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Sample records for contrast mri perfusion

  1. Value of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Acute Phase of Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Alex; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U.; Böhme, Johannes; Mürle, Bettina; Groden, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) in TGA in the acute phase. Methods From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV)) were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN). CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB) Software Library (FSL). Results Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women). On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusions Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in

  2. Semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion in children using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Thong, William E.; Ou, Phalla

    2013-03-01

    This paper addresses the study of semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion acquired from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in a study population mainly composed of children with pulmonary malformations. The automatic analysis approach proposed is based on the indicator-dilution theory introduced in 1954. First, a robust method is developed to segment the pulmonary artery and the lungs from anatomical MRI data, exploiting 2D and 3D mathematical morphology operators. Second, the time-dependent contrast signal of the lung regions is deconvolved by the arterial input function for the assessment of the local hemodynamic system parameters, ie. mean transit time, pulmonary blood volume and pulmonary blood flow. The discrete deconvolution method implements here a truncated singular value decomposition (tSVD) method. Parametric images for the entire lungs are generated as additional elements for diagnosis and quantitative follow-up. The preliminary results attest the feasibility of perfusion quantification in pulmonary DCE-MRI and open an interesting alternative to scintigraphy for this type of evaluation, to be considered at least as a preliminary decision in the diagnostic due to the large availability of the technique and to the non-invasive aspects.

  3. Perfusion deficits in patients with mild traumatic brain injury characterized by dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Binquan; Wolfowitz, Rachel; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Nathan, Dominic E; Graner, John; Tang, Haiying; Pan, Hai; Harper, Jamie; Pham, Dzung; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Riedy, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Perfusion deficits in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a military population were characterized by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion imaging. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated by a model-independent deconvolution approach from the tracer concentration curves following a bolus injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) using both manually and automatically selected arterial input functions (AIFs). Linear regression analysis of the mean values of rCBF from selected regions of interest showed a very good agreement between the two approaches, with a regression coefficient of R = 0.88 and a slope of 0.88. The Bland-Altman plot also illustrated the good agreement between the two approaches, with a mean difference of 0.6 ± 12.4 mL/100 g/min. Voxelwise analysis of rCBF maps from both approaches demonstrated multiple clusters of decreased perfusion (p < 0.01) in the cerebellum, cuneus, cingulate and temporal gyrus in the group with mild TBI relative to the controls. MRI perfusion deficits in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate also correlated (p < 0.01) with neurocognitive results, including the mean reaction time in the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics and commission error and detection T-scores in the Continuous Performance Test, as well as neurobehavioral scores in the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. In conclusion, rCBF calculated using AIFs selected from an automated approach demonstrated a good agreement with the corresponding results using manually selected AIFs. Group analysis of patients with mild TBI from a military population demonstrated scattered perfusion deficits, which showed significant correlations with measures of verbal memory, speed of reaction time and self-report of stress symptoms. PMID:23456696

  4. Automated scoring of regional lung perfusion in children from contrast enhanced 3D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Tobias; Eichinger, Monika; Bauman, Grzegorz; Bischoff, Arved; Puderbach, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2012-03-01

    MRI perfusion images give information about regional lung function and can be used to detect pulmonary pathologies in cystic fibrosis (CF) children. However, manual assessment of the percentage of pathologic tissue in defined lung subvolumes features large inter- and intra-observer variation, making it difficult to determine disease progression consistently. We present an automated method to calculate a regional score for this purpose. First, lungs are located based on thresholding and morphological operations. Second, statistical shape models of left and right children's lungs are initialized at the determined locations and used to precisely segment morphological images. Segmentation results are transferred to perfusion maps and employed as masks to calculate perfusion statistics. An automated threshold to determine pathologic tissue is calculated and used to determine accurate regional scores. We evaluated the method on 10 MRI images and achieved an average surface distance of less than 1.5 mm compared to manual reference segmentations. Pathologic tissue was detected correctly in 9 cases. The approach seems suitable for detecting early signs of CF and monitoring response to therapy.

  5. Feasibility Study of Myocardial Perfusion and Oxygenation by Non-Contrast MRI: Comparison with PET Study in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Zhang, Haosen; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Zheng, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of quantifying myocardial blood flow (MBF) and rate of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) during pharmacologically induced stress without using a contrast agent. The former was measured by the arterial spin labeling (ASL) method and the later was obtained by measuring the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect and Fick's law. The MRI results were compared with the established positron emission tomography (PET) methods. Six mongrel dogs with induced acute moderate left coronary artery stenosis were scanned using a clinical PET and a 1.5T MRI system, in the same day. Regional MBF, myocardial OEF, and MVO2 were measured with both imaging modalities. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the three myocardial indexes (MBF, OEF, and MVO2) between MRI and PET methods ranged from 0.70 to 0.93. Bland-Altman statistics demonstrated that the estimated precision of the limits of agreement between MRI and PET measurements varied from 18% (OEF), to 37% (MBF), and 45% (MVO2). The detected changes in these indexes, at rest and during dobutamine stress, were similar between two image modalities. The proposed non-contrast MRI technique is a promising method to quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion and oxygenation. PMID:17566684

  6. Comparison of dynamic susceptibility contrast-MRI perfusion quantification methods in the presence of delay and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maan, Bianca; Simões, Rita Lopes; Meijer, Frederick J. A.; Klaas Jan Renema, W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    The perfusion of the brain is essential to maintain brain function. Stroke is an example of a decrease in blood flow and reduced perfusion. During ischemic stroke the blood flow to tissue is hampered due to a clot inside a vessel. To investigate the recovery of stroke patients, follow up studies are necessary. MRI is the preferred imaging modality for follow up because of the absence of radiation dose concerns, contrary to CT. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) MRI is an imaging technique used for measuring perfusion of the brain, however, is not standard applied in the clinical routine due to lack of immediate patient benefit. Several post processing algorithms are described in the literature to obtain cerebral blood flow (CBF). The quantification of CBF relies on the deconvolution of a tracer concentration-time curve in an arterial and a tissue voxel. There are several methods to obtain this deconvolution based on singular-value decomposition (SVD). This contribution describes a comparison between the different approaches as currently there is no best practice for (all) clinical relevant situations. We investigate the influence of tracer delay, dispersion and recirculation on the performance of the methods. In the presence of negative delays, the truncated SVD approach overestimates the CBF. Block-circulant and reformulated SVD are delay-independent. Due to its delay dependent behavior, the truncated SVD approach performs worse in the presence of dispersion as well. However all SVD approaches are dependent on the amount of dispersion. Moreover, we observe that the optimal truncation parameter varies when recirculation is added to noisy data, suggesting that, in practice, these methods are not immune to tracer recirculation. Finally, applying the methods to clinical data resulted in a large variability of the CBF estimates. Block-circulant SVD will work in all situations and is the method with the highest potential.

  7. Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging in MRI and CT: Theoretical Models and Current Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Handayani, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Oudkerk, M.; Van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Vliegenthart, R.; Sijens, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), including higher spatial and temporal resolution, have made the prospect of performing absolute myocardial perfusion quantification possible, previously only achievable with positron emission tomography (PET). This could facilitate integration of myocardial perfusion biomarkers into the current workup for coronary artery disease (CAD), as MRI and CT systems are more widely available than PET scanners. Cardiac PET scanning remains expensive and is restricted by the requirement of a nearby cyclotron. Clinical evidence is needed to demonstrate that MRI and CT have similar accuracy for myocardial perfusion quantification as PET. However, lack of standardization of acquisition protocols and tracer kinetic model selection complicates comparison between different studies and modalities. The aim of this overview is to provide insight into the different tracer kinetic models for quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis and to address typical implementation issues in MRI and CT. We compare different models based on their theoretical derivations and present the respective consequences for MRI and CT acquisition parameters, highlighting the interplay between tracer kinetic modeling and acquisition settings. PMID:27088083

  8. Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging in MRI and CT: Theoretical Models and Current Implementation.

    PubMed

    Pelgrim, G J; Handayani, A; Dijkstra, H; Prakken, N H J; Slart, R H J A; Oudkerk, M; Van Ooijen, P M A; Vliegenthart, R; Sijens, P E

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), including higher spatial and temporal resolution, have made the prospect of performing absolute myocardial perfusion quantification possible, previously only achievable with positron emission tomography (PET). This could facilitate integration of myocardial perfusion biomarkers into the current workup for coronary artery disease (CAD), as MRI and CT systems are more widely available than PET scanners. Cardiac PET scanning remains expensive and is restricted by the requirement of a nearby cyclotron. Clinical evidence is needed to demonstrate that MRI and CT have similar accuracy for myocardial perfusion quantification as PET. However, lack of standardization of acquisition protocols and tracer kinetic model selection complicates comparison between different studies and modalities. The aim of this overview is to provide insight into the different tracer kinetic models for quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis and to address typical implementation issues in MRI and CT. We compare different models based on their theoretical derivations and present the respective consequences for MRI and CT acquisition parameters, highlighting the interplay between tracer kinetic modeling and acquisition settings. PMID:27088083

  9. Clinical Neuroimaging Using Arterial Spin-Labeled Perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ronald L.; Detre, John A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The two most common methods for measuring perfusion with MRI are based on dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Although clinical experience to date is much more extensive with DSC perfusion MRI, ASL methods offer several advantages. The primary advantages are that completely noninvasive absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements are possible with relative insensitivity to permeability, and that multiple repeated measurements can be obtained to evaluate one or more interventions or to perform perfusion-based functional MRI. ASL perfusion and perfusion-based fMRI methods have been applied in many clinical settings, including acute and chronic cerebrovascular disease, CNS neoplasms, epilepsy, aging and development, neurodegenerative disorders, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Recent technical advances have improved the sensitivity of ASL perfusion MRI, and increasing use is expected in the coming years. This review focuses on ASL perfusion MRI and applications in clinical neuroimaging. PMID:17599701

  10. Absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow in neurologically normal volunteers: dynamic-susceptibility contrast MRI-perfusion compared with computed tomography (CT)-perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ziegelitz, Doerthe; Starck, Göran; Mikkelsen, Irene K; Tullberg, Mats; Edsbagge, Mikael; Wikkelsö, Carsten; Forssell-Aronson, Eva; Holtås, Stig; Knutsson, Linda

    2009-07-01

    To improve the reproducibility of arterial input function (AIF) registration and absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) quantification in dynamic-susceptibility MRI-perfusion (MRP) at 1.5T, we rescaled the AIF by use of a venous output function (VOF). We compared CBF estimates of 20 healthy, elderly volunteers, obtained by computed tomography (CT)-perfusion (CTP) and MRP on two consecutive days. MRP, calculated without the AIF correction, did not result in any significant correlation with CTP. The rescaled MRP showed fair to moderate correlation with CTP for the central gray matter (GM) and the whole brain. Our results indicate that the method used for correction of partial volume effects (PVEs) improves MRP experiments by reducing AIF-introduced variance at 1.5T. PMID:19253361

  11. Functional Lung MRI in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Comparison of T1 Mapping, Oxygen-Enhanced T1 Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Anjorin, Angela; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Biederer, Jürgen; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Wielpütz, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring of regional lung function in interventional COPD trials requires alternative endpoints beyond global parameters such as FEV1. T1 relaxation times of the lung might allow to draw conclusions on tissue composition, blood volume and oxygen fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of lung Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping for the assessment of COPD patients in comparison with contrast enhanced perfusion MRI. Materials and Methods 20 COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent a coronal 2-dimensional inversion recovery snapshot flash sequence (8 slices/lung) at room air and during inhalation of pure oxygen, as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion imaging. Regional distribution of T1 at room air (T1), oxygen-induced T1 shortening (ΔT1) and peak enhancement were rated by 2 chest radiologists in consensus using a semi-quantitative 3-point scale in a zone-based approach. Results Abnormal T1 and ΔT1 were highly prevalent in the patient cohort. T1 and ΔT1 correlated positively with perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.81 and r = 0.80; p&0.001), and with each other (r = 0.80; p<0.001). In GOLD stages I and II ΔT1 was normal in 16/29 lung zones with mildly abnormal perfusion (15/16 with abnormal T1). The extent of T1 (r = 0.45; p<0.05), ΔT1 (r = 0.52; p<0.05) and perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.52; p<0.05) showed a moderate correlation with GOLD stage. Conclusion Native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping correlated with lung perfusion deficits and severity of COPD. Under the assumption that T1 at room air correlates with the regional pulmonary blood pool and that oxygen-enhanced T1 reflects lung ventilation, both techniques in combination are principally suitable to characterize ventilation-perfusion imbalance. This appears valuable for the assessment of regional lung characteristics in COPD trials without administration of i.v. contrast. PMID:25822195

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Contrast Agent Bolus Dispersion in a Coronary Bifurcation: Impact on MRI-Based Quantification of Myocardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Regine; Graafen, Dirk; Weber, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced first-pass magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with a tracer kinetic model, for example, MMID4, can be used to determine myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR). Typically, the arterial input function (AIF) required for this methodology is estimated from the left ventricle (LV). Dispersion of the contrast agent bolus might occur between the LV and the myocardial tissue. Negligence of bolus dispersion could cause an error in MBF determination. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bolus dispersion in a simplified coronary bifurcation geometry including one healthy and one stenotic branch on the quantification of MBF and MPR. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were combined with MMID4. Different inlet boundary conditions describing pulsatile and constant flows for rest and hyperemia and differing outflow conditions have been investigated. In the bifurcation region, the increase of the dispersion was smaller than inside the straight vessels. A systematic underestimation of MBF values up to −16.1% for pulsatile flow and an overestimation of MPR up to 7.5% were found. It was shown that, under the conditions considered in this study, bolus dispersion can significantly influence the results of quantitative myocardial MR-perfusion measurements. PMID:23533541

  13. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  14. AUR memorial award--1988. MRI enhancement of perfused tissues using chromium labeled red blood cells as an intravascular contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, A.D.; Conturo, T.E.; Price, R.R.; Holburn, G.E.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that chromium (Cr) labeling significantly decreases the relaxation times of packed red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of human red cells was shortened from 836 ms to 29 ms and the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) shortened from 134 ms to 18 ms, when the cells were labeled at a Cr incubation concentration of 50 mM. Labeling of canine cells at 50 mM resulted in a T1 of 36 ms and a T2 of 26 ms. A labeling concentration of 10 mM produced similar relaxation enhancement, with uptake of 47% of the available Cr, and was determined to be optimal. The enhancement of longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (1/T1,-1/T2) per amount of hemoglobin-bound Cr are 6.9 s-1 mM-1 and 9.8 s-1 mM-1 respectively, different from those of a pure Cr+3 solution. Labeling cells at 10 mM decreased the survival half-time in vivo from 16.6 days to 4.7 days in dogs. No difference in red cell survival was found with the use of hetero-transfusion versus auto-transfusion of labeled RBCs. Significant shortening of the T1 (912 ms to 266 ms, P = .03) and T2 (90 ms to 70 ms, P = .006) of spleen and the T1 (764 ms to 282 ms, P = .005) and the T2 (128 ms to 86 ms, P = .005) of liver occurred when 10% of the RBC mass of dogs was exchanged with Cr labeled cells. Liver and spleen spin density changes (P greater than 0.23) and muscle spin density and relaxation changes (P greater than 0.4) were insignificant. The in vivo T1 of a canine spleen which had been infarcted did not change following transfusion with labeled cells, where the T1 of liver did shorten. We believe this preliminary study suggests that Cr labeled red cells may have the potential to become an intravascular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

  15. Myocardial perfusion imaging using contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles are an excellent intravascular tracer, and both the rate of myocardial opacification (analogous to coronary microvascular perfusion) and contrast intensity (analogous to myocardial blood volume) provide unique insights into myocardial perfusion. A strong evidence base has been accumulated to show comparability with nuclear perfusion imaging and incremental diagnostic and prognostic value relative to wall motion analysis. This technique also provides the possibility to measure myocardial perfusion at the bedside. Despite all of these advantages, the technique is complicated, technically challenging, and has failed to scale legislative and financial hurdles. The development of targeted imaging and therapeutic interventions will hopefully rekindle interest in this interesting modality. PMID:25817740

  16. Technological advances in MRI measurement of brain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Duyn, Jeff H; van Gelderen, Peter; Talagala, Lalith; Koretsky, Alan; de Zwart, Jacco A

    2005-12-01

    Measurement of brain perfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) or dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) based MRI has many potential important clinical applications. However, the clinical application of perfusion MRI has been limited by a number of factors, including a relatively poor spatial resolution, limited volume coverage, and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is difficult to improve any of these aspects because both ASL and DSC methods require rapid image acquisition. In this report, recent methodological developments are discussed that alleviate some of these limitations and make perfusion MRI more suitable for clinical application. In particular, the availability of high magnetic field strength systems, increased gradient performance, the use of RF coil arrays and parallel imaging, and increasing pulse sequence efficiency allow for increased image acquisition speed and improved SNR. The use of parallel imaging facilitates the trade-off of SNR for increases in spatial resolution. As a demonstration, we obtained DSC and ASL perfusion images at 3.0 T and 7.0 T with multichannel RF coils and parallel imaging, which allowed us to obtain high-quality images with in-plane voxel sizes of 1.5 x 1.5 mm(2). PMID:16267852

  17. Environmentally responsive MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques can provide a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast agents capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of agents capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also provide unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based agents. PMID:24040650

  18. A study on cerebral hemodynamic analysis of moyamoya disease by using perfusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the clinical applications of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). Twenty-two patients with moyamoya disease (9 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 9.3 years (range: 4-22 years) were enrolled in this study. Perfusion MRI was performed by scanning the patients7.5 cm upward from the base of the cerebellum before their being process for post-treatment. The scan led to the acquisition of the following four map images: the cerebral blood volume (CBV), the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the mean transit time (MTT) for the contrast medium, and the time to peak (TTP) for the contrast medium. The lesions were assessed using the CBV, the CBF, the MTT and the TTP maps of perfusion MRI; the MTT and the TTP were measured in the lesion areas, as well as in the normal and the symmetric areas. Perfusion defects were recognizable in all four perfusion MRI maps, and the MTT and the TTP showed a conspicuous delay in the parts where perfusion defects were recognized. The MTT and the TTP images of perfusion MRI reflected a significant correlation between the degrees of stenosis and occlusion in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), as well as the development of collateral vessels. The four perfusion MRI maps could be used to predict the degrees of stenosis and occlusion in the posterior circulation, as well as the development of the collateral vessels, which enabled a hemodynamic evaluation of the parts with perfusion defects. Overall, perfusion MRI is useful for the diagnosis and the treatment of moyamoya disease and can be applied to clinical practice.

  19. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted agents with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will provide an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast agents as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging agents for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255

  20. Contrast-enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Noij, Daniel P; de Jong, Marcus C; Mulders, Lieven G M; Marcus, Johannes T; de Bree, Remco; Lavini, Cristina; de Graaf, Pim; Castelijns, Jonas A

    2015-02-01

    This systematic review gives an extensive overview of the current state of perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Pubmed and Embase were searched for literature until July 2014 assessing the diagnostic and prognostic performance of perfusion-weighted MRI in HNSCC. Twenty-one diagnostic and 12 prognostic studies were included for qualitative analysis. Four studies used a T2(∗) sequence for dynamic susceptibility (DSC)-MRI, 29 studies used T1-based sequences for dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Included studies suffered from a great deal of heterogeneity in study methods showing a wide range of diagnostic and prognostic performance. Therefore we could not perform any useful meta-analysis. Perfusion-weighted MRI shows potential in some aspects of diagnosing HNSCC and predicting prognosis. Three studies reported significant correlations between hypoxia and tumor heterogeneity in perfusion parameters (absolute correlation coefficient |ρ|>0.6, P<0.05). Two studies reported synergy between perfusion-weighted MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) parameters. Four studies showed a promising role for response prediction early after the start of chemoradiotherapy. In two studies perfusion-weighted MRI was useful in the detection of residual disease. However more research with uniform study and analysis protocols with larger sample sizes is needed before perfusion-weighted MRI can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25467775

  1. Cerebral perfusion alterations in epileptic patients during peri-ictal and post-ictal phase: PASL vs DSC-MRI.

    PubMed

    Pizzini, Francesca B; Farace, Paolo; Manganotti, Paolo; Zoccatelli, Giada; Bongiovanni, Luigi G; Golay, Xavier; Beltramello, Alberto; Osculati, Antonio; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo F

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) MRI is a method to study brain perfusion that does not require the administration of a contrast agent, which makes it a valuable diagnostic tool as it reduces cost and side effects. The purpose of the present study was to establish the viability of PASL as an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI) and other perfusion imaging methods in characterizing changes in perfusion patterns caused by seizures in epileptic patients. We evaluated 19 patients with PASL. Of these, the 9 affected by high-frequency seizures were observed during the peri-ictal period (within 5hours since the last seizure), while the 10 patients affected by low-frequency seizures were observed in the post-ictal period. For comparison, 17/19 patients were also evaluated with DSC-MRI and CBF/CBV. PASL imaging showed focal vascular changes, which allowed the classification of patients in three categories: 8 patients characterized by increased perfusion, 4 patients with normal perfusion and 7 patients with decreased perfusion. PASL perfusion imaging findings were comparable to those obtained by DSC-MRI. Since PASL is a) sensitive to vascular alterations induced by epileptic seizures, b) comparable to DSC-MRI for detecting perfusion asymmetries, c) potentially capable of detecting time-related perfusion changes, it can be recommended for repeated evaluations, to identify the epileptic focus, and in follow-up and/or therapy-response assessment. PMID:23623332

  2. Technical Pitfalls of Signal Truncation in Perfusion MRI of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin K.; Fung, Steve H.; New, Pamela Z.; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) is widely used in clinical settings for the radiological diagnosis of brain tumor. The signal change in brain tissue in gradient echo-based DSC PWI is much higher than in spin echo-based DSC PWI. Due to its exquisite sensitivity, gradient echo-based sequence is the preferred method for imaging of all tumors except those near the base of the skull. However, high sensitivity also comes with a dynamic range problem. It is not unusual for blood volume to increase in gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy-treated glioblastoma patients. The increase of fractional blood volume sometimes saturates the MRI signal during first-pass contrast bolus arrival and presents signal truncation artifacts of various degrees in the tumor when a significant amount of blood exists in the image pixels. It presents a hidden challenge in PWI, as this signal floor can be either close to noise level or just above and can go no lower. This signal truncation in the signal intensity time course is a significant issue that deserves attention in DSC PWI. In this paper, we demonstrate that relative cerebral blood volume and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) are underestimated due to signal truncation in DSC perfusion, in glioblastoma patients. We propose the use of second-pass tissue residue function in rCBF calculation using least-absolute-deviation deconvolution to avoid the underestimation problem. PMID:27531989

  3. Technical Pitfalls of Signal Truncation in Perfusion MRI of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin K; Fung, Steve H; New, Pamela Z; Wong, Stephen T C

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) is widely used in clinical settings for the radiological diagnosis of brain tumor. The signal change in brain tissue in gradient echo-based DSC PWI is much higher than in spin echo-based DSC PWI. Due to its exquisite sensitivity, gradient echo-based sequence is the preferred method for imaging of all tumors except those near the base of the skull. However, high sensitivity also comes with a dynamic range problem. It is not unusual for blood volume to increase in gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy-treated glioblastoma patients. The increase of fractional blood volume sometimes saturates the MRI signal during first-pass contrast bolus arrival and presents signal truncation artifacts of various degrees in the tumor when a significant amount of blood exists in the image pixels. It presents a hidden challenge in PWI, as this signal floor can be either close to noise level or just above and can go no lower. This signal truncation in the signal intensity time course is a significant issue that deserves attention in DSC PWI. In this paper, we demonstrate that relative cerebral blood volume and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) are underestimated due to signal truncation in DSC perfusion, in glioblastoma patients. We propose the use of second-pass tissue residue function in rCBF calculation using least-absolute-deviation deconvolution to avoid the underestimation problem. PMID:27531989

  4. New imaging technology: measurement of myocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has long been a goal for the non-invasive echocardiographic assessment of the heart. However, many factors at play in perfusion imaging have made this goal elusive. Harmonic imaging and triggered imaging with newer contrast agents have made myocardial perfusion imaging potentially practical in the very near future. The application of indicator dilution theory to the coronary circulation and bubble contrast agents is fraught with complexities and sources of error. Therefore, quantification of myocardial perfusion by non-invasive echocardiographic imaging requires further investigation in order to make this technique clinically viable.

  5. Salicylic acid analogues as chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast agents for the assessment of brain perfusion territory and blood-brain barrier opening after intra-arterial infusion.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolei; Walczak, Piotr; He, Xiaowei; Yang, Xing; Pearl, Monica; Bulte, Jeff Wm; Pomper, Martin G; McMahon, Michael T; Janowski, Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. Predicted, focal opening of the BBB through intra-arterial infusion of hyperosmolar mannitol is feasible, but there is a need to facilitate imaging techniques (e.g. MRI) to guide interventional procedures and assess the outcomes. Here, we show that salicylic acid analogues (SAA) can depict the brain territory supplied by the catheter and detect the BBB opening, through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI. Hyperosmolar SAA solutions themselves are also capable of opening the BBB, and, when multiple SAA agents were co-injected, their locoregional perfusion could be differentiated. PMID:26980755

  6. Heterogeneity of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis: an MRI perfusion study

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzo, Denis; Castellaro, Marco; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Veronese, Elisa; Rinaldi, Francesca; Bernardi, Valentina; Favaretto, Alice; Gallo, Paolo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    In this study, dynamic susceptibility contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) was used to quantify the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral blood volume (CBV), and the mean transit time (MTT) and to analyze the changes in cerebral perfusion associated with the cortical lesions in 44 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The cortical lesions showed a statistically significant reduction in CBF and CBV compared with the normal-appearing gray matter, whereas there were no significant changes in the MTT. The reduced perfusion suggests a reduction of metabolism because of the loss of cortical neurons. A small population of outliers showing an increased CBF and/or CBV has also been detected. The presence of hyperperfused outliers may imply that perfusion could evolve during inflammation. These findings show that perfusion is altered in cortical lesions and that DSC-MRI can be a useful tool to investigate more deeply the evolution of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis. PMID:23250108

  7. Tracer kinetic modelling in MRI: estimating perfusion and capillary permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbron, S. P.; Buckley, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The tracer-kinetic models developed in the early 1990s for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) have since become a standard in numerous applications. At the same time, the development of MRI hardware has led to increases in image quality and temporal resolution that reveal the limitations of the early models. This in turn has stimulated an interest in the development and application of a second generation of modelling approaches. They are designed to overcome these limitations and produce additional and more accurate information on tissue status. In particular, models of the second generation enable separate estimates of perfusion and capillary permeability rather than a single parameter Ktrans that represents a combination of the two. A variety of such models has been proposed in the literature, and development in the field has been constrained by a lack of transparency regarding terminology, notations and physiological assumptions. In this review, we provide an overview of these models in a manner that is both physically intuitive and mathematically rigourous. All are derived from common first principles, using concepts and notations from general tracer-kinetic theory. Explicit links to their historical origins are included to allow for a transfer of experience obtained in other fields (PET, SPECT, CT). A classification is presented that reveals the links between all models, and with the models of the first generation. Detailed formulae for all solutions are provided to facilitate implementation. Our aim is to encourage the application of these tools to DCE-MRI by offering researchers a clearer understanding of their assumptions and requirements.

  8. Diffusion and perfusion MRI of the lung and mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Fink, Christian

    2010-12-01

    With ongoing technical improvements such as multichannel MRI, systems with powerful gradients as well as the development of innovative pulse sequence techniques implementing parallel imaging, MRI has now entered the stage of a radiation-free alternative to computed tomography (CT) for chest imaging in clinical practice. Whereas in the past MRI of the lung was focused on morphological aspects, current MRI techniques also enable functional imaging of the lung allowing for a comprehensive assessment of lung disease in a single MRI exam. Perfusion imaging can be used for the visualization of regional pulmonary perfusion in patients with different lung diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary embolism or for the prediction of postoperative lung function in lung cancer patients. Over the past years diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) of the thorax has become feasible with a significant reduction of the acquisition time, thus minimizing artifacts from respiratory and cardiac motion. In chest imaging, DW-MRI has been mainly suggested for the characterization of lung cancer, lymph nodes and pulmonary metastases. In this review article recent MR perfusion and diffusion techniques of the lung and mediastinum as well as their clinical applications are reviewed. PMID:20627435

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: fundamentals and application to the evaluation of the peripheral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Yaron; Partovi, Sasan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Amarteifio, Erick; Bäuerle, Tobias; Weber, Marc-André; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ability to ascertain information pertaining to peripheral perfusion through the analysis of tissues’ temporal reaction to the inflow of contrast agent (CA) was first recognized in the early 1990’s. Similar to other functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was at first restricted to studies of the brain. Over the last two decades the spectrum of ailments, which have been studied with DCE-MRI, has been extensively broadened and has come to include pathologies of the heart notably infarction, stroke and further cerebral afflictions, a wide range of neoplasms with an emphasis on antiangiogenic treatment and early detection, as well as investigations of the peripheral vascular and musculoskeletal systems. Applications to peripheral perfusion DCE-MRI possesses an unparalleled capacity to quantitatively measure not only perfusion but also other diverse microvascular parameters such as vessel permeability and fluid volume fractions. More over the method is capable of not only assessing blood flowing through an organ, but in contrast to other noninvasive methods, the actual tissue perfusion. These unique features have recently found growing application in the study of the peripheral vascular system and most notably in the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Review outline The first part of this review will elucidate the fundamentals of data acquisition and interpretation of DCE-MRI, two areas that often remain baffling to the clinical and investigating physician because of their complexity. The second part will discuss developments and exciting perspectives of DCE-MRI regarding the assessment of perfusion in the extremities. Emerging clinical applications of DCE-MRI will be reviewed with a special focus on investigation of physiology and pathophysiology of the microvascular and

  10. Perfusion imaging with non-contrast ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jaime E.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Byram, Brett C.

    2016-04-01

    A Doppler ultrasound clutter filter that enables estimation of low velocity blood flow could considerably improve ultrasound as a tool for clinical diagnosis and monitoring, including for the evaluation of vascular diseases and tumor perfusion. Conventional Doppler ultrasound is currently used for visualizing and estimating blood flow. However, conventional Doppler is limited by frame rate and tissue clutter caused by involuntary movement of the patient or sonographer. Spectral broadening of the clutter due to tissue motion limits ultrasound's ability to detect blood flow less than about 5mm/s at an 8MHz center frequency. We propose a clutter filtering technique that may increase the sensitivity of Doppler measurements to at least as low as 0.41mm/s. The proposed filter uses an adaptive demodulation scheme that decreases the bandwidth of the clutter. To test the performance of the adaptive demodulation method at removing sonographer hand motion, six volunteer subjects acquired data from a basic quality assurance phantom. Additionally, to test initial in vivo feasibility, an arterial occlusion reactive hyperemia study was performed to assess the efficiency of the proposed filter at preserving signals from blood velocities 2mm/s or greater. The hand motion study resulted in initial average bandwidths of 577Hz (28.5mm/s), which were decreased to 7.28Hz (0.36mm/s) at -60 dB at 3cm using our approach. The in vivo power Doppler study resulted in 15.2dB and 0.15dB dynamic ranges between the lowest and highest blood flow time points for the proposed filter and conventional 50Hz high pass filter, respectively.

  11. Detection of the brain response during a cognitive task using perfusion-based event-related functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Yee, S H; Liu, H L; Hou, J; Pu, Y; Fox, P T; Gao, J H

    2000-08-01

    Event-related (ER) fMRI has evoked great interest due to the ability to depict the dynamic features of human brain function during various cognitive tasks. Thus far, all cognitive ER-fMRI studies have been based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast techniques. Compared with BOLD-based fMRI techniques, perfusion-based fMRI is able to localize the region of neuronal activity more accurately. This report demonstrates, for the first time, the detection of the brain response to a cognitive task using high temporal resolution perfusion-based ER-fMRI. An English verb generation task was used in this study. Results show that perfusion-based ER-fMRI accurately depicts the activation in Broca's area. Average changes in regional relative cerebral blood flow reached a maximum value of 30.7% at approximately 6.5 s after the start of stimulation and returned to 10% of the maximum value at approximately 12.8 s. Our results show that perfusion-based ER-fMRI is a useful tool for cognitive neuroscience studies, providing comparable temporal resolution and better localization of brain function than BOLD ER-fMRI. PMID:10943717

  12. Perfusion and diffusion MRI of glioblastoma progression in a four-year prospective temozolomide clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Leimgruber, Antoine; Ostermann, Sandrine; Yeon, Eun Jo; Buff, Evelyn; Maeder, Philippe P.; Stupp, Roger; Meuli, Reto A. . E-mail: Reto.Meuli@chuv.ch

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the impact of perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on patients during treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Special emphasis has been given to these imaging technologies as tools to potentially anticipate disease progression, as progression-free survival is frequently used as a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients from a phase II temolozomide clinical trial were included. During follow-up, images were integrated 21 to 28 days after radiochemotherapy and every 2 months thereafter. Assessment of scans included measurement of size of lesion on T1 contrast-enhanced, T2, diffusion, and perfusion images, as well as mass effect. Classical criteria on tumor size variation and clinical parameters were used to set disease progression date. Results: A total of 311 MRI examinations were reviewed. At disease progression (32 patients), a multivariate Cox regression determined 2 significant survival parameters: T1 largest diameter (p < 0.02) and T2 size variation (p < 0.05), whereas perfusion and diffusion were not significant. Conclusion: Perfusion and diffusion techniques cannot be used to anticipate tumor progression. Decision making at disease progression is critical, and classical T1 and T2 imaging remain the gold standard. Specifically, a T1 contrast enhancement over 3 cm in largest diameter together with an increased T2 hypersignal is a marker of inferior prognosis.

