and patterns of inconsistent contraceptive use made them potentially ideal implant recipients, they were unlikely to select this method. Negative media reports about the method were less influential than social conditions such as peer perspectives and gender relations. Oral networks that propagated misinformation went unchallenged because of the silence of satisfied users. Personal factors such as future orientation, autonomous decision-making and value of control also influenced contraceptive decision-making. PMID:9258648

  20. Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge, Contraception Uptake, and Factors Associated with Unmet Need for Modern Contraception among Adolescent Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Megan S. C.; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Kennedy, Elissa; Li, Yan; Yang, Yin; Li, Lin; Li, Yun-Xia; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective In China, policy and social taboo prevent unmarried adolescents from accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Research is needed to determine the SRH needs of highly disadvantaged groups, such as adolescent female sex workers (FSWs). This study describes SRH knowledge, contraception use, pregnancy, and factors associated with unmet need for modern contraception among adolescent FSWs in Kunming, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed to recruit adolescents aged 15 to 20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine correlates of low knowledge and unmet need for modern contraception. Results SRH knowledge was poor among the 310 adolescents surveyed; only 39% had heard of any long-acting reversible contraception (implant, injection or IUD). Despite 98% reporting not wanting to get pregnant, just 43% reported consistent condom use and 28% currently used another form of modern contraception. Unmet need for modern contraception was found in 35% of adolescents, and was associated with having a current non-paying partner, regular alcohol use, and having poorer SRH knowledge. Past abortion was common (136, 44%). In the past year, 76% had reported a contraception consultation but only 27% reported ever receiving SRH information from a health service. Conclusions This study demonstrated a low level of SRH knowledge, a high unmet need for modern contraception and a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among adolescent FSWs in Kunming. Most girls relied on condoms, emergency contraception, or traditional methods, putting them at risk of unwanted pregnancy. This study identifies an urgent need for Chinese adolescent FSWs to be able to access quality SRH information and effective modern

  1. Vitamin D Status Is Negatively Correlated with Insulin Resistance in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ye, Jianhong; Guo, Gang; Lan, Zhenhao; Li, Xing; Pan, Zhiming; Rao, Xianming; Luo, Fangtao; Lin, Luping; Lin, Zhihua; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Vitamin D deficiency plays a role in insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Little information is available about the association between vitamin D status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Currently, vitamin D status is evaluated by the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. This study explores the relationship between insulin resistance and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects and Methods. This study included 117 patients with type 2 diabetes. The following variables were measured: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting blood insulin (FINS), fasting blood C-peptide, serum creatinine (SCr), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI), and homeostatic model estimates of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. The cases were divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1) with 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/mL [≤50 nmol/L], Group 2 (G2) with 25(OH)D values from 20 ng/mL [50 nmol/L] to 30 ng/mL [75 nmol/L], and Group 3 (G3) with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL [≥75 nmol/L], with 52.6%, 26.3%, and 21.1% of subjects in Groups 1–3, respectively. There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR (β = −0.314, p = 0.001) adjusted by age, BMI, and eGFR. Conclusion. Better vitamin D status may be protective of glucose homeostasis since 25(OH)D was negatively associated with insulin resistance in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27413370

  2. Vitamin D Status Is Negatively Correlated with Insulin Resistance in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Ye, Jianhong; Guo, Gang; Lan, Zhenhao; Li, Xing; Pan, Zhiming; Rao, Xianming; Zheng, Zongji; Luo, Fangtao; Lin, Luping; Lin, Zhihua; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Vitamin D deficiency plays a role in insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Little information is available about the association between vitamin D status and insulin resistance in the Chinese population. Currently, vitamin D status is evaluated by the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. This study explores the relationship between insulin resistance and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects and Methods. This study included 117 patients with type 2 diabetes. The following variables were measured: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBS), fasting blood insulin (FINS), fasting blood C-peptide, serum creatinine (SCr), glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI), and homeostatic model estimates of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. The cases were divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1) with 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/mL [≤50 nmol/L], Group 2 (G2) with 25(OH)D values from 20 ng/mL [50 nmol/L] to 30 ng/mL [75 nmol/L], and Group 3 (G3) with 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL [≥75 nmol/L], with 52.6%, 26.3%, and 21.1% of subjects in Groups 1-3, respectively. There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and HOMA-IR (β = -0.314, p = 0.001) adjusted by age, BMI, and eGFR. Conclusion. Better vitamin D status may be protective of glucose homeostasis since 25(OH)D was negatively associated with insulin resistance in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27413370

  3. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  4. Television and contraception.

    PubMed

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  5. Microstructural Status of Ipsilesional and Contralesional Corticospinal Tract Correlates with Motor Skill in Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Fricker, Zachary P.; Perdue, Katherine L.; Helmer, Karl G.; Vangel, Mark G.; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Greater loss in structural integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) is associated with poorer motor outcome in hemiparetic stroke patients. Animal models of stroke have demonstrated that structural remodeling of white matter in the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres is associated with improved motor recovery. Accordingly, motor recovery in stroke patients may relate to the relative strength of CST degeneration and remodeling. This study examined the relationship between microstructural status of brain white matter tracts, indexed by the fractional anisotropy (FA) metric derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, and motor skill of the stroke-affected hand in chronic stroke patients. Voxelwise analysis revealed that motor skill significantly and positively correlated with FA of the ipsilesional and contralesional CST in the patients. Additional voxelwise analyses showed that patients with poorer motor skill had reduced FA of bilateral CST compared to normal control subjects whereas patients with better motor skill had elevated FA of bilateral CST compared to controls. These findings were confirmed using a DTI-tractography method applied to the CST in both hemispheres. The results of this study suggest that the level of motor skill recovery achieved in hemiparetic stroke patients relates to microstructural status of the CST in both the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres, which may reflect the net effect of degeneration and remodeling of bilateral CST. PMID:19370766

  6. Long-acting contraceptive options.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1996-01-01

    Long-acting contraceptive methods are appropriate choices for women who prefer the convenience and high contraceptive efficacy of methods not requiring frequent compliance, and women for whom contraceptive doses of estrogen are either medically contraindicated or associated with persistent intolerable side effects. Annual pregnancy rates for the three methods described below are less than 1 per 100 woman-years. As currently formulated, levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) consist of six 34 x 2.4 mm soft plastic implants, each filled with 36 mg of crystalline levonorgestrel. Irregular and often persistent menstrual bleeding and spotting constitute the most important side effects experienced by and leading to method discontinuation in implant users. Implant removal is technically more difficult and time-consuming than insertion. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA or Depo-Provera) is injected as an aqueous suspension of microcrystals. Intramuscular injection of 150 mg of DMPA results in more than 3 months of contraception. Irregular bleeding and spotting followed by amenorrhea, constitute the most importance side effects experienced by DMPA users. Because DMPA use can result in prolonged (but not permanent) infertility, DMPA is not an optimum contraceptive choice for women who may want to conceive in the next one or two years. The Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD) provides reversible contraception for up to 10 years. IUDs act as contraceptives, not early abortafacients. Recent epidemiologic data indicate that long-term IUD use does not increase the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease. Heavier menstrual flow and cramps constitute the main side effects experienced by women using the copper IUD. Intrauterine device insertion and removal are accomplished during brief office-based procedures. PMID:8829701

  7. Contraceptive research and development.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J

    1979-05-01

    Contraceptive research and development is primarily performed at universities and research councils due to the cost and time involved for industry and philanthropic organizations to bring drugs to market. Promising fundamental research includes immunization of women against chorionic gonadotrophin in order to disrupt the embryo in early pregnancy. Post-coital drugs, such as Anordrin, are also being developed for situations involving low-coital frequency. Once-a-month formulas are being developed to 1) exert a direct luteolytic effect on the corpus luteum; 2) interfere with the luteotrophic action of the implanting blastocyst; 3) inhibit the progestational development of the endometrium during the luteal phase of the cycle; or 4) exert a specific toxic effect on the early embryo. Methods for detecting ovulation incuding urine and saliva tests as well as electronic devices to measure the blood flow or temperature associated with ovulation are also being explored. Reversible fertility control for men which suppress the pituitary function is under investigation. Applied research includes the design and assessment of alternate delivery systems such as intranasal sprays, intracervical devices, paper pills, vaginal rings, and biodegradable subdermal implants. In addition, long-acting injectable progestins, improved IUDs, and improved sterilization techniques are all being tested. With future funds, the comparative safety, efficacy, and acceptability of various fertility methods can be established. PMID:387168

  8. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small. PMID:12278397

  9. Family size, sex composition of children and contraceptive use: a case study of Kerala.

    PubMed

    Suchindran, C M; Ramakumar, R; Sathi Devi, K

    1993-01-01

    With the sudden decline of fertility it was particularly interesting to examine the situation in Kerala, regarding parental sex preference in formulating family planning policies for the rest of India with high fertility and son preference. The 1980 Kerala Fertility Survey included nearly 3000 households with about 2700 ever married women in reproductive age. Maternity history and fertility regulation data were collected. Data from 2500 currently married women were used, cross-classified by the number of male and female living children and contraceptive use status. A multiplicative model was used to study various interaction effects and to construct standardized rates of contraceptive use. Measures adjusted for both male and female composition and differential use of contraceptives among male-female combinations were obtained by the model to avoid arbitrariness in choosing rates and to preclude objections raised in previous research on Arnold's index. The model was generalized to facilitate simultaneous effects of the number of male and female children and family size on contraceptive use. Initial analysis showed that the effect of sex preference on contraceptive acceptance was rather negligible. However, there was a significant male-female interaction effect on contraceptive use. Contraception was high when the family size was large, with children of the same sex. With the effect of family size removed, the contraceptive use rate seemed to be in the inverse direction of the number of male or female children. This was possibly the result of two factors: 1) high contraception rate with large families of the same sex, and 2) low use of contraception among large families with a high number of children of both sexes. The Kerala situation partly supports McClelland's theory that couples already having proportionally more daughters may terminate fertility earlier. In Kerala such termination also occurs when couples have proportionally more sons, and family size also

