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Sample records for contrasting physical exercise

  1. Effect of contrasting physical exercise interventions on rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-11-01

    Rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is inhibited markedly more than maximal force capacity and is therefore relevant to assess in rehabilitation settings. Our objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on rapid force capacity, as well as neural and muscular adaptations in women with chronic neck muscle pain. A group of employed women (n = 42) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia participated in a 10-wk randomized controlled trial; specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles, general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling; or a reference intervention without physical activity. Maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed at static angles of 35 degrees and 115 degrees with simultaneous recording of electromyography (EMG) in the trapezius and deltoid. Maximal muscle strength and activation (peak torque and peak EMG) as well as rapid muscle strength and activation [rate of torque development (RTD) and rate of EMG rise] were subsequently determined. Trapezius muscle fiber characteristics were determined with ATPase histochemistry. Significant changes were observed only in the specific strength training group. Whereas peak torque increased 18-29% (P < 0.01), RTD increased 61-115% (P < 0.001). Peak EMG and rate of EMG rise increased correspondingly (P < 0.05-0.001), and trapezius type II muscle fibers hypertrophied 20% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, rapid force capacity of chronically painful muscles is highly responsive to rehabilitation with specific strength training. The underlying mechanisms were related to both pain reduction and general neuromuscular adaptations to strength training. Potentially, the present method can be a useful clinical screening tool of muscle function in rehabilitation settings. PMID:19762523

  2. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Exercise and Physical Activity Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s disease feel better. Exercise helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in ...

  3. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  4. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  5. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  6. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  7. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  8. Exercises in Practical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Arthur; Lees, Charles H.

    2015-10-01

    Preface; Preface to the fifth edition; Part I. Preliminary: 1. Treatment of observations; 2. Measurement of length; 3. Measurement of intervals of time; 4. Calibration of a spirit level; 5. Calibration of a graduated tube; Part II. General Physics: 6. The balance; 7. Accurate weighing with the balance; 8. Density of a solid; 9. Density of a liquid; 10. Moments of inertia; 11. Gravitational acceleration by reversible pendulum; 12. Young's modulus by the bending of beams; 13. Modulus of rigidity; 14. Viscosity; 15. Surface tension; Part III. Heat: 16. Coefficient of expansion of a solid; 17. Thermal expansion of a liquid; 18. Coefficient of increase of pressure of a gas with temperature; 19. Coefficient of expansion of a gas as constant pressure; 20. Effect of pressure on the boiling point of a liquid; 21. Laws of cooling; 22. Cooling correction in calorimetry; 23. Specific heat of quartz; 24. Latent heat of water; 25. Latent heat of steam; 26. Heat of solution of a salt; 27. The mechanical equivalent of heat; Part IV. Sound: 28. Frequency of a tuning fork by the syren; 29. The velocity of sound in air and other bodies by Kundt's method; 30. Study of vibrations of tuning forks by means of Lissajous' figures; Part V. Light: 31. Angles by the optical method; 32. The sextant; 33. Curvatures and powers of lenses; 34. Index of refraction by total reflection; 35. Resolving power of a lens; 36. The prism spectroscope; 37. Reduction of spectroscopic measurements to an absolute scale; 38. The spectrometer; 39. Refractive index and dispersion of a solid by the spectrometer; 40. Refractive index and dispersion of a liquid. Specific refractive powers; 41. Photometry; 42. Interference of light. The biprism; 43. Newton's rings; 44. Wave length of light by the diffraction grating; 45. Rotation of plane by polarisation; 46. Saccharimetry; Part VI. Magnetism and Electricity: 47. Horizontal components of magnetic fields; 48. Magnetic dip; 49. Magnetisation curves; 50. The water

  9. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  10. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  11. Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity There’s a way for almost every older adult ... have specific health conditions, discuss your exercise and physical activity plan with your health care provider. Endurance. Listen ...

  12. Differential Physical and Psychological Effects of Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfley, Denise; Kunce, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of an individualized exercise program for "normal" adults. Differences between program completers and dropouts on persistence, fitness, and physical self-concept are reprinted. A number of special strategies to motivate clients who may benefit most from therapeutic exercise programs as an adjunct…

  13. Aqua Dynamics. Physical Conditioning through Water Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Swimming is recognized as America's most popular active sport. It is one of the best physical activities for people of all ages and for people who are physically handicapped. Vigorous water exercises can increase a person's flexibility, strength, and cardio-vascular endurance. Exercises requiring flexibility are performed more easily in water…

  14. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity. PMID:26646070

  15. Preparing Prospective Physical Educators in Exercise Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Robert, Darren L.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the need for continued assessment of course content and instructional methods employed within physical education teacher education programs to deliver theoretical and applied information from the foundational subdiscipline of exercise physiology, describing an innovative course at one university (Exercise for School-Aged Children) which…

  16. Parathyroid Hormone and Physical Exercise: a Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouassida, Anissa; Latiri, Imed; Bouassida, Semi; Zalleg, Dalenda; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhair

    2006-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major hormone regulating calcium metabolism and is involved in both catabolic and anabolic actions on bone. Intermittent PTH exposure can stimulate bone formation and bone mass when PTH has been injected. In contrast, continuous infusion of PTH stimulates bone resorption. PTH concentration may be affected by physical exercise and our review was designed to investigate this relationship. The variation in PTH concentration appears to be influenced by both exercise duration and intensity. There probably exists a stimulation threshold of exercise to alter PTH. PTH regulation is also influenced by the initial bone mineral content, age, gender, training state, and other hormonal and metabolic factors (catecholamines, lactic acid and calcium concentrations). Key Points Physical exercise can improve PTH secretion. Parathyroid hormone has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone: intermittent treatment of PTH is anabolic whereas continuous treatment is catabolic. PMID:24353453

  17. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  18. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  19. Physical Exercise as Therapy for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Lina E.; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies demonstrate that regular physical exercise extends longevity and reduces the risk of physical disability. Decline in physical activity with aging is associated with a decrease in exercise capacity that predisposes to frailty. Frailty syndrome includes lowered activity level, poor exercise tolerance, and loss of lean body and muscle mass. Poor exercise tolerance is related to aerobic endurance. Aerobic endurance training can significantly improve peak oxygen consumption by ~10–15%. Resistance training is the best way to increase muscle strength and mass. Although the increase in muscle mass in response to resistance training may be attenuated in frail older adults, resistance training can significantly improve muscle strength, particularly in institutionalized patients by ~110%. Because both aerobic and resistance training target specific components of frailty, studies combining aerobic and resistance training provide the most promising evidence with respect to successfully treating frailty. At the molecular level, exercise reduces frailty by decreasing muscle inflammation, increasing anabolism, and increasing muscle protein synthesis. More studies are needed to determine which exercises are best suited, most effective, and safe for this population. Based on the available studies, an individualized multicomponent exercise program that includes aerobic activity, strength exercises, and flexibility is recommended to treat frailty. PMID:26524568

  20. Graphical Response Exercises for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Scott

    2007-01-01

    What is physics without graphs and diagrams? The web is becoming ubiquitous, but how can one expect students to make graphs and diagrams on the web? The solution is to extend functionality through Java applets. Four examples of exercises using the Physics Applets for Drawing (PADs) will illustrate how these can be used for physics instruction to…

  1. Physical exercise speeds up motor timing

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Wittmann, Marc; Mierau, Andreas; Polikanova, Irina; Strüder, Heiko K.; Tonevitsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine effect of physical exercise on motor timing: personal, maximum and “once per second” tapping. The acute effect was examined by comparing the baseline tapping with that after acute exercise in 9 amateur athletes, 8 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 elite biathletes. Then the baseline tapping was compared among athletes of different sports and professional levels (15 elite biathletes, 27 elite cross-country skiers, 15 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 amateur wrestlers) with a control group (44 non-athletes) not involved in regular exercise to examine the sport-specific or long-term effects. Maximum and “once per second” tapping speed increased after acute physical exercise and were also faster in elite athletes compared to controls during the baseline condition. However, personal tapping tempo was not affected by exercise. In addition, physical exercise had no effects on the variability of the intertap interval. The accuracy of “once per second” tapping differentiates controls and amateur wrestlers from elite synchronous swimmers and skiers suggesting sport-specific adaptations to play a role. It is concluded that acute physical exercise selectively speeds up motor timing but does not affect its variability and accuracy, and this speeding-up is suggested to transfer into a long-term effect in elite athletes. PMID:24062707