  13. Comparison Between Perfusion Computed Tomography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kierkels, Roel G.J.; Backes, Walter H.; Janssen, Marco H.M.; Buijsen, Jeroen; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.; Lambin, Philippe; Lammering, Guido; Oellers, Michel C.; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To compare pretreatment scans with perfusion computed tomography (pCT) vs. dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients diagnosed with rectal cancer were included in this prospective study. All patients underwent both pCT and DCE-MRI. Imaging was performed on a dedicated 40-slice CT-positron emission tomography system and a 3-T MRI system. Dynamic contrast enhancement was measured in tumor tissue and the external iliac artery. Tumor perfusion was quantified in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters: transfer constant K{sup trans}, fractional extravascular-extracellular space v{sub e}, and fractional plasma volume v{sub p}. Pharmacokinetic parameter values and their heterogeneity (by 80% quantile value) were compared between pCT and DCE-MRI. Results: Tumor K{sup trans} values correlated significantly for the voxel-by-voxel-derived median (Kendall's tau correlation, tau = 0.81, p < 0.001) and 80% quantile (tau = 0.54, p = 0.04), as well as for the averaged uptake (tau = 0.58, p = 0.03). However, no significant correlations were found for v{sub e} and v{sub p} derived from the voxel-by-voxel-derived median and 80% quantile and derived from the averaged uptake curves. Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time that pCT provides K{sup trans} values comparable to those of DCE-MRI. However, no correlation was found for the v{sub e} and v{sub p} parameters between CT and MRI. Computed tomography can serve as an alternative modality to MRI for the in vivo evaluation of tumor angiogenesis in terms of the transfer constant K{sup trans}.

  14. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schoeder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  15. MRI contrast enhancement using Magnetic Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Kangasniemi, Kim; Takahashi, Masaya; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Koymen, Ali R.; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington Team; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Team

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most exciting forefront fields in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics such as drug delivery, thermal therapy and detection of cancer. Here, we report development of core (Fe)-shell (carbon) nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in MRI imaging. These new classes of magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) are synthesized using a bottom-up approach in various organic solvents, using the electric plasma discharge generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn. Gradient echo MRI images of well-dispersed MCNP-solutions (in tube) were acquired. For T2 measurements, a multi echo spin echo sequence was performed. From the slope of the 1/T2 versus concentration plot, the R2 value for different CMCNP-samples was measured. Since MCNPs were found to be extremely non-reactive, and highly absorbing in NIR regime, development of carbon-based MRI contrast enhancement will allow its simultaneous use in biomedical applications. We aim to localize the MCNPs in targeted tissue regions by external DC magnetic field, followed by MRI imaging and subsequent photothermal therapy.

  16. Susceptibility-Based Analysis Of Dynamic Gadolinium Bolus Perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, David; Barker, Peter B.; Leigh, Richard; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An algorithm is developed for the reconstruction of dynamic, gadolinium (Gd) bolus MR perfusion images of the human brain, based on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Methods The method is evaluated in 5 perfusion scans obtained from 4 different patients scanned at 3T, and compared to the conventional analysis based on changes in the transverse relaxation rate ΔR2* and to theoretical predictions. QSM images were referenced to ventricular CSF for each dynamic of the perfusion sequence. Results Images of cerebral blood flow and blood volume were successfully reconstructed from the QSM-analysis, and were comparable to those reconstructed using ΔR2*. The magnitudes of the Gd-associated susceptibility effects in gray and white matter were consistent with theoretical predictions. Conclusion QSM-based analysis may have some theoretical advantages compared to ΔR2*, including a simpler relationship between signal change and Gd concentration. However, disadvantages are its much lower contrast-to-noise ratio, artifacts due to respiration and other effects, and more complicated reconstruction methods. More work is required to optimize data acquisition protocols for QSM-based perfusion imaging. PMID:24604343

  17. MRI Contrasts in High Rank Rotating Frames

    PubMed Central

    Liimatainen, Timo; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Mangia, Silvia; Huttunen, Janne M.J.; Storino, Christine; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Sorce, Dennis; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Purpose MRI relaxation measurements are performed in the presence of a fictitious magnetic field in the recently described technique known as RAFF (Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field). This method operates in the 2nd rotating frame (rank n = 2) by utilizing a non-adiabatic sweep of the radiofrequency effective field to generate the fictitious magnetic field. In the present study, the RAFF method is extended for generating MRI contrasts in rotating frames of ranks 1 ≤ n ≤ 5. The developed method is entitled RAFF in rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn). Methods RAFFn pulses were designed to generate fictitious fields that allow locking of magnetization in rotating frames of rank n. Contrast generated with RAFFn was studied using Bloch-McConnell formalism together with experiments on human and rat brains. Results Tolerance to B0 and B1 inhomogeneities and reduced specific absorption rate with increasing n in RAFFn were demonstrated. Simulations of exchange-induced relaxations revealed enhanced sensitivity of RAFFn to slow exchange. Consistent with such feature, an increased grey/white matter contrast was observed in human and rat brain as n increased. Conclusion RAFFn is a robust and safe rotating frame relaxation method to access slow molecular motions in vivo. PMID:24523028

  18. Groupwise registration of cardiac perfusion MRI sequences using normalized mutual information in high dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamrouni, Sameh; Rougon, Nicolas; Pr"teux, Françoise

    2011-03-01

    In perfusion MRI (p-MRI) exams, short-axis (SA) image sequences are captured at multiple slice levels along the long-axis of the heart during the transit of a vascular contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) through the cardiac chambers and muscle. Compensating cardio-thoracic motions is a requirement for enabling computer-aided quantitative assessment of myocardial ischaemia from contrast-enhanced p-MRI sequences. The classical paradigm consists of registering each sequence frame on a reference image using some intensity-based matching criterion. In this paper, we introduce a novel unsupervised method for the spatio-temporal groupwise registration of cardiac p-MRI exams based on normalized mutual information (NMI) between high-dimensional feature distributions. Here, local contrast enhancement curves are used as a dense set of spatio-temporal features, and statistically matched through variational optimization to a target feature distribution derived from a registered reference template. The hard issue of probability density estimation in high-dimensional state spaces is bypassed by using consistent geometric entropy estimators, allowing NMI to be computed directly from feature samples. Specifically, a computationally efficient kth-nearest neighbor (kNN) estimation framework is retained, leading to closed-form expressions for the gradient flow of NMI over finite- and infinite-dimensional motion spaces. This approach is applied to the groupwise alignment of cardiac p-MRI exams using a free-form Deformation (FFD) model for cardio-thoracic motions. Experiments on simulated and natural datasets suggest its accuracy and robustness for registering p-MRI exams comprising more than 30 frames.

  19. Factors in myocardial "perfusion" imaging with ultrafast MRI and Gd-DTPA administration.

    PubMed

    Burstein, D; Taratuta, E; Manning, W J

    1991-08-01

    Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and first pass observation of an interstitial contrast agent are currently being used to study myocardial perfusion. Image intensity, however, is a function of several parameters, including the delivery of the contrast agent to the interstitium (coronary flow rate and diffusion into the interstitium) and the relaxation properties of the tissue (contrast agent concentration, proton exchange rates, and relative intra- and extracellular volume fractions). In this study, image intensity during gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) administration with T1-weighted ultrafast MR imaging was assessed in an isolated heart preparation. With increasing Gd-DTPA concentration, the steady-state myocardial image intensity increased but the time to reach steady state remained unchanged, resulting in an increased slope of image intensity change. A range of physiologic perfusion pressures (and resulting coronary flow rates) had insignificant effects on kinetics of Gd-DTPA wash-in or steady-state image intensity, suggesting that diffusion of Gd-DTPA into the interstitium is the rate limiting step in image intensity change with this preparation. Following global ischemia and reperfusion, transmural differences in the slope of image intensity change were apparent. However, the altered steady-state image intensity (due to postischemic edema) makes interpretation of this finding difficult. The studies described here demonstrate that although Gd-DTPA administration combined with ultrafast imaging may be a sensitive indicator of perfusion abnormalities, factors other than perfusion will affect image intensity. Extensive studies will be required before image intensity with this protocol is fully understood. PMID:1775055

  20. Using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI to Quantitatively Characterize Maternal Vascular Organization in the Primate Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Frias, A.E.; Schabel, M.C.; Roberts, V.H.J.; Tudorica, A.; Grigsby, P.L.; Oh, K.Y.; Kroenke, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The maternal microvasculature of the primate placenta is organized into 10-20 perfusion domains that are functionally optimized to facilitate nutrient exchange to support fetal growth. This study describes a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) method for identifying vascular domains, and quantifying maternal blood flow in them. Methods A rhesus macaque on the 133rd day of pregnancy (G133, term=165 days) underwent Doppler ultrasound (US) procedures, DCE-MRI, and Cesarean-section delivery. Serial T1-weighted images acquired throughout intravenous injection of a contrast reagent (CR) bolus were analyzed to obtain CR arrival time maps of the placenta. Results Watershed segmentation of the arrival time map identified 16 perfusion domains. The number and location of these domains corresponded to anatomical cotyledonary units observed following delivery. Analysis of the CR wave front through each perfusion domain enabled determination of volumetric flow, which ranged from 9.03 to 44.9 mL/sec (25.2 ± 10.3 mL/sec). These estimates are supported by Doppler US results. Conclusions The DCE-MRI analysis described here provides quantitative estimates of the number of maternal perfusion domains in a primate placenta, and estimates flow within each domain. Anticipated extensions of this technique are to the study placental function in nonhuman primate models of obstetric complications. PMID:24753177

  1. Pattern of Hemodynamic Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MR Imaging at 3.0 T

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Sumita; Johnson, Glyn; Herbert, Joseph; Jaggi, Hina; Babb, James S.; Grossman, Robert I.; Inglese, Matilde

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine regional pattern of tissue perfusion in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of patients with primary-progressive (PP), relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls, and to investigate the association between perfusion abnormalities and clinical disability. Using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla, we studied twenty-two patients with clinically definite MS, eleven with PP-MS and eleven with RR-MS and eleven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. The MRI protocol included axial dual-echo, dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced (DSC) T2*-weighted and post-contrast T1-weighted images. Absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in the periventricular, frontal, occipital NAWM, and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Compared to controls, CBF and CBV were significantly lower in all NAWM regions in both PP-MS patients (p values from <0.0001 to 0.001) and RR-MS (p values from <0.0001 to 0.020). Compared to RR-MS, PP-MS patients showed significantly lower CBF in the periventricular NAWM (p= 0.002) and lower CBV in the periventricular and frontal NAWM (p values: 0.0029 and 0.022). EDSS was significantly correlated with the periventricular CBF (r=−0.48, p=0.0016) and with the periventricular and frontal CBV (r=−0.42, p=0.015; r=−0.35, p=0.038, respectively). This study suggests that the hemodynamic abnormalities of NAWM have clinical relevance in patients with MS. DSC perfusion MRI might provide a relevant objective measure of disease activity and treatment efficacy. PMID:16996280

  2. Contrast Enhanced MRI in the Diagnosis of HCC

    PubMed Central

    Niendorf, Eric; Spilseth, Benjamin; Wang, Xiao; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Imaging plays a critical role in HCC screening and diagnosis. Initial screening of patients at risk for HCC is performed with ultrasound. Confirmation of HCC can then be obtained by Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), due to the relatively high specificity of both techniques. This article will focus on reviewing MRI techniques for imaging HCC, felt by many to be the exam of choice for HCC diagnosis. MRI relies heavily upon the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents and while primarily extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents are used, there is an emerging role of hepatobiliary contrast agents in HCC imaging. The use of other non-contrast enhanced MRI techniques for assessing HCC will also be discussed and these MRI strategies will be reviewed in the context of the pathophysiology of HCC to help understand the MR imaging appearance of HCC. PMID:26854161

  3. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Anwander, H.; Cron, G. O.; Rakhra, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hips with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) have a high rate of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR), often associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measures tissue perfusion with the parameter Ktrans (volume transfer constant of contrast agent). Our purpose was 1) to evaluate the feasibility of DCE-MRI in patients with THA and 2) to compare DCE-MRI in patients with MoM bearings with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, hypothesising that the perfusion index Ktrans in hips with MoM THA is higher than in hips with MoP THA. Methods In this pilot study, 16 patients with primary THA were recruited (eight MoM, eight MoP). DCE-MRI of the hip was performed at 1.5 Tesla (T). For each patient, Ktrans was computed voxel-by-voxel in all tissue lateral to the bladder. The mean Ktrans for all voxels was then calculated. These values were compared with respect to implant type and gender, and further correlated with clinical parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the two bearing types with both genders combined. However, dividing patients by THA bearing and gender, women with MoM bearings had the highest Ktrans values, exceeding those of women with MoP bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.053 min−1; p-value < 0.05) and men with MoM bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.034 min−1; p-value < 0.001). Considering only the men, patients with MoM bearings had lower Ktrans than those with MoP bearings (0.034 min−1 versus 0.046 min−1; p < 0.05). Conclusion DCE-MRI is feasible to perform in tissues surrounding THA. Females with MoM THA show high Ktrans values in DCE-MRI, suggesting altered tissue perfusion kinematics which may reflect relatively greater inflammation. Cite this article: Dr P. E. Beaule. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: A pilot stud. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:73–79. DOI: 10

  4. Non-ECG-Gated Myocardial Perfusion MRI Using Continuous Magnetization-Driven Radial Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Behzad; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Arsanjani, Reza; Thomson, Louise; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Berman, Daniel S.; Li, Debiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Establishing a high-resolution non-ECG-gated first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac MRI technique may improve accessibility and diagnostic capability of FPP imaging. We propose a non-ECG-gated FPP imaging technique using continuous magnetization-driven golden-angle radial acquisition. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to evaluate whether, in the simple case of single-slice 2D imaging, adequate myocardial contrast can be obtained for accurate visualization of hypoperfused territories in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Methods A T1-weighted pulse sequence with continuous golden-angle radial sampling was developed for non-ECG-gated FPP imaging. A sliding-window scheme with no temporal acceleration was used to reconstruct 8 frames/second. Canines were imaged at 3T with and without coronary stenosis using the proposed scheme and a conventional magnetization-prepared ECG-gated FPP method. Results Our studies showed that the proposed non-ECG-gated method is capable of generating high-resolution (1.7×1.7×6 mm3) artifact-free FPP images of a single slice at high heart rates (92±21 beats/minute), while matching the performance of conventional FPP imaging in terms of hypoperfused-to-normal myocardial contrast-to-noise ratio (proposed: 5.18±0.70, conventional: 4.88±0.43). Furthermore, the detected perfusion defect areas were consistent with the conventional FPP images. Conclusion Non-ECG-gated FPP imaging using optimized continuous golden-angle radial acquisition achieves desirable image quality (i.e., adequate myocardial contrast, high spatial resolution, and minimal artifacts) in the setting of ischemia. PMID:24443160

  5. Optimized time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in small animal tumor models.

    PubMed

    Haeck, Joost; Bol, Karin; Bison, Sander; van Tiel, Sandra; Koelewijn, Stuart; de Jong, Marion; Veenland, Jifke; Bernsen, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor efficacy of targeted peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) relies on several factors, including functional tumor vasculature. Little is known about the effect of PRRT on tumor vasculature. With dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI, functional vasculature is imaged and quantified using contrast agents. In small animals DCE-MRI is a challenging application. We optimized a clinical sequence for fast hemodynamic acquisitions, time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS), to obtain DCE-MRI images at both high spatial and high temporal resolution in mice and rats. Using TRICKS, functional vasculature was measured prior to PRRT and longitudinally to investigate the effect of treatment on tumor vascular characteristics. Nude mice bearing H69 tumor xenografts and rats bearing syngeneic CA20948 tumors were used to study perfusion following PRRT administration with (177) lutetium octreotate. Both semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters were calculated. Treatment efficacy was measured by tumor-size reduction. Optimized TRICKS enabled MRI at 0.032 mm(3) voxel size with a temporal resolution of less than 5 s and large volume coverage, a substantial improvement over routine pre-clinical DCE-MRI studies. Tumor response to therapy was reflected in changes in tumor perfusion/permeability parameters. The H69 tumor model showed pronounced changes in DCE-derived parameters following PRRT. The rat CA20948 tumor model showed more heterogeneity in both treatment outcome and perfusion parameters. TRICKS enabled the acquisition of DCE-MRI at both high temporal resolution (Tres ) and spatial resolutions relevant for small animal tumor models. With the high Tres enabled by TRICKS, accurate pharmacokinetic data modeling was feasible. DCE-MRI parameters revealed changes over time and showed a clear relationship between tumor size and Ktrans . PMID:25995102

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound of slaughterhouse porcine livers in machine perfusion.

    PubMed

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Efstathiades, Andreas; Keravnou, Christina; Leen, Edward L; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to enable investigations into novel imaging and surgical techniques by developing a readily accessible, versatile liver machine perfusion system. Slaughterhouse pig livers were used, and dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound was introduced to optimize the procurement process and provide real-time perfusion monitoring. The system comprised a single pump, oxygenator, bubble trap and two flowmeters for pressure-controlled perfusion of the vessels using an off-the-shelf perfusate at room temperature. Successful livers exhibited homogeneous perfusion in both the portal vein and hepatic artery with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound, which correlated with stable oxygen uptake, bile production and hepatic resistance and normal histology at the end of 3 h of perfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed perfusion abnormalities invisible to the naked eye, thereby providing context to the otherwise systemic biochemical/hemodynamic measurements and focal biopsy findings. The model developed here is a simple, cost-effective approach for stable ex vivo whole-organ machine perfusion. PMID:25023101

  7. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the

  8. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle.

    PubMed

    Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the

  9. Characterization of bone perfusion by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pig model of advanced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Jonathan P; Synan, Michael; Ezell, Paula; Ballon, Douglas; Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes changes in subchondral bone circulation in OA and examines relationships to bone structure and cartilage degeneration in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. We have used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and PET, with pharmacokinetic modeling, to characterize subchondral bone perfusion. Assessments are made of perfusion kinetics and vascular permeability by MRI, and blood volume and flow, and radionuclide incorporation into bone, by PET. These parameters are compared to cartilage lesion severity and bone histomorphometry. Assessments of intraosseous thrombi are made morphologically. Prolonged signal enhancement during the clearance phase of MRI correlated with OA severity and suggested venous stasis. Vascular permeability was not increased indicating that transvascular migration of contrast agent was not responsible for signal enhancement. Intraosseous thrombi were not observed. Decreased perfusion associated with severe OA was confirmed by PET and was associated with reduced radionuclide incorporation and osteoporosis. MRI and PET can be used to characterize kinetic parameters of circulation in OA and correlate them with subchondral bone metabolism of interest to the pathophysiology of OA. The significance of these observations may lie in alterations induced in the expression of cytokines by OA osteoblasts that are related to bone remodeling and cartilage breakdown. PMID:25410523

  10. Characterization of Bone Perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography in the Dunkin-Hartley Guinea Pig Model of Advanced Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Jonathan P.; Synan, Michael; Ezell, Paula; Ballon, Douglas; Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study characterizes changes in subchondral bone circulation in OA and examines relationships to bone structure and cartilage degeneration in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. Methods We have used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and PET, with pharmacokinetic modeling, to characterize subchondral bone perfusion. Assessments are made of perfusion kinetics and vascular permeability by MRI, and blood volume and flow, and radionuclide incorporation into bone, by PET. These parameters are compared to cartilage lesion severity and bone histomorphometry. Assessments of intraosseous thrombi are made morphologically. Results Prolonged signal enhancement during the clearance phase of MRI correlated with OA severity and suggested venous stasis. Vascular permeability was not increased indicating that transvascular migration of contrast agent was not responsible for signal enhancement. Intraosseous thrombi were not observed. Decreased perfusion associated with severe OA was confirmed by PET and was associated with reduced radionuclide incorporation and osteoporosis. Discussion MRI and PET can be used to characterize kinetic parameters of circulation in OA and correlate them with subchondral bone metabolism of interest to the pathophysiology of OA. The significance of these observations may lie in alterations induced in the expression of cytokines by OA osteoblasts that are related to bone remodeling and cartilage breakdown. PMID:25410523

  11. Novel design of multimodal MRI/NIR optical contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kevin; Lin, Franck; Akers, Walter; Zheng, Jie; Teng, Bao; Vasalatiy, Olga; Griffiths, Gary L.; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel, dual modality gadolinium based MRI/near-infrared optical probe. Utilizing a fluorescent dye as a scaffold with attached Gd-chelating moiety, we demonstrated a substantial shortening of T1 relaxation time of water protons in vitro. The probe was compared to the commonly used MRI Gd-based contrast agents Magnevist® and Multihance® and showed superior contrast properties. The enhancement was due to strong albumin binding of the hydrophobic fluorophore and overall rigidification of the contrast agent. Due to the near-infrared optical properties of the probe and excellent MRI activity the proposed construct can be potentially utilized as a dual probe in multimodal MRI/NIR optical imaging.

  12. Optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, M; Higaki, T; Nishikawa, K; Otonari-Yamamoto, M; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R; Wakoh, M

    2016-09-01

    Several dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to observe swallowing and their parameters have been reported. Although these studies used several contrast enhancement liquids, no studies were conducted to investigate the most suitable liquids. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal contrast enhancement liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing. MRI was performed using a new sequence consisting of true fast imaging with steady-state precession, generalised auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisition and a keyhole imaging technique. Seven liquids were studied, including pure distilled water, distilled water with thickener at 10, 20 and 30 mg mL(-1) concentrations and oral MRI contrast medium at 1, 2 or 3 mg mL(-1) . Distilled water showed the highest signal intensity. There were statistically significant differences among the following contrast media: distilled water with thickener at 20 mg mL(-1) and the oral MRI contrast medium at 2 mg mL(-1) and 1 mg mL(-1) . It can be concluded that the optimal liquid for dynamic MRI of swallowing is a water-based substance that allows variations in viscosity. PMID:27328011

  13. Optimization of arterial spin labeling MRI for quantitative tumor perfusion in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Reshmi; Liang, Jieming; Tang, Mei Yee Annie; Henry, Brian; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2015-08-01

    Perfusion is an important biomarker of tissue function and has been associated with tumor pathophysiology such as angiogenesis and hypoxia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI allows noninvasive and quantitative imaging of perfusion; however, the application in mouse xenograft tumor models has been challenging due to the low sensitivity and high perfusion heterogeneity. In this study, flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL was optimized for a mouse xenograft tumor. To assess the sensitivity and reliability for measuring low perfusion, the lumbar muscle was used as a reference region. By optimizing the number of averages and inversion times, muscle perfusion as low as 32.4 ± 4.8 (mean ± standard deviation) ml/100 g/min could be measured in 20 min at 7 T with a quantification error of 14.4 ± 9.1%. Applying the optimized protocol, heterogeneous perfusion ranging from 49.5 to 211.2 ml/100 g/min in a renal carcinoma was observed. To understand the relationship with tumor pathology, global and regional tumor perfusion was compared with histological staining of blood vessels (CD34), hypoxia (CAIX) and apoptosis (TUNEL). No correlation was observed when the global tumor perfusion was compared with these pathological parameters. Regional analysis shows that areas of high perfusion had low microvessel density, which was due to larger vessel area compared with areas of low perfusion. Nonetheless, these were not correlated with hypoxia or apoptosis. The results suggest that tumor perfusion may reflect certain aspect of angiogenesis, but its relationship with other pathologies needs further investigation. PMID:26104980

  14. [MRI with dynamic contrast enhancement in brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Panfilenko, A F; Iakovlev, S A; Pozdniakov, A V; Tiumin, L A; Shcherbuk, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading method of radiation diagnosis of brain tumors. In conditions of the artificial contrast enhancement there are more clearly differentiated the boundaries of the tumor node on the back of peritumorous edema and identified structural features of the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine indicators of the dynamics of accumulation and removal of contrast agents by brain tumors in MRI technique with dynamic contrast and identify opportunities of this method in the differential diagnosis of various types of tumors. PMID:23814831

  15. Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Floyd, Thomas F.; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-02-01

    Calf blood flow was measured simultaneously in healthy human subjects (n = 7) during cuff inflation and deflation using near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI). The DCS and ASL-MRI data exhibited highly correlated absolute and relative dynamic flow responses in each individual (p < 0.001). Peak flow variations during hyperemia were also significantly correlated, though more for relative (p = 0.003) than absolute (p = 0.016) flow. Repeated measurement variation was less than 8% for both modalities. The results provide much needed quantitative blood flow validation of the diffuse optical correlation method in humans.

  16. Relationship among fMRI, contrast sensitivity and visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Leguire, L E; Algaze, A; Kashou, N H; Lewis, J; Rogers, G L; Roberts, C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is proportional to visual cortical function based on fMRI volume and level of activation or Z-score. Forced choice procedures were utilized to measure the monocular log minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity and CSF. The CSF data were collapsed into a single index by the use of weighted mean contrast sensitivity (WMCS), being defined as the mean of the products of each spatial frequency multiplied by its corresponding contrast sensitivity. fMRI data had been obtained with a 1.5 T GE Signa scanner with visual stimuli including 1.0 and 2.0 c/deg vertical sinusoidal gratings. Subjects consisted of eight normal adults and five amblyopic patients, with the amblyopic subjects added to gauge whether the outcome was due to a restricted range of scores or the small number of study participants. In normal subjects, the fMRI volume and level of activation exhibited no statistically significant correlation with visual acuity at P<0.05. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between WMCS and fMRI volume (R=0.765, P=0.027) and fMRI level of activation (R=0.645, P=0.007), with right eye stimulation using the 1.0 c/deg grating. On the whole, statistically significant correlations between WMCS and fMRI parameters were maintained when subject age was held constant and when data from the five amblyopic subjects were included to expand the range of values and increase the number of data sets for analysis. fMRI volume and Z-score were more closely associated with the CSF, as defined by WMCS, than visual acuity. The results suggest that the CSF reflects the underlying visual cortical cells responsible for fMRI volume and the level of activation. PMID:21035430

  17. Mapping resting-state functional connectivity using perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Merkle, Hellmut; Bodurka, Jerzy; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Duyn, Jeff H.; Talagala, S. Lalith

    2008-01-01

    Resting-state, low frequency (< 0.08 Hz) fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance signal have been shown to exhibit high correlation among functionally connected regions. However, correlations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) fluctuations during the resting state have not been extensively studied. The main challenges of using arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to detect CBF fluctuations are low sensitivity, low temporal resolution, and contamination from BOLD. This work demonstrates CBF-based quantitative functional connectivity mapping by combining continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) with a neck labeling coil and a multi-channel receiver coil to achieve high perfusion sensitivity. In order to reduce BOLD contamination, the CBF signal was extracted from the CASL signal time course by high frequency filtering. This processing strategy is compatible with sinc interpolation for reducing the timing mismatch between control and label images and has the flexibility of choosing an optimal filter cutoff frequency to minimize BOLD fluctuations. Most subjects studied showed high CBF correlation in bilateral sensorimotor areas with good suppression of BOLD contamination. Root-mean-square CBF fluctuation contributing to bilateral correlation was estimated to be 29% ± 19% (N = 13) of the baseline perfusion, while BOLD fluctuation was 0.26% ± 0.14% of the mean intensity (at 3T and 12.5 ms echo time). PMID:18314354

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids as MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Kuźnik, Nikodem; Tomczyk, Mateusz Michał

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most commonly used tomography techniques in medical diagnosis due to the non-invasive character, the high spatial resolution and the possibility of soft tissue imaging. Contrast agents, such as gadolinium complexes and superparamagnetic iron oxides, are administered to spotlight certain organs and their pathologies. Many new models have been proposed that reduce side effects and required doses of these already clinically approved contrast agents. These new candidates often possess additional functionalities, e.g., the possibility of bioactivation upon action of particular stimuli, thus serving as smart molecular probes, or the coupling with therapeutic agents and therefore combining both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. Nanomaterials have been found to be an excellent scaffold for contrast agents, among which carbon nanotubes offer vast possibilities. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), their magnetic and electronic properties, the possibility of different functionalization and the potential to penetrate cell membranes result in a unique and very attractive candidate for a new MRI contrast agent. In this review we describe the different issues connected with MWCNT hybrids designed for MRI contrast agents, i.e., their synthesis and magnetic and dispersion properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo behavior, which is important for diagnostic purposes. An introduction to MRI contrast agent theory is elaborated here in order to point to the specific expectations regarding nanomaterials. Finally, we propose a promising, general model of MWCNTs as MRI contrast agent candidates based on the studies presented here and supported by appropriate theories. PMID:27547627

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids as MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Mateusz Michał

    2016-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most commonly used tomography techniques in medical diagnosis due to the non-invasive character, the high spatial resolution and the possibility of soft tissue imaging. Contrast agents, such as gadolinium complexes and superparamagnetic iron oxides, are administered to spotlight certain organs and their pathologies. Many new models have been proposed that reduce side effects and required doses of these already clinically approved contrast agents. These new candidates often possess additional functionalities, e.g., the possibility of bioactivation upon action of particular stimuli, thus serving as smart molecular probes, or the coupling with therapeutic agents and therefore combining both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. Nanomaterials have been found to be an excellent scaffold for contrast agents, among which carbon nanotubes offer vast possibilities. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), their magnetic and electronic properties, the possibility of different functionalization and the potential to penetrate cell membranes result in a unique and very attractive candidate for a new MRI contrast agent. In this review we describe the different issues connected with MWCNT hybrids designed for MRI contrast agents, i.e., their synthesis and magnetic and dispersion properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo behavior, which is important for diagnostic purposes. An introduction to MRI contrast agent theory is elaborated here in order to point to the specific expectations regarding nanomaterials. Finally, we propose a promising, general model of MWCNTs as MRI contrast agent candidates based on the studies presented here and supported by appropriate theories. PMID:27547627

  20. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI with Localized Arterial Input Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.J.; Bretthorst, G.L.; Derdeyn, C.P.; Powers, W.J.; Videen, T.O.; Snyder, A.Z.; Markham, J.; Shimony, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to gold-standard measurements of cerebral perfusion with positron emission tomography (PET) using H2[15O] tracers, measurements with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR are more accessible, less expensive and less invasive. However, existing methods for analyzing and interpreting data from DSC MR have characteristic disadvantages that include sensitivity to incorrectly modeled delay and dispersion in a single, global arterial input function (AIF). We describe a model of tissue microcirculation derived from tracer kinetics which estimates for each voxel a unique, localized AIF (LAIF). Parameters of the model were estimated using Bayesian probability theory and Markov-chain Monte Carlo, circumventing difficulties arising from numerical deconvolution. Applying the new method to imaging studies from a cohort of fourteen patients with chronic, atherosclerotic, occlusive disease showed strong correlations between perfusion measured by DSC MR with LAIF and perfusion measured by quantitative PET with H2[15O]. Regression to PET measurements enabled conversion of DSC MR to a physiological scale. Regression analysis for LAIF gave estimates of a scaling factor for quantitation which described perfusion accurately in patients with substantial variability in hemodynamic impairment. PMID:20432301

  1. Medullary hemangioblastoma in a child with von Hippel-Lindau disease: vascular tumor perfusion depicted by arterial spin labeling and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Ra, Young-Shin

    2015-07-01

    Medullary hemangioblastoma is very rare in children. Based on small nodular enhancement with peritumoral edema and without dilated feeding arteries on conventional MRI, hemangioblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and ganglioglioma were included in the differential diagnosis of the medullary tumor. In this case report, the authors emphasize the diagnostic value of arterial spin labeling and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in demonstrating vascular tumor perfusion of hemangioblastoma in a 12-year-old boy who was later found to have von Hippel-Lindau disease. PMID:25885801

