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Sample records for contrasting physical exercise

  1. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-11-01

    Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling; or a reference intervention without physical activity. Maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed at static angles of 35 degrees and 115 degrees with simultaneous recording of electromyography (EMG) in the trapezius and deltoid. Maximal muscle strength and activation (peak torque and peak EMG) as well as rapid muscle strength and activation [rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of EMG rise] were subsequently determined. Trapezius muscle fiber characteristics were determined with ATPase histochemistry. Significant changes were observed only in the specific strength training group. Whereas peak torque increased 18-29% (P < 0.01), RTD increased 61-115% (P < 0.001). Peak EMG and rate of EMG rise increased correspondingly (P < 0.05-0.001), and trapezius type II muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is highly responsive to rehabilitation with specific strength training. The underlying mechanisms were related to both pain reduction and general neuromuscular adaptations to strength training. Potentially, the present method can be a useful clinical screening tool of muscle function in rehabilitation settings. PMID:19762523

  2. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Exercise and Physical Activity Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s disease feel better. Exercise helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in ...

  3. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  4. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  5. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  6. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  7. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  8. Exercises in Practical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Arthur; Lees, Charles H.

    2015-10-01

    Preface; Preface to the fifth edition; Part I. Preliminary: 1. Treatment of observations; 2. Measurement of length; 3. Measurement of intervals of time; 4. Calibration of a spirit level; 5. Calibration of a graduated tube; Part II. General Physics: 6. The balance; 7. Accurate weighing with the balance; 8. Density of a solid; 9. Density of a liquid; 10. Moments of inertia; 11. Gravitational acceleration by reversible pendulum; 12. Young's modulus by the bending of beams; 13. Modulus of rigidity; 14. Viscosity; 15. Surface tension; Part III. Heat: 16. Coefficient of expansion of a solid; 17. Thermal expansion of a liquid; 18. Coefficient of increase of pressure of a gas with temperature; 19. Coefficient of expansion of a gas as constant pressure; 20. Effect of pressure on the boiling point of a liquid; 21. Laws of cooling; 22. Cooling correction in calorimetry; 23. Specific heat of quartz; 24. Latent heat of water; 25. Latent heat of steam; 26. Heat of solution of a salt; 27. The mechanical equivalent of heat; Part IV. Sound: 28. Frequency of a tuning fork by the syren; 29. The velocity of sound in air and other bodies by Kundt's method; 30. Study of vibrations of tuning forks by means of Lissajous' figures; Part V. Light: 31. Angles by the optical method; 32. The sextant; 33. Curvatures and powers of lenses; 34. Index of refraction by total reflection; 35. Resolving power of a lens; 36. The prism spectroscope; 37. Reduction of spectroscopic measurements to an absolute scale; 38. The spectrometer; 39. Refractive index and dispersion of a solid by the spectrometer; 40. Refractive index and dispersion of a liquid. Specific refractive powers; 41. Photometry; 42. Interference of light. The biprism; 43. Newton's rings; 44. Wave length of light by the diffraction grating; 45. Rotation of plane by polarisation; 46. Saccharimetry; Part VI. Magnetism and Electricity: 47. Horizontal components of magnetic fields; 48. Magnetic dip; 49. Magnetisation curves; 50. The water

  9. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  10. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  11. Differential Physical and Psychological Effects of Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfley, Denise; Kunce, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of an individualized exercise program for "normal" adults. Differences between program completers and dropouts on persistence, fitness, and physical self-concept are reprinted. A number of special strategies to motivate clients who may benefit most from therapeutic exercise programs as an adjunct…

  12. Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity There’s a way for almost every older adult ... have specific health conditions, discuss your exercise and physical activity plan with your health care provider. Endurance. Listen ...

  13. Aqua Dynamics. Physical Conditioning through Water Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Swimming is recognized as America's most popular active sport. It is one of the best physical activities for people of all ages and for people who are physically handicapped. Vigorous water exercises can increase a person's flexibility, strength, and cardio-vascular endurance. Exercises requiring flexibility are performed more easily in water…

  14. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity. PMID:26646070

  15. Preparing Prospective Physical Educators in Exercise Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Robert, Darren L.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the need for continued assessment of course content and instructional methods employed within physical education teacher education programs to deliver theoretical and applied information from the foundational subdiscipline of exercise physiology, describing an innovative course at one university (Exercise for School-Aged Children) which…

  16. Parathyroid Hormone and Physical Exercise: a Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouassida, Anissa; Latiri, Imed; Bouassida, Semi; Zalleg, Dalenda; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhair

    2006-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major hormone regulating calcium metabolism and is involved in both catabolic and anabolic actions on bone. Intermittent PTH exposure can stimulate bone formation and bone mass when PTH has been injected. In contrast, continuous infusion of PTH stimulates bone resorption. PTH concentration may be affected by physical exercise and our review was designed to investigate this relationship. The variation in PTH concentration appears to be influenced by both exercise duration and intensity. There probably exists a stimulation threshold of exercise to alter PTH. PTH regulation is also influenced by the initial bone mineral content, age, gender, training state, and other hormonal and metabolic factors (catecholamines, lactic acid and calcium concentrations). Key Points Physical exercise can improve PTH secretion. Parathyroid hormone has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone: intermittent treatment of PTH is anabolic whereas continuous treatment is catabolic. PMID:24353453

  17. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  18. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  19. Physical Exercise as Therapy for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Lina E.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies demonstrate that regular physical exercise extends longevity and reduces the risk of physical disability. Decline in physical activity with aging is associated with a decrease in exercise capacity that predisposes to frailty. Frailty syndrome includes lowered activity level, poor exercise tolerance, and loss of lean body and muscle mass. Poor exercise tolerance is related to aerobic endurance. Aerobic endurance training can significantly improve peak oxygen consumption by ~10–15%. Resistance training is the best way to increase muscle strength and mass. Although the increase in muscle mass in response to resistance training may be attenuated in frail older adults, resistance training can significantly improve muscle strength, particularly in institutionalized patients by ~110%. Because both aerobic and resistance training target specific components of frailty, studies combining aerobic and resistance training provide the most promising evidence with respect to successfully treating frailty. At the molecular level, exercise reduces frailty by decreasing muscle inflammation, increasing anabolism, and increasing muscle protein synthesis. More studies are needed to determine which exercises are best suited, most effective, and safe for this population. Based on the available studies, an individualized multicomponent exercise program that includes aerobic activity, strength exercises, and flexibility is recommended to treat frailty. PMID:26524568

  20. Graphical Response Exercises for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Scott

    2007-01-01

    What is physics without graphs and diagrams? The web is becoming ubiquitous, but how can one expect students to make graphs and diagrams on the web? The solution is to extend functionality through Java applets. Four examples of exercises using the Physics Applets for Drawing (PADs) will illustrate how these can be used for physics instruction to…

  1. Physical exercise speeds up motor timing

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Wittmann, Marc; Mierau, Andreas; Polikanova, Irina; Strüder, Heiko K.; Tonevitsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine effect of physical exercise on motor timing: personal, maximum and “once per second” tapping. The acute effect was examined by comparing the baseline tapping with that after acute exercise in 9 amateur athletes, 8 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 elite biathletes. Then the baseline tapping was compared among athletes of different sports and professional levels (15 elite biathletes, 27 elite cross-country skiers, 15 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 amateur wrestlers) with a control group (44 non-athletes) not involved in regular exercise to examine the sport-specific or long-term effects. Maximum and “once per second” tapping speed increased after acute physical exercise and were also faster in elite athletes compared to controls during the baseline condition. However, personal tapping tempo was not affected by exercise. In addition, physical exercise had no effects on the variability of the intertap interval. The accuracy of “once per second” tapping differentiates controls and amateur wrestlers from elite synchronous swimmers and skiers suggesting sport-specific adaptations to play a role. It is concluded that acute physical exercise selectively speeds up motor timing but does not affect its variability and accuracy, and this speeding-up is suggested to transfer into a long-term effect in elite athletes. PMID:24062707

  2. Physical exercise in women with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, H R; Ellertsen, B; Grønningsaeter, H; Nakken, K O; Løyning, Y; Ursin, H

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen women with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy were given physical exercise (aerobic dancing with strength training and stretching) for 60 min, twice weekly, for 15 weeks. Seizure frequency was recorded by the patients for 3-7 months before the intervention, during the intervention period, and for 3 months after the intervention. Medication and other known seizure-influencing factors were kept as constant as possible. Self-reported seizure frequency was significantly reduced during the intervention period. The exercise also led to reduced level of subjective health complaints, such as muscle pains, sleep problems, and fatigue. The exercise reduced plasma cholesterol ratio and increased maximum O2 uptake. Because most of the patients were unable to continue the exercise on their own after the intervention period, the exercise effects were not maintained during the follow-up period. The patients were not unwilling to continue the exercise, but it was not sufficient to offer them the possibility of continuing similar types of exercise. We believe that 15 weeks is too short a time to establish a life-style change and that continued physical exercise for these patients requires a well-organized and supportive program, requiring experienced and dedicated instructors. PMID:7988519

  3. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  4. Role of physical exercise in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, XIA; HUANG, WEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on the brain and general wellness are well recognised, but not particularly well known to the general public. Understanding the importance of integrating active behavior for overall health is crucial at any age and particularly for the elderly who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease mainly affecting individuals aged >65 years. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular senile plaques of amyloid-β, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau, brain atrophy and dementia. The beneficial effects of physical exercise have been observed on the maintenance of brain size and efficiency for the prevention of AD risks, such as obesity, hypertension and stroke. These effects are extended to individuals with, or at risk of dementia and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, although extensive studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms by which physical exercise procures beneficial effects, data suggest the relevance of integrating physical exercise in the prevention and/or cure of AD, disease whose incidence is predicted to increase in the future. Such an increase, may pose medical, social and economical challenges for populations and the health care system worldwide. In the present review we assess the positive aspects of physical exercise with regard to prevention and cure of AD. PMID:27073621

  5. Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions What are the best balance exercises for seniors? Check out these balance exercises you can do ... More Information on Exercise and Physical Activity Local fitness centers or hospitals might be able to help ...

  6. An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

    2011-04-01

    Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

  7. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, P.; Hernández-Aceituno, J.; Hernández-Cabrera, A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization.