  2. Physical exercise in women with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, H R; Ellertsen, B; Grønningsaeter, H; Nakken, K O; Løyning, Y; Ursin, H

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen women with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy were given physical exercise (aerobic dancing with strength training and stretching) for 60 min, twice weekly, for 15 weeks. Seizure frequency was recorded by the patients for 3-7 months before the intervention, during the intervention period, and for 3 months after the intervention. Medication and other known seizure-influencing factors were kept as constant as possible. Self-reported seizure frequency was significantly reduced during the intervention period. The exercise also led to reduced level of subjective health complaints, such as muscle pains, sleep problems, and fatigue. The exercise reduced plasma cholesterol ratio and increased maximum O2 uptake. Because most of the patients were unable to continue the exercise on their own after the intervention period, the exercise effects were not maintained during the follow-up period. The patients were not unwilling to continue the exercise, but it was not sufficient to offer them the possibility of continuing similar types of exercise. We believe that 15 weeks is too short a time to establish a life-style change and that continued physical exercise for these patients requires a well-organized and supportive program, requiring experienced and dedicated instructors. PMID:7988519

  3. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  4. Role of physical exercise in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, XIA; HUANG, WEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on the brain and general wellness are well recognised, but not particularly well known to the general public. Understanding the importance of integrating active behavior for overall health is crucial at any age and particularly for the elderly who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease mainly affecting individuals aged >65 years. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular senile plaques of amyloid-β, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau, brain atrophy and dementia. The beneficial effects of physical exercise have been observed on the maintenance of brain size and efficiency for the prevention of AD risks, such as obesity, hypertension and stroke. These effects are extended to individuals with, or at risk of dementia and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, although extensive studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms by which physical exercise procures beneficial effects, data suggest the relevance of integrating physical exercise in the prevention and/or cure of AD, disease whose incidence is predicted to increase in the future. Such an increase, may pose medical, social and economical challenges for populations and the health care system worldwide. In the present review we assess the positive aspects of physical exercise with regard to prevention and cure of AD. PMID:27073621

  5. Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions What are the best balance exercises for seniors? Check out these balance exercises you can do ... More Information on Exercise and Physical Activity Local fitness centers or hospitals might be able to help ...

  6. An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

    2011-04-01

    Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

  7. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, P.; Hernández-Aceituno, J.; Hernández-Cabrera, A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization.

  8. Mastery-style exercises in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Noah D.

    Mastery learning employs repeated cycles of instructional support and formative assessment to help students achieve desired skills. Instructional objectives are broken into small pieces, and students master those pieces in successive order by performing to a set standard on an assessment for each objective. If a student cannot master an objective, instructional support is provided, and the student is reassessed. Mastery learning has been proved effective in many subject areas, but comparatively little research has been done on applying it in physics instruction. This dissertation details the path taken that culminated in the use of mastery-inspired exercises to teach students basic skills in introductory physics courses. The path that led to our choice of mastery began with an attempt to provide students with extra practice and formative assessment through weekly practice tests with corresponding solutions, with the goal of helping them better prepare for summative exams in an introductory physics course. No effect was seen, and participation was very low. Investigating how students learn from solutions revealed that they are poor evaluators of their understanding of provided solutions and struggle to retain the skills taught in those solutions. In a follow-up clinical experiment that provided students with solutions, required them to recall the solutions from memory, and re-presented the solutions for restudy, students showed strong retention as well as the ability to transfer information from the solutions to new situations. These results inspired the formal use of mastery learning as an instructional paradigm due to its requirement that students repeatedly recall information from solutions and apply it to new situations. Mastery-style exercises were first created and tested in clinical trials, followed by two in-course implementations. In the clinical trials, students completed a set of questions on a particular skill, and if they failed to master that skill

  9. [Pulmonary obstructive chronic disease and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    António, Carla; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Tavares, Alcina

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that can be prevented and treated, with a pulmonary component and with significant systemic effects that contribute to the severity of clinical manifestations. COPD causes a number of changes, including those which lead to exercise tolerance limitation and to a progressive deterioration of life quality of the patients. Respiratory rehabilitation (RR) represents a key part of the treatment. The benefits of RR are independent of sex, age and disease severity. At the end of the program, the patient should have acquired a life style as independent and healthy as possible. With this article the authors intend to review the benefits of physical exercise in rehabilitation of patients with COPD and the different types of training used in the respiratory rehabilitation program established for each patient. PMID:20700562

  10. Physical exercise and diabetes during childhood.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cosimo; Mohn, A; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Active life and physical fitness may represent the most effective strategies to prevent chronic diseases and to improve growth and development for children, including those with diabetes. Observational studies have demonstrated the association between life style and prevention of chronic diseases in the general population. These studies have been showed a reduction of morbidity for vascular diseases in trained subjects who present adequate cardiovascular fitness and practise regular exercise. The exercise-related protective effects may be mediated in part through components of the metabolic syndrome: improved insulin sensitivity, decreased weight and visceral fat accumulation, reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides, increased high density lipoprotein (HDL), decreased blood pressure. These effects are more significant in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), because hyperglycemia-related morbidity and mortality are associated with chronic complications. In particular, improved insulin sensitivity may determine a better glucose profile which in turn may positively influence the diabetes-related microvascular complications. Furthermore, improved blood pressure and normalization of lipid profile may also contribute to the prevention of vascular complications. Nonetheless, physical activity can improve psychological well-being by increasing self-esteem and enhancing quality of life. Although patients with T1DM may participate in all kind of sports and physical activities, there are several potential adverse events, including hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic episodes, that can occur. Thus, patients and health professionals have to know in details the physiological effect of physical exercise and its metabolic events in order sport to be healthy and enjoyable for all children, adolescents and young adults with T1DM. PMID:16918068

  11. Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Panossian, A G; Oganessian, A S; Ambartsumian, M; Gabrielian, E S; Wagner, H; Wikman, G

    1999-03-01

    Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with athletes Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of NO and cortisol in blood plasma and saliva similar to athletes with heavy physical exercise. These results correlate with an increased physical performance in athletes taking adaptogens versus athletes taking placebo. In contrast after treatment with the adaptogen heavy physical exercise does not increase salivary NO and cortisol in athletes, whereas athletes treated with placebo heavy physical exercise increased salivary NO. These results show that the salivary NO test can be used both for evaluation of physical loading and stress protective effect of an adaptogen. PMID:10228607

  12. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    PubMed

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients. PMID:23542879

  13. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  14. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sedentary Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Janet; Nigg, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviors in 493 college students who were enrolled in 10 conditioning activity classes and had completed questionnaires at the beginning of the course. They analyzed sedentary activities and indicators of participation in exercise and physical activity by…

  15. Physical exercise training and neurovascular unit in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zhang, M; Feng, R; Li, W B; Ren, S Q; Zhang, J; Zhang, F

    2014-06-20

    Physical exercise could exert a neuroprotective effect in both clinical studies and animal experiments. A series of related studies have indicated that physical exercise could reduce infarct volume, alleviate neurological deficits, decrease blood-brain barrier dysfunction, promote angiogenesis in cerebral vascular system and increase the survival rate after ischemic stroke. In this review, we summarized the protective effects of physical exercise on neurovascular unit (NVU), including neurons, astrocytes, pericytes and the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that exercise training could decrease the blood-brain barrier dysfunction and promote angiogenesis in cerebral vascular system. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits pre- and post stroke may lead more stroke patients and people with high-risk factors to accept exercise therapy for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:24780769

  16. Exercise treadmill saline contrast echocardiography for the detection of patent foramen ovale in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Brett E; Freeman, Andrew M; Silveira, Lori; Buckner, J Kern; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Carroll, John D