  2. Chlorotoxin-modified macromolecular contrast agent for MRI tumor diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongqin; Han, Liang; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Shuhuan; Shao, Kun; Kuang, Yuyang; Hu, Xing; Wang, Xuxia; Lei, Hao; Jiang, Chen

    2011-08-01

    Clinical diagnosis of cancers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly dependent on contrast agents, especially for brain tumors which contain blood-brain barrier (BBB) at the early stage. However, currently mostly used low molecular weight contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA suffer from rapid renal clearance, non-specificity, and low contrast efficiency. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of a macromolecular MRI contrast agent based on dendrigraft poly-l-lysines (DGLs), using chlorotoxin (CTX) as a tumor-specific ligand. The contrast agent using CTX-modified conjugate as the main scaffold and Gd-DTPA as the payload was successfully synthesized. The results of fluorescent microscopy showed that the modification of CTX could markedly enhance the cellular uptake in C6 glioma and liver tumor cell lines, but not in normal cell line. Significantly increased accumulation of CTX-modified conjugate within glioma and liver tumor was further demonstrated in tumor-bearing nude mice using in vivo imaging system. The MRI results showed that the signal enhancement of mice treated with CTX-modified contrast reached peak level at 5 min for both glioma and liver tumor, 144.97% ± 19.54% and 158.69% ± 12.41%, respectively, significantly higher than that of unmodified counterpart and commercial control. And most importantly, the signal enhancement of CTX-modified contrast agent maintained much longer compared to that of controls, which might be useful for more exact diagnosis for tumors. CTX-modified dendrimer-based conjugate might be applied as an efficient MRI contrast agent for targeted and accurate tumor diagnosis. This finding is especially important for tumors such as brain glioma which is known hard to be diagnosed due to the presence of BBB. PMID:21531455

  3. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Using a Macromolecular MR Contrast Agent (P792): Evaluation of Antivascular Drug Effect in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Il; Woo, Sungmin; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Choi, Jin-Young; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. Materials and Methods This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. Results P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Conclusion Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent. PMID:26357497

  4. Visualization of perfusion changes with laser speckle contrast imaging using the method of motion history image.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Zaheer; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Offenhauser, Nikolas; Dreier, Jens P; Nirala, Anil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a real-time imaging modality reflecting microvascular perfusion. We report on the application of the motion history image (MHI) method on LSCI data obtained from the two hemispheres of a mouse. Through the generation of a single image, MHI stresses the microvascular perfusion changes. Our experimental results performed during a pinprick-triggered spreading depolarization demonstrate the effectiveness of MHI: MHI allows the visualization of perfusion changes without loss of resolution and definition. Moreover, MHI provides close results to the ones given by the generalized differences (GD) algorithm. However, MHI has the advantage of giving information on the temporal evolution of the perfusion variations, which GD does not. PMID:27321386

  5. A perfusion fMRI investigation of thematic and categorical context effects in the spoken production of object names.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Johnson, Kori; Howard, David; McMahon, Katie

    2014-05-01

    The context in which objects are presented influences the speed at which they are named. We employed the blocked cyclic naming paradigm and perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the mechanisms responsible for interference effects reported for thematically and categorically related compared to unrelated contexts. Naming objects in categorically homogeneous contexts induced a significant interference effect that accumulated from the second cycle onwards. This interference effect was associated with significant perfusion signal decreases in left middle and posterior lateral temporal cortex and the hippocampus. By contrast, thematically homogeneous contexts facilitated naming latencies significantly in the first cycle and did not differ from heterogeneous contexts thereafter, nor were they associated with any perfusion signal changes compared to heterogeneous contexts. These results are interpreted as being consistent with an account in which the interference effect both originates and has its locus at the lexical level, with an incremental learning mechanism adapting the activation levels of target lexical representations following access. We discuss the implications of these findings for accounts that assume thematic relations can be active lexical competitors or assume mandatory involvement of top-down control mechanisms in interference effects during naming. PMID:24657924

  6. Dynamic subcortical blood flow during male sexual activity with ecological validity: a perfusion fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Farrell, Michael J; Boessen, Ruud; Denton, Derek A; Gavrilescu, Maria; Kortekaas, Rudie; Renken, Remco J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Egan, Gary F

    2010-03-01

    This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI to measure brain perfusion in a group of healthy men under conditions that closely resembled customary sexual behavior. Serial perfusion measures for 30 min during two self-limited periods of partnered penis stimulation, and during post-stimulatory periods, revealed novel sexual activity-related cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, mainly in subcortical parts of the brain. Ventral pallidum rCBF was highest during the onset of penile erection, and lowest after the termination of penis stimulation. The perceived level of sexual arousal showed the strongest positive association with rCBF in the right basal forebrain. In addition, our results demonstrate that distinct subregions of the hypothalamus and cingulate cortex subserve opposite functions during human male sexual behavior. The lateral hypothalamus and anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex showed increased rCBF correlated with penile erection. By contrast, the anteroventral hypothalamus and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex exhibited rCBF changes correlated with penile detumescence after penile stimulation. Continuous rapid and high-resolution brain perfusion imaging during normal sexual activity has provided novel insights into the central mechanisms that control male sexual arousal. PMID:20006720

  7. Ultrasound Contrast Materials in Cardiovascular Medicine: from Perfusion Assessment to Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klibanov, Alexander L

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in cardiovascular diagnostics. Contrast agents expand the range of tasks that ultrasound can perform. In the clinic in US, endocardial border delineation and left ventricle opacification have been an approved indication for more than a decade. However, myocardial perfusion contrast ultrasound studies are still at the clinical trials stage. Blood pool contrast and perfusion in other tissues might be an easier indication to achieve: general blood pool ultrasound contrast is in wider use in Europe, Canada, Japan, and China. Targeted (molecular) contrast microbubbles will be the next generation of ultrasound imaging probes, capable of specific delineation of the areas of disease by adherence to molecular targets. The shell of targeted microbubbles (currently in the preclinical research and early stage clinical trials) is decorated with the ligands (antibodies, peptides or mimetics, hormones, carbohydrates) that ensure firm binding to the molecular markers of disease. PMID:23913363

  8. Low contrast medium and radiation dose for hepatic computed tomography perfusion of rabbit VX2 tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-Yuan; Cui, Yan-Fen; Guo, Chen; Cai, Jing; Weng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Deng-Bin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of low contrast medium and radiation dose for hepatic computed tomography (CT) perfusion of rabbit VX2 tumor. METHODS: Eleven rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor underwent perfusion CT scanning with a 24-h interval between a conventional tube potential (120 kVp) protocol with 350 mgI/mL contrast medium and filtered back projection, and a low tube potential (80 kVp) protocol with 270 mgI/mL contrast medium with iterative reconstruction. Correlation and agreement among perfusion parameters acquired by the conventional and low dose protocols were assessed for the viable tumor component as well as whole tumor. Image noise and tumor-to-liver contrast to noise ratio during arterial and portal venous phases were evaluated. RESULTS: A 38% reduction in contrast medium dose (360.1 ± 13.3 mgI/kg vs 583.5 ± 21.5 mgI/kg, P < 0.001) and a 73% decrease in radiation dose (1898.5 mGy • cm vs 6951.8 mGy • cm) were observed. Interestingly, there was a strong positive correlation in hepatic arterial perfusion (r = 0.907, P < 0.001; r = 0.879, P < 0.001), hepatic portal perfusion (r = 0.819, P = 0.002; r = 0.831, P = 0.002), and hepatic blood flow (r = 0.945, P < 0.001; r = 0.930, P < 0.001) as well as a moderate correlation in hepatic perfusion index (r = 0.736, P = 0.01; r = 0.636, P = 0.035) between the low dose protocol with iterative reconstruction and the conventional protocol for the viable tumor component and the whole tumor. These two imaging protocols provided a moderate but acceptable agreement for perfusion parameters and similar tumor-to-liver CNR during arterial and portal venous phases (5.63 ± 2.38 vs 6.16 ± 2.60, P = 0.814; 4.60 ± 1.27 vs 5.11 ± 1.74, P = 0.587). CONCLUSION: Compared with the conventional protocol, low contrast medium and radiation dose with iterative reconstruction has no significant influence on hepatic perfusion parameters for rabbits VX2 tumor. PMID:25954099

  9. ASFNR recommendations for clinical performance of MR dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion imaging of the brain.

    PubMed

    Welker, K; Boxerman, J; Kalnin, A; Kaufmann, T; Shiroishi, M; Wintermark, M

    2015-06-01

    MR perfusion imaging is becoming an increasingly common means of evaluating a variety of cerebral pathologies, including tumors and ischemia. In particular, there has been great interest in the use of MR perfusion imaging for both assessing brain tumor grade and for monitoring for tumor recurrence in previously treated patients. Of the various techniques devised for evaluating cerebral perfusion imaging, the dynamic susceptibility contrast method has been employed most widely among clinical MR imaging practitioners. However, when implementing DSC MR perfusion imaging in a contemporary radiology practice, a neuroradiologist is confronted with a large number of decisions. These include choices surrounding appropriate patient selection, scan-acquisition parameters, data-postprocessing methods, image interpretation, and reporting. Throughout the imaging literature, there is conflicting advice on these issues. In an effort to provide guidance to neuroradiologists struggling to implement DSC perfusion imaging in their MR imaging practice, the Clinical Practice Committee of the American Society of Functional Neuroradiology has provided the following recommendations. This guidance is based on review of the literature coupled with the practice experience of the authors. While the ASFNR acknowledges that alternate means of carrying out DSC perfusion imaging may yield clinically acceptable results, the following recommendations should provide a framework for achieving routine success in this complicated-but-rewarding aspect of neuroradiology MR imaging practice. PMID:25907520

  10. A spatially-distributed computational model to quantify behaviour of contrast agents in MR perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, A.N.; Lee, J.; Michler, C.; Chabiniok, R.; Hyde, E.; Nordsletten, D.; Smith, N.P.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging provides an early, non-invasive indication of defects in the coronary circulation. However, the large variation of contrast agent properties, physiological state and imaging protocols means that optimisation of image acquisition is difficult to achieve. This situation motivates the development of a computational framework that, in turn, enables the efficient mapping of this parameter space to provide valuable information for optimisation of perfusion imaging in the clinical context. For this purpose a single-compartment porous medium model of capillary blood flow is developed which is coupled with a scalar transport model, to characterise the behaviour of both blood-pool and freely-diffusive contrast agents characterised by their ability to diffuse through the capillary wall into the extra-cellular space. A parameter space study is performed on the nondimensionalised equations using a 2D model for both healthy and diseased myocardium, examining the sensitivity of system behaviour to Peclet number, Damköhler number (Da), diffusivity ratio and fluid porosity. Assuming a linear MR signal response model, sample concentration time series data are calculated, and the sensitivity of clinically-relevant properties of these signals to the model parameters is quantified. Both upslope and peak values display significant non-monotonic behaviour with regard to the Damköhler number, with these properties showing a high degree of sensitivity in the parameter range relevant to contrast agents currently in use. However, the results suggest that signal upslope is the more robust and discerning metric for perfusion quantification, in particular for correlating with perfusion defect size. Finally, the results were examined in the context of nonlinear signal response, flow quantification via Fermi deconvolution and perfusion reserve index, which demonstrated that there is no single best set of contrast agent parameters

  11. What We Can Really Do with Bioresponsive MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Angelovski, Goran

    2016-06-13

    Bioresponsive MRI contrast agents hold great promise for monitoring major physiological and pathological processes in a non-invasive manner. They are capable of altering the acquired MRI signal as a consequence of changes in their microenvironment, thus allowing real-time functional reporting in living organisms. Importantly, chemistry offers diverse solutions for the design of agents which respond to a great number of specific targets. However, the path to the successful utilization of these biomarkers in the desired functional MRI studies involves careful consideration of multiple scientific, technical, and practical issues across various research disciplines. This Minireview highlights the critical steps for planning and executing such multidisciplinary projects with an aim to substantially improve our knowledge of essential biological processes. PMID:27112329

  12. Surface Modified Gadolinium Phosphate Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Matthieu F.; Baligand, Celine; Knowles, Elisabeth S.; Meisel, Mark W.; Walter, Glenn A.; Talham, Daniel R.

    2012-02-01

    Nanoparticles of GdPO4H2O were synthesized in a water/oil microemulsion using IGEPAL CO-520 as surfactant resulting in 50 nm to 100 nm particles that are dispersible and stable in water. Using surface modification chemistry previously established for zirconium phosphonate surfaces,ootnotetext J. Monot et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (2008) 6243. the particles are directly modified with 5'-phosphate terminated oligonucleotides, and the specific interaction of the divalent phosphate with Gd^3+ sites at the surface is demonstrated. The ability of the modified nanoparticles to act as MRI contrast agents was determined by performing MR relaxivity measurements at 14 T. Solutions of nanopure water, Feridex and Omniscan (FDA cleared contrast agents) in 0.25% agarose were used for comparison and control purposes. MRI data confirm that GdPO4H2O nanoparticles have relaxivities (r1,r2) comparable to commercially available contrast agents.ootnotetext H. Hifumi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 15090. In addition, biofunctionalization of the surface of the nanoparticles does not prevent their function as MRI contrast agents.

  13. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-01

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. PMID:27343032

  14. Absolute perfusion measurements and associated iodinated contrast agent time course in brain metastasis: a study for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Layal; Deman, Pierre; Tessier, Alexandre; Balosso, Jacques; Estève, François; Adam, Jean- François

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment that combines the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using medium energy X-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the absolute amount of iodine reached in the tumor and its time course. Quantitative, postinfusion iodine biodistribution and associated brain perfusion parameters were studied in human brain metastasis as key parameters for treatment feasibility and quality. Twelve patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (40 mL, 4 mL/s), followed by a steady-state infusion (160 mL, 0.5 mL/s) to ensure stable intratumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations and quantitative perfusion maps were derived from 40 multislice dynamic computed tomography (CT) images of the brain. The postinfusion mean intratumoral iodine concentration (over 30 minutes) reached 1.94±0.12 mg/mL. Reasonable correlations were obtained between these concentrations and the permeability surface area product and the cerebral blood volume. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study of CA biodistribution versus time in brain metastasis. The study shows that suitable and stable amounts of iodine can be reached for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy. Moreover, the associated perfusion measurements provide useful information for the patient recruitment and management processes. PMID:24447951

  15. Revisiting an old friend: manganese-based MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Senpan, Angana; Schmieder, Ann H.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive cellular and molecular imaging techniques are emerging as a multidisciplinary field that offers promise in understanding the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of disease at a molecular level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive technique due to the absence of radiation and high spatial resolution which makes it advantageous over techniques involving radioisotopes. Typically paramagnetic and superparamagnetic metals are used as contrast materials for MR based techniques. Gadolinium has been the predominant paramagnetic contrast metal until the discovery and association of the metal with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in some patients with severe renal or kidney disease. Manganese was one of the earliest reported examples of paramagnetic contrast material for MRI because of its efficient positive contrast enhancement. In this review manganese based contrast agent approaches will be presented with a particular emphasis on nanoparticulate agents. We have discussed both classically used small molecule based blood pool contrast agents and recently developed innovative nanoparticle-based strategies highlighting a number of successful molecular imaging examples. PMID:20860051

  16. Intra-procedural Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MRI as a Predictor of Tumor Response to Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dingxin; Gaba, Ron C.; Jin, Brian; Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Ragin, Ann B.; Kulik, Laura M.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Salem, Riad; Larson, Andrew C.; Omary, Reed A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To prospectively test the hypothesis that transcatheter intraarterial perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (TRIP-MRI) measured semi-quantitative perfusion reductions during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with tumor response. Materials and Methods Twenty eight patients (mean age 63 years; range 47–87 years) with 29 tumors underwent chemoembolization in a combined MR-interventional radiology suite. Intra-procedural tumor perfusion reductions during chemoembolization were monitored using TRIP-MRI. Pre- and post-–chemoembolization semi-quantitative area under the time-signal enhancement curve (AUC) tumor perfusion was measured. Mean tumor perfusion pre- and post-chemoembolization were compared using a paired t-test. Imaging follow-up was performed one to three months after chemoembolization. We studied the relationship between short-term tumor imaging response and intra-procedural perfusion reductions using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Intra-procedural AUC perfusion value decreased significantly after chemoembolization (342.1 versus 158.6 arbitrary unit, P < 0.001). Twenty six patients with 27 HCCs (n = 27) had follow-up imaging at mean 39 days post-chemoembolization. Favorable response was present in 67% of these treated tumors according to necrosis criteria. 15 of 16 (94%) tumors with 25–75% perfusion reductions showed necrosis treatment response compared to only 3 of 11 (27%) tumors with perfusion reductions outside the above range (P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that intra-procedural tumor perfusion reduction and Child-Pugh class were independent factors associated significantly with tumor response (P = 0.012 and 0.047, respectively). Conclusion TRIP-MRI can successfully measure semi-quantitative changes in HCC perfusion during chemoembolization. Intra-procedural tumor perfusion reductions are associated with future tumor response. PMID

  17. Towards MRI T2 contrast agents of increased efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Marlène; Marciello, Marzia; Ciuculescu-Pradines, Diana; Respaud, Marc; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Serra, Raphael; Casanove, Marie-José; Amiens, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can be efficient contrast agents for T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after tuning of some key parameters such as size, surface state, colloidal stability and magnetization, thus motivating the development of new synthetic pathways. In this paper we report the effects of surface coating on the efficiency of two different types of iron based nanoparticles (NPs) as MRI contrast agents. Starting from well-defined hydrophobic iron oxide nanospheres and iron nanocubes of 13 nm size, we have used three methods to increase their hydrophilicity and transfer them into water: surface ligand modification, ligand exchange or encapsulation. The NPs obtained have been characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, and the relaxivities of their stable colloidal solutions in water have been determined. Among all samples prepared, iron nanocubes coated by silica display the highest relaxivity (r2) value: 628 s-1 mM-1.

  18. Comparison of Indocyanine Green Angiography and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Vasculature Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Towle, Erica L.; Richards, Lisa M.; Kazmi, S. M. Shams; Fox, Douglas J.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Assessment of the vasculature is critical for overall success in cranial vascular neurological surgery procedures. Although several methods of monitoring cortical perfusion intraoperatively are available, not all are appropriate or convenient in a surgical environment. Recently, 2 optical methods of care have emerged that are able to obtain high spatial resolution images with easily implemented instrumentation: indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of ICG and LSCI in measuring vessel perfusion. METHODS An experimental setup was developed that simultaneously collects measurements of ICG fluorescence and LSCI in a rodent model. A 785-nm laser diode was used for both excitation of the ICG dye and the LSCI illumination. A photothrombotic clot model was used to occlude specific vessels within the field of view to enable comparison of the 2 methods for monitoring vessel perfusion. RESULTS The induced blood flow change demonstrated that ICG is an excellent method for visualizing the volume and type of vessel at a single point in time; however, it is not always an accurate representation of blood flow. In contrast, LSCI provides a continuous and accurate measurement of blood flow changes without the need of an external contrast agent. CONCLUSION These 2 methods should be used together to obtain a complete understanding of tissue perfusion. PMID:22843129

  19. Biocompatible Nanocomplexes for Molecular Targeted MRI Contrast Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhijin; Yu, Dexin; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Na; Ma, Chunhong; Lu, Zaijun

    2009-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis in early stage is vital for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly lactic acid-polyethylene glycol/gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA) nanocomplexes using as biocompatible molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes were obtained using self-assembly nanotechnology by incubation of PLA-PEG nanoparticles and the commercial contrast agent, Gd-DTPA. The physicochemical properties of nanocomplexes were measured by atomic force microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The T1-weighted MR images of the nanocomplexes were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager. The stability study was carried out in human plasma and the distribution in vivo was investigated in rats. The mean size of the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes was 187.9 ± 2.30 nm, and the polydispersity index was 0.108, and the zeta potential was -12.36 ± 3.58 mV. The results of MRI test confirmed that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes possessed the ability of MRI, and the direct correlation between the MRI imaging intensities and the nano-complex concentrations was observed ( r = 0.987). The signal intensity was still stable within 2 h after incubation of the nanocomplexes in human plasma. The nanocomplexes gave much better image contrast effects and longer stagnation time than that of commercial contrast agent in rat liver. A dose of 0.04 mmol of gadolinium per kilogram of body weight was sufficient to increase the MRI imaging intensities in rat livers by five-fold compared with the commercial Gd-DTPA. PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes could be prepared easily with small particle sizes. The nanocomplexes had high plasma stability, better image contrast effect, and liver targeting property. These results indicated that the PLA-PEG/Gd-DTPA nanocomplexes might be potential as molecular targeted imaging contrast agent.

  20. Redox- and Hypoxia-Responsive MRI Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Do, Quyen N.; Ratnakar, James S.; Kovács, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    The development of responsive or “smart” magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can report specific biomarker or biological events has been the focus of MRI contrast agent research over the past 20 years. Among various biological hallmarks of interest, tissue redox and hypoxia are particularly important owing to their roles in disease states and metabolic consequences. Herein we review the development of redox-/hypoxia-sensitive T1 shortening and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) MRI contrast agents. Traditionally, the relaxivity of redox-sensitive Gd3+-based complexes is modulated through changes in the ligand structure or molecular rotation, while PARACEST sensors exploit the sensitivity of the metal-bound water exchange rate to electronic effects of the ligand-pendant arms and alterations in the coordination geometry. Newer designs involve complexes of redox-active metal ions in which the oxidation states have different magnetic properties. The challenges of translating redox- and hypoxia-sensitive agents in vivo are also addressed. PMID:24825674

  1. Redox- and hypoxia-responsive MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Do, Quyen N; Ratnakar, James S; Kovács, Zoltán; Sherry, A Dean

    2014-06-01

    The development of responsive or "smart" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can report specific biomarker or biological events has been the focus of MRI contrast agent research over the past 20 years. Among various biological hallmarks of interest, tissue redox and hypoxia are particularly important owing to their roles in disease states and metabolic consequences. Herein we review the development of redox-/hypoxia-sensitive T1 shortening and paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) MRI contrast agents. Traditionally, the relaxivity of redox-sensitive Gd(3+) -based complexes is modulated through changes in the ligand structure or molecular rotation, while PARACEST sensors exploit the sensitivity of the metal-bound water exchange rate to electronic effects of the ligand-pendant arms and alterations in the coordination geometry. Newer designs involve complexes of redox-active metal ions in which the oxidation states have different magnetic properties. The challenges of translating redox- and hypoxia-sensitive agents in vivo are also addressed. PMID:24825674

  2. Usefulness of contrast perfusion echocardiography for differential diagnosis of cardiac masses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiao-Ying; Guo, Ling-Dan; Wang, Wen-Xuan; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Ya-Ni; Liu, Hong-Yun; Li, Li; Deng, You-Bin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of contrast perfusion echocardiography in the differential diagnosis of different types of cardiac masses. Conventional echocardiography and contrast perfusion echocardiography were performed in 72 patients with cardiac masses. The degree of contrast enhancement of the mass and an adjacent section of myocardium after injection of contrast agent was determined by visual inspection and quantitative time-signal intensity curve analysis. The difference in maximal steady-state pixel intensity between the mass and the adjacent myocardium (ΔAmass-myocardium) was calculated. All masses had a pathologic diagnosis or resolved after anticoagulation. All 16 cardiac masses without enhancement on visual inspection were confirmed to be cardiac thrombi. Twenty-four masses with incomplete enhancement on visual inspection were recognized as benign tumors with validation methods. Of the 32 cardiac masses with complete enhancement, 30 were confirmed as malignant tumors and two as benign tumors with validation methods. The sensitivity and specificity of ΔAmass-myocardium in differentiating thrombi from tumors were 93% and 100%, respectively, and 100% and 97% in differentiating malignant tumors from benign tumors and thrombi. Both visual and quantitative assessment of degree of enhancement of cardiac masses in relation to the adjacent myocardium during contrast perfusion echocardiography had high diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of a thrombus from a tumor or a benign tumor from a malignant tumor. PMID:26087885

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to assess blood perfusion of skeletal muscles in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Juyeon; Jeon, Sunghoon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated perfusion of skeletal muscle using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in humerus, radius, femur and tibia in normal dogs. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography for each region was performed after injecting 0.5 mL and 1 mL of contrast medium (SonoVue) in every dog. Blood perfusion was assessed quantitatively by measuring the peak intensity, time to the peak intensity and area under the curve from the time-intensity curve. Vascularization in skeletal muscle was qualitatively graded with a score of 0-3 according to the number of vascular signals. A parabolic shape of time-intensity curve was observed from muscles in normal dogs, and time to the peak intensity, the peak intensity and area under the curve of each muscle were not significantly different according to the appendicular regions examined and the dosage of contrast agent administered. This study reports that feasibility of contrast enhanced ultrasonography for assessment of the muscular perfusion in canine appendicular regions. PMID:25754794

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to assess blood perfusion of skeletal muscles in normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    OH, Juyeon; JEON, Sunghoon; CHOI, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated perfusion of skeletal muscle using contrast enhanced ultrasonography in humerus, radius, femur and tibia in normal dogs. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography for each region was performed after injecting 0.5 mL and 1 mL of contrast medium (SonoVue) in every dog. Blood perfusion was assessed quantitatively by measuring the peak intensity, time to the peak intensity and area under the curve from the time–intensity curve. Vascularization in skeletal muscle was qualitatively graded with a score of 0–3 according to the number of vascular signals. A parabolic shape of time–intensity curve was observed from muscles in normal dogs, and time to the peak intensity, the peak intensity and area under the curve of each muscle were not significantly different according to the appendicular regions examined and the dosage of contrast agent administered. This study reports that feasibility of contrast enhanced ultrasonography for assessment of the muscular perfusion in canine appendicular regions. PMID:25754794

  5. An Exploratory Study Into the Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Perfusion Computed Tomography for Detection of Intratumoral Hypoxia in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Newbold, Kate Castellano, Isabel; Charles-Edwards, Elizabeth; Mears, Dorothy; Sohaib, Aslam; Leach, Martin; Rhys-Evans, Peter; Clarke, Peter; Fisher, Cyril; Harrington, Kevin; Nutting, Christopher

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC) is well established and known to cause radiation resistance and treatment failure in the management of HNC. This study examines the role of parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and perfusion computed tomography (CT) as surrogate markers of intratumoral hypoxia, defined by using the exogenous marker of hypoxia pimonidazole and the endogenous marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9). Methods and Materials: Patients with HNC underwent preoperative DCE-MRI, perfusion CT, and pimonidazole infusion. Imaging parameters were correlated with pimonidazole and CA9 staining. The strength of correlations was tested by using a two-tailed Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Twenty-three regions of interest were analyzed from the 7 patients who completed the DCE-MRI studies. A number of statistically significant correlations were seen between DCE-MRI parameters (volume transfer between blood plasma and extracellular extravascular space [EES], volume of EES, rate constant between EES and blood plasma, time at arrival of contrast inflow, time to peak, average gradient, and time to onset) and areas with a pimonidazole score of 4. In the case of CA9 staining, only a weak correlation was shown with wash-in rate. There were no significant correlations between perfusion CT parameters and pimonidazole staining or CA9 expression. Conclusion: Intratumoral hypoxia in patients with HNC may be predicted by using DCE-MRI; however, perfusion CT requires further investigation.

  6. Rapid quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion: spectral analysis of myocardial contrast echocardiographic images.

    PubMed

    Bae, Richard Y; Belohlavek, Marek; Greenleaf, James F; Seward, James B

    2002-01-01

    We described a novel rapid spectral analysis technique performed on raw digital in-phase quadrature (IQ) data that quantitatively differentiated perfused from nonperfused myocardium based on the simultaneous comparison of local fundamental and harmonic frequency band intensity levels. In open-chest pigs after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and continuous venous contrast infusion, the fundamental-to-harmonic intensity ratio (FHIR) for samples placed within the left ventricular (LV) cavity (10.8 +/- 1.7 dB) and perfused myocardium (13.7 +/- 1.6 dB) were significantly (P <.001) lower than for nonperfused myocardium (27.1 +/- 2.9 dB). In attenuated images, the FHIR for the LV cavity and perfused myocardium were also significantly (P <.05) lower than for the nonperfused myocardium (21.4 +/- 3.0 dB, 34.4 +/- 3.2 dB, and 40.2 +/- 4.4 dB, respectively). Spectral properties of contrast microbubbles, as characterized by the FHIR, allow for rapid quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion from data contained in a single-image frame, without requiring background image subtraction and image averaging. PMID:11781556

  7. Biodegradable Polydisulfide Dendrimer Nanoclusters as MRI Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Nwe, Kido; Zaki, Ajlan Al; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Gd-conjugated dendrimer nanoclusters (DNCs) are a promising platform for the early detection of disease; however, their clinical utility is potentially limited due to safety concerns related to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In this paper, biodegradable DNCs were prepared with polydisulfide linkages between the individual dendrimers to facilitate excretion. Further, DNCs were labeled with pre-metalated Gd chelates to eliminate the risk of free Gd becoming entrapped in dendrimer cavities. The biodegradable polydisulfide DNCs possessed a circulation half-life of > 1.6 h in mice and produced significant contrast enhancement in the abdominal aorta and kidneys for as long as 4 h. The DNCs were reduced in circulation as a result of thiol-disulfide exchange and the degradation products were rapidly excreted via renal filtration. These agents demonstrated effective and prolonged in vivo contrast enhancement and yet minimized Gd tissue retention. Biodegradable polydisulfide DNCs represent a promising biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into target specific MRI contrast agents. PMID:23098069

  8. The Paramagnetic Pillared Bentonites as Digestive Tract MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojović, Miloš; Daković, Marko; Omerašević, Mia; Mojović, Zorica; Banković, Predrag; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dušan

    The increased use of imaging techniques in diagnostic studies, such as MRI, has contributed to the development of the wide range of new materials which could be successfully used as image improving agents. However, there is a lack of such substances in the area of gastrointestinal tract MRI. Many of the traditionally popular relaxation altering agents show poor results and disadvantages provoking black bowel, side effects of diarrhea and the presence of artifacts arising from clumping. Paramagnetic species seem to be potentially suitable agents for these studies, but contrast opacification has been reported and less than 60% of the gastrointestinal tract magnetic resonance scans showed improved delineation of abdominal pathologies. The new solution has been proposed as zeolites or smectite clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) enclosing of paramagnetic metal ions obtained by ion-exchange methods. However, such materials have problems of leakage of paramagnetic ions causing the appearance of the various side-effects. In this study we show that Co+2 and Dy+3 paramagnetic-pillared bentonites could be successfully used as MRI digestive tract non-leaching contrast agents, altering the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of fluids in contact with the clay minerals.

  9. Noninvasive assessment of tumor microenvironment using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and 18F- fluoromisonidazole PET imaging in neck nodal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Schöder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Wang, Ya; Pfister, David. G.; Fury, Matthew G.; Stambuk, Hilda. E.; Humm, John L.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Pretreatment multimodality imaging can provide useful anatomical and functional data about tumors, including perfusion and possibly hypoxia status. The purpose of our study was to assess non-invasively the tumor microenvironment of neck nodal metastases in patients with head and neck (HN) cancer by investigating the relationship between tumor perfusion measured using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and hypoxia measured by 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO) PET. Methods and Materials Thirteen newly diagnosed HN cancer patients with metastatic neck nodes underwent DCE-MRI and 18F-FMISO PET imaging prior to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The matched regions of interests from both modalities were analyzed. To examine the correlations between DCE-MRI parameters and standard uptake value (SUV) measurements from 18F-FMISO PET, the non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated. Furthermore, DCE-MRI parameters were compared between nodes with 18F-FMISO uptake and nodes with no 18F-FMISO uptake using Mann-Whitney U tests. Results For the 13 patients, a total of 18 nodes were analyzed. The nodal size strongly correlated with the 18F-FMISO SUV (ρ=0.74, p<0.001). There was a strong negative correlation between the median kep (ρ=−0.58, p=0.042) and the 18F-FMISO SUV. Hypoxic nodes (moderate to severe 18F-FMISO uptake) had significantly lower median Ktrans (p=0.049) and median kep (p=0.027) values than did non-hypoxic nodes (no 18F-FMISO uptake). Conclusion This initial evaluation of the preliminary results support the hypothesis that in metastatic neck lymph nodes, hypoxic nodes are poorly perfused (i.e., have significantly lower kep and Ktrans values) compared to non-hypoxic nodes. PMID:19906496

  10. The Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in a Child with Sport-Induced Avascular Necrosis of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Bob; Tilman, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the scaphoid in children is very rare and there is currently no consensus when conservative or operative treatment is indicated. A 10-year-old boy, practicing karate, presented with acute pain in his left wrist after falling on the outstretched hand. Imaging showed a scaphoid waist fracture with signs of an ongoing AVN. The diagnosis of AVN was confirmed with signal loss of the scaphoid on MRI T1. A dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed for further assessment of the proximal pole vascularity and treatment planning. As dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI showed fair perfusion of the proximal pole, an adequate healing potential with conservative treatment was estimated. We achieved union and good function with cast immobilization for fourteen weeks. This case study showed dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to be a valuable tool in assessing whether conservative or operative treatment is indicated to achieve union and good functional outcome. PMID:27529045

  11. Patterns of postictal cerebral perfusion in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a multi-delay multi-parametric arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangxiang; Lei, Du; Ren, Jiechuan; Zuo, Panli; Suo, Xueling; Wang, Danny J. J.; Wang, Meiyun; Zhou, Dong; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral haemodynamic status of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is a very complicated process. Little attention has been paid to cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations in IGE detected by arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the selection of an optimal delay time is difficult for single-delay ASL. Multi-delay multi-parametric ASL perfusion MRI overcomes the limitations of single-delay ASL. We applied multi-delay multi-parametric ASL perfusion MRI to investigate the patterns of postictal cerebral perfusion in IGE patients with absence seizures. A total of 21 IGE patients with absence seizures and 24 healthy control subjects were enrolled. IGE patients exhibited prolonged arterial transit time (ATT) in the left superior temporal gyrus. The mean CBF of IGE patients was significantly increased in the left middle temporal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus and left fusiform gyrus. Prolonged ATT in the left superior temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the age at onset in IGE patients. This study demonstrated that cortical dysfunction in the temporal lobe and fusiform gyrus may be related to epileptic activity in IGE patients with absence seizures. This information can play an important role in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanism of IGE from a cerebral haemodynamic perspective. PMID:27374369

  12. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain.