  10. Placental heme receptor LRP1 correlates with the heme exporter FLVCR1 and neonatal iron status.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Guillet, Ronnie; Westerman, Mark; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-09-01

    LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a transmembrane receptor highly expressed in human placenta. It was recently found to be the receptor for heme and its plasma-binding protein hemopexin (Hx) and is integral to systemic heme clearance. Little is known about systemic concentrations of Hx during pregnancy and whether maternal Hx and placental LRP1 contributes to fetal iron (Fe) homeostasis during pregnancy. We hypothesized that placental LRP1 would be upregulated in maternal/neonatal Fe insufficiency and would be related to maternal circulating Hx. Placental LRP1 expression was assessed in 57 pregnant adolescents (14-18 years) in relationship with maternal and cord blood Fe status indicators (hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, transferrin receptor), the Fe regulatory hormone hepcidin and serum Hx. Hx at mid-gestation correlated positively with Hb at mid-gestation (r=0.35, P=0.02) and Hx at delivery correlated positively with cord hepcidin (r=0.37, P=0.005). Placental LRP1 protein expression was significantly higher in women who exhibited greater decreases in serum Hx from mid-gestation to term (r=0.28, P=0.04). Significant associations were also found between placental LRP1 protein with cord hepcidin (r=-0.29, P=0.03) and placental heme exporter feline leukemia virus C receptor 1 (r=0.34, P=0.03). Our data are consistent with a role for placental heme Fe utilization in supporting fetal Fe demands. PMID:24947444

  11. Behavioral Correlates of Primates Conservation Status: Intrinsic Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Threats.

    PubMed

    Lootvoet, Amélie Christelle; Philippon, Justine; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral traits are likely to influence species vulnerability to anthropogenic threats and in consequence, their risk of extinction. Several studies have addressed this question and have highlighted a correlation between reproductive strategies and different viability proxies, such as introduction success and local extinction risk. Yet, very few studies have investigated the effective impact of social behaviour, and evidence regarding global extinction risk remains scant. Here we examined the effects of three main behavioral factors: the group size, the social and reproductive system, and the strength of sexual selection on global extinction risk. Using Primates as biological model, we performed comparative analysis on 93 species. The conservation status as described by the IUCN Red List was considered as a proxy for extinction risk. In addition, we added previously identified intrinsic factors of vulnerability to extinction, and a measure of the strength of the human impact for each species, described by the human footprint. Our analysis highlighted a significant effect of two of the three studied behavioral traits, group size and social and reproductive system. Extinction risk is negatively correlated with mean group size, which may be due to an Allee effect resulting from the difficulties for solitary and monogamous species to find a partner at low densities. Our results also indicate that species with a flexible mating system are less vulnerable. Taking into account these behavioral variables is thus of high importance when establishing conservation plans, particularly when assessing species relative vulnerability. PMID:26444966

  12. Behavioral Correlates of Primates Conservation Status: Intrinsic Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Threats

    PubMed Central

    Lootvoet, Amélie Christelle; Philippon, Justine; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral traits are likely to influence species vulnerability to anthropogenic threats and in consequence, their risk of extinction. Several studies have addressed this question and have highlighted a correlation between reproductive strategies and different viability proxies, such as introduction success and local extinction risk. Yet, very few studies have investigated the effective impact of social behaviour, and evidence regarding global extinction risk remains scant. Here we examined the effects of three main behavioral factors: the group size, the social and reproductive system, and the strength of sexual selection on global extinction risk. Using Primates as biological model, we performed comparative analysis on 93 species. The conservation status as described by the IUCN Red List was considered as a proxy for extinction risk. In addition, we added previously identified intrinsic factors of vulnerability to extinction, and a measure of the strength of the human impact for each species, described by the human footprint. Our analysis highlighted a significant effect of two of the three studied behavioral traits, group size and social and reproductive system. Extinction risk is negatively correlated with mean group size, which may be due to an Allee effect resulting from the difficulties for solitary and monogamous species to find a partner at low densities. Our results also indicate that species with a flexible mating system are less vulnerable. Taking into account these behavioral variables is thus of high importance when establishing conservation plans, particularly when assessing species relative vulnerability. PMID:26444966

  13. College Students’ Perceptions of Emergency Contraception Provision

    PubMed Central

    Vahratian, Anjel; Patel, Divya A.; Wolff, Kristen; Xu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Background & Objective The authors examined college students’ perceptions regarding emergency contraception (EC) provision in light of the then-pending U.S. Food and Drug Administration decision regarding over-the-counter (OTC) status of EC. Methods We randomly sampled 7,000 male and female students who were enrolled full-time at the University of Michigan during the Winter 2006 semester. A total of 1,585 (22.6%) students responded to our web-based survey, and were included in these descriptive analyses. Results Nearly all (94%) respondents knew of EC. When asked whether EC should be made available OTC, 60% of respondents agreed, 23% disagreed, and 17% were unsure. If EC were to be made available OTC, 34% of respondents indicated that they (or their partner) would purchase EC in advance of need while 44% stated that they would purchase it only after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Advance discussion and provision of EC is underutilized. Only 10% of all female respondents indicated that their current health care provider had spoken to them about EC in a routine health visit and just 5% of female respondents were offered a supply of EC in advance of need. Conclusion Continued efforts are needed to ensure timely access to EC in this population. PMID:18240987

  14. Effects of Contraceptive Education on Adolescent Male Contraceptive Behavior and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between contraceptive education and teenage male contraceptive behavior was investigated. Findings indicated that brief or moderately in-depth contraceptive education had little effect on contraceptive behavior. The teenage pregnancy and other sex-related problems may make parents and schools more amenable to comprehensive…

  15. Contraception--the morning after.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H

    1984-01-01

    Although no postcoital method has been developed for safe and effective regular use, postcoital contraception is being offered in Canada and Western Europe on an emergency basis to people who experience such problems as a burst condom. It is little known in the US, however. The 1st commercial version of a postcoital method recently became available to women in England. A former postcoital contraceptive was diethylstilbestrol (DES) which has been linked to cancer in the daughters of women who had taken the drug to prevent miscarriage. A new postcoital contraceptive regime was developed by Albert Yuzpe and consists of 4 ordinary contraceptive pills combining estrogen and progestin to be taken over a 12-hour period. In the US, this is the formulaion of birth control pill marketed under the trade name Ovral by Wyeth Laboratories. England and Germany are the only countries in which the Yuzpe method is officially approved for use as an emergency postocital contraceptive, but the method is used to some degree in most European countries, being well-known in France and Denmark. The most frequent side-effect reported by Yuzpe is vomiting experienced by 29% of women; another 22% felt nauseated. Other side effects, e.g. headache, were infrequent. The findings of the Pregnancy Advisory Service and the Brook Advisory Centre in Britain are reported. Overall very few side effects were found. Postcoital contraceptive treatment may cause the length of the cycle in which it occurs to be irregular. Treatment before day 15 has been found to shorten the cycle, whereas treatment after day 15 lengthens it. The majority of women who become pregnant due to treatment failure tend to seek an abortion. Ectopic pregnancy incidence may also be a result of treatment failure. In 1981, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) issued a statement endorsing the use of postcoital contraceptives. Reasons for using them include rape, problems with barrier methods, ineffective use of the

  16. Valued outcomes in the selection of a contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Wall, E M

    1984-09-01

    An open-ended questionnaire was distributed to 23 women in a private family practice and a family practice residence program to identify the important concerns associated with selecting a contraceptive method. All the women had some experience with contraception. A list of 93 factors was compiled from their responses. 7 women from the sample then were asked to reduce this list by eliminating duplicated and vague statements. 24 factors were finally selected. From these, a 2-part questionnaire was developed and pretested (N=8) for clarity and comprehensiveness. The 1st part of the questionnaire solicited women's perceptions of the likelihood that each concern or outcome would result from using each of 4 contraceptive methods -- diaphragm, oral contraceptive, IUD, or foam and condom -- on a scale ranging from 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good) independent of contraceptive method. Also included were questions pertaining to the respondent's age, marital status, parity, contraception used, and satisfaction with current method. The questionnaire was then distributed to 106 women from a private family practice, a family practice residency program, and a high school physical education class who represented a wide range of contraceptive experience. Subject selection was restricted to nonpregnant women aged 45 years and younger for whom contraception would be a relevant concern. Most of the women were young, single, and childless. The vast majority were using some form of contraception. Oral contraceptive (OC) users constituted about half of the sampled population, followed by those using a diaphragm. Most women appeared satisfied with their chosen method. All methods were perceived as unlikely to compromise a woman's moral or religious beliefs or influence the stability of her relationship. The diaphragm and foam/condoms were felt to be less convenient principally due to their interference with the spontaneity of intercourse. There also was perceived a higher likelihood of

  17. [Ictus, pregnancy and contraception].