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder placement improves dyspnea and oxygen requirement in hypoxic patients with PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS). Although saline contrast echocardiography (SCE) in the resting state can identify PFO RTLS, SCE performed with exercise stress testing may provide incremental diagnostic yield compared to rest SCE. We evaluated the ability of exercise SCE to predict PFO presence and size using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as a gold standard in a hypoxic cohort. Thirty-three hypoxic patients with suspected PFO RTLS who underwent rest, Valsalva, and exercise stress SCE prior to ICE were evaluated retrospectively. PFO RTLS was defined by ICE findings including PFO anatomy, RTLS by saline contrast and color Doppler, and probe patency. SCE shunt severity was compared to the presence of ICE-defined PFO RTLS and PFO size. Exercise SCE for the detection of PFO RTLS performed with an area under the curve of 0.77, sensitivity of 73%, and specificity of 86%. Among 26 patients with PFO RTLS, exercise SCE identified four additional patients with PFO that had negative rest SCE and two patients with negative Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE had a stronger correlation with PFO size than resting or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE detects PFO RTLS and predicts PFO size in a hypoxic cohort. In addition, exercise SCE can identify PFO RTLS that is otherwise undetected with rest or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE may be appropriate when a clinical suspicion for PFO RTLS persists despite negative rest and Valsalva SCE. PMID:26231342

  17. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  18. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in children and the elderly, but little research has yet examined these associations in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that self-reported frequency and duration of physical exercise would correlate positively with measured intelligence on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in healthy young to middle aged adults (25 men, 28 women). Although there was a modest positive association between physical exercise and intelligence (IQ) for the group as a whole, when examined separately by sex, greater physical activity was associated with higher intelligence scores for women, whereas exercise level was essentially unrelated to intelligence among men. These associations remained consistent even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. The association between exercise and IQ appears to be moderated by sex in healthy adults, possibly through its effects on glucoregulation, insulin sensitivity, or other factors that differ between men and women. PMID:23265022

  19. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  20. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  1. Memory of pain induced by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the memory of pain induced by running a marathon and the factors that influence it. Sixty-two marathon runners participated in the study, which comprised two phases. Immediately after a participant had reached the finishing line of the marathon, they were asked to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of their pain and the emotions they felt at that time. Either three or six months later they were asked again to rate the intensity and the unpleasantness of the same pain experience. Regardless of the length of recall delay, participants underestimated both recalled pain intensity and unpleasantness. The pain and negative affect reported at the time of the pain experience accounted for 24% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 22% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Positive affect at the time of pain experience was not a significant predictor of both the recalled pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. It is concluded that pain induced by physical exercise is not remembered accurately and the pain and negative affect experienced influence recall. Further research is needed on the influence of positive affect on the memory of pain. PMID:25806782

  2. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  3. Thymus recovery after intensive physical exercise under conditions of immunocorrection and without it.

    PubMed

    Sapin, M R; Tkachuk, M G

    2005-11-01

    Exogenous antioxidants, e.g. tocopherol, prevent undesirable changes in the thymus and accelerate its recovery after intensive physical exercise. Four weeks after the end of training (swimming) the general structure of the thymus and content of LPO products in rats treated with tocopherol corresponded to the control values, in contrast to animals receiving no correction. PMID:16758627

  4. Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

  5. Physical exercise, reactive oxygen species and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Radak, Zsolt; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Balogh, Laszlo; Boldogh, Istvan; Koltai, Erika

    2016-09-01

    Regular exercise has systemic beneficial effects, including the promotion of brain function. The adaptive response to regular exercise involves the up-regulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and modulation of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important regulators of cell signaling. Exercise, via intensity-dependent modulation of metabolism and/or directly activated ROS generating enzymes, regulates the cellular redox state of the brain. ROS are also involved in the self-renewal and differentiation of neuronal stem cells and the exercise-mediated neurogenesis could be partly associated with ROS production. Exercise has strong effects on the immune system and readily alters the production of cytokines. Certain cytokines, especially IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IL-18 and IFN gamma, are actively involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Cytokines can also contribute to ROS production. ROS-mediated alteration of lipids, protein, and DNA could directly affect brain function, while exercise modulates the accumulation of oxidative damage. Oxidative alteration of macromolecules can activate signaling processes, membrane remodeling, and gene transcription. The well known neuroprotective effects of exercise are partly due to redox-associated adaptation. PMID:26828019

  6. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions. PMID:19211086

  7. [Physical activity and public health: recommendations for exercise prescription].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Barata, J L Themudo

    2011-01-01

    During the last half century scientific data have been accumulated, through epidemiological and clinical studies that clearly document the significant health benefits associated with regular physical activity. This paper will analyse the latest recommendations for prescribing exercise in all age groups in healthy subjects and to individuals with chronic non-communicable diseases such as overweight, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cancer, that contribute to the leading causes of global mortality. A search in the Pubmed database was performed and were also searched the recommendations of the World Health Organization and scientific organizations in Portugal. Most health benefits occur with at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, accumulated over the week, which can be split into periods of at least 10 minutes. Brisk walking seems to be the preferred aerobic exercise. Vigorous intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercises for muscle strengthening, at least two days a week are also recommended. Children, youth, older adults and people with overweight have particular needs for physical activity. Additional benefits occur with increasing quantity and quality of physical activity through the proper manipulation of the exercise density (intensity, frequency and duration). However, some physical activity is better than none. The role of health professionals in prescribing appropriate exercise to their patients is fundamental to their involvement in increasing their physical activity levels and thus contributing to their health promotion and prevention and treatment of major non-communicable chronic diseases. PMID:22713198

  8. Ultrasound imaging as an undergraduate physics laboratory exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, Timothy A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging provides an interesting and accessible example of the intersection between biology, medicine, and physics. This article provides a review of the physics and technology currently available and discusses two recent methods that have expanded the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound imaging. We also describe two undergraduate physics laboratory exercises involving ultrasound imaging.

  9. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8 m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11519887

  10. Physical exercise intensity can be related to plasma glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, C; Rossi, R; Micheletti, A; Mariucci, G; Rufini, S

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different kinds of physical exercise on plasma glutathione levels. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: In walking group (W; n=6), rats were trained to walk 0.8 m/min for 45 min; slow running group (SR; n=6) were trained to run 4 m/min for 45 min; fast running group (FR; n=6) ran 8m/min for 60 min and control rats (C; n=6) remained in their home cages. All animals were sacrificed after exercise and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma samples determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. Compared to controls, exercise did not change GSH plasma levels of the W group. A tendency to decrease blood GSH was observed in plasma samples of the SR group and in the FR group, physical exercise resulted in a dramatic decrease in GSH plasma levels. These data suggest that during light physical exercise there is a low production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a low request for antioxidant defence such as oxidation of GSH. The dramatic decrease observed in GSH levels in FR rats would indicate the presence of oxidative stress able to modify blood antioxidant profiles. Our results suggest that GSH plays a central antioxidant role in blood during intensive physical exercise and that its modifications are closely related to exercise intensity. PMID:11579999

  11. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. PMID:26987496

  12. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures. PMID:25166042

  13. Practical Approaches to Prescribing Physical Activity and Monitoring Exercise Intensity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jennifer L; Pipe, Andrew L

    2016-04-01

    Regular physical activity helps to prevent heart disease, and reduces the risk of first or subsequent cardiovascular events. It is recommended that Canadian adults accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more, and perform muscle- and bone-strengthening activities at least 2 days per week. Individual exercise prescriptions can be developed using the frequency, intensity, time, and type principles. Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity interval training is efficacious for a broad spectrum of heart health outcomes. Several practical approaches to prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity exist including: heart rate monitoring, the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, the Talk Test, and, motion sensors. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale matches a numerical value to an individual's perception of effort, and can also be used to estimate heart rate. The Talk Test, the level at which simple conversation is possible, can be used to monitor desired levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. Motion sensors can provide users with practical and useful exercise training information to aid in meeting current exercise recommendations. These approaches can be used by the public, exercise scientists, and clinicians to easily and effectively guide physical activity in a variety of settings. PMID:26897182

  14. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS. PMID:27319388

  15. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  16. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  17. Influence of physical exercise on simple reaction time: effect of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, J; Arcelin, R; Audiffren, M; Delignières, D