    PubMed

    Sedlacik, Jan; Reitz, Matthias; Bolar, Divya S; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Schmidt, Nils O; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7 T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml · kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s(∧)-1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s(∧)-1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s-(∧)1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml · min(∧)-1 · 100 g(∧)-1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level. We found

  13. Acute fracture of the neck of the femur. An assessment of perfusion of the head by dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Konishiike, T; Makihata, E; Tago, H; Sato, T; Inoue, H

    1999-07-01

    We performed dynamic MRI of the femoral head within 48 hours of injury on 22 patients with subcapital fracture of the neck of the femur and on a control group of 20 of whom ten were healthy subjects and ten were patients with an intertrochanteric fracture. Three MRI patterns emerged when the results between the fractured side and the contralateral femoral head were compared. In all of the control group and in those patients who had undisplaced fractures (Garden stages I and II), perfusion of the femoral head was considered to be at the same level as on the unaffected side. In patients with displaced fractures (Garden stages III and IV) almost all the femoral heads on the fractured side were impaired or totally avascular, although some had the same level of perfusion as the unaffected side. We conclude that dynamic MRI, a new non-invasive imaging technique, is useful for evaluating the perfusion of the femoral head. PMID:10463727

  14. Nitroxide-loaded hexosomes provide MRI contrast in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bye, Nicole; Hutt, Oliver E; Hinton, Tracey M; Acharya, Durga P; Waddington, Lynne J; Moffat, Bradford A; Wright, David K; Wang, Hong X; Mulet, Xavier; Muir, Benjamin W

    2014-07-29

    The purpose of this work was to synthesize and screen, for their effectiveness to act as T1-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, a small library of nitroxide lipids incorporated into cubic-phase lipid nanoparticles (cubosomes). The most effective nitroxide lipid was then formulated into lower-toxicity lipid nanoparticles (hexosomes), and effective MR contrast was observed in the aorta and spleen of live rats in vivo. This new class of lower-toxicity lipid nanoparticles allowed for higher relaxivities on the order of those of clinically used gadolinium complexes. The new hexosome formulation presented herein was significantly lower in toxicity and higher in relaxivity than cubosome formulations previously reported by us. PMID:24979524

  15. Paramagnetic self-assembled nanoparticles as supramolecular MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Besenius, Pol; Heynens, Joeri L M; Straathof, Roel; Nieuwenhuizen, Marko M L; Bomans, Paul H H; Terreno, Enzo; Aime, Silvio; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nicolay, Klaas; Meijer, E W

    2012-01-01

    Nanometer-sized materials offer a wide range of applications in biomedical technologies, particularly imaging and diagnostics. Current scaffolds in the nanometer range predominantly make use of inorganic particles, organic polymers or natural peptide-based macromolecules. In contrast we hereby report a supramolecular approach for the preparation of self-assembled dendritic-like nanoparticles for applications as MRI contrast agents. This strategy combines the benefits from low molecular weight imaging agents with the ones of high molecular weight. Their in vitro properties are confirmed by in vivo measurements: post injection of well-defined and meta-stable nanoparticles allows for high-resolution blood-pool imaging, even at very low Gd(III) doses. These dynamic and modular imaging agents are an important addition to the young field of supramolecular medicine using well-defined nanometer-sized assemblies. PMID:22539406

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects. PMID:24323376

  17. Modified Gadonanotubes as a promising novel MRI contrasting agent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging drug and imaging carrier systems which show significant versatility. One of the extraordinary characteristics of CNTs as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrasting agent is the extremely large proton relaxivities when loaded with gadolinium ion (Gdn3+) clusters. Methods In this study equated Gdn3+ clusters were loaded in the sidewall defects of oxidized multiwalled (MW) CNTs. The amount of loaded gadolinium ion into the MWCNTs was quantified by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. To improve water solubility and biocompatibility of the system, the complexes were functionalized using diamine-terminated oligomeric poly (ethylene glycol) via a thermal reaction method. Results Gdn3+ loaded PEGylated oxidized CNTs (Gdn3+@CNTs-PEG) is freely soluble in water and stable in phosphate buffer saline having particle size of about 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images clearly showed formation of PEGylated CNTs. MRI analysis showed that the prepared solution represents 10% more signal intensity even in half concentration of Gd3+ in comparison with commerciality available contrasting agent Magnevist®. In addition hydrophilic layer of PEG at the surface of CNTs could prepare stealth nanoparticles to escape RES. Conclusion It was shown that Gdn3+@CNTs-PEG was capable to accumulate in tumors through enhanced permeability and retention effect. Moreover this system has a potential for early detection of diseases or tumors at the initial stages. PMID:23815852

  18. MRI Contrast from Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF)

    PubMed Central

    Liimatainen, Timo; Sorce, Dennis J.; O’Connell, Robert; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2016-01-01

    A new method to measure rotating frame relaxation and to create contrast for MRI is introduced. The technique exploits relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF) generated by amplitude- and frequency-modulated irradiation in a sub-adiabatic condition. Here, RAFF is demonstrated using a radiofrequency pulse based on sine and cosine amplitude and frequency modulations of equal amplitudes, which gives rise to a stationary fictitious magnetic field in a doubly rotating frame. According to dipolar relaxation theory, the RAFF relaxation time constant (TRAFF) was found to differ from laboratory frame relaxation times (T1 and T2) and rotating frame relaxation times (T1ρ and T2ρ). This prediction was supported by experimental results obtained from human brain in vivo and three different solutions. Results from relaxation mapping in human brain demonstrated the ability to create MRI contrast based on RAFF. The value of TRAFF was found to be insensitive to the initial orientation of the magnetization vector. Finally, as compared with adiabatic pulse trains of equal durations, RAFF required less radiofrequency power and therefore can be more readily used for rotating frame relaxation studies in humans. PMID:20740665

  19. MRI contrast from relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF).

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Timo; Sorce, Dennis J; O'Connell, Robert; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2010-10-01

    A new method to measure rotating frame relaxation and to create contrast for MRI is introduced. The technique exploits relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF) generated by amplitude- and frequency-modulated irradiation in a subadiabatic condition. Here, RAFF is demonstrated using a radiofrequency pulse based on sine and cosine amplitude and frequency modulations of equal amplitudes, which gives rise to a stationary fictitious magnetic field in a doubly rotating frame. According to dipolar relaxation theory, the RAFF relaxation time constant (T(RAFF)) was found to differ from laboratory frame relaxation times (T(1) and T(2)) and rotating frame relaxation times (T(1ρ) and T(2ρ)). This prediction was supported by experimental results obtained from human brain in vivo and three different solutions. Results from relaxation mapping in human brain demonstrated the ability to create MRI contrast based on RAFF. The value of T(RAFF) was found to be insensitive to the initial orientation of the magnetization vector. In the RAFF method, the useful bandwidth did not decrease as the train length increased. Finally, as compared with an adiabatic pulse train of equal duration, RAFF required less radiofrequency power and therefore can be more readily used for rotating frame relaxation studies in humans. PMID:20740665

  20. T2∗ Measurement During First-Pass Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Aletras, Anthony H.; Hsu, Li-yueh; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    First-pass contrast-enhanced (CE) myocardial perfusion imaging will experience T2∗ effects at peak concentrations of contrast agent. A reduction in the signal intensity of left ventricular (LV) blood due to T2∗ losses may effect estimates of the arterial input function (AIF) used for quantitative perfusion measurement. Imaging artifacts may also result from T2∗ losses as well as off-resonance due to the bolus susceptibility. We hypothesized that T2∗ losses would not be significant for measurement of the AIF in full-dose studies using a short echo time (TE = 0.6 ms). The purpose of this study was to directly measure T2∗ in the LV cavity during first-pass perfusion. For single-dose Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg at 5 ml/s), the LV blood pool T2∗ had a mean value of 9 ms (N = 10) at peak enhancement. Distortion of the AIF due to T2∗ signal intensity loss will be less than 10% using TE = 0.6 ms. PMID:17029226

  1. Simultaneous detection of landmarks and key-frame in cardiac perfusion MRI using a joint spatial-temporal context model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Xue, Hui; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Guetter, Christoph; Kellman, Peter; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Arai, Andrew; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Littmann, Arne; Georgescu, Bogdan; Guehring, Jens

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven clinical significance in diagnosis of heart diseases. However, analysis of perfusion data is time-consuming, where automatic detection of anatomic landmarks and key-frames from perfusion MR sequences is helpful for anchoring structures and functional analysis of the heart, leading toward fully automated perfusion analysis. Learning-based object detection methods have demonstrated their capabilities to handle large variations of the object by exploring a local region, i.e., context. Conventional 2D approaches take into account spatial context only. Temporal signals in perfusion data present a strong cue for anchoring. We propose a joint context model to encode both spatial and temporal evidence. In addition, our spatial context is constructed not only based on the landmark of interest, but also the landmarks that are correlated in the neighboring anatomies. A discriminative model is learned through a probabilistic boosting tree. A marginal space learning strategy is applied to efficiently learn and search in a high dimensional parameter space. A fully automatic system is developed to simultaneously detect anatomic landmarks and key frames in both RV and LV from perfusion sequences. The proposed approach was evaluated on a database of 373 cardiac perfusion MRI sequences from 77 patients. Experimental results of a 4-fold cross validation show superior landmark detection accuracies of the proposed joint spatial-temporal approach to the 2D approach that is based on spatial context only. The key-frame identification results are promising.

  2. Perfusion-Weighted MRI Parameters for Prediction of Early Progressive Infarction in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Yerim; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early progressive infarction (EPI) is frequently observed and related to poor functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction caused by MCA occlusion. We evaluated the perfusion parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of EPI. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients with acute MCA territory infarction caused by MCA occlusion. EPI was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale increment ≥2 points during 24 hours despite receiving standard treatment. Regional parameter ratios, such as cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBV) ratio (ipsilateral value/contralateral value) on perfusion MRI were analyzed to investigate the association with EPI. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled in total. EPI was present in 18 (28%) subjects and all EPI occurred within 3 days after hospitalization. Diabetes mellitus, rCBV ratio and regional time to peak (rTTP) ratio showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multi-variate analysis indicated that history of diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR), 6.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55–24.24] and a low rCBV ratio (rCBV, <0.85; OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 1.4–30.27) was significantly correlated with EPI. Conclusion The incidence of EPI is considerable in patients with acute MCA territory infarction caused by MCA occlusion. We suggest that rCBV ratio is a useful neuro-imaging parameter to predict EPI. PMID:27446514

  3. Accelerating free breathing myocardial perfusion MRI using multi coil radial k - t SLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud Lingala, Sajan; DiBella, Edward; Adluru, Ganesh; McGann, Christopher; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-10-01

    The clinical utility of myocardial perfusion MR imaging (MPI) is often restricted by the inability of current acquisition schemes to simultaneously achieve high spatio-temporal resolution, good volume coverage, and high signal to noise ratio. Moreover, many subjects often find it difficult to hold their breath for sufficiently long durations making it difficult to obtain reliable MPI data. Accelerated acquisition of free breathing MPI data can overcome some of these challenges. Recently, an algorithm termed as k - t SLR has been proposed to accelerate dynamic MRI by exploiting sparsity and low rank properties of dynamic MRI data. The main focus of this paper is to further improve k - t SLR and demonstrate its utility in considerably accelerating free breathing MPI. We extend its previous implementation to account for multi-coil radial MPI acquisitions. We perform k - t sampling experiments to compare different radial trajectories and determine the best sampling pattern. We also introduce a novel augmented Lagrangian framework to considerably improve the algorithm’s convergence rate. The proposed algorithm is validated using free breathing rest and stress radial perfusion data sets from two normal subjects and one patient with ischemia. k - t SLR was observed to provide faithful reconstructions at high acceleration levels with minimal artifacts compared to existing MPI acceleration schemes such as spatio-temporal constrained reconstruction and k - t SPARSE/SENSE.

  4. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

    PubMed Central

    Jekic, Mihaela; Foster, Eric L; Ballinger, Michelle R; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2008-01-01

    Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed. PMID:18272005

  5. Perfusion MRI Indexes Variability in the Functional Brain Effects of Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Caterina; Lee, Taraz G.; Nomura, Emi M.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an important tool for testing causal relationships in cognitive neuroscience research. However, the efficacy of TMS can be variable across individuals and difficult to measure. This variability is especially a challenge when TMS is applied to regions without well-characterized behavioral effects, such as in studies using TMS on multi-modal areas in intrinsic networks. Here, we examined whether perfusion fMRI recordings of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), a quantitative measure sensitive to slow functional changes, reliably index variability in the effects of stimulation. Twenty-seven participants each completed four combined TMS-fMRI sessions during which both resting state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) and perfusion Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) scans were recorded. In each session after the first baseline day, continuous theta-burst TMS (TBS) was applied to one of three locations: left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L dlPFC), left anterior insula/frontal operculum (L aI/fO), or left primary somatosensory cortex (L S1). The two frontal targets are components of intrinsic networks and L S1 was used as an experimental control. CBF changes were measured both before and after TMS on each day from a series of interleaved resting state and perfusion scans. Although TBS led to weak selective increases under the coil in CBF measurements across the group, individual subjects showed wide variability in their responses. TBS-induced changes in rCBF were related to TBS-induced changes in functional connectivity of the relevant intrinsic networks measured during separate resting-state BOLD scans. This relationship was selective: CBF and functional connectivity of these networks were not related before TBS or after TBS to the experimental control region (S1). Furthermore, subject groups with different directions of CBF change after TBS showed distinct modulations in the functional interactions of targeted networks. These results suggest

  6. The in vivo relaxivity of MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuter, Borys

    1999-11-01

    Post-contrast clinical 1H Magnetic Resonance Images have to date been interpreted with little regard for possible variations in the in-vivo properties of injected magnetic pharmaceuticals (contrast agents), particularly in their relaxivity or ability to alter tissue relaxation rates, T2-1 and T 2-1, per unit concentration. The relaxivities of contrast agents have only rarely been measured in-vivo, measurements usually being performed on excised tissues and at magnetic field strengths lower than used in clinical practice. Some researchers have simply assumed that relaxivities determined in homogeneous tissue phantoms were applicable in-vivo. In this thesis, the relaxivities of two contrast agents, Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, were measured in simple tissue phantoms and in the kidney and liver of intact, but sacrificed, Wistar rats using a clinical MR scanner with a magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla. T1 and T2 were determined from sets of images acquired using a standard clinical spin-echo pulse sequence. The contrast agent concentration in tissue was assessed by radioassay of 153Gd-DTPA or 153Gd-EOB-DTPA, mixed with the normal compound prior to injection. Relaxivity was taken as the slope of a linear regression fit of relaxation rate against Gd concentration. The relaxivities of Gd-EOB-DTPA were similarly determined in normal and biliary- obstructed guinea pigs. Relaxivities in tissue differed significantly from values obtained in simple phantoms. Kidney T1 relaxivity was reduced for both compounds in normal animals. Three days or more of biliary obstruction produced further reductions in kidney T1 relaxivity of Gd-EOB-DTPA, providing strong evidence that disease affects contrast agent relaxivity. Kidney T2 relaxivity was much greater than T1 relaxivity and was also depressed by biliary obstruction. Liver T1 and T 2 relaxivites were increased above phantom values, but were not affected by the biliary obstruction. Water compartmentalisation, macromolecular binding, proton

  7. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Tan, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (Ktherm) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-Ktherm gadodiamide with high-Ktherm gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-β production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-Ktherm chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects. PMID:25100280

  8. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Tan, Chunyan; Wagner, Brent

    2014-10-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (K(therm)) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-K(therm) gadodiamide with high-K(therm) gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-β production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-K(therm) chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects. PMID:25100280

  9. Microfabricated High-Moment Micrometer-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zabow, Gary; Dodd, Stephen J.; Shapiro, Erik; Moreland, John; Koretsky, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    While chemically synthesized superparamagnetic microparticles have enabled much new research based on MRI-tracking of magnetically labeled cells, signal-to-noise levels still limit the potential range of applications. Here it is shown how, through top-down microfabrication, contrast agent relaxivity can be increased several-fold, which should extend the sensitivity of such cell tracking studies. Microfabricated agents can benefit from both higher magnetic moments and higher uniformity than their chemically synthesized counterparts, implying increased label visibility and more quantitative image analyses. To assess the performance of microfabricated micrometer-sized contrast agent particles, analytic models and numerical simulations are developed and tested against new microfabricated agents described in this paper, as well as against results of previous imaging studies of traditional chemically synthesized microparticle agents. Experimental data showing signal effects of 500-nanometer thick, 2-micrometer diameter, gold-coated iron and gold-coated nickel disks verify the simulations. Additionally, it is suggested that measures of location better than the pixel resolution can be obtained and that these are aided using well-defined contrast agent particles achievable through microfabrication techniques. PMID:20928829

  10. Photo-magnetic imaging: resolving optical contrast at MRI resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Gao, Hao; Thayer, David; Luk, Alex L.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we establish the mathematical framework of a novel imaging technique, namely photo-magnetic imaging (PMI). PMI uses a laser to illuminate biological tissues and measure the induced temperature variations using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMI overcomes the limitation of conventional optical imaging and allows imaging of the optical contrast at MRI spatial resolution. The image reconstruction for PMI, using a finite-element-based algorithm with an iterative approach, is presented in this paper. The quantitative accuracy of PMI is investigated for various inclusion sizes, depths and absorption values. Then, a comparison between conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and PMI is carried out to illustrate the superior performance of PMI. An example is presented showing that two 2 mm diameter inclusions embedded 4.5 mm deep and located side by side in a 25 mm diameter circular geometry medium are recovered as a single 6 mm diameter object with DOT. However, these two objects are not only effectively resolved with PMI, but their true concentrations are also recovered successfully.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of magnetoliposomes for MRI contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Faria, M R; Cruz, M M; Gonçalves, M C; Carvalho, A; Feio, G; Martins, M B F

    2013-03-25

    This work assesses the characteristics of magnetoliposomes of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC):cholesterol (Chol) loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stabilized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and their capacity to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. Magnetoliposomes of SPC were used for comparative studies. IONPs and magnetoliposomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, SQUID magnetometry, FTIR and MRI. The saturation magnetization at 10K was ~0.06 Am(2)/kg for SPC:Chol magnetoliposomes with 7 g iron oxide/mol of lipid and ~0.05 Am(2)/kg for SPC magnetoliposomes with 21 g iron oxide/mol of lipid. As these values are associated with the number of incorporated magnetic IONPs, the saturation magnetization is 1.2 times higher for magnetoliposomes of SPC:Chol as compared with magnetoliposomes of SPC alone. The behavior of temperature dependence in both cases is typical of superparamagnetic particles. FTIR spectra evidence the increase of magnetoliposome membrane ordering with the presence of Chol. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to FTIR spectra evidenced a clear distinction between scores for SPC:Chol, and SPC magnetoliposomes and for SPC empty liposomes. PCA applied to FTIR data differentiate magnetoliposomes from empty liposomes. MR images of aqueous phantoms obtained with and without magnetoliposomes, clearly evidence their effect on T2 image weighting. PMID:23422275

  12. A Manganese Alternative to Gadolinium for MRI Contrast.

    PubMed

    Gale, Eric M; Atanasova, Iliyana P; Blasi, Francesco; Ay, Ilknur; Caravan, Peter

    2015-12-16

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used to diagnose soft tissue and vascular abnormalities. However, safety concerns limit the use of iodinated and gadolinium (Gd)-based CT and MRI contrast media in renally compromised patients. With an estimated 14% of the US population suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), contrast media compatible with renal impairment is sorely needed. We present the new manganese(II) complex [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) as a Gd alternative. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) is among the most stable Mn(II) complexes at pH 7.4 (log KML = 11.40). In the presence of 25 mol equiv of Zn at pH 6.0, 37 °C, [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) is 20-fold more resistant to dissociation than [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)](2-). Relaxivity of [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) in blood plasma is comparable to commercial Gd contrast agents. Biodistribution analysis confirms that [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) clears via a mixed renal/hepatobiliary pathway with >99% elimination by 24 h. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) was modified to form a bifunctional chelator and 4 chelates were conjugated to a fibrin-specific peptide to give Mn-FBP. Mn-FBP binds the soluble fibrin fragment DD(E) with Kd = 110 nM. Per Mn relaxivity of Mn-FBP is 4-fold greater than [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) and increases 60% in the presence of fibrin, consistent with binding. Mn-FBP provided equivalent thrombus enhancement to the state of the art Gd analogue, EP-2104R, in a rat model of arterial thrombosis. Mn metabolite analysis reveals no evidence of dechelation and the probe was >99% eliminated after 24 h. [Mn(PyC3A)(H2O)](-) is a lead development candidate for an imaging probe that is compatible with renally compromised patients. PMID:26588204

  13. Assessment of vessel permeability by combining dynamic contrast-enhanced and arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ho-Ling; Chang, Ting-Ting; Yan, Feng-Xian; Li, Cheng-He; Lin, Yu-Shi; Wong, Alex M

    2015-06-01

    The forward volumetric transfer constant (K(trans)), a physiological parameter extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, is weighted by vessel permeability and tissue blood flow. The permeability × surface area product per unit mass of tissue (PS) in brain tumors was estimated in this study by combining the blood flow obtained through pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) and K(trans) obtained through DCE MRI. An analytical analysis and a numerical simulation were conducted to understand how errors in the flow and K(trans) estimates would propagate to the resulting PS. Fourteen pediatric patients with brain tumors were scanned on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner. PCASL perfusion imaging was performed using a three-dimensional (3D) fast-spin-echo readout module to determine blood flow. DCE imaging was performed using a 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and the K(trans) map was obtained with the extended Tofts model. The numerical analysis demonstrated that the uncertainty of PS was predominantly dependent on that of K(trans) and was relatively insensitive to the flow. The average PS values of the whole tumors ranged from 0.006 to 0.217 min(-1), with a mean of 0.050 min(-1) among the patients. The mean K(trans) value was 18% lower than the PS value, with a maximum discrepancy of 25%. When the parametric maps were compared on a voxel-by-voxel basis, the discrepancies between PS and K(trans) appeared to be heterogeneous within the tumors. The PS values could be more than two-fold higher than the K(trans) values for voxels with high K(trans) levels. This study proposes a method that is easy to implement in clinical practice and has the potential to improve the quantification of the microvascular properties of brain tumors. PMID:25880892

  14. Temporal Evolution of Ischemic Lesions in Nonhuman Primates: A Diffusion and Perfusion MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Tong, Frank; Li, Chun-Xia; Yan, Yumei; Kempf, Doty; Nair, Govind; Wang, Silun; Muly, E. Chris; Zola, Stuart; Howell, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI were used to examine the spatiotemporal evolution of stroke lesions in adult macaques with ischemic occlusion. Methods Permanent MCA occlusion was induced with silk sutures through an interventional approach via the femoral artery in adult rhesus monkeys (n = 8, 10–21 years old). The stroke lesions were examined with high-resolution DWI and perfusion MRI, and T2-weighted imaging (T2W) on a clinical 3T scanner at 1–6, 48, and 96 hours post occlusion and validated with H&E staining. Results The stroke infarct evolved via a natural logarithmic pattern with the mean infarct growth rate = 1.38 ± 1.32 ml per logarithmic time scale (hours) (n = 7) in the hyperacute phase (1–6 hours). The mean infarct volume after 6 hours post occlusion was 3.6±2.8 ml (n = 7, by DWI) and increased to 3.9±2.9 ml (n = 5, by T2W) after 48 hours, and to 4.7±2.2ml (n = 3, by T2W) after 96 hours post occlusion. The infarct volumes predicted by the natural logarithmic function were correlated significantly with the T2W-derived lesion volumes (n = 5, r = 0.92, p = 0.01) at 48 hours post occlusion. The final infarct volumes derived from T2W were correlated significantly with those from H&E staining (r = 0.999, p < 0.0001, n = 4). In addition, the diffusion-perfusion mismatch was visible generally at 6 hours but nearly diminished at 48 hours post occlusion. Conclusion The infarct evolution follows a natural logarithmic pattern in the hyperacute phase of stroke. The logarithmic pattern of evolution could last up to 48 hours after stroke onset and may be used to predict the infarct volume growth during the acute phase of ischemic stroke. The nonhuman primate model, MRI protocols, and post data processing strategy may provide an excellent platform for characterizing the evolution of acute stroke lesion in mechanistic studies and therapeutic interventions of stroke disease. PMID:25659092

  15. Respiratory Motion-Compensated Radial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE)-MRI of Chest and Abdominal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Guo, Junyu; Rosen, Mark A.; Song, Hee Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI is becoming an increasingly important tool for evaluating tumor vascularity and assessing the effectiveness of emerging antiangiogenic and antivascular agents. In chest and abdominal regions, however, respiratory motion can seriously degrade the achievable image quality in DCE-MRI studies. The purpose of this work is to develop a respiratory motion-compensated DCE-MRI technique that combines the self-gating properties of radial imaging with the reconstruction flexibility afforded by the golden-angle view-order strategy. Following radial data acquisition, the signal at k-space center is first used to determine the respiratory cycle, and consecutive views during the expiratory phase of each respiratory period (34–55 views, depending on the breathing rate) are grouped into individual segments. Residual intra-segment translation of lesion is subsequently compensated for by an autofocusing technique that optimizes image entropy, while intersegment translation (among different respiratory cycles) is corrected using 3D image correlation. The resulting motion-compensated, undersampled dynamic image series is then processed to reduce image streaking and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) prior to perfusion analysis, using either the k-space-weighted image contrast (KWIC) radial filtering technique or principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed data acquisition scheme also allows for high framerate arterial input function (AIF) sampling and free-breathing baseline T1 mapping. The performance of the proposed radial DCE-MRI technique is evaluated in subjects with lung and liver lesions, and results demonstrate that excellent pixelwise perfusion maps can be obtained with the proposed methodology. PMID:18956465

  16. Hexameric Mn(II) Dendrimer as MRI Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Gale, Eric M.; Atanasova, Iliyana; Rietz, Tyson A.

    2014-01-01

    A Mn(II) chelating dendrimer was prepared as a contrast agent for MRI applications. The dendrimer comprises six tyrosine-derived [Mn(EDTA)(H2O)]2− moieties coupled to a cyclotriphosphazene core. Variable temperature 17O NMR revealed a single water co-ligand per Mn(II) that undergoes fast water exchange (kex = (3.0±0.1) × 108 s−1 at 37 °C). The 37 °C per Mn(II) relaxivity ranged from 8.2 to 3.8 mM−1s−1 from 0.47 to 11.7T, and is 6-fold higher on a per molecule basis. From this field dependence a rotational correlation time was estimated as 0.45±0.02 ns. The imaging and pharmacokinetic properties of the dendrimer were compared to clinically used [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2− in mice at 4.7T. On first pass, the higher per ion relaxivity of the dendrimer resulted in 2-fold greater blood signal than for [Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]2−. Blood clearance was fast and elimination occurred through both the renal and hepatobiliary routes. This Mn(II) containing dendrimer represents potential alternative to Gd-based contrast agents, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease where the use of current Gd-based agents may be contraindicated. PMID:25224391

  17. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  18. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  19. Chemical Shift Induced Phase Errors in Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Middione, Matthew J.; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is subject to numerous sources of error, which decrease clinical confidence in the reported measures. This work outlines how stationary perivascular fat can impart a significant chemical shift induced PC-MRI measurement error using computational simulations, in vitro, and in vivo experiments. This chemical shift error does not subtract in phase difference processing, but can be minimized with proper parameter selection. The chemical shift induced phase errors largely depend on both the receiver bandwidth (BW) and the TE. Both theory and an in vivo comparison of the maximum difference in net forward flow between vessels with and without perivascular fat indicated that the effects of chemically shifted perivascular fat are minimized by the use of high BW (814 Hz/px) and an in-phase TE (HBW-TEIN). In healthy volunteers (N=10) HBW-TEIN significantly improves intrapatient net forward flow agreement compared to low BW (401 Hz/px) and a mid-phase TE as indicated by significantly decreased measurement biases and limits of agreement for the ascending aorta (1.8±0.5 mL vs. 6.4±2.8 mL, P=0.01), main pulmonary artery (2.0±0.9 mL vs. 11.9±5.8 mL, P=0.04), the left pulmonary artery (1.3±0.9 mL vs. 5.4±2.5 mL, P=0.003), and all vessels (1.7±0.8 mL vs. 7.2±4.4 mL, P=0.001). PMID:22488490

  20. PERIPATELLAR SYNOVITIS: COMPARISON BETWEEN NON-CONTRAST-ENHANCED AND CONTRAST-ENHANCED MRI AND ASSOCIATION WITH PAIN. THE MOST STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Michel D.; Felson, David T.; Roemer, Frank W.; Niu, Jingbo; Marra, Monica D.; Zhang, Yuqing; Lynch, John A.; El-Khoury, Georges Y.; Lewis, Cora E.; Guermazi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of signal changes in Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) assessed on non-contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI in detecting synovitis, and the association of pain with signal changes in Hoffa’s fat pad on non-CE MRI and peripatellar synovial thickness on CE MRI. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is an observational study of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. All subjects with available non-CE and CE MRIs were included. Signal changes in HFP were scored from 0 to 3 in 2 regions using non-CE MRI. Synovial thickness was scored from 0 to 2 on CE MRI in 5 peripatellar regions. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HFP signal changes were calculated considering synovial thickness on CE MRI as the reference standard. We used logistic regression to assess the associations of HFP changes (non-CE MRI) and synovial thickness (CE MRI) with pain from walking up or down stairs, after adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 393 subjects were included. Sensitivity of infrapatellar and intercondylar signal changes in HFP was high (71% and 88%), but specificity was low (55% and 30%). No significant associations were found between HFP changes on non-CE MRI and pain. Grade 2 synovial thickness assessed on CE MRI was significantly associated with pain after adjustments for potential confounders. Conclusion Signal changes in HFP detected on non-CE MRI are a sensitive but non-specific surrogate for the assessment of synovitis. CE MRI identifies associations with pain better than non-CE MRI. PMID:23277189

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI serves as a predictor of HIFU treatment outcome for uterine fibroids with hyperintensity in T2-weighted images

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, WEN-PENG; CHEN, JIN-YUN; CHEN, WEN-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the outcome of using ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation for the treatment of uterine fibroids with T2 hyperintensity under MRI. A total of 131 uterine fibroids from 131 patients that appeared hyperintense under T2-weighted MRI were analyzed. The uterine fibroids were subjectively categorized into slight, irregular or regular enhancement groups, according to pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the arterial phase within 60 sec after the injection of gadolinium. The non-perfused volume (NPV), which is indicative of successful ablation, was represented as the non-perfused area inside the uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI scans following treatment. Additionally, the treatment duration, treatment efficiency, sonication duration, energy efficiency ratio and any adverse events were recorded. The results indicated that the average NPV ratio for all the treated fibroids was 68.5%, while the average NPV ratios for fibroids with slight, irregular or regular enhancement were 84.7, 70.6 and 57.1%, respectively. Fibroids with regular enhancement were associated with the lowest NPV ratio and the lowest treatment efficiency, but exhibited the highest energy effect ratio and an elevated risk of severe adverse effects. The results of the present study indicate that hyperintense uterine fibroids with slight and irregular enhancement in the arterial phase of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI are suitable for USgHIFU treatment. By contrast, uterine fibroids with regular enhancement were associated with the lowest treatment efficacy and safety. PMID:26889263