    PubMed

    Pareja, A; Láinez, J M

    1995-01-01

    Ictus is a severe complication of pregnancy and the puerperium and a significant cause of maternal mortality. The risk of ictus increases by 3-13 times during pregnancy because of a tendency toward hypercoagulability, hemodynamic alterations related to increased blood volume, and severe arterial hypertension. This work outlines the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular pathology, cerebral venous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular pathology occurring during pregnancy. Risk factors are indicated. The role of oral contraceptives (OCs) as a risk factor for cerebrovascular pathology is then discussed. Various prospective and retrospective studies to establish the causal or casual relationship between OC use and ictus have been published since 1962. Two important studies published in 1969 found a statistically significant increased relative risk of ischemic cerebrovascular accident in OC users. The Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women included hemorrhagic ictus in a retrospective study for the first time in 1973, finding that the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident was significantly greater in OC users. In 1975, using the same sample, the group found a positive relation between increased blood pressure and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic events in OC users. The largest prospective study, begun by the Royal College of General Practitioners in England in 1968, found an increased risk of mortality from circulatory diseases in OC users, with mortality risks for coronary ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage statistically significant. The study found that the use of OCs increased the risk of fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in women over 35 who smoked. Other prospective studies found an increased incidence of nonfatal cerebrovascular accident, with relative risks for all cerebrovascular accidents ranging from 5 to 6.5. A recent continuation of the Royal College Study found that

  18. Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival.

    PubMed

    Bomken, Simon; Davies, Beverley; Chong, Leeai; Cole, Michael; Wood, Katrina M; McDermott, Michael; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with ≥ 60% necrosis or ≥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. PMID:21214410

  19. Cold chain monitoring of OPV at transit levels in India: correlation of VVM and potency status.

    PubMed

    Jain, R; Sahu, A K; Tewari, S; Malik, N; Singh, S; Khare, S; Bhatia, R

    2003-12-01

    We have conducted a study to analyze monitoring of the cold chain of 674 OPV field samples collected at four different levels of vaccine distribution viz., immunization clinics, district stores, hospitals and Primary Health Centers (PHC) from states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi. The study design included: collection and scoring of vaccine vial monitor (VVM) status of the samples and testing for total oral polio virus concentration (TOPV) by standard WHO protocol. Ten samples each were exposed to 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and 10 samples as controls were kept at -20 degrees C. VVM were scored daily till they attained grade 4 and each sample was subsequently subjected to potency testing for individual polio serotypes 1, 2 and 3, and TOPV. Of the 674 samples tested it was observed that: samples from immunization clinics and district stores had an acceptable VVM score of grade 1 and 2; however the probable risk that a sub potent vaccine could have been administered was 2.15%. In 2.5% samples received from district stores vaccine had a VVM score of grade 3 (i.e., discard point), although vaccine when tested was found to be potent (i.e., leading to the vaccine wastage). With exposure to higher temperatures, VVM changed score to grade 2 and 3 when the vaccine was kept at 25 degrees C/37 degrees C, and the titres of individual serotypes 1, 2 and 3 and TOPV were beyond the acceptable limits. Important observations at the different levels of vaccine distribution network and correlation of VVM and potency status of OPV are discussed in the paper which will be of help to the EPI program managers at different transit levels. PMID:14624793

  20. Teen Council urges improved contraceptive accessibility.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The Center for Population Option's (CPO) Teen Council conducted a survey of contraceptive accessibility in 45 pharmacies and 15 convenience stores in the Washington D.C. area. The survey focussed on where nonprescription contraceptives are located in the stores, whether condoms and spermicidal contraceptives are displayed on the same shelf, how clerks treat teenagers when buying contraceptives, the price of condoms, and whether signs indicate where contraceptives are located. Besides learning that finding contraceptives is difficult for teenagers, the survey revealed that teenagers often experience negative behavior from clerks, especially female teenagers when confronted with male clerks. Based on the results of the survey, the CPO Teen Council met with regional representatives of drug and convenience store chains to suggest ways to make contraceptives more accessible to teens. Since only 13% of the stores surveyed had signs clearly marking where contraceptives are, the Council recommended that all stores clearly mark the aisles where contraceptives are. Additionally, it suggested placing all contraceptives on the same shelf. According to the survey 35% of the pharmacies and 32% of the convenience stores had condoms behind the counter. Since teenagers are often reluctant to ask for them because of the fear of being judged by clerks, the Council suggested placing contraceptives where teens can buy them without having to ask for them. In addition, it recommended that clerks treat teens with the same respect as older customers when purchasing contraceptives. The Council also suggested that pamphlets and information on sexually transmitted diseases be available. PMID:12282042

  1. Associations between recent contraceptive use and quality of life among women

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sanithia L.; Parisi, Sara M.; Hess, Rachel; Schwarz, E. Bimla

    2011-01-01

    Background Whether contraception affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is unclear. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of routine intake data collected from women aged 18–50 years, including the RAND-36 measure of HRQoL, pregnancy intentions, and recent contraceptive use. We used multivariable logistic regression to test the relationship between HRQoL and use of any and specific contraceptives. Physical and mental HRQoL were dichotomized based on U.S. population averages. Models were adjusted for age, race, marital status, education and pregnancy intentions. Results Among the 726 women, those using any form of contraception were more likely to have average or better mental HRQoL than women using no contraception (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 2.53). Women using injectable contraception were less likely than those using combined hormonal methods to have average or better physical HRQoL (aOR=0.26, 95% CI 0.09, 0.80) and mental-HRQoL (aOR=0.24, 95% CI 0.06, 0.86). Conclusions Measures of women’s HRQoL differ with contraceptive use. PMID:22067760

  2. Social and Physical Environmental Correlates of Adults’ Weekend Sitting Time and Moderating Effects of Retirement Status and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55–65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55–65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = −0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55–65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research. PMID:25243886

  3. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-telomere association correlates with redox status in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA. PMID:25775131

  4. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Telomere Association Correlates with Redox Status in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA. PMID:25775131

  5. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  6. [Contraceptive pill amenorrhea--does it exist?].

    PubMed

    Fries, H; Nillius, S J

    1975-11-01

    The possibility of amenorrhea as a direct result of discontinuing oral contraceptives is discussed and its etiology is explored. In a study of 1860 women in Uppsala county in Sweden, 16% of the amenorrhea cases among these women could be temporally related to the discontinuation of oral contraceptive use. Earlier irregularities of menstruation and psychological stress are discussed as indications that "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" could occur. Loss of weight, often combined with symptoms of anorexia nervosa, is also a frequent indication of susceptibility to "contraceptive pill amenorrhea." The possibility of "contraceptive pill amenorrhea" as an iatrogenic syndrome is discussed. PMID:1186384

  7. Practice Bulletin Summary No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (1-3). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (4-6). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers. PMID:26287780

  8. Practice Bulletin No. 152: Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Emergency contraception, also known as postcoital contraception, is therapy used to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected act of sexual intercourse. Common indications for emergency contraception include contraceptive failure (eg, condom breakage or missed doses of oral contraceptives) and failure to use any form of contraception (). Although oral emergency contraception was first described in the medical literature in the 1960s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 1998. Since then, several new products have been introduced. Methods of emergency contraception include oral administration of combined estrogen-progestin, progestin only, or selective progesterone receptor modulators and insertion of a copper intrauterine device (IUD). Many women are unaware of the existence of emergency contraception, misunderstand its use and safety, or do not use it when a need arises (). The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of available methods of emergency contraception and to increase awareness of these methods among obstetrician-gynecologists and other gynecologic providers. PMID:26287787

  9. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  10. FastStats: Contraceptive Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Growth [PDF - 723 KB] Use of Emergency Contraception Among Women Aged 15–44: United States, 2006–2010 Related Links National Survey of Family Growth CDC Division of Reproductive Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  11. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP

  12. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. I. Correlation of physiological responses with cochlear status.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R K; Javel, E

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate evoked potential and single fibre responses to biphasic current pulses in animals with varying degrees of cochlear pathology, and to correlate any differences in the physiological response with status of the auditory nerve. Six cats, whose cochleae ranged from normal to a severe neural loss (< 5% spiral ganglion survival), were used. Morphology of the electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) was similar across all animals, although electrophonic responses were only observed from the normal animal. In animals with extensive neural pathology, EABR thresholds were elevated and response amplitudes throughout the dynamic range were moderately reduced. Analysis of single VIIIth nerve fibre responses were based on 207 neurons. Spontaneous discharge rates among fibres depended on hearing status, with the majority of fibres recorded from deafened animals exhibiting little or no spontaneous activity. Electrical stimulation produced a monotonic increase in discharge rate, and a systematic reduction in response latency and temporal jitter as a function of stimulus intensity for all fibres examined. Short-duration current pulses elicited a highly synchronous response (latency < 0.7 ms), with a less well synchronized response sometimes present (0.7-1.1 ms). There were, however, a number of significant differences between responses from normal and deafened cochleae. Electrophonic activity was only present in recordings from the normal animal, while mean threshold, dynamic range and latency of the direct electrical response varied with cochlear pathology. Differences in the ability of fibres to follow high stimulation rates were also observed; while neurons from the normal cochlea were capable of 100% entrainment at high rates (600-800 pulses per second (pps)), fibres recorded from deafened animals were often not capable of such entrainment at rates above 400 pps. Finally, a number of fibres in deafened animals showed

  13. Single-Cell Cytokine Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Cells Correlates with Latent Tuberculosis Status