    1997-12-01

    The influence of physical fitness and energy expenditure on a simple reaction time task performed during exercise was investigated. Two groups of 10 subjects were used, one was composed of trained middle-distance runners and one of students who had no regular physical training. The subjects performed a simple reaction time task while pedalling on a cycloergometer at different relative power output corresponding to 20, 40, 60, and 80% of their own maximal aerobic power and immediately after exercise. During exercise, the results showed a decrease in cognitive performance for both groups whereas no significant effect was found after exercise. A significant effect of physical fitness on simple reaction time was noted during exercise. The data are interpreted in terms of optimization of performance focusing particularly on the relations between energy cost of the physical task and attentional demand. PMID:9399313

  18. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. PMID:27033262

  19. Physical exercise and quantitative lower limb collateral function

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Stoller, David; Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that global physical activity and physical performance parameters are directly related to invasively obtained left superficial femoral artery (SFA) collateral flow index (CFI). Background So far, the association between different measures of physical exercise activity and quantitative lower limb collateral function has not been investigated. Methods The primary study end point was pressure-derived CFI as obtained during a 3 min left SFA balloon occlusion. CFI is the ratio of simultaneously recorded mean SFA distal occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure, both subtracted by central venous pressure. As independent variables, the items of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and physical exercise performance (maximal workload in watts) as achieved during a bicycle or treadmill exercise test were determined. The secondary study end point was transcutaneous left calf partial oxygen pressure (PO2 in mm Hg) divided by transcutaneous PO2 at a non-ischaemic reference site as obtained simultaneously to CFI measurement. Results Of the 110 study patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, 79 belonged to the group without and 31 with engagement in regular intensive leisure time physical activity according to GPAQ. Left SFA CFI tended to be lower in the group without than with intensive leisure time physical activity: 0.514 ±0.141 vs 0.560 ±0.184 (p =0.0566). Transcutaneous PO2 index was associated with simultaneous left SFA CFI: CFI =018 +0.57 PO2 index; p<0.0001. Maximal physical workload was directly associated with left SFA CFI: CFI =0.40 +0.0009 maximal workload; p =0.0044. Conclusions Quantitative left SFA collateral function is directly reflected by maximal physical workload as achieved during an exercise test. Trial registration number NCTO02063347. PMID:26977310

  20. Exercise and physical activity recommendations for people with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, Olaf; Peterson, Mark D; Balemans, Astrid C J; Hurvitz, Edward A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour, play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for young people and adults with typical development are available from the World Health Organisation and American College of Sports Medicine. However, detailed recommendations for physical activity and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents, and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific physical activity and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion, and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations is based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents, and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily physical activity prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  1. Teaching Physiology of Exercise to Reluctant Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology seems to be a course that students love or hate. Many physical education students and others involved in the related areas of health, teaching, recreation, dance, athletic training, fitness, and motor learning and development find this course a requirement at some point in their curriculum. Inquiry-based learning is an…

  2. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  3. Physiology of Exercise for Physical Education and Athletics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Herbert A.

    This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2…

  4. Cookbook Procedures in MBL Physics Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuk, Brent; Brooks, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a controlled experiment comparing the conceptual mechanics learning gains as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) between two laboratory groups. One group completed cookbook labs while the other completed Interactive-Engagement (IE) labs in RealTime Physics. Suggests that laboratory activities should engage students in…

  5. Relationships between Physical Activity and the Proximity of Exercise Facilities and Home Exercise Equipment Used by Undergraduate University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling procedures to investigate the relationships among physical activity (PA), the proximity of exercise facilities, and the quantity of home exercise equipment in a sample of 411 undergraduates. To examine the data they collected from the modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Home…

  6. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Ching-I; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ting; Huang, Wei-Kai; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue. PMID:25045938

  7. [Physical exercise in the frail elderly: an update].

    PubMed

    Casas Herrero, Álvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás; Izquierdo Redin, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability that involves an increased risk of adverse events and disability in older adults. It is a condition with a complex etiology and pathophysiology. Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional capacity than muscle strength in frail elderly populations. Multicomponent exercise programs, and especially resistance exercise that includes muscle power training, are currently the most relevant interventions to slow down disability and other adverse outcomes, even in the oldest-old. Moreover, these programs are valuable interventions in other frailty domains, such as falls and cognitive decline. Physical exercise, in the frail elderly, should be prescribed with a progressive individualized plan and just like other medical treatments. PMID:25682569

  8. Surface electromyography during physical exercise in water: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aquatic exercise has been widely used for rehabilitation and functional recovery due to its physical and physiological benefits. However, there is a high variability in reporting on the muscle activity from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of the literature on the state of the art of muscle activity recorded using sEMG during activities and exercise performed by humans in water. Methods A literature search was performed to identify studies of aquatic exercise movement. Results Twenty-one studies were selected for critical appraisal. Sample size, functional tasks analyzed, and muscles recorded were studied for each paper. The clinical contribution of the paper was evaluated. Conclusions Muscle activity tends to be lower in water-based compared to land-based activity; however more research is needed to understand why. Approaches from basic and applied sciences could support the understanding of relevant aspects for clinical practice. PMID:24731774

  9. Peripheral serotoninergic response to physical exercise in athletic horses

    PubMed Central

    Giannetto, Claudia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on plasma tryptophan (TRP) and free serotonin (f5-HT), whole blood-5-HT (WB-5-HT) and f5-HT/WB-5-HT ratio in Italian Saddle horses. Six clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses were subjected to a 450 meters obstacles course. Blood samples were collected from each horse by jugular venipuncture using vacutainer tubes with K3-EDTA at rest, immediately after exercise, and after 30 min. TRP, f5-HT and WB-5-HT were analyzed by HPLC. Immediately after exercise, statistically significant increases of f5-HT (p<0.001) and WB-5-HT (p<0.001) were observed. After 30 min, f5-HT and WB-5-HT decreased compared to immediately after exercise, but were still significantly higher than rest values (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). A significant linear regression between f5-HT and WB-5-HT was observed during experimental conditions. f5-HT and WB-5-HT modifications after exercise suggest an important role of peripheral serotoninergic markers in response to physical activity. The possible source of extra serotonin detected after show jumping should be clarified by further investigation. PMID:21113096

  10. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments. PMID:24126551

  11. Exercise and Physical Fitness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... برنامج تمارين رياضية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Starting an Exercise Program Započinjanje Programa Vježbi - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Energize Your Life with Physical ...

  12. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  13. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  14. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  15. "Exercise is Medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients. PMID:23572372

  16. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets. PMID:23906130

  17. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  18. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  19. The Role of Physical Exercise in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bilski, Jan; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed and analyzed the relationship between physical exercise and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which covers a group of chronic, relapsing, and remitting intestinal disorders including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The etiology of IBD likely involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. Physical training has been suggested to be protective against the onset of IBD, but there are inconsistencies in the findings of the published literature. Hypertrophy of the mesenteric white adipose tissue (mWAT) is recognized as a characteristic feature of CD, but its importance for the perpetuation of onset of this intestinal disease is unknown. Adipocytes synthesize proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Hypertrophy of mWAT could play a role as a barrier to the inflammatory process, but recent data suggest that deregulation of adipokine secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of CD. Adipocytokines and macrophage mediators perpetuate the intestinal inflammatory process, leading to mucosal ulcerations along the mesenteric border, a typical feature of CD. Contracting skeletal muscles release biologically active myokines, known to exert the direct anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibit the release of proinflammatory mediators from visceral fat. Further research is required to confirm these observations and establish exercise regimes for IBD patients. PMID:24877092

  20. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program. PMID:26702387

  1. Benefits of Physical Exercise for Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minkyung; Won, Jinyoung; Lee, Seonghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder, and is also linked to other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review article is to examine a variety of recent studies on the correlation between physical exercise and autistic behavior in individuals with fragile X syndrome. Additionally, we discuss promising approaches for further investigation of the benefits of physical exercise for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. A systematic search of the PubMed digital library database for pertinent articles published from 1995 to 2011 was conducted. Individuals with ASD who experience exercise tend to exhibit improvement in physical function. In addition, exercise promotes neurotrophic factors and boosts the growth of new brain cells. The collected review articles describe how physical exercise has particular effects on stereotypic behavior and cognition among ASD patients. Finally, physical exercise may benefit patients with autism spectrum disorder through the improvement of muscular strength for increased physical capability. PMID:26770889