  8. Mastery-style exercises in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Noah D.

    Mastery learning employs repeated cycles of instructional support and formative assessment to help students achieve desired skills. Instructional objectives are broken into small pieces, and students master those pieces in successive order by performing to a set standard on an assessment for each objective. If a student cannot master an objective, instructional support is provided, and the student is reassessed. Mastery learning has been proved effective in many subject areas, but comparatively little research has been done on applying it in physics instruction. This dissertation details the path taken that culminated in the use of mastery-inspired exercises to teach students basic skills in introductory physics courses. The path that led to our choice of mastery began with an attempt to provide students with extra practice and formative assessment through weekly practice tests with corresponding solutions, with the goal of helping them better prepare for summative exams in an introductory physics course. No effect was seen, and participation was very low. Investigating how students learn from solutions revealed that they are poor evaluators of their understanding of provided solutions and struggle to retain the skills taught in those solutions. In a follow-up clinical experiment that provided students with solutions, required them to recall the solutions from memory, and re-presented the solutions for restudy, students showed strong retention as well as the ability to transfer information from the solutions to new situations. These results inspired the formal use of mastery learning as an instructional paradigm due to its requirement that students repeatedly recall information from solutions and apply it to new situations. Mastery-style exercises were first created and tested in clinical trials, followed by two in-course implementations. In the clinical trials, students completed a set of questions on a particular skill, and if they failed to master that skill

  9. [Pulmonary obstructive chronic disease and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    António, Carla; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Tavares, Alcina

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that can be prevented and treated, with a pulmonary component and with significant systemic effects that contribute to the severity of clinical manifestations. COPD causes a number of changes, including those which lead to exercise tolerance limitation and to a progressive deterioration of life quality of the patients. Respiratory rehabilitation (RR) represents a key part of the treatment. The benefits of RR are independent of sex, age and disease severity. At the end of the program, the patient should have acquired a life style as independent and healthy as possible. With this article the authors intend to review the benefits of physical exercise in rehabilitation of patients with COPD and the different types of training used in the respiratory rehabilitation program established for each patient. PMID:20700562

  10. Physical exercise and diabetes during childhood.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cosimo; Mohn, A; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Active life and physical fitness may represent the most effective strategies to prevent chronic diseases and to improve growth and development for children, including those with diabetes. Observational studies have demonstrated the association between life style and prevention of chronic diseases in the general population. These studies have been showed a reduction of morbidity for vascular diseases in trained subjects who present adequate cardiovascular fitness and practise regular exercise. The exercise-related protective effects may be mediated in part through components of the metabolic syndrome: improved insulin sensitivity, decreased weight and visceral fat accumulation, reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides, increased high density lipoprotein (HDL), decreased blood pressure. These effects are more significant in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), because hyperglycemia-related morbidity and mortality are associated with chronic complications. In particular, improved insulin sensitivity may determine a better glucose profile which in turn may positively influence the diabetes-related microvascular complications. Furthermore, improved blood pressure and normalization of lipid profile may also contribute to the prevention of vascular complications. Nonetheless, physical activity can improve psychological well-being by increasing self-esteem and enhancing quality of life. Although patients with T1DM may participate in all kind of sports and physical activities, there are several potential adverse events, including hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic episodes, that can occur. Thus, patients and health professionals have to know in details the physiological effect of physical exercise and its metabolic events in order sport to be healthy and enjoyable for all children, adolescents and young adults with T1DM. PMID:16918068

  11. Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Panossian, A G; Oganessian, A S; Ambartsumian, M; Gabrielian, E S; Wagner, H; Wikman, G

    1999-03-01

    Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with athletes Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of NO and cortisol in blood plasma and saliva similar to athletes with heavy physical exercise. These results correlate with an increased physical performance in athletes taking adaptogens versus athletes taking placebo. In contrast after treatment with the adaptogen heavy physical exercise does not increase salivary NO and cortisol in athletes, whereas athletes treated with placebo heavy physical exercise increased salivary NO. These results show that the salivary NO test can be used both for evaluation of physical loading and stress protective effect of an adaptogen. PMID:10228607

  12. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    PubMed

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients. PMID:23542879

  13. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  14. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sedentary Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Janet; Nigg, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviors in 493 college students who were enrolled in 10 conditioning activity classes and had completed questionnaires at the beginning of the course. They analyzed sedentary activities and indicators of participation in exercise and physical activity by…

  15. Physical exercise training and neurovascular unit in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zhang, M; Feng, R; Li, W B; Ren, S Q; Zhang, J; Zhang, F

    2014-06-20

    Physical exercise could exert a neuroprotective effect in both clinical studies and animal experiments. A series of related studies have indicated that physical exercise could reduce infarct volume, alleviate neurological deficits, decrease blood-brain barrier dysfunction, promote angiogenesis in cerebral vascular system and increase the survival rate after ischemic stroke. In this review, we summarized the protective effects of physical exercise on neurovascular unit (NVU), including neurons, astrocytes, pericytes and the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that exercise training could decrease the blood-brain barrier dysfunction and promote angiogenesis in cerebral vascular system. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits pre- and post stroke may lead more stroke patients and people with high-risk factors to accept exercise therapy for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:24780769

  16. Exercise treadmill saline contrast echocardiography for the detection of patent foramen ovale in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Brett E; Freeman, Andrew M; Silveira, Lori; Buckner, J Kern; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Carroll, John D

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder placement improves dyspnea and oxygen requirement in hypoxic patients with PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS). Although saline contrast echocardiography (SCE) in the resting state can identify PFO RTLS, SCE performed with exercise stress testing may provide incremental diagnostic yield compared to rest SCE. We evaluated the ability of exercise SCE to predict PFO presence and size using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as a gold standard in a hypoxic cohort. Thirty-three hypoxic patients with suspected PFO RTLS who underwent rest, Valsalva, and exercise stress SCE prior to ICE were evaluated retrospectively. PFO RTLS was defined by ICE findings including PFO anatomy, RTLS by saline contrast and color Doppler, and probe patency. SCE shunt severity was compared to the presence of ICE-defined PFO RTLS and PFO size. Exercise SCE for the detection of PFO RTLS performed with an area under the curve of 0.77, sensitivity of 73%, and specificity of 86%. Among 26 patients with PFO RTLS, exercise SCE identified four additional patients with PFO that had negative rest SCE and two patients with negative Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE had a stronger correlation with PFO size than resting or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE detects PFO RTLS and predicts PFO size in a hypoxic cohort. In addition, exercise SCE can identify PFO RTLS that is otherwise undetected with rest or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE may be appropriate when a clinical suspicion for PFO RTLS persists despite negative rest and Valsalva SCE. PMID:26231342

  17. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  18. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in children and the elderly, but little research has yet examined these associations in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that self-reported frequency and duration of physical exercise would correlate positively with measured intelligence on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in healthy young to middle aged adults (25 men, 28 women). Although there was a modest positive association between physical exercise and intelligence (IQ) for the group as a whole, when examined separately by sex, greater physical activity was associated with higher intelligence scores for women, whereas exercise level was essentially unrelated to intelligence among men. These associations remained consistent even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. The association between exercise and IQ appears to be moderated by sex in healthy adults, possibly through its effects on glucoregulation, insulin sensitivity, or other factors that differ between men and women. PMID:23265022

  19. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  20. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  1. Memory of pain induced by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the memory of pain induced by running a marathon and the factors that influence it. Sixty-two marathon runners participated in the study, which comprised two phases. Immediately after a participant had reached the finishing line of the marathon, they were asked to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of their pain and the emotions they felt at that time. Either three or six months later they were asked again to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of the same pain experience. Regardless of the length of recall delay, participants underestimated both recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness. The pain and negative affect reported at the time of the pain experience accounted for 24% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 22% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Positive affect at the time of pain experience was not a significant predictor of both the recalled pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. It is concluded that pain induced by physical exercise is not remembered accurately and the pain and negative affect experienced influence recall. Further research is needed on the influence of positive affect on the memory of pain. PMID:25806782

  2. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  3. Thymus recovery after intensive physical exercise under conditions of immunocorrection and without it.

    PubMed

    Sapin, M R; Tkachuk, M G

    2005-11-01

    Exogenous antioxidants, e.g. tocopherol, prevent undesirable changes in the thymus and accelerate its recovery after intensive physical exercise. Four weeks after the end of training (swimming) the general structure of the thymus and content of LPO products in rats treated with tocopherol corresponded to the control values, in contrast to animals receiving no correction. PMID:16758627

  4. Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

  5. Physical exercise, reactive oxygen species and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Radak, Zsolt; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Balogh, Laszlo; Boldogh, Istvan; Koltai, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Regular exercise has systemic beneficial effects, including the promotion of brain function. The adaptive response to regular exercise involves the up-regulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and modulation of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important regulators of cell signaling. Exercise, via intensity-dependent modulation of metabolism and/or directly activated ROS generating enzymes, regulates the cellular redox state of the brain. ROS are also involved in the self-renewal and differentiation of neuronal stem cells and the exercise-mediated neurogenesis could be partly associated with ROS production. Exercise has strong effects on the immune system and readily alters the production of cytokines. Certain cytokines, especially IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IL-18 and IFN gamma, are actively involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Cytokines can also contribute to ROS production. ROS-mediated alteration of lipids, protein, and DNA could directly affect brain function, while exercise modulates the accumulation of oxidative damage. Oxidative alteration of macromolecules can activate signaling processes, membrane remodeling, and gene transcription. The well known neuroprotective effects of exercise are partly due to redox-associated adaptation. PMID:26828019

  6. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions. PMID:19211086

  7. [Physical activity and public health: recommendations for exercise prescription].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Barata, J L Themudo

    2011-01-01

    During the last half century scientific data have been accumulated, through epidemiological and clinical studies that clearly document the significant health benefits associated with regular physical activity. This paper will analyse the latest recommendations for prescribing exercise in all age groups in healthy subjects and to individuals with chronic non-communicable diseases such as overweight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancer, that contribute to the leading causes of global mortality. A search in the Pubmed database was performed and were also searched the recommendations of the World Health Organization and scientific organizations in Portugal. Most health benefits occur with at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, accumulated over the week, which can be split into periods of at least 10 minutes. Brisk walking seems to be the preferred aerobic exercise. Vigorous intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercises for muscle strengthening, at least two days a week are also recommended. Children, youth, older adults and people with overweight have particular needs for physical activity. Additional benefits occur with increasing quantity and quality of physical activity through the proper manipulation of the exercise density (intensity, frequency and duration). However, some physical activity is better than none. The role of health professionals in prescribing appropriate exercise to their patients is fundamental to their involvement in increasing their physical activity levels and thus contributing to their health promotion and prevention and treatment of major non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:22713198

  8. Ultrasound imaging as an undergraduate physics laboratory exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, Timothy A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging provides an interesting and accessible example of the intersection between biology, medicine, and physics. This article provides a review of the physics and technology currently available and discusses two recent methods that have expanded the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging. We also describe two undergraduate physics laboratory exercises involving ultrasound imaging.

  9. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8 m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11519887

  10. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11579999

  11. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. PMID:26987496

  12. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures. PMID:25166042

  13. Practical Approaches to Prescribing Physical Activity and Monitoring Exercise Intensity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2016-04-01

    Regular physical activity helps to prevent heart disease, and reduces the risk of first or subsequent cardiovascular events. It is recommended that Canadian adults accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more, and perform muscle- and bone-strengthening activities at least 2 days per week. Individual exercise prescriptions can be developed using the frequency, intensity, time, and type principles. Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity interval training is efficacious for a broad spectrum of heart health outcomes. Several practical approaches to prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity exist including: heart rate monitoring, the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, the Talk Test, and, motion sensors. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale matches a numerical value to an individual's perception of effort, and can also be used to estimate heart rate. The Talk Test, the level at which simple conversation is possible, can be used to monitor desired levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Motion sensors can provide users with practical and useful exercise training information to aid in meeting current exercise recommendations. These approaches can be used by the public, exercise scientists, and clinicians to easily and effectively guide physical activity in a variety of settings. PMID:26897182

  14. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS. PMID:27319388

  15. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  16. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  17. Influence of physical exercise on simple reaction time: effect of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, J; Arcelin, R; Audiffren, M; Delignières, D

    1997-12-01

    The influence of physical fitness and energy expenditure on a simple reaction time task performed during exercise was investigated. Two groups of 10 subjects were used, one was composed of trained middle-distance runners and one of students who had no regular physical training. The subjects performed a simple reaction time task while pedalling on a cycloergometer at different relative power output corresponding to 20, 40, 60, and 80% of their own maximal aerobic power and immediately after exercise. During exercise, the results showed a decrease in cognitive performance for both groups whereas no significant effect was found after exercise. A significant effect of physical fitness on simple reaction time was noted during exercise. The data are interpreted in terms of optimization of performance focusing particularly on the relations between energy cost of the physical task and attentional demand. PMID:9399313