    PubMed Central

    Lakehal, Karim; Davidow, Amy L.; Pine, Richard; Tyagi, Sanjay; Bushkin, Yuri; Lardizabal, Alfred; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    RNA flow cytometry (FISH-Flow) achieves high-throughput measurement of single-cell gene expression by combining in-situ nucleic acid hybridization with flow cytometry. We tested whether antigen-specific T-cell responses detected by FISH-Flow correlated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), a condition affecting one-third of the world population. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from donors, identified as positive or negative for LTBI by current medical practice, were stimulated ex vivo with mycobacterial antigen. IFNG and IL2 mRNA production was assayed by FISH-Flow. Concurrently, immunophenotypes of the cytokine mRNA-positive cells were characterized by conventional, antibody-based staining of cell-surface markers. An association was found between donor LTBI status and antigen-specific induction of IFNG and IL2 transcripts. Induction of these cytokine genes, which was detected by FISH-Flow in a quarter the time required to see release of the corresponding proteins by ELISA, occurred primarily in activated CD4+ T cells via T-cell receptor engagement. Moreover, NK cells contributed to IFNG gene induction. These results show that antigen-driven induction of T-cell cytokine mRNA is a measurable single-cell parameter of the host responses associated with latent tuberculosis. FISH-Flow read-outs contribute a multi-scale dimension to the immunophenotyping afforded by antibody-based flow cytometry. Multi-scale, single-cell analyses may satisfy the need to determine disease stage and therapy response for tuberculosis and other infectious pathologies. PMID:26658491

  14. Expressing Status and Correlation of ARID1A and Histone H2B on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Gu, Yan; Guo, Shanyu; Dai, Qiancheng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    ARID1A is one of the important cancer-related genes and regulates transcription of certain genes by altering chromatin structure. Inactivated mutations and decreased expression of ARID1A gene have been reported in several kinds of cancer. Histone H2B is a major component of chromatin and encoded by HIST1H2BE. The goal of the study is to evaluate expressing status of ARID1A and H2B as well as their correlation on breast cancer. Gene expression profiles of ARID1A and H2B on Oncomine database are analyzed. Tissue microarray of breast cancer was used for examination of ARID1A and H2B expression by immunohistochemistry. As a result, the disagreement of ARID1A expression was found, while HIST1H2BE expression is elevated in 4 out of 5 datasets on Oncomine database. There were 15 cases (20%) of breast cancers that were positive for ARID1A. Fifty-eight out of 75 cases of breast cancer (77.3%) were highly expressed for H2B protein and 17 cases (22.7%) were low expressed for H2B protein. All cases with ARID1A expression are overlapped with H2B high expression. Among 15 cases with ARID1A and H2B coexpression, 13 are invasive ductal carcinoma and 2 are mucinous carcinoma. Our results indicate that ARID1A gene may be involved in carcinogenesis of some subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:26904685

  15. Contraceptive practices amongst HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy attending an ART clinic in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; van der Linde, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective contraceptive practices amongst HIV-positive women of reproductive age have been shown to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV by preventing unplanned pregnancies. However, most antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes focus on treatment, neglecting comprehensive contraceptive services. This results in a high frequency of pregnancies amongst HIV-positive women attending the ART clinic of a regional hospital north of Durban. Objectives This research aimed to explore contraceptive use amongst HIV-positive women attending an ART clinic by determining, (1) prevalence of contraceptive use, (2) pregnancy rate, (3) contraceptive preferences and (4) factors associated with contraceptive use. Methods In this observational, analytical, cross-sectional study of 420 women, aged 15 to 49 years, participants were selected by systematic random sampling. They completed standardised questionnaires. Results Of all participants, 95% of the participants used contraception. Factors associated with contraceptive practice were knowledge of HIV status 292 (72.8%), health worker advice 84 (20.9%), and spousal insistence 33 (8.2%). Of the 130 women (31%) who had fallen pregnant whilst on ART, 73 (56.2%) said that the pregnancy had been unplanned, whilst 57 (43.8%) had wanted to fall pregnant because of: partner's insistence (45.6%), desire for a child (36.8%), desire to conceal HIV status (15.8%), not wanting to die childless (5.3%), and death of a previous child (1.8%). Conclusion Contraceptive use amongst these women was high but the number of pregnancies is a cause for concern. Information regarding contraceptive use should therefore be provided at all ART clinics.

  16. Emergency contraception - Potential for women's health

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Suneeta

    2014-01-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is a safe and effective method which is used to prevent unwanted pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Many of the unwanted pregnancies end in unsafe abortions. The search for an ideal contraceptive, which does not interfere with spontaneity or pleasure of the sexual act, yet effectively controls the fertility, is still continuing. Numerous contraceptive techniques are available, yet contraceptive coverage continues to be poor in India. Thus, even when not planning for a pregnancy, exposure to unprotected sex takes place often, necessitating the use of emergency contraception. This need may also arise due to failure of contraceptive method being used (condom rupture, diaphragm slippage, forgotten oral pills) or following sexual assault. Emergency contraception is an intervention that can prevent a large number of unwanted pregnancies resulting from failure of regular contraception or unplanned sexual activity, which in turn helps in reducing the maternal mortality and morbidity due to unsafe abortions. However, a concern has been expressed regarding repeated and indiscriminate usage of e-pill, currently the rational use of emergency contraception is being promoted as it is expected to make a significant dent in reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. In fact, since the introduction of emergency contraception, the contribution of unsafe abortion towards maternal mortality has declined from 13 to 8 per cent. PMID:25673542

  17. Determinants of Contraceptive Practices Among Eligible Couples of Urban Slum in Bankura District, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Avisek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Sarker, Gautam; Banerjee, Bratati; Ghosh, Somenath; Pal, Ranabir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary care physicians should be aware of the alarming population growth in the developing countries including India. Objectives: To find couple protection rate (CPR) and risk variables that affect contraceptive practice among eligible couples in an urban slum of Bankura district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of 3 months was undertaken on 200 eligible couples in Bakultala urban slum, Lokepur, Bankura district, West Bengal to get relation between various factors that could affect contraceptive practices. Results: Majority of the study population (59%) was young adults (20–29 years age); 65% belonged to nuclear families; one-third were married in less than 18 years of their age. CPR was 67.50%; 49% used permanent methods. Among contraceptive users, significantly higher numbers of couples were married during 18–24 years of age (75%), belonged to nuclear family (70%), literate up to class 10 (73%), having three or more living children (77.50%), and from socioeconomic status of class II (80%). Female literacy rate was higher than national average; 92.50%wives of eligible couple were literate; and tubectomy was commonest contraceptive methods. Conclusion: CPR was high, though different factors like age at marriage, type of family, number of living children, literacy status of female partner, and socioeconomic status significantly affected contraceptive behavior of the study population. PMID:25657949

  18. Psychosexual issues in adolescent contraception.

    PubMed

    Greer, J G

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the psychosocial and developmental research focusing on adolescent contraception. Specific emphasis is on the interrelationship of psychosexual development and culture in preventing or exacerbating problems. Attention is directed to the following: program policy and planning; major literature reviews on adolescent sexuality; female development and early coitus; the male partner; the competent adolescent contraceptor; and directions for future research (psychological sequelae of early coitus in girls, factors affecting delay of 1st coitus in girls, and the promotion of competent contraceptive behavior). In the less developed countries, efforts to delay 1st birth and increase birth spacing must form part of the overall strategy to upgrade the survival rates and health of infants. Ancillary to such urgent public health policy concerns is the current worldwide spread of the modern feminist social movement, generating pressures to make education and work opportunities available to female adolescents in the 3rd world. Adolescent pregnancy in the developed countries is not a major world health problem; prenatal care and adequate nutrition are feasible for the pregnant teenager. Yet, no cultural supports exist for such mother-infant dyads, and such pregnancies are viewed, particularly by educated women, as reversing a developed nation's social progress. There has been a growing effort in the US to implement contraceptive programs directed at the sexually active female adolescent between menarche and age 18. Issues other than availability of abortion and contraceptive supplies are also operating. Developmental level of the public health service user and specifically psychosexual developmental level, is a factor which must be considered in program policy and planning. Developmentally, the logical course of introduction to sexuality for young females would be solitary masturbation, heterosexual mutual masturbation, and coitus. Cultures at ease with

  19. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.' PMID:24901232

  20. An Ethinyl Estradiol-Levonorgestrel Containing Oral Contraceptive Does Not Alter Cytochrome P4502C9 In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jacob; Maslen, Cheryl; Edelman, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Oral contraceptives have been in wide use for more than 50 years. Levonorgestrel, a commonly employed progestin component of combined oral contraceptives, was implicated in drug–drug interactions mediated via CYP2C9. Although in vitro studies refuted this interaction, there are no confirmatory in vivo studies. In the current study, we examined the phenotypic status of CYP2C9 using low-dose (125 mg) tolbutamide before and after oral contraceptive use in reproductive age women. Blood was collected 24 hours after the tolbutamide oral dose was administered, plasma was isolated, and tolbutamide concentration (C24) was measured using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The natural logarithm of tolbutamide C24, a metric for CYP2C9 phenotype, was found to be equivalent (within 80%–125% equivalency boundaries) before and after oral contraceptive use. In conclusion, levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives, the most commonly used form of oral contraception, do not affect the status of the CYP2C9 enzyme. This suggests that it is safe to coadminister levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives and CYP2C9 substrates, which include a wide array of drugs. PMID:24368832

  1. Long-acting hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gabelnick, Henry; Brosens, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Today, a new category of fertility-regulating agents has been created: long-acting, reversible hormonal contraceptives; they minimize compliance, while maximize effectiveness. They comprise subdermal implants and intrauterine devices. Other long-acting agents exist, such as Depo Provera and Noristerat. Use of Depo Provera and Noristerat carries great effectiveness, good clinical safety and usefulness in developing countries. They cause no significant increase in breast cancer risk, but they may carry an increased risk of HIV. Subcutaneous delivery systems have two common features: prolongation of effect is obtained by a drug reservoir and for most of their duration of action they provide a continuous, sustained release of the active hormone. Finally, the intrauterine system Mirena represents both a very effective contraceptive and a specific treatment for menorrhagia. PMID:26626534