  2. Benefits of Physical Exercise for Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minkyung; Won, Jinyoung; Lee, Seonghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder, and is also linked to other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review article is to examine a variety of recent studies on the correlation between physical exercise and autistic behavior in individuals with fragile X syndrome. Additionally, we discuss promising approaches for further investigation of the benefits of physical exercise for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. A systematic search of the PubMed digital library database for pertinent articles published from 1995 to 2011 was conducted. Individuals with ASD who experience exercise tend to exhibit improvement in physical function. In addition, exercise promotes neurotrophic factors and boosts the growth of new brain cells. The collected review articles describe how physical exercise has particular effects on stereotypic behavior and cognition among ASD patients. Finally, physical exercise may benefit patients with autism spectrum disorder through the improvement of muscular strength for increased physical capability. PMID:26770889

  3. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging. PMID:25195719

  4. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  5. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities. PMID:25226940

  6. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  7. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  8. Promotion Considerations for Exercise and Physical Activity in Mentally Impaired, Diseased, and Disabled Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizzell, Linda Bane

    This paper reports evidence indicating that adapted exercise has a preventive effect on the incidence and progression of chronic diseases which are often related to the aging process. Exercise is known to preserve many physiological responses in the healthy elderly, yet those with physical impairments are often discouraged from exercising because…

  9. BP Neural Network Model-based Physical Exercises and Dietary Habits Relationships Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingwei; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Yi

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous progress of society, increment of social pressure, people have paid little and little attentions to physical exercises and dietary necessity. Take Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang and Baotou university students as research objects, targeted at physical exercises time and dietary habits, it starts investigation. Make principal component analysis of investigation results, results indicates that cereal intake is principal component in dietary habits; strenuous exercise time and general physical exercise time are the principal components in physical exercise. Utilize BP neural network model, analyze these seven cities’ physical exercises and dietary habits conditions, the result indicates that except for Shenzhen, all the other six cities haven’t reached the standard. PMID:26981164

  10. [Physical exercise for people with cerebral palsy: effects, recommendations and barriers].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2014-05-01

    The management goal of cerebral palsy (CP) is improving functionality, locomotion and independence. Treatment programs commonly encompass adapted physical activity (APA). This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for APA in persons with CP. In addition, barriers to APA in this population are reviewed. The available literature on benefits of APA to persons with CP has focused mainly on youth. The components of the APA programs generally consist of strength, aerobic and flexibility training. There is no empirical evidence that strength-training increases spasticity in people with CP. Furthermore, strength-training may increase strength and the ability to perform daily activities. Aerobic-training is especially important as persons with CP typically have low cardiorespiratory fitness and high prevalence of cardiac disease. However, limited published evidence exists on aerobic-training effects in this population. Nonetheless, the evidence suggests that aerobic-training in persons with CP can improve physiological outcomes, yet the influence of these changes on participation has not been investigated sufficiently. Stretching exercise is a common treatment for spasticity. Surprisingly, there is inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of stretching exercise for persons with CP. Despite the importance attributed to APA for people with CP, low levels of physical activity have been reported in this population. However, when caregivers perceive greater benefits of exercise, individuals with CP are more likely to be active. In contrast, barriers to APA include costs of APA programs, limited means of transportation to APA facilities, lack of information regarding APA facilities and limited appropriate exercising equipment in the APA facilities. PMID:25112118

  11. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Yun-Ok

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  12. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  13. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Chiodera, P; Volta, E; Gobbi, G; Milioli, M A; Mirandola, P; Bonetti, A; Delsignore, R; Bernasconi, S; Anedda, A; Vitale, M

    2008-04-01

    Physical activity in schools is declining in many countries and inactivity in childhood has become a recognized risk factor. Data from a program of professionally guided physical exercise in primary school children were collected before and after the academic year of training. Four thousand five hundred children (6-10 years) were enrolled, and conditional and coordinative motor abilities (speed, trunk flexibility, long jumping, somersault, Harre circuit test) were measured. Anthropometric measurements were focused on body mass index (BMI), weight and height. Females never showed a significant variation of BMI, whereas males in the first and fourth grades showed significant differences. On the contrary, when considering the motor abilities studied, all the comparisons were highly significant. At the end of training, both males and females did better than at the beginning, and males were constantly faster than females. Our data, generated on a large number of children, show that professionally guided programs of physical education in the primary school lead to significant progresses in the development of conditional and coordinative abilities, without altering BMI values, thus not interfering with the balanced progression of body weight and height. PMID:17490452

  14. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  15. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  16. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuanlong

    2007-01-01

    This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

  17. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV. PMID:26333783

  18. Gut Microbiota Modification: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Benefits of Physical Exercise in Health?

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Begoña; Pérez, Margarita; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer D.; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose F.; González-Soltero, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise provides many health benefits, protecting against the development of chronic diseases, and improving quality of life. Some of the mechanisms by which exercise provides these effects are the promotion of an anti-inflammatory state, reinforcement of the neuromuscular function, and activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it has been proposed that physical exercise is able to modify gut microbiota, and thus this could be another factor by which exercise promotes well-being, since gut microbiota appears to be closely related to health and disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent findings on gut microbiota modification by exercise, proposing several mechanisms by which physical exercise might cause changes in gut microbiota. PMID:26924990

  19. Physical exercise and a leucine-rich diet modulate the muscle protein metabolism in Walker tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Emilianne M; Toneto, Aline T; Silva, Gisele O; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2010-01-01

    Leucine-supplemented diet can recover lean body mass and preserve muscle protein mass. Additionally, physical exercise can be an excellent alternative to improve the rehabilitation of cancer patients. Knowing these facts, we examined the effects of a leucine-rich diet with or without physical aerobic exercise on muscle protein metabolism in Walker tumor-bearing rats. Young rats were divided into 4 groups that did or did not perform light aerobic exercise (swim training) and were on a leucine-rich diet or a control diet for 2 mo. After this time, these animals were implanted or not with tumors (subcutaneously) following groups for either control diet or leucine-rich diet fed rats: control, trained, tumor-bearing, and trained tumor-bearing. Twenty-one days after implantation, the tumor growth induced a decrease in the muscle protein synthesis and increased the catabolic process, which was associated with an increase in the expression of the ubiquitin-proteasome subunits (20S, 19S, and 11S). In contrast, the exercise program minimized the muscle degradation process and increased muscle myosin content. Additionally, leucine supplementation also modulated proteasome subunits, especially the 19S and 11S. In summary, the exercise has beneficial effects by reducing tumor growth, leading to an improvement in protein turnover especially when in conjunction with a leucine-rich diet. PMID:21058197

  20. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  1. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  2. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER STROKE: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Razi, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) post-stroke. In addition, perceived benefits/barriers to PTr post-stroke are reviewed. PTr is an important post-stroke rehabilitation goal. Before beginning a PTr program it is recommended to conduct a physical examination. There is evidence that aerobic training post-stroke has a positive effect on gait and on risk factors for recurrent stroke. Similarly, strength training is also safe and effective. However, this training modality does not improve.gait functions. Neuromuscular training post-stroke is also a recommended training method. In the various studies conducted, there was diversity with regard to duration and frequency of PTr. It is recommended that individuals post-stroke engage in aerobic training 3-5 days a week. During the acute phase, the rating of perceived exertion should be "fairly light" (less or equal to 11 on the Borg scale, which ranges 6-20). In more advanced phases of recovery, one ca exercise at a higher intensity of up to "somewhat hard" (rating of perceived exertion 11-14; 55-80% of maximal heart rate). It is also recommended to conduct strength training (2-3 days per week, 1-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions), and flexibility and neuromuscular training (2-3 days per week). In order to encourage individuals post-stroke to conduct PTr there is a need for social support (from caregivers and family) and to provide PTr consultation. PTr barriers consist of both personal (e.g., depression, knowledge regarding physical activity centers) and environmental (e.g., lack of transportation) factors. PMID:27544993

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers. PMID:25027035

  4. Effects of Physical Exercise on Individual Resting State EEG Alpha Peak Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Boris; Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Przyklenk, Axel; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of the individual's state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE) protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE) protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10 min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P = 0.012) but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input. PMID:25759762