  18. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. PMID:27033262

  19. Physical exercise and quantitative lower limb collateral function

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Stoller, David; Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that global physical activity and physical performance parameters are directly related to invasively obtained left superficial femoral artery (SFA) collateral flow index (CFI). Background So far, the association between different measures of physical exercise activity and quantitative lower limb collateral function has not been investigated. Methods The primary study end point was pressure-derived CFI as obtained during a 3 min left SFA balloon occlusion. CFI is the ratio of simultaneously recorded mean SFA distal occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure, both subtracted by central venous pressure. As independent variables, the items of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and physical exercise performance (maximal workload in watts) as achieved during a bicycle or treadmill exercise test were determined. The secondary study end point was transcutaneous left calf partial oxygen pressure (PO2 in mm Hg) divided by transcutaneous PO2 at a non-ischaemic reference site as obtained simultaneously to CFI measurement. Results Of the 110 study patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, 79 belonged to the group without and 31 with engagement in regular intensive leisure time physical activity according to GPAQ. Left SFA CFI tended to be lower in the group without than with intensive leisure time physical activity: 0.514 ±0.141 vs 0.560 ±0.184 (p =0.0566). Transcutaneous PO2 index was associated with simultaneous left SFA CFI: CFI =018 +0.57 PO2 index; p<0.0001. Maximal physical workload was directly associated with left SFA CFI: CFI =0.40 +0.0009 maximal workload; p =0.0044. Conclusions Quantitative left SFA collateral function is directly reflected by maximal physical workload as achieved during an exercise test. Trial registration number NCTO02063347. PMID:26977310

  20. Exercise and physical activity recommendations for people with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, Olaf; Peterson, Mark D; Balemans, Astrid C J; Hurvitz, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour, play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for young people and adults with typical development are available from the World Health Organisation and American College of Sports Medicine. However, detailed recommendations for physical activity and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents, and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific physical activity and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion, and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations is based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents, and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily physical activity prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  1. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  2. Teaching Physiology of Exercise to Reluctant Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology seems to be a course that students love or hate. Many physical education students and others involved in the related areas of health, teaching, recreation, dance, athletic training, fitness, and motor learning and development find this course a requirement at some point in their curriculum. Inquiry-based learning is an…

  3. Physiology of Exercise for Physical Education and Athletics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Herbert A.

    This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2…

  4. Cookbook Procedures in MBL Physics Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuk, Brent; Brooks, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a controlled experiment comparing the conceptual mechanics learning gains as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) between two laboratory groups. One group completed cookbook labs while the other completed Interactive-Engagement (IE) labs in RealTime Physics. Suggests that laboratory activities should engage students in…

  5. Relationships between Physical Activity and the Proximity of Exercise Facilities and Home Exercise Equipment Used by Undergraduate University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling procedures to investigate the relationships among physical activity (PA), the proximity of exercise facilities, and the quantity of home exercise equipment in a sample of 411 undergraduates. To examine the data they collected from the modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Home…

  6. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Ching-I; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ting; Huang, Wei-Kai; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue. PMID:25045938

  7. Surface electromyography during physical exercise in water: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aquatic exercise has been widely used for rehabilitation and functional recovery due to its physical and physiological benefits. However, there is a high variability in reporting on the muscle activity from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of the literature on the state of the art of muscle activity recorded using sEMG during activities and exercise performed by humans in water. Methods A literature search was performed to identify studies of aquatic exercise movement. Results Twenty-one studies were selected for critical appraisal. Sample size, functional tasks analyzed, and muscles recorded were studied for each paper. The clinical contribution of the paper was evaluated. Conclusions Muscle activity tends to be lower in water-based compared to land-based activity; however more research is needed to understand why. Approaches from basic and applied sciences could support the understanding of relevant aspects for clinical practice. PMID:24731774

  8. [Physical exercise in the frail elderly: an update].

    PubMed

    Casas Herrero, Álvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás; Izquierdo Redin, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability that involves an increased risk of adverse events and disability in older adults. It is a condition with a complex etiology and pathophysiology. Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional capacity than muscle strength in frail elderly populations. Multicomponent exercise programs, and especially resistance exercise that includes muscle power training, are currently the most relevant interventions to slow down disability and other adverse outcomes, even in the oldest-old. Moreover, these programs are valuable interventions in other frailty domains, such as falls and cognitive decline. Physical exercise, in the frail elderly, should be prescribed with a progressive individualized plan and just like other medical treatments. PMID:25682569

  9. Peripheral serotoninergic response to physical exercise in athletic horses

    PubMed Central

    Giannetto, Claudia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on plasma tryptophan (TRP) and free serotonin (f5-HT), whole blood-5-HT (WB-5-HT) and f5-HT/WB-5-HT ratio in Italian Saddle horses. Six clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses were subjected to a 450 meters obstacles course. Blood samples were collected from each horse by jugular venipuncture using vacutainer tubes with K3-EDTA at rest, immediately after exercise, and after 30 min. TRP, f5-HT and WB-5-HT were analyzed by HPLC. Immediately after exercise, statistically significant increases of f5-HT (p<0.001) and WB-5-HT (p<0.001) were observed. After 30 min, f5-HT and WB-5-HT decreased compared to immediately after exercise, but were still significantly higher than rest values (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). A significant linear regression between f5-HT and WB-5-HT was observed during experimental conditions. f5-HT and WB-5-HT modifications after exercise suggest an important role of peripheral serotoninergic markers in response to physical activity. The possible source of extra serotonin detected after show jumping should be clarified by further investigation. PMID:21113096

  10. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments. PMID:24126551

  11. Exercise and Physical Fitness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... برنامج تمارين رياضية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Starting an Exercise Program Započinjanje Programa Vježbi - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Energize Your Life with Physical ...

  12. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  13. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  14. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  15. "Exercise is Medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients. PMID:23572372

  16. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets. PMID:23906130

  17. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  18. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  19. The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bilski, Jan; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed and analyzed the relationship between physical exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which covers a group of chronic, relapsing, and remitting intestinal disorders including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The etiology of IBD likely involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Physical training has been suggested to be protective against the onset of IBD, but there are inconsistencies in the findings of the published literature. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT) is recognized as a characteristic feature of CD, but its importance for the perpetuation of onset of this intestinal disease is unknown. Adipocytes synthesize proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Hypertrophy of mWAT could play a role as a barrier to the inflammatory process, but recent data suggest that deregulation of adipokine secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Adipocytokines and macrophage mediators perpetuate the intestinal inflammatory process, leading to mucosal ulcerations along the mesenteric border, a typical feature of CD. Contracting skeletal muscles release biologically active myokines, known to exert the direct anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit the release of proinflammatory mediators from visceral fat. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish exercise regimes for IBD patients. PMID:24877092

  20. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program. PMID:26702387

  1. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging. PMID:25195719

  2. Benefits of Physical Exercise for Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minkyung; Won, Jinyoung; Lee, Seonghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder, and is also linked to other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review article is to examine a variety of recent studies on the correlation between physical exercise and autistic behavior in individuals with fragile X syndrome. Additionally, we discuss promising approaches for further investigation of the benefits of physical exercise for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. A systematic search of the PubMed digital library database for pertinent articles published from 1995 to 2011 was conducted. Individuals with ASD who experience exercise tend to exhibit improvement in physical function. In addition, exercise promotes neurotrophic factors and boosts the growth of new brain cells. The collected review articles describe how physical exercise has particular effects on stereotypic behavior and cognition among ASD patients. Finally, physical exercise may benefit patients with autism spectrum disorder through the improvement of muscular strength for increased physical capability. PMID:26770889

  3. Benefits of Physical Exercise for Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minkyung; Won, Jinyoung; Lee, Seonghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder, and is also linked to other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review article is to examine a variety of recent studies on the correlation between physical exercise and autistic behavior in individuals with fragile X syndrome. Additionally, we discuss promising approaches for further investigation of the benefits of physical exercise for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. A systematic search of the PubMed digital library database for pertinent articles published from 1995 to 2011 was conducted. Individuals with ASD who experience exercise tend to exhibit improvement in physical function. In addition, exercise promotes neurotrophic factors and boosts the growth of new brain cells. The collected review articles describe how physical exercise has particular effects on stereotypic behavior and cognition among ASD patients. Finally, physical exercise may benefit patients with autism spectrum disorder through the improvement of muscular strength for increased physical capability. PMID:26770889

  4. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  5. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities. PMID:25226940

  6. Promotion Considerations for Exercise and Physical Activity in Mentally Impaired, Diseased, and Disabled Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizzell, Linda Bane

    This paper reports evidence indicating that adapted exercise has a preventive effect on the incidence and progression of chronic diseases which are often related to the aging process. Exercise is known to preserve many physiological responses in the healthy elderly, yet those with physical impairments are often discouraged from exercising because…

  7. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  8. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  9. BP Neural Network Model-based Physical Exercises and Dietary Habits Relationships Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingwei; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous progress of society, increment of social pressure, people have paid little and little attentions to physical exercises and dietary necessity. Take Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang and Baotou university students as research objects, targeted at physical exercises time and dietary habits, it starts investigation. Make principal component analysis of investigation results, results indicates that cereal intake is principal component in dietary habits; strenuous exercise time and general physical exercise time are the principal components in physical exercise. Utilize BP neural network model, analyze these seven cities’ physical exercises and dietary habits conditions, the result indicates that except for Shenzhen, all the other six cities haven’t reached the standard. PMID:26981164

  10. [Physical exercise for people with cerebral palsy: effects, recommendations and barriers].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2014-05-01

    The management goal of cerebral palsy (CP) is improving functionality, locomotion and independence. Treatment programs commonly encompass adapted physical activity (APA). This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for APA in persons with CP. In addition, barriers to APA in this population are reviewed. The available literature on benefits of APA to persons with CP has focused mainly on youth. The components of the APA programs generally consist of strength, aerobic and flexibility training. There is no empirical evidence that strength-training increases spasticity in people with CP. Furthermore, strength-training may increase strength and the ability to perform daily activities. Aerobic-training is especially important as persons with CP typically have low cardiorespiratory fitness and high prevalence of cardiac disease. However, limited published evidence exists on aerobic-training effects in this population. Nonetheless, the evidence suggests that aerobic-training in persons with CP can improve physiological outcomes, yet the influence of these changes on participation has not been investigated sufficiently. Stretching exercise is a common treatment for spasticity. Surprisingly, there is inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of stretching exercise for persons with CP. Despite the importance attributed to APA for people with CP, low levels of physical activity have been reported in this population. However, when caregivers perceive greater benefits of exercise, individuals with CP are more likely to be active. In contrast, barriers to APA include costs of APA programs, limited means of transportation to APA facilities, lack of information regarding APA facilities and limited appropriate exercising equipment in the APA facilities. PMID:25112118

  11. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  12. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Yun-Ok

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  13. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Chiodera, P; Volta, E; Gobbi, G; Milioli, M A; Mirandola, P; Bonetti, A; Delsignore, R; Bernasconi, S; Anedda, A; Vitale, M

    2008-04-01

    Physical activity in schools is declining in many countries and inactivity in childhood has become a recognized risk factor. Data from a program of professionally guided physical exercise in primary school children were collected before and after the academic year of training. Four thousand five hundred children (6-10 years) were enrolled, and conditional and coordinative motor abilities (speed, trunk flexibility, long jumping, somersault, Harre circuit test) were measured. Anthropometric measurements were focused on body mass index (BMI), weight and height. Females never showed a significant variation of BMI, whereas males in the first and fourth grades showed significant differences. On the contrary, when considering the motor abilities studied, all the comparisons were highly significant. At the end of training, both males and females did better than at the beginning, and males were constantly faster than females. Our data, generated on a large number of children, show that professionally guided programs of physical education in the primary school lead to significant progresses in the development of conditional and coordinative abilities, without altering BMI values, thus not interfering with the balanced progression of body weight and height. PMID:17490452