  2. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  3. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the “Emotional Part” (EP) and the “Apparently Normal Part” (ANP), have different biopsychosocial reactions to supraliminal and subliminal trauma-related cues and that these reactions cannot be mimicked by fantasy prone healthy controls nor by actors. Methods Arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI was used to test the hypotheses that ANP and EP in DID have different perfusion patterns in response to rest instructions, and that perfusion is different in actors who were instructed to simulate ANP and EP. In a follow-up study, regional cerebral blood flow of DID patients was compared with the activation pattern of healthy non-simulating controls. Results Compared to EP, ANP showed elevated perfusion in bilateral thalamus. Compared to ANP, EP had increased perfusion in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and motor-related areas. Perfusion patterns for simulated ANP and EP were different. Fitting their reported role-play strategies, the actors activated brain structures involved in visual mental imagery and empathizing feelings. The follow-up study demonstrated elevated perfusion in the left temporal lobe in DID patients, whereas non-simulating healthy controls had increased activity in areas which mediate the mental construction of past and future episodic events. Conclusion DID involves dissociative part-dependent resting-state differences. Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination. The findings are

  4. MO-G-18C-05: Real-Time Prediction in Free-Breathing Perfusion MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H; Liu, W; Ruan, D; Jung, S; Gach, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The aim is to minimize frame-wise difference errors caused by respiratory motion and eliminate the need for breath-holds in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with long acquisitions and repeat times (TRs). The technique is being applied to perfusion MRI using arterial spin labeling (ASL). Methods: Respiratory motion prediction (RMP) using navigator echoes was implemented in ASL. A least-square method was used to extract the respiratory motion information from the 1D navigator. A generalized artificial neutral network (ANN) with three layers was developed to simultaneously predict 10 time points forward in time and correct for respiratory motion during MRI acquisition. During the training phase, the parameters of the ANN were optimized to minimize the aggregated prediction error based on acquired navigator data. During realtime prediction, the trained ANN was applied to the most recent estimated displacement trajectory to determine in real-time the amount of spatial Results: The respiratory motion information extracted from the least-square method can accurately represent the navigator profiles, with a normalized chi-square value of 0.037±0.015 across the training phase. During the 60-second training phase, the ANN successfully learned the respiratory motion pattern from the navigator training data. During real-time prediction, the ANN received displacement estimates and predicted the motion in the continuum of a 1.0 s prediction window. The ANN prediction was able to provide corrections for different respiratory states (i.e., inhalation/exhalation) during real-time scanning with a mean absolute error of < 1.8 mm. Conclusion: A new technique enabling free-breathing acquisition during MRI is being developed. A generalized ANN development has demonstrated its efficacy in predicting a continuum of motion profile for volumetric imaging based on navigator inputs. Future work will enhance the robustness of ANN and verify its effectiveness with human

  5. SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) using a quasi-random fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Fischer, André; Weick, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Beer, Meinrad; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge; Jakob, Peter M; Hahn, Dietbert; Bley, Thorsten; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Obtaining functional information on the human lung is of tremendous interest in the characterization of lung defects and pathologies. However, pulmonary ventilation and perfusion maps usually require contrast agents and the application of electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering and breath holds to generate datasets free of motion artifacts. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining highly resolved perfusion-weighted and ventilation-weighted images of the human lung using proton MRI and the SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) technique. The SENCEFUL technique utilizes a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with quasi-random sampling of phase-encoding (PE) steps for data acquisition. After every readout, a short additional acquisition of the non-phase-encoded direct current (DC) signal necessary for self-gating was added. By sorting the quasi-randomly acquired data according to respiratory and cardiac phase derived from the DC signal, datasets of representative respiratory and cardiac cycles could be accurately reconstructed. By application of the Fourier transform along the temporal dimension, functional maps (perfusion and ventilation) were obtained. These maps were compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE, perfusion) as well as standard Fourier decomposition (FD, ventilation) reference datasets. All datasets were additionally scored by two experienced radiologists to quantify image quality. In addition, one initial patient examination using SENCEFUL was performed. Functional images of healthy volunteers and a patient diagnosed with hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and left-sided pulmonary fibrosis were successfully obtained. Perfusion-weighted images corresponded well to DCE-MRI data; ventilation-weighted images offered a significantly better depiction of the lung periphery compared with standard FD. Furthermore, the SENCEFUL technique hints at a potential clinical relevance by successfully detecting

  6. Simultaneous myocardial strain and dark-blood perfusion imaging using a displacement-encoded MRI pulse sequence.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Stein, Ashley; Berry, Colin; Kellman, Peter; Bennett, Eric E; Taylor, Joni; Lucas, Katherine; Kopace, Rael; Chefd'Hotel, Christophe; Lorenz, Christine H; Croisille, Pierre; Wen, Han

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a displacement-encoded pulse sequence for simultaneous perfusion and strain imaging. Displacement-encoded images in two to three myocardial slices were repeatedly acquired using a single-shot pulse sequence for 3 to 4 min, which covers a bolus infusion of Gadolinium contrast. The magnitudes of the images were T(1) weighted and provided quantitative measures of perfusion, while the phase maps yielded strain measurements. In an acute coronary occlusion swine protocol (n = 9), segmental perfusion measurements were validated against microsphere reference standard with a linear regression (slope 0.986, R(2) = 0.765, Bland-Altman standard deviation = 0.15 mL/min/g). In a group of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (n = 11), the scan success rate was 76%. Short-term contrast washout rate and perfusion are highly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), and the pixelwise relationship between circumferential strain and perfusion was better described with a sigmoidal Hill curve than linear functions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring strain and perfusion from a single set of images. PMID:20544714

  7. Quantifying fluctuations of resting state networks using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiying; Varma, Gopal; Scheidegger, Rachel; Alsop, David C

    2016-03-01

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous low-frequency signal fluctuations across brain resting state networks. However, BOLD only provides relative measures of signal fluctuations. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI holds great potential for quantitative measurements of resting state network fluctuations. This study systematically quantified signal fluctuations of the large-scale resting state networks using ASL data from 20 healthy volunteers by separating them from global signal fluctuations and fluctuations caused by residual noise. Global ASL signal fluctuation was 7.59% ± 1.47% relative to the ASL baseline perfusion. Fluctuations of seven detected resting state networks vary from 2.96% ± 0.93% to 6.71% ± 2.35%. Fluctuations of networks and residual noise were 6.05% ± 1.18% and 6.78% ± 1.16% using 4-mm resolution ASL data applied with Gaussian smoothing kernel of 6mm. However, network fluctuations were reduced by 7.77% ± 1.56% while residual noise fluctuation was markedly reduced by 39.75% ± 2.90% when smoothing kernel of 12 mm was applied to the ASL data. Therefore, global and network fluctuations are the dominant structured noise sources in ASL data. Quantitative measurements of resting state networks may enable improved noise reduction and provide insights into the function of healthy and diseased brain. PMID:26661226

  8. Comparison of Partial Volume Effects in Arterial and Venous Contrast Curves in CT Brain Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Alan J.; Bennink, Edwin; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Viergever, Max A.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Smit, Ewoud J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In brain CT perfusion (CTP), the arterial contrast bolus is scaled to have the same area under the curve (AUC) as the venous outflow to correct for partial volume effects (PVE). This scaling is based on the assumption that large veins are unaffected by PVE. Measurement of the internal carotid artery (ICA), usually unaffected by PVE due to its large diameter, may avoid the need for partial volume correction. The aims of this work are to examine i) the assumptions behind PVE correction and ii) the potential of selecting the ICA obviating correction for PVE. Methods The AUC of the ICA and sagittal sinus were measured in CTP datasets from 52 patients. The AUCs were determined by i) using commercial CTP software based on a Gaussian curve-fitting to the time attenuation curve, and ii) by simple integration of the time attenuation curve over a time interval. In addition, frames acquired up to 3 minutes after first bolus passage were used to examine the ratio of arterial and venous enhancement. The impact of selecting the ICA without PVE correction was illustrated by reporting cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements. Results In 49 of 52 patients, the AUC of the ICA was significantly larger than that of the sagittal sinus (p = 0.017). Measured after the first pass bolus, contrast enhancement remained 50% higher in the ICA just after the first pass bolus, and 30% higher 3 minutes later. CBV measurements were significantly lowered when the ICA was used without PVE correction. Conclusions Contradicting the assumptions underlying PVE correction, contrast in the ICA was significantly higher than in the sagittal sinus, even 3 minutes after the first pass of the contrast bolus. PVE correction might lead to overestimation of CBV if the CBV is calculated using the AUC of the time attenuation curves. PMID:24858308

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of perfusion measurements in dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: development, validation and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peladeau-Pigeon, M.; Coolens, C.

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is an imaging tool that aids in evaluating functional characteristics of tissue at different stages of disease management: diagnostic, radiation treatment planning, treatment effectiveness, and monitoring. Clinical validation of DCE-derived perfusion parameters remains an outstanding problem to address prior to perfusion imaging becoming a widespread standard as a non-invasive quantitative measurement tool. One approach to this validation process has been the development of quality assurance phantoms in order to facilitate controlled perfusion ex vivo. However, most of these systems fail to establish and accurately replicate physiologically relevant capillary permeability and exchange performance. The current work presents the first step in the development of a prospective suite of physics-based perfusion simulations based on coupled fluid flow and particle transport phenomena with the goal of enhancing the understanding of clinical contrast agent kinetics. Existing knowledge about a controllable, two-compartmental fluid exchange phantom was used to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model presented herein. The sensitivity of CFD-derived contrast uptake curves to contrast injection parameters, including injection duration and flow rate, were quantified and found to be within 10% accuracy. The CFD model was employed to evaluate two commonly used clinical kinetic algorithms used to derive perfusion parameters: Fick's principle and the modified Tofts model. Neither kinetic model was able to capture the true transport phenomena it aimed to represent but if the overall contrast concentration after injection remained identical, then successive DCE-CT evaluations could be compared and could indeed reflect differences in regional tissue flow. This study sets the groundwork for future explorations in phantom development and pharmaco-kinetic modelling, as well as the development of novel contrast

  10. Changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion assessed by quantitative intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, S; Muro, T; Hozumi, T; Watanabe, H; Shimada, K; Yoshiyama, M; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To clarify whether changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion under significant coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by quantitative intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in humans. Methods: 31 patients underwent dipyridamole stress MCE and quantitative coronary angiography. Intravenous MCE was performed by continuous infusion of Levovist. Images were obtained from the apical four chamber view with alternating pulsing intervals both at rest and after dipyridamole infusion. Images were analysed offline by placing regions of interest over both endocardial and epicardial sides of the mid-septum. The background subtracted intensity versus pulsing interval plots were fitted to an exponential function, y = A (1 − e−βt), where A is plateau level and β is rate of rise. Results: Of the 31 patients, 16 had significant stenosis (> 70%) in the left anterior descending artery (group A) and 15 did not (group B). At rest, there were no differences in the A endocardial to epicardial ratio (A-EER) and β-EER between the two groups (mean (SD) 1.2 (0.6) v 1.2 (0.8) and 1.2 (0.7) v 1.1 (0.6), respectively, NS). During hyperaemia, β-EER in group A was significantly lower than that in group B (1.0 (0.5) v 1.4 (0.5), p < 0.05) and A-EER did not differ between the two groups (1.0 (0.5) v 1.2 (0.4), NS). Conclusions: Changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion under significant coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by quantitative intravenous MCE in humans. PMID:12231594

  11. Preliminary Results on Different Impedance Contrast Agents for Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging with Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Kosobrodov, R.; Barry, M. A.; Chik, W.; Pouliopoulos, J.; Oh, T. I.; Thiagalingam, A.; McEwan, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies in animal models suggest that the use of small volume boluses of NaCl as an impedance contrast agent can significantly improve pulmonary perfusion imaging by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). However, these studies used highly concentrated NaCl solution (20%) which may have adverse effects on the patients. In a pilot experiment, we address this problem by comparing a number of different Impedance Contrast Boluses (ICBs). Conductivity changes in the lungs of a sheep after the injection of four different ICBs were compared, including three NaCl-based ICBs and one glucose-based ICB. The following procedure was followed for each ICB. Firstly, ventilation was turned off to provide an apneic window of approximately 40s to image the conductivity changes due to the ICB. Each ICB was then injected through a pig-tail catheter directly into the right atrium. EIT images were acquired throughout the apnea to capture the conductivity change. For each ICB, the experiment was repeated three times. The three NaCl-based ICB exhibited similar behaviour in which following the injection of each of these ICBs, the conductivity of each lung predictably increased. The effect of the ICB of 5% glucose solution was inconclusive. A small decrease in conductivity in the left lung was observed in two out of three cases and none was discernible in the right lung.

  12. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. anterior cingulate cortex | arterial spin labeling | right prefrontal cortex

  13. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. PMID:16306271

  14. High-resolution wide-field imaging of perfused capillaries without the use of contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Darin A; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia; Barash, Hila; Loewenstein, Anat; Barak, Adiel; Bartov, Elisha; Rock, Tali; Grinvald, Amiram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Assessment of capillary abnormalities facilitates early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of common retinal pathologies. Injected contrast agents like fluorescein are widely used to image retinal capillaries, but this highly effective procedure has a few disadvantages, such as untoward side effects, inconvenience of injection, and brevity of the time window for clear visualization. The retinal function imager (RFI) is a tool for monitoring retinal functions, such as blood velocity and oximetry, based on intrinsic signals. Here we describe the clinical use of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) as an intrinsic motion-contrast agent in the generation of detailed noninvasive capillary-perfusion maps (nCPMs). Patients and methods: Multiple series of nCPM images were acquired from 130 patients with diabetic retinopathy, vein occlusion, central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, or metabolic syndrome, as well as from 37 healthy subjects. After registration, pixel value distribution parameters were analyzed to locate RBC motion. Results: The RFI yielded nCPMs demonstrating microvascular morphology including capillaries in exquisite detail. Maps from the same subject were highly reproducible in repeated measurements, in as much detail and often better than that revealed by the very best fluorescein angiography. In patients, neovascularization and capillary nonperfusion areas were clearly observed. Foveal avascular zones (FAZ) were sharply delineated and were larger in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in controls (FAZ diameter: 641.5 ± 82.3 versus 463.7 ± 105 μm; P < 0.001). Also visible were abnormal vascular patterns, such as shunts and vascular loops. Conclusion: Optical imaging of retinal capillaries in human patients based on motion contrast is noninvasive, comfortable, safe, and can be repeated as often as required for early diagnosis, treatment guidance, and follow up of retinal disease progression. PMID:21887088

  15. Immobilized Contrast Enhanced (ICE) MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR Contrast Enhancement of the Vein Graft Vessel Wall*

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T.; Campagna, Christina M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance post-surgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent “labeling” of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified Gd-DTPA complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period. PMID:20859994

  16. Perfusion Estimated With Rapid Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates Inversely With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pimonidazole Staining in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Stephanie B.; Betts, Guy; Bonington, Suzanne C.; Homer, Jarrod J.; Slevin, Nick J.; Kershaw, Lucy E.; Valentine, Helen; West, Catharine M.L.; Buckley, David L.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze, in a pilot study, rapidly acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data with a general two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model and correlate parameters obtained with measurements of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Eight patients were scanned before surgery. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5-s temporal resolution and analyzed using the two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model to obtain estimates of parameters including perfusion and permeability surface area. Twelve to 16 h before surgery, patients received an intravenous injection of pimonidazole. Samples taken during surgery were used to determine the level of pimonidazole staining using immunohistochemistry and VEGF expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the biological and imaging data were examined. Results: Of the seven tumors fully analyzed, those that were poorly perfused tended to have high levels of pimonidazole staining (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) and VEGF expression (r = -0.82, p = 0.02). Tumors with low permeability surface area also tended to have high levels of hypoxia (r = -0.75, p = 0.05). Hypoxic tumors also expressed higher levels of VEGF (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Estimates of perfusion obtained with rapid DCE-MRI data in patients with head-and-neck cancer correlate inversely with pimonidazole staining and VEGF expression.

  17. Myelin and iron concentration in the human brain: a quantitative study of MRI contrast.

    PubMed

    Stüber, Carsten; Morawski, Markus; Schäfer, Andreas; Labadie, Christian; Wähnert, Miriam; Leuze, Christoph; Streicher, Markus; Barapatre, Nirav; Reimann, Katja; Geyer, Stefan; Spemann, Daniel; Turner, Robert

    2014-06-01

    During the last five years ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled an unprecedented view of living human brain. Brain tissue contrast in most MRI sequences is known to reflect mainly the spatial distributions of myelin and iron. These distributions have been shown to overlap significantly in many brain regions, especially in the cortex. It is of increasing interest to distinguish and identify cortical areas by their appearance in MRI, which has been shown to be feasible in vivo. Parcellation can benefit greatly from quantification of the independent contributions of iron and myelin to MRI contrast. Recent studies using susceptibility mapping claim to allow such a separation of the effects of myelin and iron in MRI. We show, using post-mortem human brain tissue, that this goal can be achieved. After MRI scanning of the block with appropriate T1 mapping and T2* weighted sequences, we section the block and apply a novel technique, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), to spatially map iron, phosphorus and sulfur elemental concentrations, simultaneously with 1μm spatial resolution. Because most brain phosphorus is located in myelin phospholipids, a calibration step utilizing element maps of sulfur enables semi-quantitative ex vivo mapping of myelin concentration. Combining results for iron and myelin concentration in a linear model, we have accurately modeled MRI tissue contrasts. Conversely, iron and myelin concentrations can now be estimated from appropriate MRI measurements in post-mortem brain samples. PMID:24607447

  18. Detecting the subregion proceeding to infarction in hypoperfused cerebral tissue: a study with diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Karonen, J O; Vanninen, R L; Nuutinen, J; Perkiö, J; Vainio, P A; Soimakallio, S; Aronen, H J

    2003-06-01

    Diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI have been widely used in ischaemic stroke. We studied 17 patients in whom ischaemic areas showed an ischaemic core, an area of infarct growth and hypoperfused but ultimately surviving tissue. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured on days 1, 2, and 8 in the three subregions and in contralateral control areas. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in these regions on day 1 perfusion maps. On day 1, the ischaemic core had very low ADC and CBF and increased MTT. The ADC in the ischaemic core gradually increased during the week. The area of infarct growth on day 1 had slightly but significantly decreased ADC (96% of control, P=0.028), moderately decreased CBF and increased MTT. On day 1 the hypoperfused but surviving tissue had slightly but significantly increased ADC (103% of control, P=0.001), mildly decreased CBF and increased CBV and MTT. The ADC of the area of infarct growth decreased to the same level as in the ischaemic core on days 2 and 8. That of surviving tissue was still above normal on day 2 (103% of control), but had returned to the normal level by day 8. Measurement of ADC combined with perfusion MRI may help distinguish different subregions in acutely hypoperfused brain. PMID:12750863

  19. [A Patient with Sinking Skin Flap Syndrome who Underwent Perfusion MRI before and after Cranioplasty].

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihito; Morishima, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Goro

    2016-09-01

    Background:Sinking skin flap syndrome(SSFS)manifests as subjective symptoms, such as headache, dizziness, and undue fatigability, in addition to neurologic symptoms, such as hemiplegia, aphasia, and perceived failure, when the skin over a bone defect sinks in the weeks or months following a decompressive craniectomy. Indeed, these symptoms can improve after a cranioplasty. Case presentation:A 58-year-old woman presented with a disturbance of consciousness. She was found to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured right middle cerebral artery aneurysm. She underwent a craniotomy with clipping of the affected artery and a decompressive craniectomy on the same day. Post-operatively, the disturbance of consciousness improved, but the left-sided paralysis persisted. She complained of intractable headaches, was disoriented, and a lack of spontaneity emerged as the skin over the bone defect sank. She underwent cranioplasty on the 43rd day after admission, and the symptoms resolved promptly after surgery. Rehabilitation was canceled at the onset of symptoms, but resumed after the symptoms improved. Based on perfusion MRI, the cerebral blood flow(CBF):cerebral blood volume(CBV)ratio of the affected side increased before and after surgery compared with the healthy side. A lumboperitoneal shunt was placed on the 52nd day after admission to manage the hydrocephalus. She was discharged from the hospital with higher brain dysfunction and a mild state of paralysis. Conclusion:The timing of cranioplasty in patients with SSFS has not yet been established, but surgery should be performed before symptoms appear because SSFS impairs rehabilitative efforts. PMID:27605477

  20. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Chen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2/r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol‑1 L s‑1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni3S2@Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents.

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantitative perfusion analysis for objective characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Canestrini, Stefano; Crosara, Stefano; De Robertis, Riccardo; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) quantitative perfusion analysis allows an objective characterization of ductal adenocarcinoma (ADK) of the pancreas. Patients with pancreatic ADK underwent CEUS. All examinations were performed on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) after the iv administration of 2.4 mL contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were pathologically proved. An operator manually drew different regions of interest within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma to allow the quantitative perfusion analysis. The mean values of peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were calculated and compared using the Student's t test. The quantitative perfusion analysis was possible in all lesions. The mean values of the peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were 17.19%, 7.97 s and 159.52% s within the tumor and 33.57%, 8.89 s and 355.29% s within the adjacent parenchyma. The peak of enhancement and the ascending curve values were significantly different within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma. Thus, CEUS allows the quantitative perfusion analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24765238

  2. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with quantitative perfusion analysis for objective characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Mirko; Canestrini, Stefano; Crosara, Stefano; Robertis, Riccardo De; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) quantitative perfusion analysis allows an objective characterization of ductal adenocarcinoma (ADK) of the pancreas. Patients with pancreatic ADK underwent CEUS. All examinations were performed on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) after the iv administration of 2.4 mL contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan, Italy). All lesions were pathologically proved. An operator manually drew different regions of interest within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma to allow the quantitative perfusion analysis. The mean values of peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were calculated and compared using the Student’s t test. The quantitative perfusion analysis was possible in all lesions. The mean values of the peak of enhancement, time to peak and ascending curve were 17.19%, 7.97 s and 159.52% s within the tumor and 33.57%, 8.89 s and 355.29% s within the adjacent parenchyma. The peak of enhancement and the ascending curve values were significantly different within the tumor and the adjacent parenchyma. Thus, CEUS allows the quantitative perfusion analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24765238

  3. Bench-to-bedside review: contrast enhanced ultrasonography--a promising technique to assess renal perfusion in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Antoine; Johnson, Lynne; Goodwin, Mark; Schelleman, Anthony; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with important morbidity and mortality. Although alterations in renal perfusion are thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of AKI, there is, to date, no reliable technique that allows the assessment of renal perfusion that is applicable in the ICU. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an ultrasound imaging technique that makes use of microbubble-based contrast agents. These microbubbles, when injected into the bloodstream, allow visualization of vascular structures and, with contrast-specific imaging modes, detection of blood flow at the capillary level. Some recent CEUS-derived approaches allow quantification of blood flow in several organs, including the kidney. Current generation ultrasound contrast agents have strong stability and safety profiles. Along with post-marketing surveillance, numerous studies report safe administration of these agents, including in critically ill patients. This review presents information on the physical principles underlying CEUS, the methods allowing blood flow quantification and the potential applications of CEUS in critical care nephrology, currently as a research tool but perhaps in the future as a way of monitoring renal perfusion. PMID:21586101

  4. Quantitative perfusion analysis in pancreatic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US): a promising tool for the differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Vitali, F; Pfeifer, L; Janson, C; Goertz, R S; Neurath, M F; Strobel, D; Wildner, D

    2015-10-01

    In the work-up of focal pancreatic lesions autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare differential diagnosis to pancreatic cancer (PC) with similar clinical constellations. The aim of our study was to compare differences between proven AIP and PC using transabdominal dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US). Therefore we recorded 3-minute-clips of CEUS examinations and analyzed perfusion parameters with VueBox®-quantification software. To obtain DCE-US Parameters, Regions-of-Interest were selected within the lesions and the surrounding pancreas parenchyma, serving as reference tissue. We compared 3 patients with AIP (mean age: 58 years; lesion mean size: 40 mm) to 17 patients with PC (mean age: 68 years; lesion mean size: 35.9 mm). Significant differences between PC and parenchyma could be found in the following parameters: Peak-Enhancement (PE), Wash-in-and-Wash-out-AUC, Wash-in Perfusion-Index. PE of AIP was comparable to normal parenchyma. The relation of PE between parenchyma and lesion (ΔPE) AIP and PC was significantly different [AIP: 0.21 (±0.06); PC: 0.81 (±0.1); p<0.01]. PE of neoplastic lesions was significantly lower as AIP and normal parenchyma (p<0.01). Therefore perfusion analysis in DCE-US can help to differentiate hypovascular PC from AIP presenting nearly isovascular time intensity curves. Diagnostic accuracy of DCE-US in this setting has to be validated in future prospective studies in comparison to CT and MRI. PMID:26480053

  5. A multi-contrast MRI study of microstructural brain damage in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Granziera, C.; Daducci, A.; Donati, A.; Bonnier, G.; Romascano, D.; Roche, A.; Bach Cuadra, M.; Schmitter, D.; Klöppel, S.; Meuli, R.; von Gunten, A.; Krueger, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate pathological mechanisms underlying brain tissue alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using multi-contrast 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Forty-two MCI patients and 77 healthy controls (HC) underwent T1/T2* relaxometry as well as Magnetization Transfer (MT) MRI. Between-groups comparisons in MRI metrics were performed using permutation-based tests. Using MRI data, a generalized linear model (GLM) was computed to predict clinical performance and a support-vector machine (SVM) classification was used to classify MCI and HC subjects. Results Multi-parametric MRI data showed microstructural brain alterations in MCI patients vs HC that might be interpreted as: (i) a broad loss of myelin/cellular proteins and tissue microstructure in the hippocampus (p ≤ 0.01) and global white matter (p < 0.05); and (ii) iron accumulation in the pallidus nucleus (p ≤ 0.05). MRI metrics accurately predicted memory and executive performances in patients (p ≤ 0.005). SVM classification reached an accuracy of 75% to separate MCI and HC, and performed best using both volumes and T1/T2*/MT metrics. Conclusion Multi-contrast MRI appears to be a promising approach to infer pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain tissue alterations in MCI. Likewise, parametric MRI data provide powerful correlates of cognitive deficits and improve automatic disease classification based on morphometric features. PMID:26236628

  6. A contrast agent recognizing activated platelets reveals murine cerebral malaria pathology undetectable by conventional MRI.

    PubMed

    von Zur Muhlen, Constantin; Sibson, Nicola R; Peter, Karlheinz; Campbell, Sandra J; Wilainam, Panop; Grau, Georges E; Bode, Christoph; Choudhury, Robin P; Anthony, Daniel C

    2008-03-01

    Human and murine cerebral malaria are associated with elevated levels of cytokines in the brain and adherence of platelets to the microvasculature. Here we demonstrated that the accumulation of platelets in the brain microvasculature can be detected with MRI, using what we believe to be a novel contrast agent, at a time when the pathology is undetectable by conventional MRI. Ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on activated platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors were detected in the brains of malaria-infected mice 6 days after inoculation with Plasmodium berghei using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs) conjugated to a single-chain antibody specific for the LIBS (LIBS-MPIO). No binding of the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent was detected in uninfected animals. A combination of LIBS-MPIO MRI, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, but not IL-1beta or lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha), induced adherence of platelets to cerebrovascular endothelium. Peak platelet adhesion was found 12 h after TNF-alpha injection and was readily detected with LIBS-MPIO contrast-enhanced MRI. Temporal studies revealed that the level of MPIO-induced contrast was proportional to the number of platelets bound. Thus, the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent enabled noninvasive detection of otherwise undetectable cerebral pathology by in vivo MRI before the appearance of clinical disease, highlighting the potential of targeted contrast agents for diagnostic, mechanistic, and therapeutic studies. PMID:18274670

  7. A contrast agent recognizing activated platelets reveals murine cerebral malaria pathology undetectable by conventional MRI

    PubMed Central

    von zur Muhlen, Constantin; Sibson, Nicola R.; Peter, Karlheinz; Campbell, Sandra J.; Wilainam, Panop; Grau, Georges E.; Bode, Christoph; Choudhury, Robin P.; Anthony, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Human and murine cerebral malaria are associated with elevated levels of cytokines in the brain and adherence of platelets to the microvasculature. Here we demonstrated that the accumulation of platelets in the brain microvasculature can be detected with MRI, using what we believe to be a novel contrast agent, at a time when the pathology is undetectable by conventional MRI. Ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on activated platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors were detected in the brains of malaria-infected mice 6 days after inoculation with Plasmodium berghei using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs) conjugated to a single-chain antibody specific for the LIBS (LIBS-MPIO). No binding of the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent was detected in uninfected animals. A combination of LIBS-MPIO MRI, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, but not IL-1β or lymphotoxin-α (LT-α), induced adherence of platelets to cerebrovascular endothelium. Peak platelet adhesion was found 12 h after TNF-α injection and was readily detected with LIBS-MPIO contrast-enhanced MRI. Temporal studies revealed that the level of MPIO-induced contrast was proportional to the number of platelets bound. Thus, the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent enabled noninvasive detection of otherwise undetectable cerebral pathology by in vivo MRI before the appearance of clinical disease, highlighting the potential of targeted contrast agents for diagnostic, mechanistic, and therapeutic studies. PMID:18274670

  8. Characterizing growth patterns in longitudinal MRI using image contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardhan, Avantika; Prastawa, Marcel; Vachet, Clement; Piven, Joseph; Gerig, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the growth patterns of the early brain is crucial to the study of neuro-development. In the early stages of brain growth, a rapid sequence of biophysical and chemical processes take place. A crucial component of these processes, known as myelination, consists of the formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber, enabling the effective transmission of neural impulses. As the brain undergoes myelination, there is a subsequent change in the contrast between gray matter and white matter as observed in MR scans. In this work, gray-white matter contrast is proposed as an effective measure of appearance which is relatively invariant to location, scanner type, and scanning conditions. To validate this, contrast is computed over various cortical regions for an adult human phantom. MR (Magnetic Resonance) images of the phantom were repeatedly generated using different scanners, and at different locations. Contrast displays less variability over changing conditions of scan compared to intensity-based measures, demonstrating that it is less dependent than intensity on external factors. Additionally, contrast is used to analyze longitudinal MR scans of the early brain, belonging to healthy controls and Down's Syndrome (DS) patients. Kernel regression is used to model subject-specific trajectories of contrast changing with time. Trajectories of contrast changing with time, as well as time-based biomarkers extracted from contrast modeling, show large differences between groups. The preliminary applications of contrast based analysis indicate its future potential to reveal new information not covered by conventional volumetric or deformation-based analysis, particularly for distinguishing between normal and abnormal growth patterns.

  9. Iron Oxide as an MRI Contrast Agent for Cell Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Korchinski, Daniel J.; Taha, May; Yang, Runze; Nathoo, Nabeela; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide contrast agents have been combined with magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking. In this review, we discuss coating properties and provide an overview of ex vivo and in vivo labeling of different cell types, including stem cells, red blood cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we provide examples of applications of cell tracking with iron contrast agents in stroke, multiple sclerosis, cancer, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic and cerebral aneurysms. Attempts at quantifying iron oxide concentrations and other vascular properties are examined. We advise on designing studies using iron contrast agents including methods for validation. PMID:26483609

  10. Contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography of brain perfusion in humans using ICG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph; Steinbrink, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Regular monitoring of brain perfusion at the bedside in neurointensive care is desirable. Currently used imaging modalities are not suited for constant monitoring and often require a transport of the patient. Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with an injection of a safe dye (indocyanine green, ICG) could serve as a quasi-continuous brain perfusion monitor. In this work, we evaluate prerequisites for the development of a brain perfusion monitor using continuous wave (cw) NIRS technique. We present results from a high-resolution diffuse optical tomography (HR-DOT) experiment in humans demonstrating the separation of signals from skin from the brain. This technique can help to monitor neurointensive care patients on a regular basis, detecting changes in cortical perfusion in time.