  5. Physical exercise-induced protection on ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Mei; Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is any bodily activity to enhance or maintain physical fitness and overall health and wellness. A series of associated studies have demonstrated that physical exercise could alleviate the infarct volume, increase the collateral circulation, promote endothelial progenitor cells, improve cerebral blood flow after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we summed up the protective effects of physical exercise on cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular endothelium, vascular vasodilation, endothelial progenitor cells and collateral circulation. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases may encourage more patients with cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction and people with high risk factors to accept exercise interventions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26884896

  6. Lifelong physical exercise delays age-associated skeletal muscle decline.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, S; Pietrangelo, L; Loefler, S; Fruhmann, H; Vogelauer, M; Burggraf, S; Pond, A; Grim-Stieger, M; Cvecka, J; Sedliak, M; Tirpáková, V; Mayr, W; Sarabon, N; Rossini, K; Barberi, L; De Rossi, M; Romanello, V; Boncompagni, S; Musarò, A; Sandri, M; Protasi, F; Carraro, U; Kern, H

    2015-02-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by a significant reduction in muscle mass and force. To determine the relative contribution of inactivity and aging per se to this decay, we compared muscle function and structure in (a) male participants belonging to a group of well-trained seniors (average of 70 years) who exercised regularly in their previous 30 years and (b) age-matched healthy sedentary seniors with (c) active young men (average of 27 years). The results collected show that relative to their sedentary cohorts, muscle from senior sportsmen have: (a) greater maximal isometric force and function, (b) better preserved fiber morphology and ultrastructure of intracellular organelles involved in Ca(2+) handling and ATP production, (c) preserved muscle fibers size resulting from fiber rescue by reinnervation, and (d) lowered expression of genes related to autophagy and reactive oxygen species detoxification. All together, our results indicate that: (a) skeletal muscle of senior sportsmen is actually more similar to that of adults than to that of age-matched sedentaries and (b) signaling pathways controlling muscle mass and metabolism are differently modulated in senior sportsmen to guarantee maintenance of skeletal muscle structure, function, bioenergetic characteristics, and phenotype. Thus, regular physical activity is a good strategy to attenuate age-related general decay of muscle structure and function (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01679977). PMID:24550352

  7. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  8. Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the brain important to memory and learning. Research in humans shows that exercise can stimulate the brain’s ability to maintain old network connections and make new ones vital to healthy cognition. For example, in a year-long study, older people exercised daily, walking for 40 minutes or doing ...

  9. Randomized Clinical Trial of 3 Types of Physical Exercise for Patients With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Lisa M.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Ivey, Frederick M.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle; Anderson, Karen E.; Smith, Barbara A.; Reich, Stephen G.; Weiner, William J.; Macko, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of treadmill exercises and stretching and resistance exercises in improving gait speed, strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease. Design A comparative, prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise. Setting The Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center at the University of Maryland and the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center. Patients A total of 67 patients with Parkinson disease who had gait impairment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 arms of the trial. Interventions (1) A higher-intensity treadmill exercise (30 minutes at 70%-80% of heart rate reserve), (2) a lower-intensity treadmill exercise (50 minutes at 40%-50% of heart rate reserve), and (3) stretching and resistance exercises (2 sets of 10 repetitions on each leg on 3 resistance machines [leg press, leg extension, and curl]). These exercises were performed 3 times a week for 3 months. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures were gait speed (6-minute walk), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen consumption per unit time [V̇O2], and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength). Results All 3 types of physical exercise improved distance on the 6-minute walk: lower-intensity treadmill exercise (12% increase; P=.001), stretching and resistance exercises (9% increase; P<.02), and higher-intensity treadmill exercise (6% increase; P=.07), with no between-group differences. Both treadmill exercises improved peak V̇O2 (7%-8% increase; P< .05) more than did the stretching and resistance exercises. Only stretching and resistance improved muscle strength (16% increase; P< .001). Conclusions The effects of exercise were seen across all 3 exercise groups. The lower-intensity treadmill exercise resulted in the greatest improvement in gait speed. Both the higher- and lower-intensity treadmill exercises improved cardiovascular fitness. Only the stretching

  10. Selective effects of physical exercise on choice reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Arcelin, R; Delignieres, D; Brisswalter, J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an exercise of moderate intensity (60% of maximal aerobic power) on specific information-processing mechanisms. 22 students completed 3 10-min. exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer. Concomitantly, participants performed six manual-choice-reaction tasks manipulating task variables (Signal Intensity, Stimulus-Response Compatibility, and Time Uncertainty) on two levels. Reaction tests, randomly ordered, were administered at rest and during exercise. A significant underadditive interaction between Time Uncertainty and exercise was found for the highest quartiles of the distribution of reaction times. No other interaction effects were obtained for the other variables. These results reasonably support that moderate aerobic exercise showed selective rather than general influences on information processing. PMID:9760644

  11. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. Objectives The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. Methods 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle’s self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers’ rating of the children’s obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. Results There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p < 0.05). All the changes reported below are based on after-before comparisons, within each group. Both groups showed an increase in BMI, and number of sit-ups (p < 0.001). Balance worsened in the physical exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p < 0.001). In the Stroop task both groups showed improved color, word- and color-word naming (p < 0.01), while the physical exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and

  12. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. PMID:27313948

  13. College students' motivation for physical activity: differentiating men's and women's motives for sport participation and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical activity focuses on exercise behavior and ignores sport participation. In this study, the authors compare motivations for sport participation versus exercise among college students. Results indicate that participants were more likely to report intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment and challenge, for engaging in sport, whereas motivations for exercise were more extrinsic and focused on appearance and weight and stress management. The findings suggest that motives for sport participation are more desirable than those for exercise and may facilitate improved adherence to physical activity recommendations. PMID:16255320

  14. Exercise can improve physical self perceptions in adolescents with low motor competence.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Fleur; Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Hands, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 10) ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13 week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination. PMID:25543182

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity Uniquely Predicts Exercise Behaviors in Young Adults Seeking to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Moshier, Samantha J; Szuhany, Kristin L; Hearon, Bridget A; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS) may be motivated to avoid aversive emotional or physical states, and therefore may have greater difficulty achieving healthy behavioral change. This may be particularly true for exercise, which produces many of the somatic sensations within the domain of AS concerns. Cross-sectional studies show a negative association between AS and exercise. However, little is known about how AS may prospectively affect attempts at behavior change in individuals who are motivated to increase their exercise. We recruited 145 young adults who self-identified as having a desire to increase their exercise behavior. Participants completed a web survey assessing AS and additional variables identified as important for behavior change-impulsivity, grit, perceived behavioral control, and action planning-and set a specific goal for exercising in the next week. One week later, a second survey assessed participants' success in meeting their exercise goals. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AS would choose lower exercise goals and would complete less exercise at the second survey. AS was not significantly associated with exercise goal level, but significantly and negatively predicted exercise at Time 2 and was the only variable to offer significant prediction beyond consideration of baseline exercise levels. These results underscore the importance of considering AS in relation to health behavior intentions. This is particularly apt given the absence of prediction offered by other traditional predictors of behavior change. PMID:26342011

  16. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  17. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  18. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  19. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  20. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  1. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  2. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  3. Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Coelho Júnior, Hélio José; Moraes, Milton Rocha; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The literature has shown the efficiency of exercise in the control of type 2 diabetes (T2D), being suggested as one of the best kinds of non-pharmacological treatments for its population. Thus, the scientific production related to this phenomenon has growing exponentially. However, despite its advances, still there is a lack of studies that have carried out a review on the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in individuals with T2D, not to mention that in a related way, these themes have been very little studied today. Therefore, the aim of this study was to organize and analyze the current scientific production about the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in T2D individuals. For such, a research with the following keywords was performed: -exercise; diabetes and post-exercise hypotension; diabetes and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; diabetes and acute effects in PUBMED, SCIELO and HIGHWIRE databases. From the analyzed studies, it is possible to conclude that, a single exercise session can promote an increase in the bioavailability of nitric oxide and elicit decreases in postexercise blood pressure. Furthermore, the metabolic stress from physical exercise can increase the oxidation of carbohydrate during the exercise and keep it, in high levels, the post exercise consumption of O², this phenomenon increases the rate of fat oxidation during recovery periods after exercise, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduces glycemia between 2-72 h, which seems to be dependent on the exercise intensity and duration of the effort. PMID:25317243

  4. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  5. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  6. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  7. A distributional analysis of the effect of physical exercise on a choice reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Davranche, Karen; Audiffren, Michel; Denjean, André

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the facilitating effects of physical exercise on the reaction process. Eleven participants with specific expertise in decision-making sports performed a choice reaction time task during moderate sub-maximal exercise (90% of their ventilatory threshold power). Participants were tested at rest and while cycling. During exercise, the participants were faster, without being more variable. We suggest that the effect of exercise on cognitive performance was due to a major generalized improvement of the whole distribution of response time and, although the benefit effect was small, it was consistent throughout the entire range of reaction times. PMID:16368641

  8. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution

    PubMed Central

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  9. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution.