  14. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  15. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  16. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuanlong

    2007-01-01

    This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

  17. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV. PMID:26333783

  18. Physical exercise and a leucine-rich diet modulate the muscle protein metabolism in Walker tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Emilianne M; Toneto, Aline T; Silva, Gisele O; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2010-01-01

    Leucine-supplemented diet can recover lean body mass and preserve muscle protein mass. Additionally, physical exercise can be an excellent alternative to improve the rehabilitation of cancer patients. Knowing these facts, we examined the effects of a leucine-rich diet with or without physical aerobic exercise on muscle protein metabolism in Walker tumor-bearing rats. Young rats were divided into 4 groups that did or did not perform light aerobic exercise (swim training) and were on a leucine-rich diet or a control diet for 2 mo. After this time, these animals were implanted or not with tumors (subcutaneously) following groups for either control diet or leucine-rich diet fed rats: control, trained, tumor-bearing, and trained tumor-bearing. Twenty-one days after implantation, the tumor growth induced a decrease in the muscle protein synthesis and increased the catabolic process, which was associated with an increase in the expression of the ubiquitin-proteasome subunits (20S, 19S, and 11S). In contrast, the exercise program minimized the muscle degradation process and increased muscle myosin content. Additionally, leucine supplementation also modulated proteasome subunits, especially the 19S and 11S. In summary, the exercise has beneficial effects by reducing tumor growth, leading to an improvement in protein turnover especially when in conjunction with a leucine-rich diet. PMID:21058197

  19. Gut Microbiota Modification: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Benefits of Physical Exercise in Health?

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Begoña; Pérez, Margarita; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer D.; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose F.; González-Soltero, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise provides many health benefits, protecting against the development of chronic diseases, and improving quality of life. Some of the mechanisms by which exercise provides these effects are the promotion of an anti-inflammatory state, reinforcement of the neuromuscular function, and activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it has been proposed that physical exercise is able to modify gut microbiota, and thus this could be another factor by which exercise promotes well-being, since gut microbiota appears to be closely related to health and disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent findings on gut microbiota modification by exercise, proposing several mechanisms by which physical exercise might cause changes in gut microbiota. PMID:26924990

  20. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  1. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  2. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER STROKE: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Razi, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) post-stroke. In addition, perceived benefits/barriers to PTr post-stroke are reviewed. PTr is an important post-stroke rehabilitation goal. Before beginning a PTr program it is recommended to conduct a physical examination. There is evidence that aerobic training post-stroke has a positive effect on gait and on risk factors for recurrent stroke. Similarly, strength training is also safe and effective. However, this training modality does not improve.gait functions. Neuromuscular training post-stroke is also a recommended training method. In the various studies conducted, there was diversity with regard to duration and frequency of PTr. It is recommended that individuals post-stroke engage in aerobic training 3-5 days a week. During the acute phase, the rating of perceived exertion should be "fairly light" (less or equal to 11 on the Borg scale, which ranges 6-20). In more advanced phases of recovery, one ca exercise at a higher intensity of up to "somewhat hard" (rating of perceived exertion 11-14; 55-80% of maximal heart rate). It is also recommended to conduct strength training (2-3 days per week, 1-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions), and flexibility and neuromuscular training (2-3 days per week). In order to encourage individuals post-stroke to conduct PTr there is a need for social support (from caregivers and family) and to provide PTr consultation. PTr barriers consist of both personal (e.g., depression, knowledge regarding physical activity centers) and environmental (e.g., lack of transportation) factors. PMID:27544993

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers. PMID:25027035

  4. Effects of Physical Exercise on Individual Resting State EEG Alpha Peak Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Boris; Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Przyklenk, Axel; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of the individual's state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE) protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE) protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10 min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P = 0.012) but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input. PMID:25759762

  5. Physical exercise-induced protection on ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Mei; Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is any bodily activity to enhance or maintain physical fitness and overall health and wellness. A series of associated studies have demonstrated that physical exercise could alleviate the infarct volume, increase the collateral circulation, promote endothelial progenitor cells, improve cerebral blood flow after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we summed up the protective effects of physical exercise on cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular endothelium, vascular vasodilation, endothelial progenitor cells and collateral circulation. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases may encourage more patients with cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction and people with high risk factors to accept exercise interventions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26884896

  6. Lifelong physical exercise delays age-associated skeletal muscle decline.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, S; Pietrangelo, L; Loefler, S; Fruhmann, H; Vogelauer, M; Burggraf, S; Pond, A; Grim-Stieger, M; Cvecka, J; Sedliak, M; Tirpáková, V; Mayr, W; Sarabon, N; Rossini, K; Barberi, L; De Rossi, M; Romanello, V; Boncompagni, S; Musarò, A; Sandri, M; Protasi, F; Carraro, U; Kern, H

    2015-02-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by a significant reduction in muscle mass and force. To determine the relative contribution of inactivity and aging per se to this decay, we compared muscle function and structure in (a) male participants belonging to a group of well-trained seniors (average of 70 years) who exercised regularly in their previous 30 years and (b) age-matched healthy sedentary seniors with (c) active young men (average of 27 years). The results collected show that relative to their sedentary cohorts, muscle from senior sportsmen have: (a) greater maximal isometric force and function, (b) better preserved fiber morphology and ultrastructure of intracellular organelles involved in Ca(2+) handling and ATP production, (c) preserved muscle fibers size resulting from fiber rescue by reinnervation, and (d) lowered expression of genes related to autophagy and reactive oxygen species detoxification. All together, our results indicate that: (a) skeletal muscle of senior sportsmen is actually more similar to that of adults than to that of age-matched sedentaries and (b) signaling pathways controlling muscle mass and metabolism are differently modulated in senior sportsmen to guarantee maintenance of skeletal muscle structure, function, bioenergetic characteristics, and phenotype. Thus, regular physical activity is a good strategy to attenuate age-related general decay of muscle structure and function (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01679977). PMID:24550352

  7. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  8. Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the brain important to memory and learning. Research in humans shows that exercise can stimulate the brain’s ability to maintain old network connections and make new ones vital to healthy cognition. For example, in a year-long study, older people exercised daily, walking for 40 minutes or doing ...

  9. Randomized Clinical Trial of 3 Types of Physical Exercise for Patients With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Lisa M.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Ivey, Frederick M.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle; Anderson, Karen E.; Smith, Barbara A.; Reich, Stephen G.; Weiner, William J.; Macko, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of treadmill exercises and stretching and resistance exercises in improving gait speed, strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease. Design A comparative, prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise. Setting The Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center at the University of Maryland and the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center. Patients A total of 67 patients with Parkinson disease who had gait impairment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 arms of the trial. Interventions (1) A higher-intensity treadmill exercise (30 minutes at 70%-80% of heart rate reserve), (2) a lower-intensity treadmill exercise (50 minutes at 40%-50% of heart rate reserve), and (3) stretching and resistance exercises (2 sets of 10 repetitions on each leg on 3 resistance machines [leg press, leg extension, and curl]). These exercises were performed 3 times a week for 3 months. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures were gait speed (6-minute walk), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen consumption per unit time [V̇O2], and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength). Results All 3 types of physical exercise improved distance on the 6-minute walk: lower-intensity treadmill exercise (12% increase; P=.001), stretching and resistance exercises (9% increase; P<.02), and higher-intensity treadmill exercise (6% increase; P=.07), with no between-group differences. Both treadmill exercises improved peak V̇O2 (7%-8% increase; P< .05) more than did the stretching and resistance exercises. Only stretching and resistance improved muscle strength (16% increase; P< .001). Conclusions The effects of exercise were seen across all 3 exercise groups. The lower-intensity treadmill exercise resulted in the greatest improvement in gait speed. Both the higher- and lower-intensity treadmill exercises improved cardiovascular fitness. Only the stretching

  10. Selective effects of physical exercise on choice reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Arcelin, R; Delignieres, D; Brisswalter, J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an exercise of moderate intensity (60% of maximal aerobic power) on specific information-processing mechanisms. 22 students completed 3 10-min. exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer. Concomitantly, participants performed six manual-choice-reaction tasks manipulating task variables (Signal Intensity, Stimulus-Response Compatibility, and Time Uncertainty) on two levels. Reaction tests, randomly ordered, were administered at rest and during exercise. A significant underadditive interaction between Time Uncertainty and exercise was found for the highest quartiles of the distribution of reaction times. No other interaction effects were obtained for the other variables. These results reasonably support that moderate aerobic exercise showed selective rather than general influences on information processing. PMID:9760644

  11. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. Objectives The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. Methods 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle’s self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers’ rating of the children’s obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. Results There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p < 0.05). All the changes reported below are based on after-before comparisons, within each group. Both groups showed an increase in BMI, and number of sit-ups (p < 0.001). Balance worsened in the physical exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p < 0.001). In the Stroop task both groups showed improved color, word- and color-word naming (p < 0.01), while the physical exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and

  12. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. PMID:27313948

  13. College students' motivation for physical activity: differentiating men's and women's motives for sport participation and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical activity focuses on exercise behavior and ignores sport participation. In this study, the authors compare motivations for sport participation versus exercise among college students. Results indicate that participants were more likely to report intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment and challenge, for engaging in sport, whereas motivations for exercise were more extrinsic and focused on appearance and weight and stress management. The findings suggest that motives for sport participation are more desirable than those for exercise and may facilitate improved adherence to physical activity recommendations. PMID:16255320

  14. Exercise can improve physical self perceptions in adolescents with low motor competence.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Fleur; Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Hands, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 10) ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13 week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination. PMID:25543182

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity Uniquely Predicts Exercise Behaviors in Young Adults Seeking to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change. PMID:26342011

  16. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  17. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  18. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  19. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  20. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  1. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  2. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  3. Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Coelho Júnior, Hélio José; Moraes, Milton Rocha; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The literature has shown the efficiency of exercise in the control of type 2 diabetes (T2D), being suggested as one of the best kinds of non-pharmacological treatments for its population. Thus, the scientific production related to this phenomenon has growing exponentially. However, despite its advances, still there is a lack of studies that have carried out a review on the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in individuals with T2D, not to mention that in a related way, these themes have been very little studied today. Therefore, the aim of this study was to organize and analyze the current scientific production about the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in T2D individuals. For such, a research with the following keywords was performed: -exercise; diabetes and post-exercise hypotension; diabetes and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; diabetes and acute effects in PUBMED, SCIELO and HIGHWIRE databases. From the analyzed studies, it is possible to conclude that, a single exercise session can promote an increase in the bioavailability of nitric oxide and elicit decreases in postexercise blood pressure. Furthermore, the metabolic stress from physical exercise can increase the oxidation of carbohydrate during the exercise and keep it, in high levels, the post exercise consumption of O², this phenomenon increases the rate of fat oxidation during recovery periods after exercise, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduces glycemia between 2-72 h, which seems to be dependent on the exercise intensity and duration of the effort. PMID:25317243

  4. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  5. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  6. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  7. A distributional analysis of the effect of physical exercise on a choice reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Audiffren, Michel; Denjean, André

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the facilitating effects of physical exercise on the reaction process. Eleven participants with specific expertise in decision-making sports performed a choice reaction time task during moderate sub-maximal exercise (90% of their ventilatory threshold power). Participants were tested at rest and while cycling. During exercise, the participants were faster, without being more variable. We suggest that the effect of exercise on cognitive performance was due to a major generalized improvement of the whole distribution of response time and, although the benefit effect was small, it was consistent throughout the entire range of reaction times. PMID:16368641

  8. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution.