  11. Using Perfusion fMRI to Measure Continuous Changes in Neural Activity with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Rao, Hengyi; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine the suitability of a relatively new imaging technique, "arterial spin labeled perfusion imaging," for the study of continuous, gradual changes in neural activity. Unlike BOLD imaging, the perfusion signal is stable over long time-scales, allowing for accurate assessment of continuous performance. In addition, perfusion…

  12. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  13. Gd-HOPO Based High Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Ankona; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-11-06

    Tris-bidentate HOPO-based ligands developed in our laboratory were designed to complement the coordination preferences of Gd{sup 3+}, especially its oxophilicity. The HOPO ligands provide a hexadentate coordination environment for Gd{sup 3+} in which all he donor atoms are oxygen. Because Gd{sup 3+} favors eight or nine coordination, this design provides two to three open sites for inner-sphere water molecules. These water molecules rapidly exchange with bulk solution, hence affecting the relaxation rates of bulk water olecules. The parameters affecting the efficiency of these contrast agents have been tuned to improve contrast while still maintaining a high thermodynamic stability for Gd{sup 3+} binding. The Gd- HOPO-based contrast agents surpass current commercially available agents ecause of a higher number of inner-sphere water molecules, rapid exchange of inner-sphere water molecules via an associative mechanism, and a long electronic relaxation time. The contrast enhancement provided by these agents is at least twice that of commercial contrast gents, which are based on polyaminocarboxylate ligands.

  14. Nanoparticle-based highly sensitive MRI contrast agents with enhanced relaxivity in reductive milieu.

    PubMed

    Sigg, Severin J; Santini, Francesco; Najer, Adrian; Richard, Pascal U; Meier, Wolfgang P; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2016-08-01

    Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents often produce insufficient contrast for diagnosis of early disease stages, and do not sense their biochemical environments. Herein, we report a highly sensitive nanoparticle-based MRI probe with r1 relaxivity up to 51.7 ± 1.2 mM(-1) s(-1) (3T). Nanoparticles were co-assembled from Gd(3+) complexed to heparin-poly(dimethylsiloxane) copolymer, and a reduction-sensitive amphiphilic peptide serving to induce responsiveness to environmental changes. The release of the peptide components leads to a r1 relaxivity increase under reducing conditions and increases the MRI contrast. In addition, this MRI probe has several advantages, such as a low cellular uptake, no apparent cellular toxicity (tested up to 1 mM Gd(3+)), absence of an anticoagulation property, and a high shelf stability (no increase in free Gd(3+) over 7 months). Thus, this highly sensitive T1 MRI contrast nanoparticle system represents a promising probe for early diagnosis through possible accumulation and contrast enhancement within reductive extracellular tumour tissue. PMID:27435820

  15. Main applications of hybrid PET-MRI contrast agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Esquevin, A; Lepareur, N; Bourguet, P; Le Jeune, F; Gauvrit, Jy

    2016-03-01

    In medical imaging, the continuous quest to improve diagnostic performance and optimize treatment strategies has led to the use of combined imaging modalities. Positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) is a hybrid imaging existing already for many years. The high spatial and contrast resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the high sensitivity and molecular information from PET imaging are leading to the development of this new hybrid imaging along with hybrid contrast agents. To create a hybrid contrast agent for PET-MRI device, a PET radiotracer needs to be combined with an MRI contrast agent. The most common approach is to add a radioactive isotope to the surface of a small superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle. The resulting agents offer a wide range of applications, such as pH variation monitoring, non-invasive angiography and early imaging diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Oncology is the most promising field with the detection of sentinel lymph nodes and the targeting of tumor neoangiogenesis. Oncology and cardiovascular imaging are thus major areas of development for hybrid PET-MRI imaging systems and hybrid contrast agents. The aim is to combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, morphological and functional information. Future prospects include the use of specific antibodies and hybrid multimodal PET-MRI-ultrasound-fluorescence imaging with the potential to provide overall pre-, intra- and postoperative patient care. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26632007

  16. Focal Hepatic Hot Spot From Superior Vena Cava Occlusion Visualized on Ventilation/Perfusion Scintigraphy With Contrast-Enhanced CT Correlate.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Michael; Schuster, David M

    2016-05-01

    A 57-year-old woman with superior vena cava stenosis from repeated central line placements underwent ventilation/perfusion scanning after presenting with pleuritic chest pain. The ventilation/perfusion scan was not characteristic for pulmonary embolus, but perfusion images demonstrated abnormal radiotracer activity within hepatic segment 4, along with extensive collateral vessels as seen on SPECT/CT. Two months later, the patient presented with similar complaints and had a chest CT with contrast to evaluate for pulmonary embolus. This showed occlusion of the superior vena cava and arterial enhancement within segment 4 in a similar distribution to the radiotracer in the perfusion scan. PMID:26825208

  17. Novel ways to noninvasively detect inflammation of the myocardium: contrast-enhanced MRI and myocardial contrast echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, M.R.; Geluk, C.A.; Lindner, J.R.; Velthuis, B.K.; Vonken, E.J.; Cramer, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Both contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) and myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) are promising tools to detect cardiac inflammation. CE-MRI can be used to characterise the location and extent of myocardial inflammation, since areas of abnormal signal enhancement associated with regional wall motion abnormalities reliably indicate areas of active myocarditis. In MCE, chemically composed microbubbles can be visualised by ultrasound and used to determine the status of the cardiac microvasculature. If there is any inflammation the microbubbles will be phagocytosed by neutrophils and monocytes, thus enabling the degree of inflammation to be assessed. These noninvasive techniques may allow early diagnosis and accurate evaluation of myocardial inflammation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696203

  18. Amphiphilic polymer-coated hybrid nanoparticles as CT/MRI dual contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Yu, Mi Kyung; Lee, Tae Sup; Park, Jae Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Jon, Sangyong

    2011-04-01

    We describe hybrid nanoparticles, composed of iron oxide and gold nanoparticles, as potential dual contrast agents for both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hybrid nanoparticles are synthesized by thermal decomposition of mixtures of Fe-oleate and Au-oleylamine complexes. Using a nano-emulsion method, the nanoparticles are coated with amphiphilic poly(DMA-r-mPEGMA-r-MA) to impart water-dispersity and antibiofouling properties. An in vitro phantom study shows that the hybrid nanoparticles have high CT attenuation, because of the constituent gold nanoparticles, and afford a good MR signal, attributable to the contained iron oxide nanoparticles. Intravenous injection of the hybrid nanoparticles into hepatoma-bearing mice results in high contrast between the hepatoma and normal hepatic parenchyma in both CT and MRI. These results suggest that the hybrid nanoparticles may be useful as CT/MRI dual contrast agents for in vivo hepatoma imaging.

  19. Radiation protection issues in dynamic contrast-enhanced (perfusion) computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Lechel, Ursula; Nekolla, Elke; Griebel, Jürgen; Becker, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT studies are increasingly used in both medical care and clinical trials to improve diagnosis and therapy management of the most common life-threatening diseases: stroke, coronary artery disease and cancer. It is thus the aim of this review to briefly summarize the current knowledge on deterministic and stochastic radiation effects relevant for patient protection, to present the essential concepts for determining radiation doses and risks associated with DCE-CT studies as well as representative results, and to discuss relevant aspects to be considered in the process of justification and optimization of these studies. For three default DCE-CT protocols implemented at a latest-generation CT system for cerebral, myocardial and cancer perfusion imaging, absorbed doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters at an anthropomorphic body phantom and compared with thresholds for harmful (deterministic) tissue reactions. To characterize stochastic radiation risks of patients from these studies, life-time attributable cancer risks (LAR) were estimated using sex-, age-, and organ-specific risk models based on the hypothesis of a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. For the brain, heart and pelvic cancer studies considered, local absorbed doses in the imaging field were about 100-190 mGy (total CTDI(vol), 200 mGy), 15-30 mGy (16 mGy) and 80-270 mGy (140 mGy), respectively. According to a recent publication of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 118, 2012), harmful tissue reactions of the cerebro- and cardiovascular systems as well as of the lenses of the eye become increasingly important at radiation doses of more than 0.5 Gy. The LARs estimated for the investigated cerebral and myocardial DCE-CT scenarios are less than 0.07% for males and 0.1% for females at an age of exposure of 40 years. For the considered tumor location and protocol, the corresponding LARs are more than 6 times as high

  20. High-resolution renal perfusion mapping using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in ischemia-reperfusion injury monitors changes in renal microperfusion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Krisztina; Meral, F Can; Zhang, Yongzhi; Vangel, Mark G; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Ichimura, Takaharu; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in renal microperfusion play an important role in the development of acute kidney injury with long-term consequences. Here we used contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as a novel method for depicting intrarenal distribution of blood flow. After infusion of microbubble contrast agent, bubbles were collapsed in the kidney and postbubble destruction refilling was measured in various regions of the kidney. Local perfusion was monitored in vivo at 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and 24 hours after 28 minutes of bilateral ischemia in 12 mice. High-resolution, pixel-by-pixel analysis was performed on each imaging clip using customized software, yielding parametric perfusion maps of the kidney, representing relative blood volume in each pixel. These perfusion maps revealed that outer medullary perfusion decreased disproportionately to the reduction in the cortical and inner medullary perfusion after ischemia. Outer medullary perfusion was significantly decreased by 69% at 60 minutes postischemia and remained significantly less (40%) than preischemic levels at 24 hours postischemia. Thus, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with high-resolution parametric perfusion maps can monitor changes in renal microvascular perfusion in space and time in mice. This novel technique can be translated to clinical use in man. PMID:27165821

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  2. Quantification of myocardial perfusion based on signal intensity of flow sensitized MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeykoon, Sumeda B.

    The quantitative assessment of perfusion is important for early recognition of a variety of heart diseases, determination of disease severity and their cure. In conventional approach of measuring cardiac perfusion by arterial spin labeling, the relative difference in the apparent T1 relaxation times in response to selective and non-selective inversion of blood entering the region of interest is related to perfusion via a two-compartment tissue model. But accurate determination of T1 in small animal hearts is difficult and prone to errors due to long scan times. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast, robust and simple method to quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion using arterial spin labeling. The proposed method is based on signal intensities (SI) of inversion recovery slice-select, non-select and steady-state images. Especially in this method data are acquired at a single inversion time and at short repetition times. This study began by investigating the accuracy of assessment of perfusion using a two compartment system. First, determination of perfusion by T1 and SI were implemented to a simple, two-compartment phantom model. Mathematical model developed for full spin exchange models (in-vivo experiments) by solving a modified Bloch equation was modified to develop mathematical models (T1 and SI) for a phantom (zero spin exchange). The phantom result at different flow rates shows remarkable evidence of accuracy of the two-compartment model and SI, T1 methods: the SI method has less propagation error and less scan time. Next, twelve healthy C57BL/6 mice were scanned for quantitative perfusion assessment and three of them were repeatedly scanned at three different time points for a reproducibility test. The myocardial perfusion of healthy mice obtained by the SI-method, 5.7+/-1.6 ml/g/min, was similar (p=0.38) to that obtained by the conventional T1 method, 5.6+/- 2.3 ml/g/min. The reproducibility of the SI method shows acceptable results: the

  3. Synergistic enhancement of iron oxide nanoparticle and gadolinium for dual-contrast MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, Xinglu; Qian, Chunqi; Zhu, Lei; Hida, Naoki; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MR contrast agents exert influence on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2} relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of iron oxide and Gd-DTPA can improve the sensitivity/specificity of lesion detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual contrast MRI enhances the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can come from the high paramagnetic susceptibility of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can also come from the distinct pharmacokinetic distribution of SPIO and Gd-DTPA. -- Abstract: Purpose: The use of MR contrast agents allows accurate diagnosis by exerting an influence on the longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. In this study, we combined the use of iron oxide (IO) particles and nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelate (Gd) in order to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. Procedures: With a 7-Tesla scanner, pre-contrasted, IO-enhanced and dual contrast agent enhanced MRIs were performed in phantom, normal animals, and animal models of lymph node tumor metastases and orthotopic brain tumor. For the dual-contrast (DC) MRI, we focused on the evaluation of T{sub 2} weighted DC MRI with IO administered first, then followed by the injection of a bolus of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Results: Based on the C/N ratios and MRI relaxometry, the synergistic effect of coordinated administration of Gd-DTPA and IO was observed and confirmed in phantom, normal liver and tumor models. At 30 min after administration of Feridex, Gd-DTPA further decreased T{sub 2} relaxation in liver immediately after the injection. Additional administration of Gd-DTPA also immediately increased the signal contrast between tumor and brain parenchyma and maximized the C/N ratio to -4.12 {+-} 0.71. Dual contrast MRI also enhanced the

  4. Gd-doped BNNTs as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Boni, Adriano; Calucci, Lucia; Forte, Claudia; Gozzi, Alessandro; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-08-01

    This work describes, for the first time, doping of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with gadolinium (Gd@BNNTs), a stable functionalization that permits non-invasive BNNT tracking via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report the structure, Gd loading, and relaxometric properties in water suspension at 7 T of Gd@BNNTs, and show the behaviour of these nanostructures as promising T2-weighted contrast agents. Finally, we demonstrate their complete biocompatibility in vitro on human neuroblastoma cells, together with their ability to effectively label and affect contrast in MRI images at 7 T.

  5. Abdominal MRI without Enteral Contrast Accurately Detects Intestinal Fibrostenosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Kalb, Bobby; Martin, Diego; Dhere, Tanvi; Perez, Sebastian D; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K

    2015-11-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presenting for surgical evaluation require thorough small bowel surveillance as it improves accuracy of diagnosis (ulcerative colitis versus Crohn's) and differentiates those who may respond to nonoperative therapy, preserving bowel length. MRI has not been validated conclusively against histopathology in IBD. Most protocols require enteral contrast. This study aimed to 1) evaluate the accuracy of MRI for inflammation, fibrosis, and extraluminal complications and 2) compare MRI without enteral contrast to standard magnetic resonance enterography. Adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis who underwent abdominal MRI and surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Of 65 patients evaluated, 55 met inclusion criteria. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for disease involvement localized by segment were 93 per cent (95% confidence interval = 89.4-95.0) and 95 per cent (95% confidence interval = 92.3-97.0), respectively (positive predictive value was 86%, negative predictive value was 98%). Sensitivity and specificity between MRI with and without oral and rectal contrast were similar (96% vs 91% and 99% vs 94%, P > 0.10). As were positive predictive value and negative predictive value (85% vs 96%, P = 0.16; 97% vs 99%, P = 0.42). Magnetic resonance is highly sensitive and specific for localized disease involvement and extraluminal abdominal sequelae of IBD. It accurately differentiates patients who have chronic transmural (fibrotic) disease and thus may require an operation from those with acute inflammation, whose symptoms may improve with aggressive medical therapy alone. MRI without contrast had comparable diagnostic yield to standard magnetic resonance enterography. PMID:26672581

  6. Comparison of myocardial contrast echocardiography with NC100100 and 99mTc sestamibi SPECT for detection of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jucquois, I; Nihoyannopoulos, P; D'Hondt, A; Roelants, V; Robert, A; Melin, J; Glass, D; Vanoverschelde, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) following intravenous injection of perfluorocarbon microbubbles permits identification of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction.
PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS—22 patients (mean (SD) age 66 (11) years) underwent MCE after intravenous injection of NC100100, a novel perfluorocarbon containing contrast agent, and resting 99mTc sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With both methods, myocardial perfusion was graded semiquantitatively as 1 = normal, 0.5 = mild defect, and 0 = severe defect.
RESULTS—Among the 203 normally contracting segments, 151 (74%) were normally perfused by SPECT and 145 (71%) by MCE. With SPECT, abnormal tracer uptake was mainly found among normally contracting segments from the inferior wall. By contrast, with MCE poor myocardial opacification was noted essentially among the normally contracting segments from the anterior and lateral walls. Of the 142 dysfunctional segments, 87 (61%) showed perfusion defects by SPECT, and 94 (66%) by MCE. With both methods, perfusion abnormalities were seen more frequently among akinetic than hypokinetic segments. MCE correctly identified 81/139 segments that exhibited a perfusion defect by SPECT (58%), and 135/206 segments that were normally perfused by SPECT (66%). Exclusion of segments with attenuation artefacts (defined as abnormal myocardial opacification or sestamibi uptake but normal contraction) by either MCE or SPECT improved both the sensitivity (76%) and the specificity (83%) of the detection of SPECT perfusion defects by MCE.
CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that MCE allows identification of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction, provided that regional wall motion is simultaneously taken into account.


Keywords: myocardial contrast echocardiography; NC100100

  7. Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. Although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to evaluate the liver in lizards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after administration of specific contrast media. Results An increase in liver echogenicity and density was evident during CEUS and CECT, respectively. In CEUS, the mean ± SD (median; range) peak enhancement was 19.9% ± 7.5 (18.3; 11.7-34.6). Time to peak enhancement was 134.0 ± 125.1 (68.4; 59.6-364.5) seconds. During CECT, first visualization of the contrast medium was at 3.6 ± 0.5 (4; 3-4) seconds in the aorta, 10.7 ± 2.2 (10.5; 7-14) seconds in the hepatic arteries, and 15 ± 4.5 (14.5; 10-24) seconds in the liver parenchyma. Time to peak was 14.1 ± 3.4 (13; 11-21) and 31 ± 9.6 (29; 23-45) seconds in the aorta and the liver parenchyma, respectively. Conclusion CEUS and dynamic CECT are practical means to determine liver hemodynamics in green iguanas. Distribution of contrast medium in iguana differed from mammals. Specific reference ranges of hepatic perfusion for diagnostic evaluation of the liver in iguanas are necessary since the use of mammalian references may lead the clinician to formulate incorrect diagnostic suspicions. PMID:24885935

  8. A patient-specific visualization tool for comprehensive analysis of coronary CTA and perfusion MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirisli, H. A.; Gupta, V.; Kirschbaum, S.; Neefjes, L.; van Geuns, R. J.; Mollet, N.; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; Reiber, J. H. C.; van Walsum, T.; Niessen, W. J.

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (CMR) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are widely used to assess heart disease. CMR is used to measure the global and regional myocardial function and to evaluate the presence of ischemia; CTA is used for diagnosing coronary artery disease, such as coronary stenoses. Nowadays, the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses is determined subjectively by combining information on myocardial function with assumptions on coronary artery territories. As the anatomy of coronary arteries varies greatly between individuals, we developed a patient-specific tool for relating CTA and perfusion CMR data. The anatomical and functional information extracted from CTA and CMR data are combined into a single frame of reference. Our graphical user interface provides various options for visualization. In addition to the standard perfusion Bull's Eye Plot (BEP), it is possible to overlay a 2D projection of the coronary tree on the BEP, to add a 3D coronary tree model and to add a 3D heart model. The perfusion BEP, the 3D-models and the CTA data are also interactively linked. Using the CMR and CTA data of 14 patients, our tool directly established a spatial correspondence between diseased coronary artery segments and myocardial regions with abnormal perfusion. The location of coronary stenoses and perfusion abnormalities were visualized jointly in 3D, thereby facilitating the study of the relationship between the anatomic causes of a blocked artery and the physiological effects on the myocardial perfusion. This tool is expected to improve diagnosis and therapy planning of early-stage coronary artery disease.

  9. Anisotropic MRI contrast reveals enhanced ionic transport in plastic crystals.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Jin, Liyu; Madsen, Louis A; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) are attractive as solid-state electrolytes for electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries and solar and fuel cells. OIPCs offer high ionic conductivity, nonflammability, and versatility of molecular design. Nevertheless, intrinsic ion transport behavior of OIPCs is not fully understood, and their measured properties depend heavily on thermal history. Solid-state magnetic resonance imaging experiments reveal a striking image contrast anisotropy sensitive to the orientation of grain boundaries in polycrystalline OIPCs. Probing triethyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1222FSI) samples with different thermal history demonstrates vast variations in microcrystallite alignment. Upon slow cooling from the melt, microcrystallites exhibit a preferred orientation throughout the entire sample, leading to an order of magnitude increase in conductivity as probed using impedance spectroscopy. This investigation describes both a new conceptual window and a new characterization method for understanding polycrystalline domain structure and transport in plastic crystals and other solid-state conductors. PMID:25312993

  10. Superparamagnetic FePt nanoparticles as excellent MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenosono, Shinya; Suzuki, Toshimasa; Saita, Soichiro

    Chemically disordered face-centered cubic (fcc) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean diameter of 9 nm were synthesized via pyrolysis of iron(III) ethoxide and platinum(II) acetylacetonate. The surface ligands of these NPs were then exchanged from oleic acid to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) to measure the longitudinal ( T1) and transverse ( T2) proton relaxation times of aqueous dispersion of FePt NPs. Magnetic resonance relaxometry reveals that TMAOH-capped FePt NPs have a higher T2-shortening effect than conventional superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, indicating that fcc-phase FePt NPs might be superior negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Characterizing Galbumin as a high molecular weight contrast agent in MRI - A novel dual contrast agent protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosvi, Firas; Reinsberg, Stefan; Baker, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    In studying cancer and tumours, traditional biochemical methods call for analyzing frozen cross sections of tumour tissues, staining and then fluorescently imaging them at high resolution. While this method has served its purpose for decades, situations and conditions are arising that require dynamic imaging in live animals. Recent advances in the field of Biophysics have allowed researchers the ability to correlate images taken with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to those using high- resolution fluorescent microscopy. While live imaging is possible using MRI, it is certainly not possible to reproduce much of the biologically relevant data acquired by fluorescent microscopy. In this proposal, we set the stage for the biological problem, cover some basic tumour biology then outline the basic principles of imaging with NMR. Finally, we characterize the use of a new contrast agent, Galbumin, to conduct a pilot study for a new class of animal MRI experiments.Finally, we present a novel protocol for a dual contrast agent MR protocol to extract permeability and flow information to improve characterization of drug delivery. Our over-arching goal is to use the live imaging capabilities of MR, and combine them with traditional fluorescent microscopy techniques to get a more accurate biological picture of a tumour.

  12. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  13. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  14. Applications of optically detected MRI for enhanced contrast and penetration in metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangchaithaweesuk, Songtham; Yu, Dindi S.; Garcia, Nissa C.; Yao, Li; Xu, Shoujun

    2012-10-01

    We report quantitative measurements using optically detected magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced pH contrast and flow inside porous metals. Using a gadolinium chelate as the pH contrast agent, we show the response is 0.6 s-1 mM-1 per pH unit at the ambient magnetic field for the pH range 6-8.5. A stopped flow scheme was used to directly measure T1 relaxation time to determine the relaxivity. Flow profiles and images were obtained for a series of porous metals with different average pore sizes. The signal amplitudes and spatial distributions were compared. A clogged region in one of the samples was revealed using optically detected MRI but not optical imaging or scanning electron microscopy. These applications will significantly broaden the impact of optically detected MRI in chemical imaging and materials research.

  15. Correlation between myocardial dysfunction and perfusion impairment in diabetic rats with velocity vector imaging and myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhangrui; Zhang, Haibin; Su, Haili; Zhu, Ting; Zhu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jun

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myocardial systolic dysfunction and perfusion impairment occur in diabetic rats, and to assess their relationship using velocity vector imaging (VVI) and myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). Forty-six rats were randomly divided into either control or the diabetes mellitus (DM) groups. DM was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Twelve weeks later, 39 survival rats underwent VVI and MCE in short-axis view at the middle level of the left ventricle, both at rest and after dipyridamole stress. VVI-derived contractile parameters included peak systolic velocity (Vs ), circumferential strain (εc ), strain rate (SRc ), and their reserves. MCE-derived perfusion parameters consisted of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR). At rest, SRc in the DM group was significantly lower than in the control group, Vs , εc , and MBF did not differ significantly between groups. After dipyridamole stress, all VVI parameters and their reserves in the DM group were significantly lower than those in the control group, MBF and MFR were substantially lower than those in the control group, too. Meanwhile, significant correlations between VVI parameter reserves and MFR were observed in the DM group. Both myocardial systolic function and perfusion were impaired in DM rats. Decreased MFR could be an important contributor to the reduction in myocardial contractile reserve. PMID:22931118

  16. Azoimidazole functionalized Ni-porphyrins for molecular spin switching and light responsive MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Gernot; Schütt, Christian; Gröbner, Jens; Huber, Lukas; Herges, Rainer

    2016-07-28

    Azo-N-methylimidazole functionalized Ni(ii)porphyrins were rationally designed and synthesized and their performance as molecular spin switches was investigated. They perform intramolecular light-driven coordination-induced spin state switching (LD-CISSS) in the presence of water and therefore are an important step towards spin switches for medicinal applications, particularly functional MRI contrast agents. PMID:27334263

  17. MRI contrast agent delivery using spore capsules: controlled release in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Mark; Thomasson, Matthew J; Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Barrier, Sylvain; Atkin, Stephen L; Mackenzie, Grahame; Archibald, Stephen J

    2009-11-14

    The exine coatings of spores can be used to encapsulate drug molecules. We have demonstrated that these microcapsules can be filled with a commercial gadolinium(III) MRI contrast agent (in this proof of concept study Gd-DTPA-BMA was used) which is slowly released in plasma due to enzymatic digestion of the capsule. PMID:19841803

  18. Mechanistic studies of Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents for Zn2+ detection: towards rational design.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Caillé, Fabien; Pallier, Agnès; Morfin, Jean-François; Petoud, Stéphane; Suzenet, Franck; Tóth, Éva

    2014-08-25

    A series of novel pyridine-based Gd(3+) complexes have been prepared and studied as potential MRI contrast agents for Zn(2+) detection. By independent assessment of molecular parameters affecting relaxivity, we could interpret the relaxivity changes observed upon Zn(2+) binding in terms of variations of the rotational motion. PMID:25116889

  19. Thirty minute transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation modulates resting state brain activities: a perfusion and BOLD fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yin; Hao, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Jisheng; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Cui, Cailian

    2012-05-31

    Increasing neuroimaging studies have focused on the sustained after effects of acupuncture, especially for the changes of brain activities in rest. However, short-period stimuli have mostly been chosen in these works. The present study aimed to investigate how the resting state brain activities in healthy subjects were modulated by relatively long-period (30 min) acupuncture, a widely used modality in clinical practice. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) or intermittent minimal TEAS (MTEAS) were given for 30 min to 40 subjects. Functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected including the pre-stimulation resting state and the post-stimulation resting state, using dual-echo arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, representing both cerebral blood flow (CBF) signals and blood oxygen-dependent level (BOLD) signals simultaneously. Following 30 min TEAS, but not MTEAS, the mean global CBF decreased, and a significant decrease of regional CBF was observed in SI, insula, STG, MOG and IFG. Functional connectivity analysis showed more secure and spatially extended connectivity of both the DMN and SMN after 30 min TEAS. Our results implied that modulation of the regional brain activities and network connectivity induced by thirty minute TEAS may associate with the acupuncture-related therapeutic effects. Furthermore, the resting state regional CBF quantified by ASL perfusion fMRI may serve as a potential biomarker in future acupuncture studies. PMID:22541167

  20. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltiel, H. J.; Padua, H. M.; Gargollo, P. C.; Cannon, G. M., Jr.; Alomari, A. I.; Yu, R.; Clement, G. T.

    2011-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  1. Correlation of Perfusion MRI and 18F-FDG PET Imaging Biomarkers for Monitoring Regorafenib Therapy in Experimental Colon Carcinomas with Immunohistochemical Validation

    PubMed Central

    Eschbach, Ralf S.; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Hacker, Marcus; Rominger, Axel; Carlsen, Janette; Hirner-Eppeneder, Heidrun; Schuster, Jessica; Moser, Matthias; Havla, Lukas; Schneider, Moritz J.; Ingrisch, Michael; Spaeth, Lukas; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Cyran, Clemens C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI / 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose-(18F-FDG)-PET imaging protocol for monitoring regorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and Methods Human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts (HT-29) were implanted subcutaneously in n = 17 (n = 10 therapy group; n = 7 control group) female athymic nude rats (Hsd:RH-Foxn1rnu). Animals were imaged at baseline and after a one-week daily treatment protocol with regorafenib (10 mg/kg bodyweight) using a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/18F-FDG-PET imaging protocol. In perfusion MRI, quantitative parameters of plasma flow (PF, mL/100 mL/min), plasma volume (PV, %) and endothelial permeability-surface area product (PS, mL/100 mL/min) were calculated. In 18F-FDG-PET, tumor-to-background-ratio (TTB) was calculated. Perfusion MRI parameters were correlated with TTB and immunohistochemical assessments of tumor microvascular density (CD-31) and cell proliferation (Ki-67). Results Regorafenib significantly (p<0.01) suppressed PF (81.1±7.5 to 50.6±16.0 mL/100mL/min), PV (12.1±3.6 to 7.5±1.6%) and PS (13.6±3.2 to 7.9±2.3 mL/100mL/min) as well as TTB (3.4±0.6 to 1.9±1.1) between baseline and day 7. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly (p<0.03) lower tumor microvascular density (CD-31, 7.0±2.4 vs. 16.1±5.9) and tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67, 434.0 ± 62.9 vs. 663.0 ± 98.3) in the therapy group. Perfusion MRI parameters ΔPF, ΔPV and ΔPS showed strong and significant (r = 0.67-0.78; p<0.01) correlations to the PET parameter ΔTTB and significant correlations (r = 0.57-0.67; p<0.03) to immunohistochemical Ki-67 as well as to CD-31-stainings (r = 0.49-0.55; p<0.05). Conclusions A multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/PET imaging protocol allowed for non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in vivo with significant

  2. Monitoring Cell Death in Regorafenib-Treated Experimental Colon Carcinomas Using Annexin-Based Optical Fluorescence Imaging Validated by Perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Burian, Egon; Eschbach, Ralf; Hirner-Eppeneder, Heidrun; Moser, Matthias; Havla, Lukas; Eisenblätter, Michel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Cyran, Clemens C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate annexin-based optical fluorescence imaging (OI) for monitoring regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas in rats, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods Subcutaneous human colon carcinomas (HT-29) in athymic rats (n = 16) were imaged before and after a one-week therapy with regorafenib (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) using annexin-based OI and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and MRI tumor perfusion parameters (plasma flow PF, mL/100mL/min; plasma volume PV, %) were assessed. On day 7, tumors underwent immunohistochemical analysis for tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL), proliferation (Ki-67), and microvascular density (CD31). Results Apoptosis-targeted OI demonstrated a tumor-specific probe accumulation with a significant increase of tumor SNR under therapy (mean Δ +7.78±2.95, control: -0.80±2.48, p = 0.021). MRI detected a significant reduction of tumor perfusion in the therapy group (mean ΔPF -8.17±2.32 mL/100 mL/min, control -0.11±3.36 mL/100 mL/min, p = 0.036). Immunohistochemistry showed significantly more apoptosis (TUNEL; 11392±1486 vs. 2921±334, p = 0.001), significantly less proliferation (Ki-67; 1754±184 vs. 2883±323, p = 0.012), and significantly lower microvascular density (CD31; 107±10 vs. 182±22, p = 0.006) in the therapy group. Conclusions Annexin-based OI allowed for the non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry. PMID:26393949

  3. Copper oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI and ultrasound dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Or; Weitz, Iris S.; Azhari, Haim

    2015-08-01

    Multimodal medical imaging is gaining increased popularity in the clinic. This stems from the fact that data acquired from different physical phenomena may provide complementary information resulting in a more comprehensive picture of the pathological state. In this context, nano-sized contrast agents may augment the potential sensitivity of each imaging modality and allow targeted visualization of physiological points of interest (e.g. tumours). In this study, 7 nm copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) were synthesized and characterized. Then, in vitro and phantom specimens containing CuO NPs ranging from 2.4 to 320 μg · mL-1 were scanned, using both 9.4 T MRI and through-transmission ultrasonic imaging. The results show that the CuO NPs induce shortening of the magnetic T1 relaxation time on the one hand, and increase the speed of sound and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient on the other. Moreover, these visible changes are NP concentration-dependent. The change in the physical properties resulted in a substantial increase in the contrast-to-noise ratio (3.4-6.8 in ultrasound and 1.2-19.3 in MRI). In conclusion, CuO NPs are excellent candidates for MRI-ultrasound dual imaging contrast agents. They offer radiation-free high spatial resolution scans by MRI, and cost-effective high temporal resolution scans by ultrasound.

  4. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    SciTech Connect

    Deli, Martin; Mateiescu, Serban Busch, Martin; Becker, Jan Garmer, Marietta Groenemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a redox- and light-sensitive MRI contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chuqiao; Osborne, Elizabeth A.; Louie, Angelique Y.