    PubMed

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  10. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  11. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  12. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-11-18

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  13. A Laboratory Exercise in Physics: Determining Single Capacitances and Series and Parallel Combinations of Capacitance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a series of physics experiments which allow students to determine the value of unknown electrical capacitors. The exercises include both parallel and series connected capacitors. (SL)

  14. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  15. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Agostini, Deborah; Polidori, Emanuela; Potenza, Lucia; Guescini, Michele; Lucertini, Francesco; Annibalini, Giosuè; Stocchi, Laura; De Santi, Mauro; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise. PMID:25945152

  16. Exercises are problems too: implications for teaching problem-solving in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.

  17. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…

  18. Carbohydrates and Physical/Mental Performance during Intermittent Exercise to Fatigue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ralph S.; Davis, J. Mark; Burke, Jean R.; Williams, Harriet G.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) ingestion on physical and mental function associated with performing high-intensity exercise. Physically active adults completed physical activities while researchers assessed them. CHO or placebo drinks were consumed before starting and at halftime. CHO ingestion resulted in 37 percent…

  19. Chronic stress and decreased physical exercise: impact on weight for African American women

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Greene, Gracie M.; Gross, Susan M.; Silver, Kristi D.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Design Cross-sectional study Setting African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. Results The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P=.004) and health compared to others (P=.006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r=.319) but was not correlated with BMI (r=.095). Decreased physical exercise (P=.02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Conclusion Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population. PMID:22764641

  20. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595585

  1. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595580

  2. Beneficial influence of physical exercise following status epilepticus in the immature brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F G Novaes; Gomes Da Silva, S; Cavalheiro, E A; Arida, R M

    2014-08-22

    Studies in adult animals have demonstrated a beneficial effect of physical exercise on epileptic insults. Although the effects of physical exercise on the mature nervous system are well documented, its influence on the developing nervous system subjected to injuries in childhood has been little explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a physical exercise program applied during brain development could influence the hippocampal plasticity of rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine model at two different ages of the postnatal period. Male Wistar rats aged 18 (P18) and 28 (P28) days were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTRL), Exercise (EX), SE (SE) and SE Exercise (SE/EX) (n=17 per group). After the aerobic exercise program, histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. Our results showed that only animals subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE at P28 presented spontaneous seizures during the observational period. A significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed in the SE/EX group compared to the SE group. In adulthood, animals submitted to early-life SE displayed impairment in long-term memory in the water maze task, while the exercise program reversed this deficit. Reduced mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus was noted in animals that presented spontaneous seizures (SE/EX vs SE). Exercise increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) and anti-apoptotic response (bcl-2 staining) and reduced pro-apoptotic response (Bax staining) in animals of both ages of SE induction (P18/28). Exercise also modified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in EX and SE/EX animals. Our findings indicate that in animals subjected to SE in the postnatal period a physical exercise program brings about beneficial effects on seizure frequency and hippocampal plasticity in later stages of life. PMID:24857853

  3. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time. PMID:26522742

  4. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  5. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  6. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  8. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  9. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes. PMID:26794458

  10. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  11. Physical exercise down-regulated locomotor side effects induced by haloperidol treatment in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Saur, Lisiani; Blank, Martina; do Nascimento, Patricia; Ilha, Jocemar; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2013-03-01

    Extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akinesia, dystonia, gait alteration and tremors are observed when dopamine D2-receptors are blocked by pharmacological agents such as haloperidol. These alterations produce a Parkinson disease-like state (PLS). Physical exercise has been proven to improve gait and locomotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; we sought to elucidate the effects of physical exercise on PLS induced by chronic administration of haloperidol in rats. We used 48 rats distributed into four groups: Control, Exercise, Haloperidol, and Hal+Exe. All the animals received a daily injection of saline or haloperidol for 30 days, and the exercise groups underwent a daily 30-minute exercise protocol for 20 days. The animals were subjected to the ink-paw test, bar test and open-field test throughout the training period. The haloperidol-induced akinesia increased throughout the days of injections, but exercise was shown to alleviate it. The assessment showed shortened stride length and increased stance width with the use of haloperidol, which were significantly alleviated by exercise. These results indicate that exercise could be an interesting approach towards reducing unwanted EPS caused by haloperidol. PMID:23290938

  12. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, João P P; de Souza, Altay A L; de Lima, Giscard H O; Rodrigues, Dayane F; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one's commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points - 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure - 25.5 points - 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better

  14. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response.

    PubMed

    Menegali, Bruno T; Nesi, Renata T; Souza, Priscila S; Silva, Luciano A; Silveira, Paulo C L; Valença, Samuel S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-12-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in

  15. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  16. Responses of sweating and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained men.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, F; Fujii, N; Sone, R; Ikegami, H

    1996-02-01

    The effect of physical training on the dynamic responses of sweating to transient exercise is still controversial. We determined the phase response and amplitude response (delta) of sweating rate and body temperature to sinusoidal exercise in physically trained and untrained subjects. Eight trained and seven untrained male subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer with a constant load for 30 min; for the next 28 min, they exercised with a sinusoidal load. The sinusoidal load variation ranged from approximately 10 to 60% of peak O2 uptake with a 4-min period. The ambient temperature and the relative humidity during exercise were 25 degrees C and 35%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups in the phase lags of esophageal temperature (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk), whereas the phase lags of sweating rates for the chest and forearm were significantly shorter in the trained group (P < 0.05). The delta of Tes and Tsk per 1 W of exercise load in the trained group was significantly smaller than that in the untrained group (both, P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference between the groups in the delta of sweating rate for the chest and forearm. We conclude that subjects who have undergone long-term physical training show prompter dynamic characteristics of sweating response compared with untrained subjects and have a higher capacity to maintain constant body temperature during exercise at transient load. PMID:8929589

  17. CHANGE IN BLOOD GELSOLIN CONCENTRATION IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C.-C.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.; Charmas, M.; Długołęcka, B.; Baranowski, M.; Górski, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) produced by muscle is an abundant protein of extracellular fluids capable of severing actin filaments and eliminating actin from the circulation. Additionally, pGSN modulates the cellular effects of some bioactive lipids. In this study we test the hypothesis that hormonal and metabolic adaptations to exercise are associated with changes in gelsolin concentration in blood. Plasma samples were collected from twenty healthy males recruited from untrained (UT, n=10) and endurance trained (ET, n=10) groups that performed 30-60 minutes of exercise on a cycloergometer at a workload corresponding to 70% of VO2max. Gelsolin concentration was determined by quantitative Western blot analysis with an anti-human gelsolin antibody. The gelsolin concentration in UT and ET subjects before starting exercise ranged from 104 to 330 and 163 to 337 µg · ml-1 respectively. After 30 minutes of exercise we observed a significant decrease of plasma gelsolin in the UT group (p<0.05) while the gelsolin concentration in the ET group rose on average from 244 to 271 µg · ml-1. However, this increase did not reach statistical significance. Endurance training might increase the ability of muscle tissue to express plasma gelsolin as part of an adaptive mechanism. PMID:24744484

  18. Exercise and Physical Fitness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... Oromo (Oromo) Bilingual PDF Harborview Medical Center Portuguese (português) Starting an Exercise Program Início de um programa ...

  19. Fitting Exercise and Physical Activity into Your Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stairs up and two down. Make it social. Many people agree that an “exercise buddy” keeps them going. l Take a walk during lunch with coworkers. l Try a dance class—salsa, tango, square dancing—it’s up to you. ...