    PubMed

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  9. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution

    PubMed Central

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  10. A Laboratory Exercise in Physics: Determining Single Capacitances and Series and Parallel Combinations of Capacitance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a series of physics experiments which allow students to determine the value of unknown electrical capacitors. The exercises include both parallel and series connected capacitors. (SL)

  11. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-11-18

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  12. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  13. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  14. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  15. Exercises are problems too: implications for teaching problem-solving in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.

  16. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Agostini, Deborah; Polidori, Emanuela; Potenza, Lucia; Guescini, Michele; Lucertini, Francesco; Annibalini, Giosuè; Stocchi, Laura; De Santi, Mauro; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise. PMID:25945152

  17. Carbohydrates and Physical/Mental Performance during Intermittent Exercise to Fatigue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ralph S.; Davis, J. Mark; Burke, Jean R.; Williams, Harriet G.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) ingestion on physical and mental function associated with performing high-intensity exercise. Physically active adults completed physical activities while researchers assessed them. CHO or placebo drinks were consumed before starting and at halftime. CHO ingestion resulted in 37 percent…

  18. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595585

  20. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595580

  1. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M.; Gross, Susan M.; Silver, Kristi D.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Design Cross-sectional study Setting African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. Results The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P=.004) and health compared to others (P=.006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r=.319) but was not correlated with BMI (r=.095). Decreased physical exercise (P=.02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Conclusion Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population. PMID:22764641

  2. Beneficial influence of physical exercise following status epilepticus in the immature brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F G Novaes; Gomes Da Silva, S; Cavalheiro, E A; Arida, R M

    2014-08-22

    Studies in adult animals have demonstrated a beneficial effect of physical exercise on epileptic insults. Although the effects of physical exercise on the mature nervous system are well documented, its influence on the developing nervous system subjected to injuries in childhood has been little explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a physical exercise program applied during brain development could influence the hippocampal plasticity of rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine model at two different ages of the postnatal period. Male Wistar rats aged 18 (P18) and 28 (P28) days were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTRL), Exercise (EX), SE (SE) and SE Exercise (SE/EX) (n=17 per group). After the aerobic exercise program, histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. Our results showed that only animals subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE at P28 presented spontaneous seizures during the observational period. A significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed in the SE/EX group compared to the SE group. In adulthood, animals submitted to early-life SE displayed impairment in long-term memory in the water maze task, while the exercise program reversed this deficit. Reduced mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus was noted in animals that presented spontaneous seizures (SE/EX vs SE). Exercise increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) and anti-apoptotic response (bcl-2 staining) and reduced pro-apoptotic response (Bax staining) in animals of both ages of SE induction (P18/28). Exercise also modified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in EX and SE/EX animals. Our findings indicate that in animals subjected to SE in the postnatal period a physical exercise program brings about beneficial effects on seizure frequency and hippocampal plasticity in later stages of life. PMID:24857853

  3. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time. PMID:26522742

  4. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  5. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  6. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  8. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  9. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  10. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes. PMID:26794458

  11. Physical exercise down-regulated locomotor side effects induced by haloperidol treatment in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Saur, Lisiani; Blank, Martina; do Nascimento, Patricia; Ilha, Jocemar; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2013-03-01

    Extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akinesia, dystonia, gait alteration and tremors are observed when dopamine D2-receptors are blocked by pharmacological agents such as haloperidol. These alterations produce a Parkinson disease-like state (PLS). Physical exercise has been proven to improve gait and locomotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; we sought to elucidate the effects of physical exercise on PLS induced by chronic administration of haloperidol in rats. We used 48 rats distributed into four groups: Control, Exercise, Haloperidol, and Hal+Exe. All the animals received a daily injection of saline or haloperidol for 30 days, and the exercise groups underwent a daily 30-minute exercise protocol for 20 days. The animals were subjected to the ink-paw test, bar test and open-field test throughout the training period. The haloperidol-induced akinesia increased throughout the days of injections, but exercise was shown to alleviate it. The assessment showed shortened stride length and increased stance width with the use of haloperidol, which were significantly alleviated by exercise. These results indicate that exercise could be an interesting approach towards reducing unwanted EPS caused by haloperidol. PMID:23290938

  12. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  14. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response.

    PubMed

    Menegali, Bruno T; Nesi, Renata T; Souza, Priscila S; Silva, Luciano A; Silveira, Paulo C L; Valença, Samuel S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-12-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in

  15. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, João P P; de Souza, Altay A L; de Lima, Giscard H O; Rodrigues, Dayane F; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one's commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points - 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure - 25.5 points - 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better

  16. Responses of sweating and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained men.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, F; Fujii, N; Sone, R; Ikegami, H

    1996-02-01

    The effect of physical training on the dynamic responses of sweating to transient exercise is still controversial. We determined the phase response and amplitude response (delta) of sweating rate and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained and untrained subjects. Eight trained and seven untrained male subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer with a constant load for 30 min; for the next 28 min, they exercised with a sinusoidal load. The sinusoidal load variation ranged from approximately 10 to 60% of peak O2 uptake with a 4-min period. The ambient temperature and the relative humidity during exercise were 25 degrees C and 35%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups in the phase lags of esophageal temperature (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk), whereas the phase lags of sweating rates for the chest and forearm were significantly shorter in the trained group (P < 0.05). The delta of Tes and Tsk per 1 W of exercise load in the trained group was significantly smaller than that in the untrained group (both, P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the groups in the delta of sweating rate for the chest and forearm. We conclude that subjects who have undergone long-term physical training show prompter dynamic characteristics of sweating response compared with untrained subjects and have a higher capacity to maintain constant body temperature during exercise at transient load. PMID:8929589

  17. Change in blood gelsolin concentration in response to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-C; Zendzian-Piotrowska, M; Charmas, M; Długołęcka, B; Baranowski, M; Górski, J; Bucki, R

    2013-09-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) produced by muscle is an abundant protein of extracellular fluids capable of severing actin filaments and eliminating actin from the circulation. Additionally, pGSN modulates the cellular effects of some bioactive lipids. In this study we test the hypothesis that hormonal and metabolic adaptations to exercise are associated with changes in gelsolin concentration in blood. Plasma samples were collected from twenty healthy males recruited from untrained (UT, n=10) and endurance trained (ET, n=10) groups that performed 30-60 minutes of exercise on a cycloergometer at a workload corresponding to 70% of VO2max. Gelsolin concentration was determined by quantitative Western blot analysis with an anti-human gelsolin antibody. The gelsolin concentration in UT and ET subjects before starting exercise ranged from 104 to 330 and 163 to 337 µg · ml(-1) respectively. After 30 minutes of exercise we observed a significant decrease of plasma gelsolin in the UT group (p<0.05) while the gelsolin concentration in the ET group rose on average from 244 to 271 µg · ml(-1). However, this increase did not reach statistical significance. Endurance training might increase the ability of muscle tissue to express plasma gelsolin as part of an adaptive mechanism. PMID:24744484

  18. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  19. CHANGE IN BLOOD GELSOLIN CONCENTRATION IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C.-C.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.; Charmas, M.; Długołęcka, B.; Baranowski, M.; Górski, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) produced by muscle is an abundant protein of extracellular fluids capable of severing actin filaments and eliminating actin from the circulation. Additionally, pGSN modulates the cellular effects of some bioactive lipids. In this study we test the hypothesis that hormonal and metabolic adaptations to exercise are associated with changes in gelsolin concentration in blood. Plasma samples were collected from twenty healthy males recruited from untrained (UT, n=10) and endurance trained (ET, n=10) groups that performed 30-60 minutes of exercise on a cycloergometer at a workload corresponding to 70% of VO2max. Gelsolin concentration was determined by quantitative Western blot analysis with an anti-human gelsolin antibody. The gelsolin concentration in UT and ET subjects before starting exercise ranged from 104 to 330 and 163 to 337 µg · ml-1 respectively. After 30 minutes of exercise we observed a significant decrease of plasma gelsolin in the UT group (p<0.05) while the gelsolin concentration in the ET group rose on average from 244 to 271 µg · ml-1. However, this increase did not reach statistical significance. Endurance training might increase the ability of muscle tissue to express plasma gelsolin as part of an adaptive mechanism. PMID:24744484

  20. Exercise and Physical Fitness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... Oromo (Oromo) Bilingual PDF Harborview Medical Center Portuguese (português) Starting an Exercise Program Início de um programa ...

  1. Physical exercise as a treatment for adult and juvenile myositis.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, H

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence to support the safety and efficacy of exercise in patients with adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Five randomized controlled trials including adult patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (DM) and additional open studies have demonstrated reduced impairment and activity limitation as well as improved quality of life. In addition, recent studies have shown reduced disease activity assessed by consensus disease activity measures and reduced expression of genes regulating inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, exercise could improve muscle aerobic capacity as shown by increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These data suggest that intensive aerobic exercise and resistance training could reduce disease activity and inflammation and improve muscle metabolism. Encouraging results have been reported from available open studies including patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM, indicating reduced impairment, activity limitation and improved quality of life also in these patients. Larger studies are needed to increase understanding of the effects of exercise in patients with active, recent-onset polymyositis and DM as well as in patients with IBM and juvenile DM. PMID:26854121

  2. Real-Life Benefits of Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rake the yard and bag up the leaves. Strength training will make it easier to: l Lift your ... guide or DVD. l Share your exercise story. “Strength training makes my everyday tasks so much easier!” — June, ...

  3. Fitting Exercise and Physical Activity into Your Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stairs up and two down. Make it social. Many people agree that an “exercise buddy” keeps them going. l Take a walk during lunch with coworkers. l Try a dance class—salsa, tango, square dancing—it’s up to you. ...

  4. Exerciser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lem, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Mark I exerciser which was added for the second and third Skylab missions, was used for a number of arm and leg exercises. This unit is a modified version of a commercial device. This is an iso-kinetic, or constant velocity, exerciser which retards the speed at which the user is allowed to move. The user applies a maximum effort and the device automatically varies the opposing resistance to maintain speed of translation at a constant preselected value.