    2009-01-01

    A redox- and light-sensitive, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent which tethers a spiropyran(SP)/merocyanine(MC) motif to a Gd-DO3A moiety was synthesized and characterized. When in the dark, the probe is in its MC form which has an r1 relaxivity of 2.51 mM−1s−1 (60MHz, 37°C). After irradiation with visible light or mixing with NADH, the probe experiences an isomerization and the r1 relaxivity decreased 18% and 26%, respectively. Additionally, the signal intensity in MRI showed an observable decrease after the compound was mixed with NADH. PMID:20126289

  6. Assessment of Semiquantitative Parameters of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging in Differentiation of Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Mousa, Amani; Farouk, Ahmed; Nabil, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To assess semiquantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE) in differentiation of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Material/Methods Prospective study conducted upon 34 patients (27 M, 7 F, aged 25–72 ys: mean 45 ys) with RCC. Abdominal dynamic contrast-enhanced gradient-recalled echo MR sequence after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine was obtained. The time signal intensity curve (TIC) of the lesion was created with calculation of enhancement ratio (ER), and washout ratio (WR). Results The subtypes of RCC were as follows: clear cell carcinomas (n=23), papillary carcinomas (n=6), and chromophobe carcinomas (n=5). The mean ER of clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC were 188±49.7, 35±8.9, and 120±41.6 respectively. The mean WR of clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCCs were 28.6±6.8, 47.6±5.7 and 42.7±10, respectively. There was a significant difference in ER (P=0.001) and WR (P=0.001) between clear cell RCC and other subtypes of RCC. The threshold values of ER and WR used for differentiating clear cell RCC from other subtypes of RCC were 142 and 38 with areas under the curve of 0.937 and 0.895, respectively. Conclusions We concluded that ER and WR are semiquantitative perfusion parameters useful in differentiation of clear cell RCC from chromophobe and papillary RCCs. PMID:27026793

  7. Reliability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the assessment of muscle perfusion in health and peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kate N; Cotter, James D; Lucas, Samuel J E; Hill, Brigid G; van Rij, André M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the reliability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in assessing calf muscle microvascular perfusion in health and disease. Response to a post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia test was repeated on two occasions >48 h apart in healthy young (28 ± 7 y) and elderly controls (70 ± 5 y), and in peripheral arterial disease patients (PAD, 69 ± 7 y; n = 10, 9 and 8 respectively). Overall, within-individual reliability was poor (coefficient of variation [CV] range: 15-87%); the most reliable parameter was time to peak (TTP, 15-48% CV). Nevertheless, TTP was twice as long in elderly controls and PAD compared to young (19.3 ± 10.4 and 22.0 ± 8.6 vs. 8.9 ± 6.2 s respectively; p < 0.01), and area under the curve for contrast intensity post-occlusion (a reflection of blood volume) was ∼50% lower in elderly controls (p < 0.01 versus PAD and young). Thus, CEUS assessment of muscle perfusion during reactive hyperaemia demonstrated poor reliability, yet still distinguished differences between PAD patients, elderly and young controls. PMID:25308937

  8. High temporal resolution dynamic contrast MRI in a high risk group for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y O; Sohda, S; Shigemitsu, S; Niitsu, M; Itai, Y

    2001-06-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta with MR is not easy even now because T2-weighted images (T2WI) cannot differentiate chorionic villi from decidua basalis. We performed dynamic contrast MRI to study whether trophoblastic villi could be separately demonstrated from the decidua basalis, and whether the contrast resolution between the placenta and myometrium could improve compared to T2WI. Six pregnant women with prior cesarean section were examined at 34-38 gestational weeks. Sagittal T2-weighted images with fast spin echo sequences and dynamic contrast studies with fast field echo sequence every 10-14 s after contrast injection were performed. We analyzed the enhancing pattern of the placenta and compared the contrast between placenta and myometrium. We reviewed medical records to identify complications during the placental delivery and the complications of their newborns. In the early phase after contrast enhancement, multiple foci of the strong lobular enhancement were observed in all cases. Other parts of placenta were slowly but strongly enhanced following them. We speculated that the former corresponded to intervillous space and the latter decidua basalis. The contrast between placenta and myometrium tended to be distinct near the inner cervical os on both T2WI and dynamic contrast study. On the other hand, it was indistinct in the upper part of the uterine body on T2WI despite it was clearly demonstrated on dynamic contrast study. The placentae were delivered without any complication in all cases. Although two neonates showed fetal distress, none of the infant remained any sequelae at the time of the discharge. The other four were well although one of them complicated with meconium staining. As dynamic contrast MRI can differentiate chorionic villi and decidua basalis, and can provide excellent contrast between placenta and myometrium at anywhere within the uterus, it may be a promising technique for antepartum diagnosis of the placenta accreta. PMID

  9. Highly monodisperse low-magnetization magnetite nanocubes as simultaneous T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. K.; Alipour, A.; Soran-Erdem, Z.; Aykut, Z. G.; Demir, H. V.

    2015-06-01

    We report the first study of highly monodisperse and crystalline iron oxide nanocubes with sub-nm controlled size distribution (9.7 +/- 0.5 nm in size) that achieve simultaneous contrast enhancement in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we confirmed the magnetite structure of iron oxide nanocubes by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, optical absorption and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These magnetite nanocubes exhibit superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior simultaneously by virtue of their finely controlled shape and size. The magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic moment values are favorably much lower because of the small size and cubic shape of the nanoparticles, which results in an enhanced spin canting effect. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we showed their potential as dual contrast agents for both T1- and T2-weighted MRI via phantom studies, in vivo imaging and relaxivity measurements. Therefore, these low-magnetization magnetite nanocubes, while being non-toxic and bio-compatible, hold great promise as excellent dual-mode T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI.We report the first study of highly monodisperse and crystalline iron oxide nanocubes with sub-nm controlled size distribution (9.7 +/- 0.5 nm in size) that achieve simultaneous contrast enhancement in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we confirmed the magnetite structure of iron oxide nanocubes by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, optical absorption and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These magnetite nanocubes exhibit superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior simultaneously by virtue of their finely controlled shape and size. The magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic moment values are favorably much lower because of the small size and cubic shape of the nanoparticles, which results in an enhanced spin

  10. Three-dimensional MRI perfusion maps: a step beyond volumetric analysis in mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fabene, Paolo F; Farace, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Andreone, Nicola; Cerini, Roberto; Pelizza, Luisa; Versace, Amelia; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Birbaumer, Niels; Tansella, Michele; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A new type of magnetic resonance imaging analysis, based on fusion of three-dimensional reconstructions of time-to-peak parametric maps and high-resolution T1-weighted images, is proposed in order to evaluate the perfusion of selected volumes of interest. Because in recent years a wealth of data have suggested the crucial involvement of vascular alterations in mental diseases, we tested our new method on a restricted sample of schizophrenic patients and matched healthy controls. The perfusion of the whole brain was compared with that of the caudate nucleus by means of intrasubject analysis. As expected, owing to the encephalic vascular pattern, a significantly lower time-to-peak was observed in the caudate nucleus than in the whole brain in all healthy controls, indicating that the suggested method has enough sensitivity to detect subtle perfusion changes even in small volumes of interest. Interestingly, a less uniform pattern was observed in the schizophrenic patients. The latter finding needs to be replicated in an adequate number of subjects. In summary, the three-dimensional analysis method we propose has been shown to be a feasible tool for revealing subtle vascular changes both in normal subjects and in pathological conditions. PMID:17229290

  11. Assessment of blood–brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heye, Anna K.; Culling, Ross D.; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Thrippleton, Michael J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI. PMID:25379439

  12. Non-Ischemic Perfusion Defects due to Delayed Arrival of Contrast Material on Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeo Koon; Park, Sang Joon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report about the adenosine stress perfusion MR imaging findings of a 50-year-old man who exhibited two different perfusion defects resulting from two different mechanisms after a coronary artery bypass surgery. An invasive coronary angiography confirmed that one perfusion defect at the mid-anterior wall resulted from an ischemia due to graft stenosis. However, no stenosis was detected on the graft responsible for the mid-inferior wall showing the other perfusion defect. It was assumed that the perfusion defect at the mid-inferior wall resulted from delayed perfusion owing to the long pathway of the bypass graft. The semiquantitative analysis of corrected signal-time curves supported our speculation, demonstrating that the rest-to-stress ratio index of the maximal slope of the myocardial territory in question was similar to those of normal myocardium, whereas that of myocardium with the stenotic graft showed a typical ischemic pattern. A delayed perfusion during long graft pathway in a post-bypass graft patient can mimick a true perfusion defect on myocardial stress MR imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this knowledge to avoid misinterpretation of graft and myocardial status in post bypass surgery patients. PMID:24644408

  13. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology. PMID:27349086

  14. Clustered breast microcalcifications: Evaluation by dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, R.; Tardivon, A.A.; Vanel, D.; Guinebretiere, J.M.; Arriagada, R.

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI in the diagnosis of isolated clustered calcifications of the breast. One hundred seventy-two patients underwent surgical biopsy for isolated clustered breast calcifications. Their mammograms showed round (n = 88) or linear/irregular (n = 84) microcalcifications. All patients had a preoperative Gd-DOTA-enhanced subtraction dynamic study. Any early contrast enhancement in the breast parenchyma concomitant with early enhancement of normal vessels was considered positive. Fifty-eight in situ carcinomas, 22 invasive carcinomas, and 92 benign lesions were found at histological analysis. Dynamic MR sequences showed early contrast enhancement in 76 of 80 malignant lesions (sensitivity 95%) and in 45 of 92 benign lesions (specificity 51%). Two invasive and two intraductal carcinomas did not show early contrast enhancement. Three independent observers agreed in rating early contrast enhancement in 143 of 172 lesions. Poor specificity limits the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI in distinguishing benign from malignant microcalcifications on mammography. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Monitoring redox-sensitive paramagnetic contrast agent by EPRI, OMRI and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Fuminori; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Hyodo, Emi; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of tissue redox-status imaging using commonly used redox sensitive nitroxides has been carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) and conventional T 1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, MRI. Imaging studies using phantoms of different nitroxides at different concentration levels showed that EPRI and OMRI sensitivities were found to be linearly dependent on line width of nitroxides up to 2 mM, and the enhancement in MRI intensity was linear up to 5 mM. The sensitivity and resolution of EPRI and OMRI images depended significantly on the line width of the nitroxides whereas the MRI images were almost independent of EPR line width. Reduction of the paramagnetic 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (3CP) by ascorbic acid (AsA) to the diamagnetic by hydroxylamine was monitored from a sequence of temporal images, acquired using the three imaging modalities. The decay rates determined by all the three modalities were found to be similar. However the results suggest that T 1-weighted MRI can monitor the redox status, in addition to providing detailed anatomical structure in a short time. Therefore, a combination of MRI with nitroxides as metabolically responsive contrast agents can be a useful technique for the in vivo imaging probing tissue redox status.

  16. Monitoring redox-sensitive paramagnetic contrast agent by EPRI, OMRI and MRI.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Fuminori; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Hyodo, Emi; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of tissue redox-status imaging using commonly used redox sensitive nitroxides has been carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) and conventional T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, MRI. Imaging studies using phantoms of different nitroxides at different concentration levels showed that EPRI and OMRI sensitivities were found to be linearly dependent on line width of nitroxides up to 2 mM, and the enhancement in MRI intensity was linear up to 5 mM. The sensitivity and resolution of EPRI and OMRI images depended significantly on the line width of the nitroxides whereas the MRI images were almost independent of EPR line width. Reduction of the paramagnetic 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (3CP) by ascorbic acid (AsA) to the diamagnetic by hydroxylamine was monitored from a sequence of temporal images, acquired using the three imaging modalities. The decay rates determined by all the three modalities were found to be similar. However the results suggest that T(1)-weighted MRI can monitor the redox status, in addition to providing detailed anatomical structure in a short time. Therefore, a combination of MRI with nitroxides as metabolically responsive contrast agents can be a useful technique for the in vivo imaging probing tissue redox status. PMID:18006345

  17. Monitoring Redox-Sensitive Paramagnetic Contrast Agent by EPRI, OMRI and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Fuminori; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Hyodo, Emi; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study of tissue redox-status imaging using commonly used redox sensitive nitroxides has been carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) and conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, MRI. Imaging studies using phantoms of different nitroxides at different concentration levels showed that EPRI and OMRI sensitivities were found to be linearly dependent on line width of nitroxides up to 2 mM, and the enhancement in MRI intensity was linear up to 5 mM. The sensitivity and resolution of EPRI and OMRI images depended significantly on the line width of the nitroxides whereas the MRI images were almost independent of EPR line width. Reduction of the paramagnetic 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (3CP) by ascorbic acid (AsA) to the diamagnetic by hydroxylamine was monitored from a sequence of temporal images, acquired using the three imaging modalities. The decay rates determined by all the three modalities were found to be similar. However the results suggest that T1 weighted MRI can monitor the redox status, in addition to providing detailed anatomical structure in a short time. Therefore, a combination of MRI with nitroxides as metabolically responsive contrast agents can be a useful technique for the in vivo imaging probing tissue redox status. PMID:18006345

  18. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting MRI contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lin; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yating; Wang, Lili; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2015-01-01

    A tumor-targeting carrier, hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) targeting to the tumor cells specifically. In this system, HA surface modification for SWCNTs was simply accomplished by amidation process and could make this nanomaterial highly hydrophilic. Cellular uptake was performed to evaluate the intracellular transport capabilities of HA-SWCNTs for tumor cells and the uptake rank was HA-SWCNTs> SWCNTs owing to the presence of HA, which was also evidenced by flow cytometry. The safety evaluation of this MRI CAs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. It revealed that HA-SWCNTs could stand as a biocompatible nanocarrier and gadolinium (Gd)/HA-SWCNTs demonstrated almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Moreover, GdCl3 bearing HA-SWCNTs could significantly increase the circulation time for MRI. Finally, to investigate the MRI contrast enhancing capabilities of Gd/HA-SWCNTs, T1-weighted MR images of tumor-bearing mice were acquired. The results suggested Gd/HA-SWCNTs had the highest tumor-targeting efficiency and T1-relaxivity enhancement, indicating HA-SWCNTs could be developed as a tumor-targeting carrier to deliver the CAs, GdCl3, for the identifiable diagnosis of tumor. PMID:26213465

  19. The dynamic of FUS-induced BBB Opening in Mouse Brain assessed by contrast enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Maier, Florian; Krause, Marie N.; Kleber, Susanne; Huber, Peter E.; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Bock, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with the administration of gas-filled microbubbles, can induce a localized and reversible opening of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated as a precise tool to monitor such a local BBB disruption. However, the opening/closing mechanisms of the BBB with FUS are still largely unknown. In this ongoing project, we study the BBB opening dynamics in mouse brain comparing an interstitial and an intravascular MR contrast agent (CA). FUS in mouse brain was performed with an MRI compatible treatment setup (1.7 MHz fix-focus US transducer, f' = 68 mm, NA = 0.44; focus: 8.1 mm length; O/ = 1.1 mm) in a 1.5 T whole body MRI system. For BBB opening, forty 10 ms-long FUS-pulses were applied at a repetition rate of 1 Hz at 1 MPa. The i.v. administration of the micro bubbles (50 μl SonoVue®) was started simultaneously with FUS exposure. To analyze the BBB opening process, short-term and long-term MRI signal dynamics of the interstitial MR contrast agent Magnevist® and the intravascular CA Vasovist® (Bayer-Schering) were studied. To assess short-term signal dynamics, T1-weighted inversion recovery turbo FLASH images (1s) were repeatedly acquired. Repeated 3D FLASH acquisitions (90 s) were used to assess long-term MRI signal dynamics. The short-term MRI signal enhancements showed comparable time constants for both types of MR contrast agents: 1.1 s (interstitial) vs. 0.8 s (intravascular). This time constant may serve as a time constant of the BBB opening process with the given FUS exposure parameters. For the long-term signal dynamics the intravascular CA (62±10 min) showed a fife times greater time constant as the interstitial contrast agent (12±10 min). This might be explained by the high molecular weight (˜60 kDa) of the intravascular Vasovist due to its reversible binding to blood serum albumin resulting in a prolonged half-life in the blood stream compared to the

  20. A responsive particulate MRI contrast agent for copper (I): a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Eric D.; Marjańska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A responsive MION-based MRI contrast agent for the detection of copper(I) is presented. Induced agglomeration of azide and acetylene-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles via Cu(I) catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition leads to significant decrease in longitudinal relaxivity due to the slow exchange of water molecules trapped within the cluster with bulk solvent. Agglomeration leads to an initial two fold increase followed by a sharp and almost complete loss in transverse relaxivity for clusters larger than 200 nm in size. The decrease in r2 for clusters reaching the static dephasing regime has two significant implications for particulate responsive MRI contrast agents. First, the maximum increase in r2 is barely two fold, second, since r2 does not increase continuously with increasing cluster size, the r1/r2 ratio cannot be used to determine the concentration of an analyte ratiometrically. PMID:22585342

  1. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  2. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis with nanoparticle-based fluorinated MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Palekar, Rohun U; Jallouk, Andrew P; Lanza, Gregory M; Pan, Hua; Wickline, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    As atherosclerosis remains one of the most prevalent causes of patient mortality, the ability to diagnose early signs of plaque rupture and thrombosis represents a significant clinical need. With recent advances in nanotechnology, it is now possible to image specific molecular processes noninvasively with MRI, using various types of nanoparticles as contrast agents. In the context of cardiovascular disease, it is possible to specifically deliver contrast agents to an epitope of interest for detecting vascular inflammatory processes, which serve as predecessors to atherosclerotic plaque development. Herein, we review various applications of nanotechnology in detecting atherosclerosis using MRI, with an emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoparticles and fluorine imaging, along with theranostic prospects of nanotechnology in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26080701

  3. De-enhancing the dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI for robust registration.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Yu, Jingyi; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell D; Shen, Dinggang

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic enhancement causes serious problems for registration of contrast enhanced breast MRI, due to variable uptakes of agent on different tissues or even same tissues in the breast. We present an iterative optimization algorithm to de-enhance the dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI and then register them for avoiding the effects of enhancement on image registration. In particular, the spatially varying enhancements are modeled by a Markov Random Field, and estimated by a locally smooth function with boundaries using a graph cut algorithm. The de-enhanced images are then registered by conventional B-spline based registration algorithm. These two steps benefit from each other and are repeated until the results converge. Experimental results show that our two-step registration algorithm performs much better than conventional mutual information based registration algorithm. Also, the effects of tumor shrinking in the conventional registration algorithms can be effectively avoided by our registration algorithm. PMID:18051148

  4. Synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as liver targeting MRI contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Farshad; Fattahi, Bahare; Azizi, Najmodin

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was the preparation of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as a liver targeting contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with silica via the Stober method and finally the coated nanoparticles were functionalized with mebrofenin. Formation of crystalline magnetite particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) of the final product showed that silica had been effectively bonded onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles and the coated nanoparticles functionalized with mebrofenin. The magnetic resonance imaging of the functional nanoparticles showed that the Fe3O4-SiO2-mebrofenin composite is an effective MRI contrast agent for liver targeting.

  5. Hemodynamic Measurement Using Four-Dimensional Phase-Contrast MRI: Quantification of Hemodynamic Parameters and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hojin; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Deok Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements have been made to the use of time-resolved, three-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is also named four-dimensional (4D) PC-MRI or 4D flow MRI, in the investigation of spatial and temporal variations in hemodynamic features in cardiovascular blood flow. The present article reviews the principle and analytical procedures of 4D PC-MRI. Various fluid dynamic biomarkers for possible clinical usage are also described, including wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and relative pressure. Lastly, this article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D PC-MRI in various cardiovascular regions. PMID:27390537

  6. Hemodynamic Measurement Using Four-Dimensional Phase-Contrast MRI: Quantification of Hemodynamic Parameters and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hojin; Kim, Guk Bae; Kweon, Jihoon; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Deok Hee; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements have been made to the use of time-resolved, three-dimensional phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is also named four-dimensional (4D) PC-MRI or 4D flow MRI, in the investigation of spatial and temporal variations in hemodynamic features in cardiovascular blood flow. The present article reviews the principle and analytical procedures of 4D PC-MRI. Various fluid dynamic biomarkers for possible clinical usage are also described, including wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and relative pressure. Lastly, this article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D PC-MRI in various cardiovascular regions. PMID:27390537

  7. Detection of Sulfatase Enzyme Activity with a CatalyCEST MRI Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Fernández-Cuervo, Gabriela; Acfalle, Jasmine P; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    A chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI contrast agent has been developed that detects sulfatase enzyme activity. The agent produces a CEST signal at δ=5.0 ppm before enzyme activity, and a second CEST signal appears at δ=9.0 ppm after the enzyme cleaves a sulfate group from the agent. The comparison of the two signals improved detection of sulfatase activity. PMID:26956002

  8. Use of cine phase-contrast MRI in the assessment of distal splenorenal shunt function.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Paolo; Ravanelli, Marco; Alberti, Daniele; Maroldi, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a surgical splenorenal shunt in a 28-year-old girl are described. The woman underwent color doppler ultrasonography during follow up for the shunt, which was inconclusive. MR was used to investigate the function of the shunt. Velocity and flow direction in splanchnic vessels and in the shunt were evaluated using cine fast phase-contrast sequences. MR findings could be of help in the evaluation of patients undergoing surgical shunts during follow up. PMID:22405982

  9. XFM demonstrates preferential accumulation of a vanadyl-based MRI contrast agent in murine colonic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Ward, Jesse; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Hart, John; Vogt, Stefan; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrast agents that specifically enhance cancers on MRI would allow earlier detection. Vanadyl-based chelates (VCs) selectively enhance rodent cancers on MRI, suggesting selective uptake of VCs by cancers. Here we report X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of VC uptake by murine colon cancer. Colonic tumors in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium were identified by MRI. Then a gadolinium-based contrast agent and a VC were injected I.V.; mice were sacrificed and colons sectioned. VC distribution was sampled at 120 minutes after injection to evaluate the long term accumulation. Gadolinium distribution was sampled at 10 minutes after injection due to its rapid washout. XFM was performed on 72 regions of normal and cancerous colon from 5 normal mice and 4 cancer-bearing mice. XFM showed that all gadolinium was extracellular with similar concentrations in colon cancers and normal colon. In contrast, the average VC concentration was 2-fold higher in cancers vs. normal tissue (p<0.002). Cancers also contained numerous ‘hot spots’ with intracellular VC concentrations 6-fold higher than the concentration in normal colon (p<0.0001). No ‘hot spots’ were detected in normal colon. This is the first direct demonstration that VCs selectively accumulate in cancer cells, and thus may improve cancer detection. PMID:25813904

  10. Magnetic and relaxation properties of multifunctional polymer-based nanostructured bioferrofluids as MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Houshang; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Silva, Nuno J O; Piñol, Rafael; Gabilondo, Lierni; Palacio, Fernando; Arosio, Paolo; Corti, Maurizio; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    A series of maghemite/polymer composite ferrofluids with variable magnetic core size, which show a good efficiency as MRI contrast agents, are presented. These ferrofluids are biocompatible and can be proposed as possible platforms for multifunctional biomedical applications, as they contain anchoring groups for biofunctionalization, can incorporate fluorescent dyes, and have shown low cellular toxicity. The magnetic properties of the ferrofluids have been determined by means of magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements as a function of temperature and frequency. The NMR dispersion profiles show that the low frequency behavior of the longitudinal relaxivity r(1) is well described by the heuristic model of (1)H nuclear relaxation induced by superparamagnetic nanoparticles proposed by Roch and co-workers. The contrast efficiency parameter, i.e., the nuclear transverse relaxivity r(2), for samples with d > 10 nm assumes values comparable with or better than the ones of commercial samples, the best results obtained in particles with the biggest magnetic core, d = 15 nm. The contrast efficiency results are confirmed by in vitro MRI experiments at ν = 8.5 MHz, thus allowing us to propose a set of optimal microstructural parameters for multifunctional ferrofluids to be used in MRI medical diagnosis. PMID:21574179

  11. A self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent that detects esterase enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuguo; Sheth, Vipul R.; Liu, Guanshu; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The CEST effect of many PARACEST MRI contrast agents changes in response to a molecular biomarker. However, other molecular biomarkers or environmental factors can influence CEST, so that a change in CEST is not conclusive proof for detecting the biomarker. To overcome this problem, a second control CEST effect may be included in the same PARACEST agent, which is responsive to all factors that alter the first CEST effect except for the biomarker to be measured. To investigate this approach, a PARACEST MRI contrast agent was developed with one CEST effect that is responsive to esterase enzyme activity and a second control CEST effect. The ratio of the two CEST effects was independent of concentration and T1 relaxation, so that this agent was self-calibrating with respect to these factors. This ratiometric method was dependent on temperature and was influenced by MR coalescence as the chemical exchange rates approached the chemical shifts of the exchangable protons as temperature was increased. The two CEST effects also showed evidence of having different pH dependencies, so that this agent was not self-calibrating with respect to pH. Therefore, a self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent can more accurately detect a molecular biomarker such as esterase enzyme activity, as long as temperature and pH are within an acceptable physiological range and remain constant. PMID:21861282

  12. CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND ASSESSMENT OF IMPAIRED ADIPOSE TISSUE AND MUSCLE PERFUSION IN INSULIN-RESISTANT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Belcik, J. Todd; Davidson, Brian P.; Foster, Ted; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Yan; Peters, Dawn; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background In diabetes mellitus reduced perfusion and capillary surface area in skeletal muscle, which is a major glucose storage site, contributes to abnormal glucose homeostasis. Using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) we investigated whether abdominal adipose tissue perfusion is abnormal in insulin resistance (IR) and correlates with glycemic control. Methods and Results Abdominal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle CEU perfusion imaging was performed in obese IR (db/db) mice at 11-12 or 14-16 weeks of age, and in control lean mice. Time-intensity data were analyzed to quantify microvascular blood flow (MBF) and capillary blood volume (CBV). Blood glucose response over one hour was measured after insulin challenge (1 u/Kg, I.P.). Compared to control mice, db/db mice at 11-12 and 14-16 weeks had a higher glucose concentration area-under-the-curve after insulin (11.8±2.8, 20.6±4.3, and 28.4±5.9 mg·min/dL [×1000], respectively, p=0.0002), and also had lower adipose MBF (0.094±0.038, 0.035±0.010, and 0.023±0.01 mL/min/g, p=0.0002) and CBV (1.6±0.6, 1.0±0.3, and 0.5±0.1 mL/100 g, p=0.0017). The glucose area-under-the-curve correlated in a non-linear fashion with both adipose and skeletal muscle MBF and CBV. There were significant linear correlations between adipose and muscle MBF (r=0.81) and CBV (r=0.66). Adipocyte cell volume on histology was 25-fold higher in 14-16 week db/db versus control mice. Conclusions Abnormal adipose MBF and CBV in IR can be detected by CEU and correlates with the degree of impairment in glucose storage. Abnormalities in adipose tissue and muscle appear to be coupled. Impaired adipose tissue perfusion is in part explained by an increase in adipocyte size without proportional vascular response. PMID:25855669

  13. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D*, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (K, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups.None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively).IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  14. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D∗, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively). IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  15. Effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac flow measured by two dimensional phase contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; François, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Companion animals are anesthetized or heavily sedated to comply for cardiac MRI and different anesthetic protocols are expected to have variable effects on functional parameters measured. This study compared two anesthetic protocols (Protocol A: Midazolam, fentanyl; Protocol B: Dexmedetomidine) for their effect on quantitative and qualitative analysis of blood flow through the aortic, pulmonic, mitral and tricuspid valves using 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI in dogs. Mean flow per heartbeat through the pulmonary artery (Qp) and aorta (Qs) was compared to right (RVSV) and left (LVSV) ventricular stroke volumes determined using 2D Cine balanced steady-state free precession MRI as a reference standard. Pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (Qp/Qs) was also calculated. Differences in flow and Qp/Qs values generated using 2D PC MRI were not different between the two anesthetic protocols (P=1). Mean differences between Qp and right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV) were 3.82 (95% limits of agreement: 3.62, −11.26) ml/beat and 1.9 (−7.86, 11.66) ml/beat for anesthesia protocols A and B, respectively. Mean differences between Qs and left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) were 1.65 (−5.04, 8.34) ml/beat and 0.03 (−4.65, 4.72) ml/beat for anesthesia protocols A and B, respectively. Mild tricuspid or mitral reflux was seen in 2/10 dogs using 2D PC MRI. No aortic or pulmonic insufficiency was observed. This study provides baseline data for evaluation of cardiac blood flow using 2D PC MRI in dogs. Where as no significant difference of cardiac blood flow was found for the anesthetic protocols used, verification in clinically affected patients is desirable. PMID:25124271

  16. Vascular perfusion kinetics by contrast-enhanced ultrasound are related to synovial microvascularity in the joints of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, Ugo; Stramare, Roberto; Coran, Alessandro; Grisan, Enrico; Scagliori, Elena; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Lunardi, Francesca; Oliviero, Francesca; Bianchi, Fulvia Chieco; Scanu, Anna; Martini, Veronica; Boso, Daniele; Beltrame, Valeria; Vezzù, Maristella; Cozzi, Luisella; Scarpa, Raffaele; Sacerdoti, David; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea; Calabrese, Fiorella; Rubaltelli, Leopoldo

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship of the continuous mode contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound (CEUS) imaging with the histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) quantitative estimation of microvascular proliferation on synovial samples of patients affected by sustained psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A dedicated linear transducer was used in conjunction with a specific continuous mode contrast enhanced harmonic imaging technology with a second-generation sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles C-agent. The examination was carried out within 1 week before arthroscopic biopsies in 32 active joints. Perfusional parameters were analyzed including regional blood flow (RBF); peak (PEAK) of the C-signal intensity, proportional to the regional blood volume (RBV); beta (β) perfusion frequency; slope (S), representing the inclination of the tangent in the origin; and the refilling time (RT), the reverse of beta. Arthroscopic synovial biopsies were targeted in the hypervascularity areas, as in the same knee recesses assessed by CEUS; the synovial cell infiltrate and vascularity (vessel density) was evaluated by IHC staining of CD45 (mononuclear cell) and CD31, CD105 (endothelial cell) markers, measured by computer-assisted morphometric analysis. In the CEUS area examined, the corresponding time-intensity curves demonstrated a slow rise time. Synovial histology showed slight increased layer lining thickness, perivascular lymphomonocyte cell infiltration, and microvascular remodeling, with marked vessel wall thickening with reduction of the vascular lumen. A significant correlation was found between RT and CD31+ as PEAK and CD105+ vessel density; RT was inversely correlated to RBF, PEAK, S, and β. The study demonstrated the association of the CEUS perfusion kinetics with the histopathological quantitative and morphologic estimation of synovial microvascular proliferation, suggesting that a CEUS imaging represents a reliable tool for the estimate of the

  17. Superparamagnetic And Paramagnetic MRI Contrast Agents: Application Of Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging To Assess Renal Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvlin, Mark J.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Arger, Peter; Kundel, Harold L.; Dougherty, Larry; Axel, Leon; Kassab, Eleanor; Moore, Bethanne

    1988-06-01

    The paramagnetic chelate complex, gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid, Gd-DTPA, and superparamagnetic particles, such as those composed of dextran coated magnetite, function as magnetic resonance contrast agents by changing the relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2. The effects that these agents have upon MR signal intensity are determined by: the inherent biophysical properties of the tissue being imaged, the concentration of the contrast agent and the data acquisition scheme (pulse sequence parameters) employed. Following the time course of MR signal change in the first minutes after the injection of contrast agent(s) allows a dynamic assessment of organ functions in a manner analogous to certain nuclear medicine studies. In order to study renal function, sequential MR fast scan images, gradient echo (TR=35/TE=7 msec, flip angle=25 degrees), were acquired, one every 12 seconds, after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA and/or dextran-magnetite. Gd-DTPA, which is freely filtered at the glomerulus and is neither secreted nor reabsorbed, provides information concerning renal perfusion, glomerular filtration and tubular concentrating ability. Dextran-magnetite (200 A diameter), which is primarily contained within the intravascular space shortly after injection, provides information on blood flow to and distribution within the kidney. The MR signal change observed after administration of contrast agents varied dramatically depending upon the agents injected and the imaging parameters used. Hence a broad range of physiolgic processes may be described using these techniques, i.e. contrast agent enhanced functional MR examinations.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Yuka; Ishikawa, Syungo; Kimura, Yu; Son, Aoi; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Toshimitsu, Akio; Kondo, Teruyuki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs), which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1) values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer). In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T). In this study, the association constants (Ka) of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA), measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo. PMID:26694418

  19. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in post-traumatic stress disorder: a perfusion MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baojuan; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yin, Hong

    2013-03-01

    The majority of studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so far have focused on delineating patterns of activations during cognitive processes. Recently, more and more researches have started to investigate functional connectivity in PTSD subjects using BOLD-fMRI. Functional connectivity analysis has been demonstrated as a powerful approach to identify biomarkers of different brain diseases. This study aimed to detect resting-state functional connectivity abnormities in patients with PTSD using arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI. As a completely non-invasive technique, ASL allows quantitative estimates of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Compared with BOLD-fMRI, ASL fMRI has many advantages, including less low-frequency signal drifts, superior functional localization, etc. In the current study, ASL images were collected from 10 survivors in mining disaster with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. Decreased regional CBF in the right middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and postcentral gyrus was detected in the PTSD patients. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed using an area in the right middle temporal gyrus as region of interest. Compared with the non-PTSD group, the PTSD subjects demonstrated increased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right superior temporal gyrus, the left middle temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, decreased functional connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus, the right superior parietal lobule was also found in the PTSD patients. This is the first study which investigated resting-state functional connectivity in PTSD using ASL images. The results may provide new insight into the neural substrates of PTSD.