  2. Study of norethindrone in contraception.

    PubMed

    Goldzieher, J W; Moses, L E; Ellis, L T

    1962-05-01

    The contraceptive effectiveness of 10 mg norethindrone plus .06 mg ethinyl estradiol, administered orally for 20 days of the menstrual cycle, was evaluated in 210 women over 6232 cycles at the Planned Parenthood Center of San Antonio, Texas. There were no unplanned pregnancies during the study period, and not a single patient discontinued use because of side effects. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual tension diminshed considerably. The incidence of menstrual irregularities, was low. 99 of the women reported an increase in libido. Of 18 patients who discontinued use to become pregnant, 16 became pregnant within the first 3 cycles. The contraceptive effect of norethindrone is thought to be due to the inhibition of ovulation, reinforced by additional protective mechanisms. PMID:12305165

  3. Contraception and the adolescent diabetic.

    PubMed

    Fennoy, I

    1989-01-01

    We believe our data suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than would be expected from the general population at a time when diabetic control is at its worse. Thus patients and their offspring are exposed to extreme morbidity. Current recommendations regarding contraception in patients with diabetes are not appropriate for the adolescent population and therefore tend to support this phenomenon rather than relieve it. Because of the peculiar physiological and developmental characteristics of this population, more medical research is necessary regarding various hormonal preparations available to determine the safest acceptable contraceptive for the adolescent diabetic. To be truly effective, these new alternatives must be presented to the patient in the context of a counseling program that (1) recognizes that this population does have an unusually high frequency of pregnancy for reasons unknown, and that (2) stresses the need for the patient to take control of the diabetes prior to becoming pregnant. PMID:2516509

  4. [The acceptability of different oral contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Fritzsche, H; Hempel, E; Carol, W; Böhme, W; Scholz, B; Grass, M; Chemnitius, K H

    1975-05-01

    Results of a survey of contraceptive acceptability are reported. In formation on oral and depot hormonal contraceptives was distributed to 1064 Ovosiston or Nonovlon users, 110 women using depot contraceptives, and 609 women who had never used hormonal contraception. The women's preferences with regard to administration schedule, and their perceptions of effectiveness and safety were noted. Non-users considered daily, weekly, or monthly administration acceptable, while only 2/3 of those taking oral contraceptives thought daily administration convenient. 90.2% of Deposiston patients did not care for daily administration. Deposiston patients also had the greatest confidence in their method. The authors believe on the basis of this survey that weekly administration may be highly acceptable alternative t o conventional oral contraception. PMID:1140078

  5. Relationship between contraceptive method and vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    Peddie, B A; Bishop, V; Bailey, R R; McGill, H

    1984-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether the vaginal flora was affected by the method of contraception, and in particular as to whether the incidence of vaginal candidiasis increased when oral contraceptives were used. One thousand and two consecutive vaginal or cervical swabs from women attending a family planning centre were cultured. Candida albicans was isolated from 13% of women using no contraception, 16% using oral contraceptives, and from 9%, 19% and 18% of those using diaphragms, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and condoms respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Women using an IUCD had significantly more Gram-positive cocci cultured than women in any other group, while those using diaphragms had significantly more Gram-negative bacilli. Our clinical impression that the use of oral contraceptives led to an increase in vaginal candidiasis, was not confirmed by this study. PMID:6596089

  6. [The cervix and hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Gorins, A

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the histological effects of hormonal contraceptives on the cervix and assesses statistical studies examining the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) usage and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The cervix acquires a pseudopregnant appearance under the influence of combined OCs. The Malpighian epithelium acquires a richly vascularized stroma characterized by accelerated maturation and the endocervical ectropion may be swollen, frequently with epidermoid metaplasia. Such changes increase with the duration of hormonal contraception and are more pronounced with combined than with sequential OCs. Among pathological changes that may occur are active adenomatous hyperplasia and epithelial abnormalities including dysplasia involving dyscaryotic cells with regular nuclei and no mitotic abnormality. Epithelial anomalies may present various histocytological features and are sometimes difficult to interpret. Epidemiologic study of the cervix is difficult because of the number of parameters to be considered: age at 1st intercourse, frequency of intercourse, number of partners, the formulation of the OC, and the variable duration of use which may have been interrupted by use of another method such as the IUD. Statistical studies have yielded contradictory results, with the earliest reports showing a higher incidence of dysplasia among women using OCs and most later studies showing a possible increased incidence of moderate dysplasia but no increased incidence of carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. The recent study by Vessey et al. which compared 6838 parous OC users with 3154 parous IUD users over 10 years revealed invasive cancer in 13 women all of whom used OCs, with carcinomas in situ and dysplasias also more frequent in women using OCs. The duration of use was found to be a significant factor. Age and dates of marriage and 1st pregnancy were similar in subjects and controls, but no data were provided on age at 1st intercourse or number of

  7. Contraceptive development and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Fraser, I S

    1986-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the contraceptive development process, with particular emphasis on the importance of clinical trials. Development of a new contraceptive drug begins with chemical synthesis of a large number of substances that may have antifertility effects. Before human trials are considered, drugs must undergo a complex process of animal toxicology testing. Such studies assess acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity. Once a drug has passed the initial screening process, human testing must follow a logical sequence of clinical trials: phase I, pharmacology testing; phase II, initial assessment of efficacy, safety, acceptability, and ease of use; phase III, acurate assessment of efficacy, side effects, and reasons for discontinuation under controlled conditions; and phase IV, evaluation of effectiveness under field conditions. When these have been satisfactorily completed, a detailed marketing application must be submitted to the drug regulatory agency in each country. The process of assessment of the application often takes as long as 2 years. Once marketing approval has been received, there is still a need for postmarketing surveillance of the performance of the new contraceptive method. In many cases, a careful program of training is required. Among the research and recording strategies for postmarketing surveillance are voluntary recording of possible adverse reactions, longterm prospective cohort studies, retrospective case-control studies, and registered release. As controls on the safety and performance of new contraceptive methods are being tightened, the time scale and costs of development are increasing. The time from the 1st synthesis of a drug to marketing approval often takes 13-14 years and costs US$25-50 million. Since the patent life of a new substance is limited to 17 years in most countries, pharmaceutical companies have little time to recoup development costs, which has caused fewer new methods to be developed. PMID:3708511

  8. Increased activity of osteocyte autophagy in ovariectomized rats and its correlation with oxidative stress status and bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuehua Zheng, Xinfeng Li, Bo Jiang, Shengdan Jiang, Leisheng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Examine autophagy level in the proximal tibia of ovariectomized rats. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss. • Investigate whether autophagy level is associated with oxidative stress status. - Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to investigate ovariectomy on autophagy level in the bone and to examine whether autophagy level is associated with bone loss and oxidative stress status. Methods: 36 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (Sham), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated either with vehicle or 17-β-estradiol. At the end of the six-week treatment, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture in proximal tibias were assessed by micro-CT. Serum 17β-estradiol (E2) level were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity in proximal tibia was also determined. The osteocyte autophagy in proximal tibias was detected respectively by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescent histochemistry (IH), realtime-PCR and Western blot. In addition, the spearman correlation between bone mass, oxidative stress status, serum E2 and autophagy were analyzed. Results: Ovariectomy increased Atg5, LC3, and Beclin1 mRNA and proteins expressions while decreased p62 expression. Ovariectomy also declined the activities of T-AOC, CAT, and SOD. Treatment with E2 prevented the reduction in bone mass as well as restored the autophagy level. Furthermore, LC3-II expression was inversely correlated with T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities. A significant inverse correlation between LC3-II expression and BV/TV, Tb.N, BMD in proximal tibias was found. Conclusions: Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress, autophagy and bone loss. Autophagy of osteocyte was inversely correlated with oxidative stress status and bone loss.

  9. American values and contraceptive acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, J R

    1979-07-01

    A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the values underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also valued and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams. PMID:24318586

  10. Depo-provera: contraceptive risk?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, A

    1980-04-01

    This writer agrees with Carol Levine that the issue involving depo-provera is both complex and confusing. Comment is offered on some of the conclusions reached by Levine in her article, "Depo-Provera and Contraceptive Risk: A Case Study of Values and Conflicts". In the discussion of risks and benefits, problems with administration of estrogens are rarely recommended for depo-provera users. The metabolic side-effects which are identified are also seen among oral contraceptive (OC) users and, with the exception of weight gain, appear to have a smaller impact than the combination oral steroids. Exception is taken with the description of delayed return of fertility as a "particularly serious side-effect," for delay in return appears to be a matter of months only. In regard to carcinogenicity, there is no statistically valid evidence of danger relating depo-provera to breast or cervical cancer in the human. Levine's article gives the impression that depo-provera is intended for poor women or "2nd class" citizens and this fails to accurately reflect what probably would occur were the drug available in the United States. This writer believes depo-provera to be a safer contraceptive method than the OC and to be more effective in practice. PMID:6445344

  11. Recently approved and experimental methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Franklin, M

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved two new contraceptive methods, and others are nearing approval. In addition, several innovative approaches to contraception are under investigation. This paper details the latest information on the following methods: Paragard Copper T 380A intrauterine device, cervical cap, NORPLANT, vaginal pouch, long-acting injectables, hormonal vaginal ring, transdermal patch, experimental male methods, inhibin, and contraceptive vaccines. PMID:2286850

  12. Letter: State clings to archaic contraceptive law.

    PubMed

    Ris, H W

    1974-10-01

    The state of Wisconsin is still clinging to an archaic contraceptive law that prohibits birth control for unmarrieds.¿The mos t tragic victims of this law are unmarried teen-agers because studies indicate that sexual intercourse is very frequent among teen-agers, yet access to contraception is hard to come by.¿It is hoped that the Legislature will see fit to repeal this outdated contraceptive law. PMID:4456832