  5. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients. PMID:27526144

  6. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  7. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability. PMID:26004534

  8. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  9. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care. PMID:27052239

  10. Could physical exercise help modulate the gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Esgalhado, Marta; Borges, Natália A; Mafra, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have several metabolic disorders caused by chronic oxidative stress and inflammation. The imbalance of gut microbiota has been identified as a factor that may contribute to the development of these disorders, which can promote cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Among several strategies to modulate gut microbiota, physical exercise could represent a new nonpharmacological approach. Although exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk in CKD patients through its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and inflammation, there are no available data regarding the relationship between exercise and modulation of gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review is intended to provide a brief overview of the hypothesis regarding gut microbiota modulation through physical exercise, with a particular emphasis on CKD. PMID:27159232

  11. Exercise Is Medicine Initiative: Physical Activity as a Vital Sign and Prescription in Adult Rehabilitation Practice.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Rachel E

    2016-09-01

    To support rehabilitation health care professionals' efforts to increase physical activity levels among their outpatient rehabilitation and postdischarge patients, we review the Exercise is Medicine (EIM) initiative. The EIM initiative was launched in 2007 jointly by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association. Three principles underlie the EIM initiative. First, physical activity should be monitored as a vital sign; second, physical activity is an effective medical modality and should be prescribed; and third, success of their vision requires top down and bottom up efforts by 3 key stakeholder groups: health care providers, exercise professionals, and the community. The target weekly physical activity level is 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. Persons falling below the weekly target physical activity level should be prescribed physical activity and/or referred to an exercise professional for implementation support. Selection of an exercise professional for referral is based on the patient's risk stratification and need to participate in clinically supervised physical activity. PMID:27470321

  12. Exercise Programming for Cardiacs--A New Direction for Physical Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard

    This speech begins with the presentation of a conceptual scheme of the physical working capacity of a person starting a training program. The scheme shows that after exercise, when recovery begins and sufficient time elapses, the individual recovers and adapts to a level of physical working capacity which is higher than his starting level. From…

  13. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  14. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  15. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  16. Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubovic, Spela; Maksimovic, Jasna; Golubovic, Boris; Glumbic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which examined the effects of carefully designed physical exercise programs on the development of physical fitness in children with ID. The study sample consisted of 42 children with ID and 45 typically developing children. All the participants were assessed using Eurofit Test Battery. The results were…

  17. Comparison of effects of yoga & physical exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Raju, P S; Madhavi, S; Prasad, K V; Reddy, M V; Reddy, M E; Sahay, B K; Murthy, K J

    1994-08-01

    The effect of pranayama a controlled breathing practice, on exercise tests was studied in athletes in two phases; sub-maximal and maximal exercise tests. At the end of phase I (one year) both the groups (control and experimental) achieved significantly higher work rate and reduction in oxygen consumption per unit work. There was a significant reduction in blood lactate and an increase in P/L ratio in the experimental group, at rest. At the end of phase II (two years), the oxygen consumption per unit work was found to be significantly reduced and the work rate significantly increased in the experimental group. Blood lactate decreased significantly at rest in the experimental group only. Pyruvate and pyruvate-lactate ratio increased significantly in both the groups after exercise and at rest in the experimental group. The results in both phases showed that the subjects who practised pranayama could achieve higher work rates with reduced oxygen consumption per unit work and without increase in blood lactate levels. The blood lactate levels were significantly low at rest. PMID:7927562

  18. Analysis of physical exercises and exercise protocols for space transportation system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill was made so that informed management decisions regarding the role of this treadmill in operational flight crew exercise programs could be made. Specific tasks to be completed were: The Thornton-Whitmore passive treadmill as an exercise device at one-g was evaluated. Hardware, harness and restraint systems for use with the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in the laboratory and in Shuttle flights were established. The quantitative and qualitative performance of human subjects on the Thorton-Whitmore treadmill with forces in excess of one-g, was evaluated. The performance of human subjects on the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in weightlessness (onboard Shuttle flights) was also determined.

  19. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Osamu; Sakai, Akio

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure(overline {P_{pa} } ) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in(overline {P_{pa} } ) with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, P a CO 2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the P a O 2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  20. Wide housing space and chronic exercise enhance physical fitness and adipose tissue morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro Paulo Menezes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Torsoni, Adriana Souza; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The current cages commonly used in animal experiments can prevent rats from engaging in most forms of natural locomotion behaviors. These animals tend to exhibit sedentary habits. Here, we show that a combination of wide housing space and training exercise helps to reduce white adipose mass and to increase brown adipose mass. Thus, this combination is a useful strategy for truly enhancing the physical fitness of captive rats commonly used in exercise-related interventional studies and to maximize their welfare. PMID:25906078

  1. Maintenance Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Erin A.; Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exercise training has been demonstrated to enhance physical function and to have a protective effect against functional limitations and disability in older adults. Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on functional performance and limitations were maintained 6-month postintervention termination. Methods. Follow-up assessments of functional performance and limitations were conducted in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 237) who participated in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Participants were initially randomized to a DVD-delivered exercise intervention or an attentional control condition. The Short Physical Performance Battery, measures of flexibility and strength, and functional limitations were assessed immediately before and after the intervention and then again 6 months later. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine changes in physical function between the two conditions at the end of the intervention to 6-month follow-up. Results. There were statistically significant adjusted group differences in the Short Physical Performance Battery (η2 = 0.03, p = .01), upper-body strength (η2 = 0.03, p = .005), and lower-body flexibility (η2 = 0.02, p = .05), indicating that gains brought about by the intervention were maintained 6 months later. Conclusions. A DVD-delivered exercise program specifically designed to target elements of functional fitness in older adults can produce clinically meaningful gains in physical function that are maintained beyond intervention cessation. PMID:25324220

  2. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  3. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Levada-Pires, A C; Sellitti, D F; Procopio, J; Curi, R; Pithon-Curi, T C

    2008-04-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Its primary source is skeletal muscle, from where it is released into the bloodstream and transported to a variety of tissues. Several studies have shown that glutamine is important for rat and human neutrophil function and that these cells utilize glutamine at high rates. Physical exercise has also been shown to induce considerable changes in neutrophil metabolism and function. As neutrophils represent 50-60% of the total circulating leukocyte pool and play a key role in inflammation, both physical exercise and glutamine might be expected to regulate the inflammatory process. In this review, the changes in neutrophil function induced by physical exercise and glutamine supplementation are compared. PMID:17928941

  4. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  5. Cognitive plasticity in older adults: effects of cognitive training and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Bherer, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive training, physical activity, and exercise have often been reported to improve cognitive performance in older adults. This paper reviews some seminal and recent studies using these approaches to improve cognition and physical functioning in healthy older adults and in patients suffering from non-neurological chronic medical conditions. Results from cognitive training studies suggest that despite performance improvement in trained tasks, transfer effects appeared very limited. Surprisingly though, computerized dual-task training has been shown to improve balance and postural control in tests of physical functioning, suggesting that broad transfer can sometimes be observed. Physical exercise intervention studies generally found significant and large improvements in physical capacity, in some cognitive domains, and in quality of life. The benefits seem to be equivalent between frail and nonfrail participants. Overall, results reviewed here support the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control, as induced by cognitive training or physical activity and exercise, is preserved in late adulthood. Moreover, results of studies with patients at risk of cognitive decline also suggest that cognitive training and exercise interventions are promising nonpharmaceutical tools to help improve cognition in older at-risk individuals. PMID:25773610

  6. The effects of physical exercises to mental state and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Acil, A A; Dogan, S; Dogan, O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of physical exercises programme on mental states and quality of life (QOL) of individuals with schizophrenia. The study involved 30 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia who were assigned randomly into aerobic exercise (n = 15) group and control (n = 15) group, participated to the study voluntarily. There were no personal differences such as age, gender, disorder duration, medication use between the both groups. An aerobic exercise programme was applied to the subject group, the periods of 10 weeks as 3 days in a week. Data were collected by using the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and to the both group before and after the exercise programme. After the 10-week aerobic exercise programmes the subjects in the exercise programme showed significantly decreases in the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory points and their World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Turkish Version points were increased than controls. These results suggest that mild to moderate aerobic exercise is an effective programme for decreasing psychiatric symptoms and for increasing QOL in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:19012672

  7. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    PubMed

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients. PMID:25831230

  8. Framing Honors Physical Geology around Critical Thinking and Communication Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The honors section of freshman geology at LSU has 20-35 highly motivated students with ACT scores above 30. They are usually non-majors and have had no exposure to geosciences in high school. Teaching geology in Louisiana is challenging because there are virtually no rocks exposed at the surface and students with creationist beliefs are common. In addition to exams, this course requires a series of projects: plate reconstruction, minerals in the home, a metaphor for geologic time, volcano research paper, group project on volcanoes, water resources, and a comparison essay on Hurricane Katrina and the 1927 flood of the Mississippi river. The purpose of the projects is to promote critical thinking and communication skills as well as allow students to explore in greater depth topics relevant to their every day lives such as hurricanes. Critical thinking skills emphasized are interrelated processes and systems, variable temporal/spatial scales, and analysis of controversial topics such as the age of the Earth. This course is certified by LSU's Communication across the Curriculum (CxC) program as communication intensive in written and visual communication. CxC certification requires that 40% of grading depend on communication activities. Written communication exercises focus on organization, audience, incorporation and coordination of visual elements, and proper citation of sources. Visual communication exercises include working with maps, charts and graphs, and a group project where they create a poster and/or stand alone slide presentation on volcanoes geared to a middle school audience. Topics such as origin and quality of tap water, how much copper ore is used to build their home, and local geoharzards such as the Baton Rouge Fault generate a higher interest level and higher retention of information. Preliminary assessment is positive including improved exam results, higher student evaluations, recruitment of geology majors, and anecdotal evidence of long term

  9. Influence of polyunsaturated fatty acid diet on the hemorrheological response to physical exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Nadaud, J F; Satabin, P; Leger, F; Lafargue, P

    1989-08-01

    Several studies have shown that hemorrheological parameters are modified by physical exercise and exposure to altitude hypoxia. These changes result in a decrease in red cell deformability (RCD). Similarly, it has been shown that a daily dietary fish oil supplement increases RCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of fish oil diet on RCD after exercise. Fourteen male subjects (19-38 years old) were divided into two groups. The first group ate a "standard diet" rich in saturated lipids; the second group received a daily amount of 6 g of MaxEPA fish oil for 6 weeks. Before the 6 weeks of experimental nutrition, and just after this period, both groups were submitted to two physical exercises of 1 h cycling at 70% of their VO2max. One test was performed at sea level, the other at a simulated altitude of 3000 m in a hypobaric chamber. Blood samples were drawn before and after exercise and used to evaluate: (1) RCD by filtration on polycarbonate membrane, (2) plasma viscosity, and (3) erythrocyte phospholipid composition. Energy charge of red cell was evaluated by ATP/AMP/ADP and two to three DPB assays. Gas liquid chromatography indicated an increase in n-3 PUFA membrane erythrocyte composition. In the control group, RCD decreased by an average of 53% after exercise under hypoxic conditions and was unchanged after the same exercise at sea level. MaxEPA diet suppresses the decrease in RCD observed after hypoxic exercise. These results indicate a decrease in RCD under the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia, which is prevented by 6 weeks of fish oil supplement. PMID:2606594

  10. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  11. Physical exercise and pancreatic islets: acute and chronic actions on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe N; Proença, André R G; Chimin, Patrícia; Marçal, Anderson C; Bessa-Lima, Fábio; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a great public health problem, which attacks part of the world population, being characterized by an imbalance in body glucose homeostasis. Physical exercise is pointed as a protective agent and is also recommended to people with DM. As pancreatic islets present an important role in glucose homeostasis, we aim to study the role of physical exercise (chronic adaptations and acute responses) in pancreatic islets functionality in Wistar male rats. First, animals were divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and aerobic trained (T). At the end of 8 weeks, half of them (S and T) were submitted to an acute exercise session (exercise until exhaustion), being subdivided as acute sedentary (AS) and acute trained (AT). After the experimental period, periepididymal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat pads, blood, soleus muscle and pancreatic islets were collected and prepared for further analysis. From the pancreatic islets, total insulin content, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, leucine, arginine and carbachol were analyzed. Our results pointed that body adiposity and glucose homeostasis improved with chronic physical exercise. In addition, total insulin content was reduced in group AT, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose was reduced in trained groups (T and AT) and insulin secretion stimulated by carbachol was increased in group AT. There were no significant differences in insulin secretion stimulated by arginine and leucine. We identified a possible modulating action on insulin secretion, probably related to the association of chronic adaptation with an acute response on cholinergic activity in pancreatic islets. PMID:22868676