  20. Textural kinetics: a novel dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI feature for breast lesion classification.

    PubMed

    Agner, Shannon C; Soman, Salil; Libfeld, Edward; McDonald, Margie; Thomas, Kathleen; Englander, Sarah; Rosen, Mark A; Chin, Deanna; Nosher, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-06-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has emerged as an adjunct imaging tool to conventional X-ray mammography due to its high detection sensitivity. Despite the increasing use of breast DCE-MRI, specificity in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions is low, and interobserver variability in lesion classification is high. The novel contribution of this paper is in the definition of a new DCE-MRI descriptor that we call textural kinetics, which attempts to capture spatiotemporal changes in breast lesion texture in order to distinguish malignant from benign lesions. We qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated on 41 breast DCE-MRI studies that textural kinetic features outperform signal intensity kinetics and lesion morphology features in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. A probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) classifier in conjunction with textural kinetic descriptors yielded an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 82%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. Graph embedding, used for qualitative visualization of a low-dimensional representation of the data, showed the best separation between benign and malignant lesions when using textural kinetic features. The PBT classifier results and trends were also corroborated via a support vector machine classifier which showed that textural kinetic features outperformed the morphological, static texture, and signal intensity kinetics descriptors. When textural kinetic attributes were combined with morphologic descriptors, the resulting PBT classifier yielded 89% accuracy, 99% sensitivity, 76% specificity, and an AUC of 0.91. PMID:20508965

  1. MRI measurements of left ventricular systolic wall thickening compared to regional myocardial perfusion as determined by 201Tl SPECT in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, E; Altehoefer, C; Arnold, C; Buell, U; vom Dahl, J; Uebis, R

    1991-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the left ventricle (LV) is an excellent method of measuring systolic wall thickening (SWT). The aim of the present study was (a) to describe a new approach for measurement of SWT and (b) to define the relationship between SWT and regional myocardial perfusion as determined by 201Tl SPECT. 79 patients -51 with and 28 without history of earlier myocardial infarction - underwent SPECT and, within the next two weeks. MRI. End-diastolic and end-systolic spin echo images were obtained by a reduced permutation technique. For MRI measurements, only long-axis sections through the LV in the equatorial plane were used. Slice orientation was selected according to the findings of SPECT, imaging the infarcted wall segment by single or double angulation. At 7 equidistant points around the LV wall SWT was measured and compared with the corresponding regional myocardial uptake values from SPECT in percent of maximal perfusion. Wall thickness of the anterior wall was normal. Because the majority of myocardial infarctions were posterior-inferior (55%), thickness of the posterior wall was markedly decreased. A close relationship of perfusion to SWT was found. Higher perfusion areas (greater than 50% of maximal TI uptake) corresponded with normal SWT (greater than 3.0 mm), a marked decrease of SWT (less than 1 mm) was found in areas with perfusion deficits (less than 40%). Thus, a 201TI uptake value at rest of 41-50% of the respective myocardial maximum acts as a threshold by discriminating normal from severely reduced SWT. PMID:2047242

  2. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Gorkem, Sureyya Burcu; Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Doganay, Selim; Gunes, Tamer; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Kucukaydin, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p = 0.018) and placenta (p = 0.005) of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies. PMID:27034830

  3. Decreased Brain and Placental Perfusion in Omphalopagus Conjoined Twins on Fetal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kutuk, Mehmet Serdar; Doganay, Selim; Gunes, Tamer; Yildiz, Karamehmet; Kucukaydin, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate perfusional changes in brain and placenta of omphalopagus conjoined twins and to compare them with singleton fetuses by using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient. Fetal MRIs of 28-week-old omphalopagus conjoined twins with a shared liver with two separate gallbladders and portal and hepatic venous systems and three singleton fetuses with unilateral borderline ventriculomegaly at the same gestational week as control group were enrolled retrospectively. There was a significant decrease in ADC values of brain regions (p = 0.018) and placenta (p = 0.005) of conjoined twins compared to the control group. The decreased ADC values in placenta and brain regions in conjoined twins might be due to decreased placental perfusion compared to singleton pregnancy. Our results would be a keystone for future studies which will compare larger group of monochorionic multiple pregnancies with singleton pregnancies. PMID:27034830

  4. Molecular imaging of EGFR/HER2 cancer biomarkers by protein MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jingjuan; Xue, Shenghui; Pu, Fan; White, Natalie; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2 are major prognosis biomarkers and drug targets overexpressed in various types of cancer cells. There is a pressing need to develop MRI contrast agents capable of enhancing the contrast between normal tissues and tumors with high relaxivity, capable of targeting tumors, and with high intratumoral distribution and minimal toxicity. In this review, we first discuss EGFR signaling and its role in tumor progression as a major drug target. We then report our progress in the development of protein contrast agents with significant improvement of both r1 and r2 relaxivities, pharmacokinetics, in vivo retention time, and in vivo dose efficiency. Finally, we report our effort in the development of EGFR-targeted protein contrast agents with the capability to cross the endothelial boundary and with good tissue distribution across the entire tumor mass. The noninvasive capability of MRI to visualize spatially and temporally the intratumoral distribution as well as quantify the levels of EGFR and HER2 would greatly improve our ability to track changes of the biomarkers during tumor progression, monitor treatment efficacy, aid in patient selection, and further develop novel targeted therapies for clinical application. PMID:24366655

  5. MRI detection of breast cancer micrometastases with a fibronectin-targeting contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Qutaish, Mohammed; Han, Zheng; Schur, Rebecca M.; Liu, Yiqiao; Wilson, David L.; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients. Early detection of high-risk breast cancer, including micrometastasis, is critical in tailoring appropriate and effective interventional therapies. Increased fibronectin expression, a hallmark of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, is associated with high-risk breast cancer and metastasis. We have previously developed a penta-peptide CREKA (Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala)-targeted gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, CREKA-Tris(Gd-DOTA)3 (Gd-DOTA (4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecyl gadolinium), which binds to fibrin–fibronectin complexes that are abundant in the tumour microenvironment of fast-growing breast cancer. Here we assess the capability of CREKA-Tris(Gd-DOTA)3 to detect micrometastasis with MRI in co-registration with high-resolution fluorescence cryo-imaging in female mice bearing metastatic 4T1 breast tumours. We find that CREKA-Tris(Gd-DOTA)3 provides robust contrast enhancement in the metastatic tumours and enables the detection of micrometastases of size <0.5 mm, extending the detection limit of the current clinical imaging modalities. These results demonstrate that molecular MRI with CREKA-Tris(Gd-DOTA)3 may facilitate early detection of high-risk breast cancer and micrometastasis in the clinic. PMID:26264658

  6. GRPR-targeted Protein Contrast Agents for Molecular Imaging of Receptor Expression in Cancers by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Fan; Qiao, Jingjuan; Xue, Shenghui; Yang, Hua; Patel, Anvi; Wei, Lixia; Hekmatyar, Khan; Salarian, Mani; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Liu, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is differentially expressed on the surfaces of various diseased cells, including prostate and lung cancer. However, monitoring temporal and spatial expression of GRPR in vivo by clinical MRI is severely hampered by the lack of contrast agents with high relaxivity, targeting capability and tumor penetration. Here, we report the development of a GRPR-targeted MRI contrast agent by grafting the GRPR targeting moiety into a scaffold protein with a designed Gd3+ binding site (ProCA1.GRPR). In addition to its strong binding affinity for GRPR (Kd = 2.7 nM), ProCA1.GRPR has high relaxivity (r1 = 42.0 mM−1s−1 at 1.5 T and 25 °C) and strong Gd3+ selectivity over physiological metal ions. ProCA1.GRPR enables in vivo detection of GRPR expression and spatial distribution in both PC3 and H441 tumors in mice using MRI. ProCA1.GRPR is expected to have important preclinical and clinical implications for the early detection of cancer and for monitoring treatment effects. PMID:26577829

  7. DCE@urLAB: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI pharmacokinetic analysis tool for preclinical data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DCE@urLAB is a software application for analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data (DCE-MRI). The tool incorporates a friendly graphical user interface (GUI) to interactively select and analyze a region of interest (ROI) within the image set, taking into account the tissue concentration of the contrast agent (CA) and its effect on pixel intensity. Results Pixel-wise model-based quantitative parameters are estimated by fitting DCE-MRI data to several pharmacokinetic models using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA). DCE@urLAB also includes the semi-quantitative parametric and heuristic analysis approaches commonly used in practice. This software application has been programmed in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and tested both with publicly available simulated data and preclinical studies from tumor-bearing mouse brains. Conclusions A user-friendly solution for applying pharmacokinetic and non-quantitative analysis DCE-MRI in preclinical studies has been implemented and tested. The proposed tool has been specially designed for easy selection of multi-pixel ROIs. A public release of DCE@urLAB, together with the open source code and sample datasets, is available at http://www.die.upm.es/im/archives/DCEurLAB/. PMID:24180558

  8. Water-Soluble Spinel Ferrites by a Modified Polyol Process as Contrast Agents in MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Basina, Georgia; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Niarchos, Dimitris; Li Wanfeng; Khurshid, Hafsa; Hadjipanayis, George; Mao Hui; Hadjipanayis, Costas

    2010-12-02

    Magnetic nanoparticles have recently been very attractive for biomedical applications. In this study, we have synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for application as contrast agents in MRI experiments. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites with a mean size of 11-12 nm, were prepared by a modified polyol route in commercially available polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 600 (PEG-600). The reaction takes place in the presence of water soluble and non-toxic tri-block copolymer known as Pluronic registered F-127 (PEO{sub 100}-PPO{sub 65}-PEO{sub 100}). The nanoparticles have saturation magnetization values of 52 and 68 emu/g for MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Both the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles make stable solutions in water known as ferrofluids. Preliminary data demonstrated the capability of these nanoparticles to induce imaging contrast in T{sub 2} weighted MRI experiments, making these materials suitable for biomedical applications such as medical MRI.

  9. Why a standard contrast-enhanced MRI might be useful in intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Oeinck, Maximilian; Rozeik, Christoph; Wattchow, Jens; Meckel, Stephan; Schlageter, Manuel; Beeskow, Christel; Reinhard, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    In patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause cerebral vasculitis is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis, especially when signs of intracranial artery stenosis are found and laboratory findings show systemic inflammation. In such cases, high-resolution T1w vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 'black blood' technique) at 3 T is preferentially performed, but may not be available in every hospital. We report a case of an 84-year-old man with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack and signs of distal occlusion in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) in duplex sonography. Standard MRI with contrast agent pointed the way to the correct diagnosis since it showed an intramural contrast uptake in the right ICA and both vertebral arteries. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of a giant cell arteritis and dedicated vessel wall MRI performed later supported the suspected intracranial large artery inflammation. Our case also shows that early diagnosis and immunosuppressive therapy may not always prevent disease progression, as our patient suffered several infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory with consecutive high-grade hemiparesis of the right side within the following four months. PMID:26988083

  10. Noninvasive MRI of β-cell function using a Zn2+-responsive contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Lubag, Angelo J M; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Burgess, Shawn C; Sherry, A Dean

    2011-11-01

    Elevation of postprandial glucose stimulates release of insulin from granules stored in pancreatic islet β-cells. We demonstrate here that divalent zinc ions coreleased with insulin from β-cells in response to high glucose are readily detected by MRI using the Zn(2+)-responsive T(1) agent, GdDOTA-diBPEN. Image contrast was significantly enhanced in the mouse pancreas after injection of a bolus of glucose followed by a low dose of the Zn(2+) sensor. Images of the pancreas were not enhanced by the agent in mice without addition of glucose to stimulate insulin release, nor were images enhanced in streptozotocin-treated mice with or without added glucose. These observations are consistent with MRI detection of Zn(2+) released from β-cells only during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Images of mice fed a high-fat (60%) diet over a 12-wk period and subjected to this same imaging protocol showed a larger volume of contrast-enhanced pancreatic tissue, consistent with the expansion of pancreatic β-cell mass during fat accumulation and progression to type 2 diabetes. This MRI sensor offers the exciting potential for deep-tissue monitoring of β-cell function in vivo during development of type 2 diabetes or after implantation of islets in type I diabetic patients. PMID:22025712

  11. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  12. Diffusion and near-equilibrium distribution of MRI and CT contrast agents in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Silvast, Tuomo S; Kokkonen, Harri T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Quinn, Thomas M; Nieminen, Miika T; Töyräs, Juha

    2009-11-21

    Charged contrast agents have been used both in vitro and in vivo for estimation of the fixed charge density (FCD) in articular cartilage. In the present study, the effects of molecular size and charge on the diffusion and equilibrium distribution of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) contrast agents were investigated. Full thickness cartilage disks (Ø = 4.0 mm, n = 64) were prepared from fresh bovine patellae. Contrast agent (gadopentetate: Magnevist((R)), gadodiamide: Omniscan, ioxaglate: Hexabrix or sodium iodide: NaI) diffusion was allowed either through the articular surface or through the deep cartilage. CT imaging of the samples was conducted before contrast agent administration and after 1, 5, 9, 16, 25 and 29 h (and with three samples after 2, 3, 4 and 5 days) diffusion using a clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) instrument. With all contrast agents, the diffusion through the deep cartilage was slower when compared to the diffusion through the articular surface. With ioxaglate, gadopentetate and gadodiamide it took over 29 h for diffusion to reach the near-equilibrium state. The slow diffusion of the contrast agents raise concerns regarding the validity of techniques for FCD estimation, as these contrast agents may not reach the equilibrium state that is assumed. However, since cartilage composition, i.e. deep versus superficial, had a significant effect on diffusion, imaging of the nonequilibrium diffusion process might enable more accurate assessment of cartilage integrity. PMID:19864699

  13. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  14. Protein corona affects the relaxivity and MRI contrast efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Houshang; Bordonali, Lorenzo; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Wan, Sha; Monopoli, Marco P.; Lynch, Iseult; Laurent, Sophie; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being considered for use in biomedical applications such as biosensors, imaging contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. In a biological fluid, proteins associate in a preferential manner with NPs. The small sizes and high curvature angles of NPs influence the types and amounts of proteins present on their surfaces. This differential display of proteins bound to the surface of NPs can influence the tissue distribution, cellular uptake and biological effects of NPs. To date, the effects of adsorption of a protein corona (PC) on the magnetic properties of NPs have not been considered, despite the fact that some of their potential applications require their use in human blood. Here, to investigate the effects of a PC (using fetal bovine serum) on the MRI contrast efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), we have synthesized two series of SPIONs with variation in the thickness and functional groups (i.e. surface charges) of the dextran surface coating. We have observed that different physico-chemical characteristics of the dextran coatings on the SPIONs lead to the formation of PCs of different compositions. 1H relaxometry was used to obtain the longitudinal, r1, and transverse, r2, relaxivities of the SPIONs without and with a PC, as a function of the Larmor frequency. The transverse relaxivity, which determines the efficiency of negative contrast agents (CAs), is very much dependent on the functional group and the surface charge of the SPIONs' coating. The presence of the PC did not alter the relaxivity of plain SPIONs, while it slightly increased the relaxivity of the negatively charged SPIONs and dramatically decreased the relaxivity of the positively charged ones, which was coupled with particle agglomeration in the presence of the proteins. To confirm the effect of the PC on the MRI contrast efficiency, in vitro MRI experiments at ν = 8.5 MHz were performed using a low-field MRI scanner. The MRI

  15. Protein corona affects the relaxivity and MRI contrast efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Houshang; Bordonali, Lorenzo; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Wan, Sha; Monopoli, Marco P.; Lynch, Iseult; Laurent, Sophie; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being considered for use in biomedical applications such as biosensors, imaging contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. In a biological fluid, proteins associate in a preferential manner with NPs. The small sizes and high curvature angles of NPs influence the types and amounts of proteins present on their surfaces. This differential display of proteins bound to the surface of NPs can influence the tissue distribution, cellular uptake and biological effects of NPs. To date, the effects of adsorption of a protein corona (PC) on the magnetic properties of NPs have not been considered, despite the fact that some of their potential applications require their use in human blood. Here, to investigate the effects of a PC (using fetal bovine serum) on the MRI contrast efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), we have synthesized two series of SPIONs with variation in the thickness and functional groups (i.e. surface charges) of the dextran surface coating. We have observed that different physico-chemical characteristics of the dextran coatings on the SPIONs lead to the formation of PCs of different compositions. 1H relaxometry was used to obtain the longitudinal, r1, and transverse, r2, relaxivities of the SPIONs without and with a PC, as a function of the Larmor frequency. The transverse relaxivity, which determines the efficiency of negative contrast agents (CAs), is very much dependent on the functional group and the surface charge of the SPIONs' coating. The presence of the PC did not alter the relaxivity of plain SPIONs, while it slightly increased the relaxivity of the negatively charged SPIONs and dramatically decreased the relaxivity of the positively charged ones, which was coupled with particle agglomeration in the presence of the proteins. To confirm the effect of the PC on the MRI contrast efficiency, in vitro MRI experiments at ν = 8.5 MHz were performed using a low-field MRI scanner. The MRI

  16. Biocompatibility of ferritin-based nanoparticles as targeted MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Jennifer R; Pearl, Valeria M; Denotti, Anna R; Lee, Jonathan B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Scindia, Yogesh M; Charlton, Nathan P; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Beeman, Scott C; Bennett, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Ferritin is a naturally occurring iron storage protein, proposed as a clinically relevant nanoparticle with applications as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent. Cationic ferritin is a targeted, injectable contrast agent to measure kidney microstructure with MRI. Here, the toxicity of horse spleen ferritin is assessed as a step to clinical translation. Adult male mice received cationic, native and high dose cationic ferritin (CF, NF, or HDCF) or saline and were monitored for 3weeks. Transient weight loss occurred in the ferritin groups with no difference in renal function parameters. Ferritin-injected mice demonstrated a lower serum iron 3weeks after administration. In ferritin-injected animals pre-treated with hydrocortisone, there were no structural or weight differences in the kidneys, liver, lung, heart, or spleen. This study demonstrates a lack of significant detrimental effects of horse-derived ferritin-based nanoparticles at MRI-detectable doses, allowing further exploration of these agents in basic research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:27071333

  17. Connexin 43-targeted T1 contrast agent for MRI diagnosis of glioma.

    PubMed

    Abakumova, Tatiana; Abakumov, Maxim; Shein, Sergey; Chelushkin, Pavel; Bychkov, Dmitry; Mukhin, Vladimir; Yusubalieva, Gaukhar; Grinenko, Nadezhda; Kabanov, Alexander; Nukolova, Natalia; Chekhonin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive form of brain tumor. Early and accurate diagnosis of glioma and its borders is an important step for its successful treatment. One of the promising targets for selective visualization of glioma and its margins is connexin 43 (Cx43), which is highly expressed in reactive astrocytes and migrating glioma cells. The purpose of this study was to synthesize a Gd-based contrast agent conjugated with specific antibodies to Cx43 for efficient visualization of glioma C6 in vivo. We have prepared stable nontoxic conjugates of monoclonal antibody to Cx43 and polylysine-DTPA ligands complexed with Gd(III), which are characterized by higher T1 relaxivity (6.5 mM(-1) s(-1) at 7 T) than the commercial agent Magnevist® (3.4 mM(-1) s(-1)). Cellular uptake of Cx43-specific T1 contrast agent in glioma C6 cells was more than four times higher than the nonspecific IgG-contrast agent, as detected by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. MRI experiments showed that the obtained agents could markedly enhance visualization of glioma C6 in vivo after their intravenous administration. Significant accumulation of Cx43-targeted contrast agents in glioma and the peritumoral zone led not only to enhanced contrast but also to improved detection of the tumor periphery. Fluorescence imaging confirmed notable accumulation of Cx43-specific conjugates in the peritumoral zone compared with nonspecific IgG conjugates at 24 h after intravenous injection. All these features of Cx43-targeted contrast agents might be useful for more precise diagnosis of glioma and its borders by MRI. PMID:26265140

  18. Diffusion coefficients of articular cartilage for different CT and MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, K A M; Korhonen, R K; Julkunen, P; Jurvelin, J S; Quinn, T M; Kröger, H; Töyräs, J

    2010-10-01

    In contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), the equilibrium distribution of anionic contrast agent is expected to reflect the fixed charged density (FCD) of articular cartilage. Diffusion is mainly responsible for the transport of contrast agents into cartilage. In osteoarthritis, cartilage composition changes at early stages of disease, and solute diffusion is most likely affected. Thus, investigation of contrast agent diffusion could enable new methods for imaging of cartilage composition. The aim of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficient of four contrast agents (ioxaglate, gadopentetate, iodide, gadodiamide) in bovine articular cartilage. The contrast agents were different in molecular size and charge. In peripheral quantitative CT experiments, penetration of contrast agent into the tissue was allowed either through the articular surface or through deep cartilage. To determine diffusion coefficients, a finite element model based on Fick's law was fitted to experimental data. Diffusion through articular surface was faster than through deep cartilage with every contrast agent. Iodide, being of atomic size, diffused into the cartilage significantly faster (q<0.05) than the other three contrast agents, for either transport direction. The diffusion coefficients of all clinical contrast agents (ioxaglate, gadopentetate and gadodiamide) were relatively low (142.8-253.7 μm(2)/s). In clinical diagnostics, such slow diffusion may not reach equilibrium and this jeopardizes the determination of FCD by standard methods. However, differences between diffusion through articular surface and deep cartilage, that are characterized by different tissue composition, suggest that diffusion coefficients may correlate with cartilage composition. Present method could therefore enable image-based assessment of cartilage composition by determination of diffusion coefficients within cartilage tissue. PMID:20594900

  19. Iterative image reconstruction for cerebral perfusion CT using pre-contrast scan induced edge-preserving prior

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Yang; Huang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjing; Chen, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion X-ray computed tomography (PCT) imaging, which detects and characterizes the ischemic penumbra, and assesses blood-brain barrier permeability with acute stroke or chronic cerebrovascular diseases, has been developed extensively over the past decades. However, due to its sequential scan protocol, the associated radiation dose has raised significant concerns to patients. Therefore, in this study we developed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm based on the maximum a posterior (MAP) principle to yield a clinically acceptable cerebral PCT image with lower milliampere seconds (mAs). To preserve the edges of the reconstructed image, an edge-preserving prior was designed using a normal-dose pre-contrast unenhanced scan. For simplicity, the present algorithm was termed as “MAP-ndiNLM”. Evaluations with the digital phantom and the simulated low-dose clinical brain PCT datasets clearly demonstrate that the MAP-ndiNLM method can achieve more significant gains than the existing FBP and MAP-Huber algorithms with better image noise reduction, low-contrast object detection and resolution preservation. More importantly, the MAP-ndiNLM method can yield more accurate kinetic enhanced details and diagnostic hemodynamic parameter maps than the MAP-Huber method. PMID:23104003

  20. Iterative image reconstruction for cerebral perfusion CT using a pre-contrast scan induced edge-preserving prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Yang; Huang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong; Feng, Qianjing; Chen, Wufan

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) imaging, which detects and characterizes the ischemic penumbra, and assesses blood-brain barrier permeability with acute stroke or chronic cerebrovascular diseases, has been developed extensively over the past decades. However, due to its sequential scan protocol, the associated radiation dose has raised significant concerns to patients. Therefore, in this study we developed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm based on the maximum a posterior (MAP) principle to yield a clinically acceptable cerebral PCT image with lower milliampere-seconds (mA s). To preserve the edges of the reconstructed image, an edge-preserving prior was designed using a normal-dose pre-contrast unenhanced scan. For simplicity, the present algorithm was termed as ‘MAP-ndiNLM’. Evaluations with the digital phantom and the simulated low-dose clinical brain PCT datasets clearly demonstrate that the MAP-ndiNLM method can achieve more significant gains than the existing FBP and MAP-Huber algorithms with better image noise reduction, low-contrast object detection and resolution preservation. More importantly, the MAP-ndiNLM method can yield more accurate kinetic enhanced details and diagnostic hemodynamic parameter maps than the MAP-Huber method.

  1. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T₂ Contrast Agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T₂ relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r₂, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  2. Protein MRI contrast agent with unprecedented metal selectivity and sensitivity for liver cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Qiao, Jingjuan; Pu, Fan; Jiang, Jie; Hubbard, Kendra; Hekmatyar, Khan; Langley, Jason; Salarian, Mani; Long, Robert C.; Bryant, Robert G.; Hu, Xiaoping Philip; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Liu, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    With available MRI techniques, primary and metastatic liver cancers that are associated with high mortality rates and poor treatment responses are only diagnosed at late stages, due to the lack of highly sensitive contrast agents without Gd3+ toxicity. We have developed a protein contrast agent (ProCA32) that exhibits high stability for Gd3+ and a 1011-fold greater selectivity for Gd3+ over Zn2+ compared with existing contrast agents. ProCA32, modified from parvalbumin, possesses high relaxivities (r1/r2: 66.8 mmol−1⋅s−1/89.2 mmol−1⋅s−1 per particle). Using T1- and T2-weighted, as well as T2/T1 ratio imaging, we have achieved, for the first time (to our knowledge), robust MRI detection of early liver metastases as small as ∼0.24 mm in diameter, much smaller than the current detection limit of 10–20 mm. Furthermore, ProCA32 exhibits appropriate in vivo preference for liver sinusoidal spaces and pharmacokinetics for high-quality imaging. ProCA32 will be invaluable for noninvasive early detection of primary and metastatic liver cancers as well as for monitoring treatment and guiding therapeutic interventions, including drug delivery. PMID:25971726

  3. Liposomes Loaded with Hydrophobic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Suitable T2 Contrast Agents for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Raquel; Estelrich, Joan; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their tunable properties and their low toxicity compared with other CAs such as gadolinium. SPIONs exert a strong influence on spin-spin T2 relaxation times by decreasing the MR signal in the regions to which they are delivered, consequently yielding darker images or negative contrast. Given the potential of these nanoparticles to enhance detection of alterations in soft tissues, we studied the MRI response of hydrophobic or hydrophilic SPIONs loaded into liposomes (magnetoliposomes) of different lipid composition obtained by sonication. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by measuring several parameters such as size and polydispersity, and number of SPIONs encapsulated or embedded into the lipid systems. We then studied the influence of acyl chain length as well as its unsaturation, charge, and presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer at high field strength (7 T) to mimic the conditions used in preclinical assays. Our results showed a high variability depending on the nature of the magnetic particles. Focusing on the hydrophobic SPIONs, the cholesterol-containing samples showed a slight reduction in r2, while unsaturation of the lipid acyl chain and inclusion of a negatively charged lipid into the bilayer appeared to yield a marked increase in negative contrast, thus rendering these magnetoliposomes suitable candidates as CAs, especially as a liver CA. PMID:27472319

  4. Safety assessment of nanoparamagnetic contrast agents with different coatings for molecular MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Gholamreza; Riyahi-Alam, Nader; Haghgoo, Soheila; Saffari, Mojtaba; Zohdiaghdam, Reza; Gorji, Ensieh

    2013-04-01

    Despite the wide application of gadolinium as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there is a serious lack of information on its toxicity. Gadolinium and gadolinium oxide (Gd-oxide) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are methods for reducing toxicity of these materials, such as core nanoparticles coating or conjugating. Therefore, for toxicity evaluation, we compared the viability of commercial contrast agents in MRI (Gd-DTPA) and three nanoparticles with the same core Gd2O3 and small particulate gadolinium oxide or SPGO (< 40 nm) but different coatings of diethyleneglycol (DEG) as Gd2O3-DEG and methoxy polyethylene glycol-silane (mPEG-silane: 550 and 2000 Dalton) as SPGO-mPEG-silane550 and SPGO-mPEG-silane2000, respectively, in the SK-MEL3 cell line, by light microscopy, MTT assay using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and the LDH assay detecting lactate dehydrogenase activity. The viability values were not statistically different between the three nanoparticles and Gd-DTPA. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that Gd2O3-DEG nanoparticles were more toxic than Gd-DTPA and other nanoparticles. Also, SPGO-mPEG-silane2000 was more biocompatible than other nanoparticles. The obtained results did not show any significant increase in cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles and Gd-DTPA, neither dose-dependent nor time-dependent. Therefore, DEG and PEG, due to their considerable properties and irregular sizes (different molecular weights), were selected as the useful surface covering materials of nanomagnetic particles that could reveal noticeable relaxivity and biocompatibility characteristics.

  5. Magnetic red blood cells as new contrast agents for MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonelli, Antonella; Sfara, Carla; Manuali, Elisabetta; Salamida, Sonia; Louin, Gaëlle; Magnani, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been produced and used successfully as potent contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, a significant challenge associated with the biological application of SPIO-tracer agents is their behavior in vivo since their efficacy is often compromised due to a rapid recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) which limits the applicability of such compounds in MRI. The advances in nanotechnology and molecular cell biology had lead to improve stability and biocompatibility of these nanoparticles, but despite a number of efforts, the SPIO half-life in blood circulation is very short. In this contest, the potential of red blood cells (RBCs) loaded with SPIO nanoparticles as a tracer material for MRI has been investigated in order to realize a blood pool tracer with longer blood retention time. Previously, we have proposed the encapsulation into RBCs of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carboxydextran coated, such as Resovist contrast agent. This approach led to a nanoparticle reduction in uptake by the RES, increasing the blood circulation half-life of nanoparticles. Recently, the loading procedure was applied to a new contrast agent, the P904 ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated by hydrophilic derivatives of glucose, recently developed by Guerbet Laboratories. The results evidenced that this nanomaterial can be efficiently loaded into human and murine RBCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 12 mM Fe. In vivo experiments performed in mice have showed an increased survival in the mouse vascular system of P904 encapsulated into RBCs respect to free P904 sample intravenously injected at the equivalent amounts.

  6. A smart T(1)-weighted MRI contrast agent for uranyl cations based on a DNAzyme-gadolinium conjugate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weichen; Xing, Hang; Lu, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Rational design of smart MRI contrast agents with high specificity for metal ions remains a challenge. Here, we report a general strategy for the design of smart MRI contrast agents for detecting metal ions based on conjugation of a DNAzyme with a gadolinium complex. The 39E DNAzyme, which has high selectivity for UO2(2+), was conjugated to Gd(III)-DOTA and streptavidin. The binding of UO2(2+) to its 39E DNAzyme resulted in the dissociation of Gd(III)-DOTA from the large streptavidin, leading to a decrease of the T1 correlation time, and a change in the MRI signal. PMID:24005082

  7. High-Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents: Where Coordination Chemistry Meets Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Eric J.; Datta, Ankona; Jocher, Christoph J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-01-15

    The desire to improve and expand the scope of clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has prompted the search for contrast agents of higher efficiency. The development of better agents requires consideration of the fundamental coordination chemistry of the gadolinium(III) ion and the parameters that affect its efficacy as a proton relaxation agent. In optimizing each parameter, other practical issues such as solubility and in vivo toxicity must also be addressed, making the attainment of safe, high-relaxivity agents a challenging goal. Here we present recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on the hydroxypyridinone family of Gd{sup III} chelates.

  8. Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

  9. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  10. Rule-based fuzzy vector median filters for 3D phase contrast MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Frakes, David H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2008-02-01

    Recent technological advances have contributed to the advent of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) as standard practice in clinical environments. In particular, decreased scan times have made using the modality more feasible. PCMRI is now a common tool for flow quantification, and for more complex vector field analyses that target the early detection of problematic flow conditions. Segmentation is one component of this type of application that can impact the accuracy of the final product dramatically. Vascular segmentation, in general, is a long-standing problem that has received significant attention. Segmentation in the context of PCMRI data, however, has been explored less and can benefit from object-based image processing techniques that incorporate fluids specific information. Here we present a fuzzy rule-based adaptive vector median filtering (FAVMF) algorithm that in combination with active contour modeling facilitates high-quality PCMRI segmentation while mitigating the effects of noise. The FAVMF technique was tested on 111 synthetically generated PC MRI slices and on 15 patients with congenital heart disease. The results were compared to other multi-dimensional filters namely the adaptive vector median filter, the adaptive vector directional filter, and the scalar low pass filter commonly used in PC MRI applications. FAVMF significantly outperformed the standard filtering methods (p < 0.0001). Two conclusions can be drawn from these results: a) Filtering should be performed after vessel segmentation of PC MRI; b) Vector based filtering methods should be used instead of scalar techniques.