  13. Kin influence on the decision to start using modern contraception: A longitudinal study from rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth; Colleran, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    In earlier work in rural Gambia, we found that kin influence reproductive success: matrilineal kin, especially mothers, maternal grandmothers and unmarried older sisters all helped to promote the survival and nutrition of young children; in contrast patrilineal kin, especially husband's mother, promoted fertility. These differing influences of maternal and paternal lineage are predicted on the basis of kin selection and sexual conflict theory, because the costs of reproduction fall more heavily on the mother than the father. These studies covered the period 1950-1975, when this population was essentially "natural fertility, natural mortality." It is not possible to tell whether these effects were due to kin influencing active reproductive decision-making, or due to indirect effects such as kin improving nutrition by helping. Since 1976, modern contraception has become available in this community. In an analysis of the behavioral ecology of the decision to start using modern contraception, we found that high parity for your age was a key determinant of the decision, as was village and calendar year. Here, we examine whether the presence or absence of kin and also whether the contraceptive status of kin influenced the decision to start using contraception. We find little evidence that kin directly influence contraceptive uptake, either by their presence/absence or as models for social learning. However, death of a first husband (i.e., widowhood) does accelerate contraceptive uptake. We discuss our results from an evolutionary demography perspective, in particular regarding theories of sexual conflict, biased cultural transmission, and social learning. PMID:19418529

  14. Smelling wrong: hormonal contraception in lemurs alters critical female odour cues.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Boulet, Marylène; Drea, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Animals, including humans, use olfaction to assess potential social and sexual partners. Although hormones modulate olfactory cues, we know little about whether contraception affects semiochemical signals and, ultimately, mate choice. We examined the effects of a common contraceptive, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on the olfactory cues of female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), and the behavioural response these cues generated in male conspecifics. The genital odorants of contracepted females were dramatically altered, falling well outside the range of normal female variation: MPA decreased the richness and modified the relative abundances of volatile chemicals expressed in labial secretions. Comparisons between treatment groups revealed several indicator compounds that could reliably signal female reproductive status to conspecifics. MPA also changed a female's individual chemical 'signature', while minimizing her chemical distinctiveness relative to other contracepted females. Most remarkably, MPA degraded the chemical patterns that encode honest information about genetic constitution, including individual diversity (heterozygosity) and pairwise relatedness to conspecifics. Lastly, males preferentially investigated the odorants of intact over contracepted females, clearly distinguishing those with immediate reproductive potential. By altering the olfactory cues that signal fertility, individuality, genetic quality and relatedness, contraceptives may disrupt intraspecific interactions in primates, including those relevant to kin recognition and mate choice. PMID:20667870

  15. Barriers to contraception among HIV-positive women in a periurban district of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Hansen, K S; Wamono, F; Magnussen, P

    2012-09-01

    This study explored perceptions and care-seeking practices for HIV testing and contraception in order to obtain data for designing effective interventions to increase contraception among HIV-positive women. A triangulation of methods (household survey, focus group discussions and key informant interviews) were conducted in Wakiso district, central Uganda from January to April 2009. Results show that a majority of women, 2062/2896 (71.2%) would like to have an HIV test, while access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) was low at 237/879 (27%). Of the women who were on ART, 133/266 (50.0%) could not use contraception due to negative perceptions that a combination of ART and contraceptives would weaken them, as these drugs were perceived to be 'strong'. Fear of side-effects for contraceptives and resistance from spouses were other main reasons. Constraints to HIV testing included fear of clients knowing their own HIV status and fear of their spouses' reactions to the test results. Private midwives were identified as a potential outlet for delivering contraception to HIV-positive women. PMID:23033523

  16. Correlation of clinical features and methylation status of MGMT gene promoter in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Blanc, J L; Wager, M; Guilhot, J; Kusy, S; Bataille, B; Chantereau, T; Lapierre, F; Larsen, C J; Karayan-Tapon, L

    2004-07-01

    In an effort to extend the potential relationship between the methylation status of MGMT promoter and response to CENU therapy, we examined the methylation status of MGMT promoter in 44 patients with glioblastomas. Tumor specimens were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment, frozen and stored at -80 degrees C until for DNA extraction process. DNA methylation patterns in the CpG island of the MGMT gene were determined in every tumor by methylation specific PCR (MSP). These results were then related to overall survival and response to alkylating agents using statistical analysis. Methylation of the MGMT promoter was detected in 68% of tumors, and 96.7% of methylated tumors exhibited also an unmethylated status. There was no relationship between the methylation status of the MGMT promoter and overall survival and response to alkylating agents. Our observations do not lead us to consider promoter methylation of MGMT gene as a prognostic factor of responsiveness to alkylating agents in glioblastomas. PMID:15332332

  17. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  18. Learning in social networks and contraceptive choice.

    PubMed

    Kohler, H P

    1997-08-01

    A puzzling observation in the diffusion of modern fertility control is the persistent diversity in contraceptive practices across communities or social strata. I propose a model of "learning in social networks" to explain this diversity with the random dynamics of word-of-mouth communication. Women are uncertain about the merits of modern contraception and estimate the different qualities of available method based on imprecise information from network partners. Their contraceptive choices are determined by this estimate and by private knowledge about one's personal characteristics. This process of social learning leads to path-dependent adoption of fertility control within, and diversity in contraceptive practices across villages or social strata. PMID:9275246

  19. Contraception in the Developing World: Special Considerations.

    PubMed

    Schivone, Gillian B; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-05-01

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) estimates that there are 225 million women and girls with unmet contraceptive need yearly. Unmet need for contraception is defined as women who desire a delay in childbearing and are not using a modern method of contraception. It is projected that providing contraception to these women would avert 36 million abortions, 70,000 maternal deaths, and 52 million unintended pregnancies overall. In the past 30 years, there has been an increase both in population and in contraception use in the developing world. As a result, it is estimated that in 2015 there were 500 million contraceptive users in developing countries, which is nearly double the prevalence in 2000. Unfortunately, women and girls in developing nations still face many obstacles in obtaining modern methods of contraception. Particular challenges in the developing world include lack of access due to inadequate number of trained providers, fewer method options, and "stock-outs" of contraceptive supplies. Innovative strategies for decreasing unmet need will have to address these challenges, and will necessarily involve programmatic solutions such as community-based distribution and social marketing campaigns. Additionally, increasing uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods will be essential for achieving the goal of decreasing unmet need. PMID:26956690

  20. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  1. The correlated and shared gamma frailty model for bivariate current status data: an illustration for cross-sectional serological data.

    PubMed

    Hens, N; Wienke, A; Aerts, M; Molenberghs, G

    2009-09-30

    Frailty models are often used to study the individual heterogeneity in multivariate survival analysis. Whereas the shared frailty model is widely applied, the correlated frailty model has gained attention because it elevates the restriction of unobserved factors to act similar within clusters. Estimating frailty models is not straightforward due to various types of censoring. In this paper, we study the behavior of the bivariate-correlated gamma frailty model for type I interval-censored data, better known as current status data. We show that applying a shared rather than a correlated frailty model to cross-sectionally collected serological data on hepatitis A and B leads to biased estimates for the baseline hazard and variance parameters. PMID:19591117

  2. An “Imperfect” Contraceptive Society: Fertility and Contraception in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gribaldo, Alessandra; Judd, Maya D.; Kertzer, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Italy represents an unexpected and in some ways paradoxical outcome in terms of fertility control: a drop to one of the lowest birth rates in the world has been accompanied by the preponderant use of “traditional” methods despite the availability of “modern” contraception. Using data from 349 interviews conducted in 2005–2006 in four Italian cities, we argue that Italian women achieve “unplanned” AND desired conceptions through the use of withdrawal and natural methods. While data from other countries reveal similar notions of ambivalence surrounding pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use, Italy stands out for the surprising correlation between highly “managing” the conditions under which children are born and the socially commended approach of “letting births happen”. Such results suggest the need to rethink theoretical understandings of low fertility. Through the use of non-technological methods individuals manipulate culturally produced norms and beliefs about the appropriate moment to have a child; simultaneously, their actions are embedded in larger cultural, economic, and political processes. PMID:25045191

  3. Correlation between prior exercise and present health and fitness status of entering medical students.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D Fred; Degenhardt, Brian F; Smith, Carol M

    2003-08-01

    Four hundred forty-one students were tested for strength, agility, flexibility, and endurance as well as for body fat, heart rate, and blood pressure. Questionnaires estimated prior exercise, sleep, diet, and leisure habits. Students were more fit than published norms. Their reported prior exercise habits correlated positively with estimated VO2max. Positive results of endurance tests correlated with better eating habits and lower blood pressure. Strong correlation existed between reported exercise and lower body fat, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was in the hypertensive range in 57 individuals, and high blood pressure correlated with higher body weight, percent body fat, and resting heart rate. The authors concluded that most incoming medical students are fit and physically active. Positive correlations exist between prior exercise habits, performance on fitness tests, and indicators of reduced health risks. There was high correlation between risk factors for heart disease and measured blood pressure. PMID:12956248