  12. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  13. A Comparative Study Evaluating the Impact of Physical Exercise on Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Xhima, Kristiana; Aubert, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that physical exercise can serve as a preventive strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, much less is known about the impact of exercise when it is introduced after cognitive deficits are established. Using the TgCRND8 mouse model of amyloidosis, we compared the effects of exercise as an intervention strategy aimed at altering disease progression. Voluntary running for 1 month or 2 months was introduced in 3-month-old TgCRND8 mice, which exhibit amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque pathology and cognitive deficits at this age. Specifically, we examined Aβ plaque load, spatial memory, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. After 1 month of running, TgCRND8 mice spent more time in the novel arm of the Y-maze compared to the familiar arms, indicating improved memory. The levels of doublecortin (a marker of immature neurons) were increased in TgCRND8 mice running for 1 month, but with no significant difference in the number of new mature neurons or plaque burden. As the disease progressed, running prevented further deficits in the Y-maze performance and hippocampal neurogenesis and it reduced plaque load pathology in TgCRND8 mice running for 2 months, compared to non-running transgenics. Therefore, the impact of running on memory, neurogenesis, and amyloid pathology was of greater significance when sustained through later stages of the disease. PMID:27163797

  14. Physical Exercise is Associated with Less Neurocognitive Impairment Among HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Catherine A.; Marquine, Maria J.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Henry, Brook L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remains prevalent in HIV-infection. Randomized trials have shown that physical exercise improves NCI in non HIV-infected adults, but data on HIV-infected populations is limited. Community-dwelling HIV-infected participants (n=335) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery that was utilized to define both global and domain-specific NCI. Participants were divided into “Exercise” (n=83) and “No Exercise” (n=252) groups based on whether they self-reported engaging in any activity that increased heart rate in the last 72 hours or not. We also measured and evaluated a series of potential confounding factors, including demographics, HIV-disease characteristics, substance use and psychiatric comorbidities, and physical functioning. Lower rates of global NCI were observed among the Exercise group (15.7%) as compared to those in the No Exercise group (31.0%; p<.01). A multivariable logistic regression controlling for potential confounds (i.e., education, AIDS status, current CD4+ lymphocyte count, self-reported physical function, current depression) showed that being in the Exercise group remained significantly associated with lower global NCI (OR=2.63, p<.05). Similar models of domain-specific NCI showed that Exercise was associated with reduced impairment in working memory (p<.05) and speed of information processing (p<.05). The present findings suggest that HIV-infected adults who exercise are approximately half as likely to show NCI as compared to those who do not. Future longitudinal studies might be best suited to address causality and intervention trials in HIV-infected individuals will determine whether exercise can prevent or ameliorate NCI in this population. PMID:23934585

  15. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  16. Physical allergies and exercise. Clinical implications for those engaged in sports activities.

    PubMed

    Briner, W W

    1993-06-01

    There are several allergic responses that may occur in susceptible individuals as a result of exposure to physical stimuli. Most of these conditions are mediated by vasoactive substances and usually result in symptoms of urticaria and/or angioedema. There are 2 such conditions that may occur as a direct result from exercise. The first of these is cholinergic urticaria. Patients with cholinergic urticaria experience punctate (2 to 4mm) hives which occur reproducibly with exercise or with passive warming, such as might occur in a steam bath or hot pool. Life-threatening hypotension or angioedema usually do not occur with cholinergic urticaria. This condition usually responds well to oral hydroxyzine. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a form of physical allergy that has been recognised with increasing frequency in recent years. This syndrome typically presents with generalised pruritus, a flushing sensation, a feeling of warmth and the development of conventional (10 to 15mm) urticaria in association with vigorous physical exertion only. Symptoms tend to occur variably with exposure to exercise and do not typically occur with passive warming. During symptomatic attacks, cutaneous mast cells degranulate and serum histamine levels increase. Treatment is problematic. Cessation of exercise with onset of symptoms and self-administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) are recommended. Other physical allergies that may affect exercising individuals include cold urticaria, localised heat urticaria, symptomatic dermatographism (dermographism), delayed pressure urticaria (angioedema), solar urticaria and aquagenic urticaria. Management of these conditions may include patient education, selective avoidance, antihistamines and, in some cases, induction of tolerance. PMID:8341871

  17. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

    2014-03-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  18. Influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika; Langwald, Marta; Dudziak, Diana; Zaremba, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the research was to define the influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women and to establish the socio-demographic and personality predictors of mood changes. The sample was comprised of a total of 109 pregnant women aged 19-37 years. Of the group, 62 women participated in physical exercise for pregnant women (the experimental group) and 47 women participated in traditional childbirth education classes (the control group). Emotional states were assessed with the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist; personality traits were measured with the NEO-FFI, LOT-R and STAI questionnaires. Socio-demographic data were collected with a survey developed by the authors. A single physical exercise class improved the emotional state of pregnant women significantly more than a traditional childbirth education class. Within the experimental group, a significant improvement of mood was observed in all dimensions, while in the control group only hedonic tone increased. Greater improvements in mood can be expected in a group of women who are younger, less optimistic, and who evaluate their health better but physical fitness worse. As a single session of exercise helps improve the mood of pregnant women, this may be an effective strategy to prevent the deterioration of mood state during pregnancy. PMID:23646888

  19. Self-Regulation of Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Attitudes towards Exercise and Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in self-regulation of attitudes towards engaging in exercise and eating a healthy diet between physical education teacher education (PETE) students and general education (GE) students, and between male students and female students. Participants were university students (n = 194) at a university…

  20. Guidelines for Undergraduate Exercise Physiology in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A course in Exercise Physiology is a common requirement among undergraduate students preparing for a career in physical education, adult fitness, or athletic training. Often, such courses are taught to an assortment of students from a variety of disciplines (Van Donselaar & Leslie, 1990) with an emphasis on physiological principles applied to…

  1. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  2. Use of Microscale Landforms to Teach Introductory Physical Geography: Planning a Local Field Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    States that firsthand observations of the dynamic process that shapes landforms are important to understanding physical geography. Posits that locally planned, short-duration field exercises to study miniature or fourth-order landforms will enhance instruction about these fundamental geographic concepts. (DB)

  3. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  4. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  5. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  6. Modified Delphi Investigation of Exercise Science in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi…

  7. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  8. From the Outside In: Getting Physical with Exercises Inspired by Stella Adler and Uta Hagen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that teaching students to find and play appropriate actions helps them tell the story of a play and create character better than if they focused on emotions. Discusses Stella Adler and Uta Hagen, two acting teachers who advocated this physical approach. Presents two exercises: "justify and connect," and "enter a room." (PM)

  9. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  10. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  11. State/Trait Anxiety and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine anxiolytic effects of acute physical exertions in relation to the initial anxiety state and trait in women. Material and methods: A group of 163 women aged 16-56 years, attending fitness clubs in Warsaw, participated in the study. They selected a single exercise to perform--strength, aerobic or mixed, lasting 30 to over 60…

  12. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it’s potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry—brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  13. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  14. Exercising Your Rights: Eliminating Sex Bias in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    A module on sex stereotyping and its effect on physical education is described. This unit is a part of a series of instructional modules on sex-role stereotyping in education. Designed to be used independently or to supplement an existing instructional unit, the module is composed of a 25-minute tape, five transparency masters, three handouts, and…

  15. Fitness Load and Exercise Time in Secondary Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao Jun; Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effect of secondary school physical education on fitness load: the product of the mean heart rate above threshold (144 bpm) and the time duration of heart rate above that threshold. Highly and moderately skilled students achieved fitness load more frequently than their lower skilled colleagues. (GLR)

  16. Physical Education Curriculum Priorities: "Safe" Exercise Is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among America's youth is critical in helping to combat chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, finding the right sporting activities for the youth is important, as is making appropriate biomechanical adjustments or behavior modifications that create a safer means of participation. In this article, the…

  17. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  18. Art of preserving health: studies on the medical supervision of physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Alan J

    2009-12-01

    To the ancient Greeks, physical exercise was an essential part of life, especially during adolescence and young adulthood. Long after the end of the Classical Greek era, Roman conquest brought a shift towards martial training, increased professionalism in athletic competition and a weak strand of restorative gymnastics kept barely intact by the likes of Galen. While the crux of these teachings was the use of exercise, among other things, to promote and maintain health, the emphasis began to shift to concerns about the health of athletes and the medical problems brought about by exercise. Fashions in athletic training began to change in the mid-nineteenth century, but the mystique associated with athletic training pervaded much of the thinking and still persists today where, in this modern scientific period of exercise and health, physiologists, physical educators and physicians have become involved in seeking to apply the scientific method to what has become known as exercise science. The modern concept of sports medicine tends to emphasize the training and welfare of the elite athlete. PMID:20003000

  19. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    PubMed Central

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ2 = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ2/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 − .088). However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  20. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  1. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  2. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established. PMID:9748099

  3. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Mammalian Testis Function: Emerging Preclinical Protein Biomarker and Integrative Biology Insights.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mariana; Freitas, Maria João; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity have long been recognized for health promotion and to delay the onset of many pathological situations such as diabetes and cancers. Still, there appears to be an upper limit on the beneficial health effects regarding intensity and frequency of exercise training. In humans, the effect of exercise training in the male reproductive system has been studied mainly through the analysis of semen quality parameters, with inconsistent results. Less is known on molecular biomarkers of exercise-related changes in testis at the protein/proteome level. This review offers an in-depth analysis on the small scale protein studies available primarily from the preclinical studies and interprets their functional impact on the reproductive health with a view to humans. In all, exercise training in preclinical models seems to negatively modulate, in the course of health, critical functions that directly affect spermatogenesis, such as testosterone biosynthesis, energy supply, and antioxidant system components. Exercise training induces apoptosis, leading to the impairment of spermatogenesis and, consequently, to male infertility. In pathological conditions, an improvement in the testicular functions is observed by increases in steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant defenses, and reductions in activity of inflammatory pathways. Importantly, the mechanisms by which exercise training modulates the reproductive function are far from being fully understood. The analyses of the testis proteome in varying exercise conditions would inform the molecular mechanisms involved and identify putative theranostics opportunities. Such future research is a cornerstone for health promotion in the pursuit of reproductive health informed by omics systems sciences. PMID:26284990

  4. Patients' mental models and adherence to outpatient physical therapy home exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Within physical therapy, patient adherence usually relates to attending appointments, following advice, and/or undertaking prescribed exercise. Similar to findings for general medical adherence, patient adherence to physical therapy home exercise programs (HEP) is estimated between 35 and 72%. Adherence to HEPs is a multifactorial and poorly understood phenomenon, with no consensus regarding a common theoretical framework that best guides empirical or clinical efforts. Mental models, a construct used to explain behavior and decision-making in the social sciences, may serve as this framework. Mental models comprise an individual's tacit thoughts about how the world works. They include assumptions about new experiences and expectations for the future based on implicit comparisons between current and past experiences. Mental models play an important role in decision-making and guiding actions. This professional theoretical article discusses empirical research demonstrating relationships among mental models, prior experience, and adherence decisions in medical and physical therapy contexts. Specific issues related to mental models and physical therapy patient adherence are discussed, including the importance of articulation of patients' mental models, assessment of patients' mental models that relate to exercise program adherence, discrepancy between patient and provider mental models, and revision of patients' mental models in ways that enhance adherence. The article concludes with practical implications for physical therapists and recommendations for further research to better understand the role of mental models in physical therapy patient adherence behavior. PMID:25585516

  5. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial

  6. Free fall of a cat—freshman physics exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studnička, Filip; Šlégr, Jan; Štegner, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculation of the terminal velocity of falling cat, taking the air drag into account. The results show that a fall from the seventh floor is critical for the cat so we introduce a new quantity called the ‘coefficient of the cat’s fear’ during free fall. A subsequent experiment with a model of a cat carrying the accelerometer confirmed this conclusion. This calculation and experiment can act as a strong motivational factor during introductory physics courses.