  4. The correlation between smoking status of family members and concentrations of toxic trace elements in the hair of children.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Muhittin A; Akin, Beril S; Razi, Cem; Akin, Okhan; Tokgoz, Serhat; Kenar, Levent; Aykut, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Hair analysis is a promising tool for routine clinical screening and diagnosis of heavy metal exposure and essential trace element status in the human body. Systemic intoxications have been identified by anomalously high values of toxins in hair samples. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between smoking habit of the family members and the levels of toxic and nontoxic trace elements in hair samples of children. The randomized cross-sectional controlled study comprised of 95 children (41 girls and 54 boys) between the ages of 1 and 6 years. After written informed consent was obtained, a face-to-face interview was conducted with the families about educational background, total income of the family, and smoking habits of family members. The mineral elements considered in this study were Zn, Se, B, V, Co, Mo, Mn, iron (Fe), Be, aluminum (Al), As, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), Hg, chromium (Cr), Ag, Be, nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Sn, and antimony (Sb). Hair mineral contents were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Sb, Fe, and Al in hair samples of children whose parents smoked were significantly higher than those whose parents were nonsmokers. The number of smokers and the frequency of smoking at home were positively correlated with Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Sb levels found. At the same time, it was found that there was no correlation between toxic element concentrations and family income or educational background excluding the levels of Cd. A correlation was observed between the smoking status of family members and levels of toxic trace elements in hair where this correlation was more significant with the levels of Pb and Cd. High socioeconomic status and the level of education of family members did not have any effect on toxic trace levels in hair samples of children. PMID:22322881

  5. Evaluation of Humoral Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Antigens for Correlation with Clinical Status and Effective Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Mamiko; Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Ohta, Ken; Inoue, Manabu; Niki, Makoto; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Kozo; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Kitada, Seigo; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Although tuberculosis remains a major global health problem, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine. However, BCG has limited applications, and a more effective vaccine is needed. Cellular mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be the most important immune response for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the recent failure of a clinical trial for a booster BCG vaccine and increasing evidence of antibody-mediated immunity prompted us to evaluate humoral immunity to Mtb-specific antigens. Using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, we observed less correlation of both CMI and IgG titers with patient clinical status, including serum concentration of C reactive protein. However, IgA titers against Mtb were significantly correlated with clinical status, suggesting that specific IgA antibodies protect against Mtb proliferation. In addition, in some cases, IgA antibody titers were significantly associated with the serum concentration of total albumin, which supports the idea that humoral immunity can be influenced by the nutritional status. Based on these observations, we propose that the induction of humoral immunity should be included as an option in TB vaccine development strategies. PMID:26568961

  6. Evaluation of Humoral Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Antigens for Correlation with Clinical Status and Effective Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Niki, Mamiko; Suzukawa, Maho; Akashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Hideaki; Ohta, Ken; Inoue, Manabu; Niki, Makoto; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Morimoto, Kozo; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Kitada, Seigo; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Although tuberculosis remains a major global health problem, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine. However, BCG has limited applications, and a more effective vaccine is needed. Cellular mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be the most important immune response for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the recent failure of a clinical trial for a booster BCG vaccine and increasing evidence of antibody-mediated immunity prompted us to evaluate humoral immunity to Mtb-specific antigens. Using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, we observed less correlation of both CMI and IgG titers with patient clinical status, including serum concentration of C reactive protein. However, IgA titers against Mtb were significantly correlated with clinical status, suggesting that specific IgA antibodies protect against Mtb proliferation. In addition, in some cases, IgA antibody titers were significantly associated with the serum concentration of total albumin, which supports the idea that humoral immunity can be influenced by the nutritional status. Based on these observations, we propose that the induction of humoral immunity should be included as an option in TB vaccine development strategies. PMID:26568961

  7. Vitamin D Status in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Serbia: Correlation with Disease Activity and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Miskovic, Rada; Plavsic, Aleksandra; Raskovic, Sanvila; Jovicic, Zikica; Bolpacic, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate potential role of vitamin D as an important factor in the development of many autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE are especially prone to the development of vitamin D deficiency due to the nature of their illness. AIM: The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in patients with SLE in Serbia, to identify clinical variables associated with vitamin D status and to examine the impact of vitamin D status on disease activity and presence of specific lupus autoantibodies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 46 patients with SLE. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by electrohemiluminiscent immunoassay. RESULTS: The mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 11.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml. The prevalence of insufficiency was 32.6%, while the prevalence of deficiency was 67.4%. There was no association between vitamin D status and photosensitivity, skin lesions, arthritis and lupus nephritis. Vitamin D status was not associated with the presence of specific autoantibodies. There was no correlation between disease activity assessed by SLEDAI scale with the concentration of 25(OH)D. Patients who used vitamin D supplements and calcium did not have a significantly higher concentration of 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with SLE.

  8. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  9. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  10. La contraception de l'adolescente

    PubMed Central

    Pinsonneault, Odette

    1991-01-01

    Approximately one-half of all female adolescents are sexually active. Family physicians whose patients include female adolescents must be able to provide them with information and advice about contraception. In this article, adolescent contraception is examined in detail and a number of strategies for achieving optimum compliance are presented. PMID:21229024

  11. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  12. Young Australian women explain their contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Britta; Moran, Claire; Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Lucke, Jayne

    2016-07-01

    New developments in female contraceptives allow women increased options for preventing pregnancy, while men's options for reversible contraception have not advanced beyond the condom. There has been little discursive exploration of how neoliberal and postfeminist discourses shape women's accounts of choosing whether or not to use contraception. Our thematic discourse analysis of 760 free-text responses to a question about contraceptive choice considers the social and political climate that promotes the self-governed woman who freely chooses contraception. We examine the ways in which women formulated and defended their accounts of choice, focusing on the theme of free contraceptive choice that constructed women's choices as unconstrained by material, social and political forces. We identify two discursive strategies that underpinned this theme: a woman's body, a woman's choice and planning parenthood, and explore the ways in which choice was understood as a gendered entitlement and how contraceptive choices were shaped (and constrained) by women's plans for parenthood. We discuss the implications of these discursive strategies, and neoliberal and postfeminist discourses, in terms of the disallowance of any contextual, social and structural factors, including the absence of men in the 'contraceptive economy'. PMID:26670866

  13. Understanding Adolescent Contraceptive Choice: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Nancy E.; And Others

    Research using expectancy models has shown contraceptive choice among adults to be a rational process in that intentions and behaviors reflect an individual's beliefs, values, attitudes, and perceptions of social norms. This study examined whether such an approach could accurately represent adolescents' contraceptive decision-making. It used the…

  14. Contraception in women with medical problems

    PubMed Central

    Dhanjal, Mandish K

    2008-01-01

    Women with medical disease have a higher incidence of maternal mortality compared with healthy women, with cardiac disease now being the most common cause of maternal death in the UK. A handful of medical conditions exist where pregnancy is not recommended due to mortality rates approaching 50%. It is imperative that such women have the most reliable methods of contraception available. Contraceptive agents may themselves affect medical disease, or may interact with medications used by such women. There may be a range of contraceptive agents suitable for each medical condition. The contraceptive selected should be tailored to suit the individual. The following points should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate contraceptive agent: efficacy, thrombotic risk (oestrogen containing contraceptives), arterial risks (oestrogen containing contraceptives), infective risk (e.g. insertion of intrauterine device [IUD]), vagal stimulation (e.g. insertion of IUD, ESSURE®), bleeding risks with patients on anticoagulants, interaction with concomitant drugs, effects of anaesthesia and ease of use. This review aims to cover the different contraceptive agents available and the best ones to use for certain medical illnesses. PMID:27582790

  15. Adolescent Contraceptive Use: Models, Research, and Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.; Schofield, Janet Ward

    Both the career model and the decision model have been proposed to explain patterns of contraceptive use in teenagers. The career model views contraceptive use as a symbol of a woman's sexuality and implies a clear decision to be sexually active. The decision model is based on the subjective expected utility (SEU) theory which holds that people…

  16. Adolescent health services and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Mudd, E H; Dickens, H O; García, C R; Rickels, K; Freeman, E; Huggins, G R; Logan, J J

    1978-07-01

    A pilot study of a health services program for never-pregnant high-school students, which stresses development of incentives for personal involvement in their own health care, reports a low incidence of unintended pregnancy among girls who requested contraceptives. The social and emotional characteristics of those who continued contraceptive use are compared with the small group who had uninteneded pregnancies. PMID:677283

  17. Use of Contraception and Attitudes towards Contraceptive Use in Swedish Women - A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kopp Kallner, Helena; Thunell, Louise; Brynhildsen, Jan; Lindeberg, Mia; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe contraceptive use and attitudes towards contraceptive use in Sweden which has the highest abortion rate in Western Europe. Secondary objectives were to investigate knowledge of contraceptive methods and outcomes of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies. Design Telephone survey. Setting National survey of women living in Sweden. Population Women between 16 and 49 years. Methods The survey contained 22 questions with free text and multi choice answers on demographics, contraceptive use, knowledge of and attitudes towards contraception, the importance of monthly bleeding and experience of unintended pregnancy. Main Outcome Measures Distribution of use of contraceptive methods and non-use of contraception among Swedish women. Prevalence and outcome of unintended pregnancies. Results A total of 1001 women participated in the survey. Of all women, 721/1001 (72.1%) currently used contraception whereas 268/1001 (26.8%) women did not. Long acting reversible contraception, (LARC; implant and intra uterine contraception) was used by 24.3% of women. The unmet need of contraception in Sweden was estimated at 8.9% (89/1001 women). A total of 781 (78%) women had never experienced an unintended pregnancy whereas 220 (22%) women had had at least one unintended pregnancy. Users and non-users alike stated that one of the most important characteristics of a contraceptive method is its effectiveness. Conclusions Sweden has a large unmet need for contraception. Furthermore, a large proportion of women have experienced at least one unintended pregnancy. Increasing contraceptive use and promotion of LARC is a possible way forward in the effort to reduce the rates of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:25992901

  18. [The value of irreversible contraception].

    PubMed

    Havemann, O; Seidenschnur, G; Meyer, K

    1979-01-01

    8 years after sterilization was in force in GDR it is stated, that this way of female healthy protection was different performed in the varions countries of GDR. The portion of the country Rostock amount to 56,6%. --85,3% of the women were elder than 30 years. 60% of the applicants have had legal abortions. 66,8% of the propositions were based by medical indication. --The rate of complications and failures amount to 0,3%. --By reason of the results it is recommended to regard the sterilization as the adequate method of contraception, if reproduction is finished. PMID:433491

  19. International standardization of mechanical contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mellstam, S

    1983-06-01

    At least 12 countries have regulations for condoms, and because of the complicated regulations relating to condoms the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was asked to create a committee for contraceptives. Its objective is to promote the development of standards throughout the world to help the international exchange of goods and services. Following discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and ISO it was decided in 1974 to establish a technical ISO committee that would deal with international standards for mechanical contraceptives, comprising condoms, diaphragms, and IUDs. It was also decided that spermicides and oral contraceptives (OCs) should be excluded from the ISO effort, but that they should fall within the responsibility of WHO. The committee, entitled ISO/TC 157 Mechanical Contraceptives, was represented by 35 member countries in 1982. The object of standardizing condoms is to obtain a satisfactory quality that can be accepted throughout the world. To achieve that purpose, acceptable test methods and associated limit requirements and values must be determined, along with rules for storage, packaging, and labeling. The most important factors in determining condom quality are the need to reach agreement on an acceptable number of holes in the condom and the ability to establish limit values for the mechanical properties of the condom. Specific requirements regarding dimensions, resistance to storage, packaging, labeling, and appropriate storage are also important. Up to 1982 the work of ISO for condoms resulted in 8 published international standards, of which 6 deal with test methods, 1 with packaging and labeling, and 1 with storage. Agreement has also been reached within the ISO committee on an additional 3 draft standards. Due to the comparatively small use of diaphragms, standardization efforts in this area do not have the highest priority. ISO/TC 157 has formulated 10 drafts which are being prepared for distribution to

  20. Oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication.

    PubMed

    Halperin, E C

    1994-05-01

    Five physicians debate the pros and cons of changing the prescription requirement for oral contraceptives (OCs) to an over-the-counter (OTC) status. Three of the physicians are in favor of changing the present policy, while the other 2 physicians are in favor of keeping the present policy. Reasons supporting a change to OTC OCs are: the health risks from an unwanted pregnancy are greater than the risks from OC use; the prescription requirement puts an expensive and unnecessary burden on women; and other countries (e.g., India and South Africa) dispense OCs OTC. Reasons for keeping the prescription requirement are: the potential risks of self medication; the possibility of inappropriate use by relatively uninformed patients; and the loss of opportunity for women to obtain a health evaluation, physical examination, and counseling. One family practice physician supports OTC status because this change may reduce the teenage pregnancy rate. She acknowledges, however, that the change will not solve the problem of teenage pregnancy. An advantage of OTC OCs is that women could use them as a postcoital contraceptive. Another physician in favor of OTC status for OCs suggests that the US health department and Planned Parenthood clinics could offer OCs at lower than retail cost to women who undergo an annual health examination. Another physician calls for randomized clinical trials to generate sufficient data to make an informed decision about public and medical policy changes. PMID:8035888

  1. [Contraception and abortion: an update in 2015].

    PubMed

    Chung, D; Ferro Luzzi, E; Bettoli Musy, L; Narring, F

    2015-09-23

    Family doctors can play an important role in preventing unplanned pregnancies. This article addresses the different contraceptives methods available in Switzerland, which are classified in 2 groups and recommends using the GATHER approach (Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return) to promote compliance. LARC (long acting reversible contraceptives) can be recommended to any woman who needs a reliable birth control method. These contraceptives require minimum effort for high efficiency. Further explanation regarding the use of an emergency contraception must be provided when short action contraceptives are chosen. Switzerland's abortion rate is one of the lowest in the world. Medical abortion tends to be more and more prominent. Under certain circumstances, it can be self-administered at home. PMID:26591787

  2. Sterilization and contraceptive services in Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    O'Lane, J M

    1979-02-15

    Sterilization and contraceptive practices in United States Catholic hospitals were surveyed by anonymous mail questionnaires, obtaining a 57% response rate (340 of 598). Twenty per cent of the hospitals permitted medically indicated sterilization operations. Forty-seven per cent of those hospitals not allowing sterilization procedures reported that their medical staffs were interested in performing medically indicated sterilizations. The types of contraceptive services offered varied widely. The rhythm method was most frequently available, with oral contraceptives in second place; many hospitals did not provide any family-planning services; 13% utilized all types of contraception. The thesis is advanced that improvement in availability of sterilization and contraceptive services is a duty of hospital medical staffs. PMID:433994

  3. [Contraception in French teenage girls in 2007].

    PubMed

    Robin, G; Massart, P; Letombe, B

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of adolescence contraception are the eviction of involuntary pregnancies and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In France, in spite of our rich contraceptive arsenal and a widely spread information, the rate of voluntary termination of pregnancy keeps growing among the teenagers population--and this, probably because the gap between theoretical effectiveness and practice of contraception is particularly wide among the young people. Every contraceptive means can be used by teenagers; the best option being, it seems, the "double DUTCH", which consists of concomitant use of condoms and hormonal contraception. Most often, the consultation for contraception is the first gynaecological consultation. That is the reason why it is usually stressful for teenagers who dread undergoing a gynaecological examination. If this examination is not necessary for most of young patients, it is essential to create a trustful relationship and to make explicit the several contraceptive methods. During this consultation it is interesting to look for common teenage troubles like addiction to smoking and eating disorders. For any prescription of hormonal contraception, it is important to explain the benefits and the possible side effects, to stress the observance and to tell the teenager about the recommendations in case of forgetting. Concerning condom - the only efficient way of preventing sexually transmitted infections--, it is useful to talk about it in concrete and straightforward terms, to show its handling and to inform about risks of tearing. With this state of mind, an emergency contraception can be prescribed straightaway in order to make its use easier. Also, without any moralizing speech, the need for maturity must be emphasized as well as taking care of one's body with the aim of avoiding a premature pregnancy or any sexually transmitted infection. This consultation must be coupled with a close follow-up, availability and mutual

  4. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  5. Correlation between serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and sentinel lymph node status in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Diego; Rohde, Alexander; Callejón, Gonzalo; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Rodrigo, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Ramos, Belen; Medina, Francisco; Villatoro, Rosa; Redondo, Maximino; Zarcos, Irene; Maañón, Claudio; Rueda, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Axillary lymph nodes status is the most important prognosis factor in early breast cancer. This status is known by a selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer tumour tissue have reported a relation between the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and the risk of lymph node metastasis. We researched whether serum levels of VEGF-C could be a predictor factor of sentinel lymph node status in these patients. A prospective analysis was performed on serum from 174 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB. The level of VEGF-C was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical-pathologic variables were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were conducted, taking SLNB positivity as the segmentation variable. The predictive value of VEGF-C was assessed using ROC curves. Of the sample group of 167 patients, 64 (38.3 %) had affected lymph node. Eighteen patients (28.1 %) presented micrometastasis; there were isolated tumour cells in 11 cases (17.2 %) and macrometastasis in 35 (54.6 %). The median value of VEGF-C was 6561.5 pg/ml. These values did not correlate with any clinical variables, and there was no association between the level of VEGF-C and SLNB status (p = 0.626). In the multivariate analysis, tumour size (p = 0.009) and the presence of vascular invasion (p < 0.001) were independently associated with sentinel lymph node affected. Serum levels of VEGF-C do not appear to predict sentinel lymph node status in patients with early breast cancer who undergo SLNB. PMID:26104766

  6. Adolescent women's contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S; Nathanson, C A; Chase, G A; Ensminger, M E; Robinson, J C

    1991-06-01

    A modified rational decision model incorporating salient events and social influences (particularly from sexual partners) is used to analyze adolescent women's consistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) over a six-month period. Data are taken from a panel study of 308 clients of an inner-city family planning clinic. Expected OC use was computed for each subject on the basis of subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, and is found in multivariate analyses to be a significant predictor of actual OC use. In addition, variables representing baseline and follow-up partner influences, the salience of pregnancy for the subject, and positive side effects of OCs during the first months of use are found to predict OC use. Partner's support of OC use during follow-up and positive side effects of OCs are found to predict OC use among subjects for whom OC use was not the expected decision according to baseline SEU. Implications of the findings for models of adolescents' contraceptive behavior and for clinicians are discussed. PMID:1861049

  7. Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1974-05-20

    The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

  8. [Post-abortion contraception: effects of contraception services and reproductive intention].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Contraceptive counseling and the supply of contraceptive methods are part of post-abortion care and positively influence the subsequent use of contraceptive methods. Studies showing such evidence have been conducted predominantly in countries with no legal restrictions on abortion and with adequate care for women that terminate a pregnancy. However, little is known about contraceptive practices in contexts where abortion is illegal, as in Brazil, in which post-abortion contraceptive care is inadequate. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of contraceptive care on male condom use and oral and injectable contraceptives in the six months post-abortion, considering reproductive intention. The results showed that contraceptive care only has a positive effect on the use of oral contraceptives in the first six months post-abortion, as long as the woman had a medical consultation in the same month in which she received information on contraception. One or the other intervention alone had no significant impact. PMID:26910252

  9. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  10. Males and Morals: Teenage Contraceptive Behavior Amid the Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Peter

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on teenage contraceptive behavior and teenage contraceptive decision making. The paper describes the persistence of a sexual double standard in terms of moral motivation to use contraception and in terms of the relative lack of communication about contraception among young partners. (Author)