  7. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  8. Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

  9. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted. PMID:25764792

  10. Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Josefsson, Torbjorn; Lindwall, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. PMID:25470398

  11. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  12. [MicroRNAs: circulating biomarkers in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Banoy, Nicolás; Mockus, Ismena

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules with a crucial function in the cell´s biologic regulation. Circulating levels of miRNAs may be useful biomarkers in metabolic diseases such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), which alters the circulating concentrations of several types of miRNA. Specific serum profiles of these molecules have been identified in high-risk patients before the development of DM2 and its chronic complications. Most importantly, these profiles can be modified with physical exercise, which is crucial in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Acute physical activity alone can induce changes in tissue specific miRNAs, and responses are different in aerobic or non-aerobic training. Muscle and cardiovascular miRNAs, which may play an important role in the adap tation to exercise, are predominantly altered. Even further, there is a correlation between serum levels of miRNAs and fitness, suggesting a role for chronic exercise in their regulation. Thus, miRNAs are molecules of growing importance in exercise physiology, and may be involved in the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of physical activity for patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:27299822

  13. Oxidative Stress Is a Central Target for Physical Exercise Neuroprotection Against Pathological Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    García-Mesa, Yoelvis; Colie, Sandra; Corpas, Rubén; Cristòfol, Rosa; Comellas, Francesc; Nebreda, Angel R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is suggested for preventing or delaying senescence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined its therapeutic value in the advanced stage of AD-like pathology in 3xTg-AD female mice through voluntary wheel running from 12 to 15 months of age. Mice submitted to exercise showed improved body fitness, immunorejuvenation, improvement of behavior and cognition, and reduced amyloid and tau pathology. Brain tissue analysis of aged 3xTg-AD mice showed high levels of oxidative damage. However, this damage was decreased by physical exercise through regulation of redox homeostasis. Network analyses showed that oxidative stress was a central event, which correlated with AD-like pathology and the AD-related behaviors of anxiety, apathy, and cognitive loss. This study corroborates the importance of redox mechanisms in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise, and supports the theory of the crucial role of oxidative stress in the switch from normal brain aging to pathological aging and AD. PMID:25720862

  14. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Wender, Mariane Heckmann; Gonçalves, Andréa Kruger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira Dos; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population. PMID:27096016

  15. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Wender, Mariane Heckmann; Gonçalves, Andréa Kruger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population. PMID:27096016

  16. Exploring the interaction of physical exercise load and pattern recall performance in female handball players.

    PubMed

    Schapschröer, M; Baker, J; Schorer, J

    2016-06-01

    Studies examining experts' superiority within domain-specific structured pattern recall tasks have typically had athletes perform them at rest, which is far different from how they are executed in their sport. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing these tasks under different physical exercise intensities influenced pattern recall results of experts, advanced and novices. In two experiments, 68 participants (experiment 1: n = 33; experiment 2: n = 35) were tested using a handball-specific pattern recall task both at rest and during physical exercise. Physical exercises of 60 % heart rate reserve (constant workload: experiment 1) and of 86.5-90 % HRmax (handball-specific interval load: experiment 2) were induced. Results of both experiments revealed significant group differences with experts recalling patterns more accurately than novices but no significant within-subject differences for the two conditions and no interaction between both factors. Our findings replicate prior research concerning perceptual-cognitive expertise in structured specific pattern recall tasks. However, the lack of intergroup differences between the two conditions or interactions was surprising, suggesting sport-specific pattern recall skill is robust to changes in exercise stimuli. Future work is needed to further examine the impact of "physiological specificity" on perceptual-cognitive expertise. PMID:26873349

  17. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered. PMID:24154584

  18. Factors Influencing Adaptation and Performance at Physical Exercise in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases after Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bassareo, P. P.; Saba, L.; Solla, P.; Barbanti, C.; Marras, A. R.; Mercuro, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the last thirty years, steady progress in the diagnostic tools and care of subjects affected by congenital heart diseases (CHD) has resulted in a significant increase in their survival to adulthood, even for those affected by complex CHD. Based on these premises, a number of teenagers and adults affected by corrected (surgically or through interventional techniques) CHD ask to be allowed to undertake sporting activities, both at a recreational and competitive level. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms influencing the adaption at physical exercise of patients suffering from complex CHD. The conclusion is that even if there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood, and well-being should be emphasized. PMID:24822218

  19. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Henning; Othman, Ahmed; Mueckter, Sarah; Scheef, Lukas; Pensel, Max; Daamen, Marcel; Jankowski, Jakob; Schild, Hh; Tölle, Tr; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET) ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS) with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise. PMID:24198554

  20. Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation

    PubMed Central

    Kehn, Matthew; Kroll, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    Background While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and arthritis, yet this population is rarely a target for health promotion efforts. This paper examines the self-reported exercise experiences of people with SCI using a qualitative-exploratory design. Methods We enrolled 26 individuals with SCI (15 self-described 'exercisers' and 11 'non-exercisers') from a non-random pool of survey responders. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to record participants' experiences with exercise pre/post injury, barriers and facilitators to being active and perceived health impact. Results Regardless of exercise status, all participants reported physical activity prior to injury and expressed interest in becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Participants identified a range of both motivational and socio-environmental factors that were either facilitating or constraining of such a lifestyle. Non-exercisers identified barriers to exercise, including a perceived low return on physical investment, lack of accessible facilities, unaffordable equipment, no personal assistance and fear of injury. Exercisers identified facilitators, including personal motivation, independence, availability of accessible facilities and personal assistants, fear of health complications, and weight management. Exercisers associated a greater range of specific health benefits with being active than non-exercisers. Conclusion Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with SCI face many obstacles. Removal of barriers coupled with promotion of facilitating factors, is vital for enhancing opportunities for

  1. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N.; Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. Methods: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. Results: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p<0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p<0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. Conclusion: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo. PMID:25935179

  2. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  3. Physical exercise increases natural cellular-mediated tumor cytotoxicity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Crist, D M; Mackinnon, L T; Thompson, R F; Atterbom, H A; Egan, P A

    1989-01-01

    The influence of acute treadmill exercise on natural killer (NK) cell tumor cytotoxicity in vitro was studied in elderly women after participation in a program of physical exercise training (PET) (n = 7) or after participation in a paralleling nonexercise control (NEC) condition (n = 7). The two study groups were equated (p greater than 0.05) according to age, percent total body fat, functional status as measured by multi-inventory ranking, and exercise capacity. After the experimental period, the PET subjects had a greater basal level of NK activity than the NEC subjects (PET 38.2 percent specific lysis, %SL, vs. NEC 28.8 %SL; p less than 0.05). Both groups experienced an increase in NK activity after acute treadmill exercise (PET 38.2-57.4 %SL, p less than 0.01; NEC 28.8-37.8 %SL, p less than 0.05), but the increase in the PET subjects was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than that observed in the NEC subjects. We conclude that natural cellular-mediated tumor cytotoxicity is increased in response to acute exercise and long-term PET in elderly women. PMID:2792786

  4. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  5. Physical Exercise Improves The Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; dos Santos, Leonardo; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients. METHODS Forty-two patients of both sexes with heart failure of NYHA class II and III with different etiologies were randomly divided into untrained or trained groups. The six-month exercise program consisted of aerobic training, muscle strength training, agility and joint flexibility activities. Physical fitness was evaluated by testing the performance on these trained components. Quality of life was evaluated by scored answers to a standardized questionnaire involving multiple domains. RESULTS Baseline values did not differ between groups. Improvement in the trained group was identified in all components of functional capacity when compared to the untrained group (p < 0.001). Quality of life improved in the trained patients concerning physical, psychological, social and environmental domains (p < 0.001), whereas no significant change was found in the untrained patients. CONCLUSIONS Guided and monitored physical exercise is safe and has the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients with multiple etiologies. PMID:18719752

  6. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  7. [Effects of an optimized exercise therapy on physical performance of patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Rhodius, U; Posselt, S; Posselt, H G; Hofstetter, R; Leyk, D

    2002-09-01

    Regular exercise training can increase the physical performance of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, training is often hampered by negative factors such as infections, lack of time, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week-training-program performed under favourable conditions on physical performance and lung function of CF-patients: 17 patients daily trained at least 2,5 h under suspicious conditions at a sport hotel in Israel (Eilat). During the entire 3 weeks a comprehensive care was applied to the patients including intensive physical therapy and nutrition adapted to the individual demands. Testings of lung function and cycle ergometry ramp tests were performed a week before and after the training program. Additional control measurements were taken 7 months post training. After the 3-week-training vital capacity and FEV1 were increased by 7 % and 6 % (p > 0.05). The results of the cycle ergometry showed bigger and significant improvements in the maximal values of power (12 % - 20 %), oxygen uptake and ventilation. This findings were also valid for the submaximal exercise range indicated by a slower heart rate slope and a lower aerobic-anaerobic threshold. The present results suggest, that relatively large increases in physical performance can be obtained by short, but intensive exercise training including a comprehensive care. PMID:12215912

  8. Physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Hodson, Jacob A; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether different levels of hypoxia affect physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise or subsequent cardiovascular and perceptual responses. Twelve resistance-trained young men (age, 25.3 ± 4.3 years; height, 179.0 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 83.4 ± 9.1 kg) were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the back squat and deadlift. Following this, participants completed 3 separate randomized trials of 5 × 5 repetitions at 80% 1RM, with 3 minutes rest between sets, in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.21), moderate-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16), or high-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) by a portable hypoxic unit. Peak and mean force and power variables were monitored during exercise. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately following each set. No differences in force or power variables were evident between conditions. Similar trends were evident in these variables across each set and across the exercise session in each condition. SpO2 was lower in hypoxic conditions than in NORM, whereas HR was higher following sets performed in hypoxia. There were no differences between conditions in RPE. These results indicate that a hypoxic stimulus during high-intensity resistance exercise does not alter physical performance during repetitions and sets or affect how strenuous exercise is perceived to be. This novel training strategy can be used without adversely affecting the physical training dose experienced and may provide benefits over the equivalent training in NORM. PMID:25226332

  9. Australian perspective regarding recommendations for physical activity and exercise rehabilitation in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Robin; Jenkins, Sue; Maiorana, Andrew; Gain, Kevin; O’Driscoll, Gerry; Gabbay, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the opinion of health care professionals within Australia, regarding acceptable levels of exertion and symptoms, and referral for exercise rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Method In 2010, 76 health care professionals at a specialist pulmonary hypertension meeting in Australia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included case studies of patients with PAH in World Health Organization (WHO) functional classes II–IV. For each case study, respondents were asked to report their opinion regarding the acceptable level of exertion and symptoms during daily activities, and whether they would refer the patient for exercise rehabilitation. Three additional questions asked about advice in relation to four specific physical activities. Results The response rate was 70% (n = 53). Overall, 58% of respondents recommended patients undertake daily activities ‘as tolerated’. There was no consensus regarding acceptable levels of breathlessness or fatigue, but the majority of respondents considered patients should have no chest pain (73%) and no more than mild light-headedness (92%) during daily activities. Overall, 63% of respondents would have referred patients for exercise rehabilitation. There was little difference in opinion regarding the acceptable level of exertion or symptoms, or referral for exercise rehabilitation, according to functional class. However, the patients’ functional class did influence the advice given regarding the specific physical activities. Conclusion In 2010, there were inconsistencies between individual health care professionals within Australia regarding appropriate levels of physical exertion and acceptable symptoms during daily activities. Almost two-thirds of the respondents reported they would refer patients for exercise rehabilitation. PMID:22247620

  10. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484