  20. Change in blood gelsolin concentration in response to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-C; Zendzian-Piotrowska, M; Charmas, M; Długołęcka, B; Baranowski, M; Górski, J; Bucki, R

    2013-09-01

    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) produced by muscle is an abundant protein of extracellular fluids capable of severing actin filaments and eliminating actin from the circulation. Additionally, pGSN modulates the cellular effects of some bioactive lipids. In this study we test the hypothesis that hormonal and metabolic adaptations to exercise are associated with changes in gelsolin concentration in blood. Plasma samples were collected from twenty healthy males recruited from untrained (UT, n=10) and endurance trained (ET, n=10) groups that performed 30-60 minutes of exercise on a cycloergometer at a workload corresponding to 70% of VO2max. Gelsolin concentration was determined by quantitative Western blot analysis with an anti-human gelsolin antibody. The gelsolin concentration in UT and ET subjects before starting exercise ranged from 104 to 330 and 163 to 337 µg · ml(-1) respectively. After 30 minutes of exercise we observed a significant decrease of plasma gelsolin in the UT group (p<0.05) while the gelsolin concentration in the ET group rose on average from 244 to 271 µg · ml(-1). However, this increase did not reach statistical significance. Endurance training might increase the ability of muscle tissue to express plasma gelsolin as part of an adaptive mechanism. PMID:24744484

  1. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  2. Physical exercise as a treatment for adult and juvenile myositis.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, H

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence to support the safety and efficacy of exercise in patients with adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Five randomized controlled trials including adult patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (DM) and additional open studies have demonstrated reduced impairment and activity limitation as well as improved quality of life. In addition, recent studies have shown reduced disease activity assessed by consensus disease activity measures and reduced expression of genes regulating inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, exercise could improve muscle aerobic capacity as shown by increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These data suggest that intensive aerobic exercise and resistance training could reduce disease activity and inflammation and improve muscle metabolism. Encouraging results have been reported from available open studies including patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM, indicating reduced impairment, activity limitation and improved quality of life also in these patients. Larger studies are needed to increase understanding of the effects of exercise in patients with active, recent-onset polymyositis and DM as well as in patients with IBM and juvenile DM. PMID:26854121

  3. Real-Life Benefits of Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rake the yard and bag up the leaves. Strength training will make it easier to: l Lift your ... guide or DVD. l Share your exercise story. “Strength training makes my everyday tasks so much easier!” — June, ...

  4. Exerciser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lem, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Mark I exerciser which was added for the second and third Skylab missions, was used for a number of arm and leg exercises. This unit is a modified version of a commercial device. This is an iso-kinetic, or constant velocity, exerciser which retards the speed at which the user is allowed to move. The user applies a maximum effort and the device automatically varies the opposing resistance to maintain speed of translation at a constant preselected value.

  5. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients. PMID:27526144

  6. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  7. Physical exercise versus fluoxetine: antagonistic effects on cortical spreading depression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Heloísa; Lima Barreto-Silva, Nathália; Elizabete Dos Santos, Gracyelle; de Santana Santos, Amanda; Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Mariana; Amâncio-Dos-Santos, Ângela

    2015-09-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine and physical exercise exert similar effects on the serotoninergic system by increasing brain serotonin availability, and both show antagonistic action on cortical excitability. Here we provide the first assessment of the interaction of the two together on cortical spreading depression (CSD) in young adult rats. Wistar rats (40-60 days of life) received fluoxetine (10mg/kg/d, orogastrically) or an equivalent volume of water. Half of the animals from each condition were assigned to perform physical exercise in a treadmill, and the other half formed the sedentary (non-treadmill) control groups. Body parameters (Lee index and thoracic and abdominal circumferences) and the velocity of CSD propagation were investigated. Fluoxetine+exercise animals had less weight gain (78.68±3.19g) than either the fluoxetine-only (93.34±4.77g) or exercise-only group (97.04±3.48g), but body parameters did not differ among them. The velocity of CSD propagation was reduced in the fluoxetine-only and exercise-only groups compared to sedentary water controls (3.24±0.39mm/min). For the fluoxetine+exercise group, CSD velocity values were significantly lower (2.92±0.22mm/min) than for fluoxetine only (3.03±0.35mm/min); however, they were similar to values for the exercise-only group (2.96±0.23mm/min). These findings confirm the similar effects of fluoxetine and exercise and suggest a greater effect of physical exercise in reducing brain excitability. PMID:26004534

  8. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  9. Could physical exercise help modulate the gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Esgalhado, Marta; Borges, Natália A; Mafra, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have several metabolic disorders caused by chronic oxidative stress and inflammation. The imbalance of gut microbiota has been identified as a factor that may contribute to the development of these disorders, which can promote cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. Among several strategies to modulate gut microbiota, physical exercise could represent a new nonpharmacological approach. Although exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk in CKD patients through its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and inflammation, there are no available data regarding the relationship between exercise and modulation of gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review is intended to provide a brief overview of the hypothesis regarding gut microbiota modulation through physical exercise, with a particular emphasis on CKD. PMID:27159232

  10. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care. PMID:27052239

  11. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  12. Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubovic, Spela; Maksimovic, Jasna; Golubovic, Boris; Glumbic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which examined the effects of carefully designed physical exercise programs on the development of physical fitness in children with ID. The study sample consisted of 42 children with ID and 45 typically developing children. All the participants were assessed using Eurofit Test Battery. The results were…

  13. Exercise Programming for Cardiacs--A New Direction for Physical Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard

    This speech begins with the presentation of a conceptual scheme of the physical working capacity of a person starting a training program. The scheme shows that after exercise, when recovery begins and sufficient time elapses, the individual recovers and adapts to a level of physical working capacity which is higher than his starting level. From…

  14. Exercise Is Medicine Initiative: Physical Activity as a Vital Sign and Prescription in Adult Rehabilitation Practice.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Rachel E

    2016-09-01

    To support rehabilitation health care professionals' efforts to increase physical activity levels among their outpatient rehabilitation and postdischarge patients, we review the Exercise is Medicine (EIM) initiative. The EIM initiative was launched in 2007 jointly by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association. Three principles underlie the EIM initiative. First, physical activity should be monitored as a vital sign; second, physical activity is an effective medical modality and should be prescribed; and third, success of their vision requires top down and bottom up efforts by 3 key stakeholder groups: health care providers, exercise professionals, and the community. The target weekly physical activity level is 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. Persons falling below the weekly target physical activity level should be prescribed physical activity and/or referred to an exercise professional for implementation support. Selection of an exercise professional for referral is based on the patient's risk stratification and need to participate in clinically supervised physical activity. PMID:27470321

  15. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  16. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  17. Comparison of effects of yoga & physical exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Raju, P S; Madhavi, S; Prasad, K V; Reddy, M V; Reddy, M E; Sahay, B K; Murthy, K J

    1994-08-01

    The effect of pranayama a controlled breathing practice, on exercise tests was studied in athletes in two phases; sub-maximal and maximal exercise tests. At the end of phase I (one year) both the groups (control and experimental) achieved significantly higher work rate and reduction in oxygen consumption per unit work. There was a significant reduction in blood lactate and an increase in P/L ratio in the experimental group, at rest. At the end of phase II (two years), the oxygen consumption per unit work was found to be significantly reduced and the work rate significantly increased in the experimental group. Blood lactate decreased significantly at rest in the experimental group only. Pyruvate and pyruvate-lactate ratio increased significantly in both the groups after exercise and at rest in the experimental group. The results in both phases showed that the subjects who practised pranayama could achieve higher work rates with reduced oxygen consumption per unit work and without increase in blood lactate levels. The blood lactate levels were significantly low at rest. PMID:7927562

  18. Analysis of physical exercises and exercise protocols for space transportation system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill was made so that informed management decisions regarding the role of this treadmill in operational flight crew exercise programs could be made. Specific tasks to be completed were: The Thornton-Whitmore passive treadmill as an exercise device at one-g was evaluated. Hardware, harness and restraint systems for use with the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in the laboratory and in Shuttle flights were established. The quantitative and qualitative performance of human subjects on the Thorton-Whitmore treadmill with forces in excess of one-g, was evaluated. The performance of human subjects on the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in weightlessness (onboard Shuttle flights) was also determined.

  19. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Osamu; Sakai, Akio

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure(overline {P_{pa} } ) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in(overline {P_{pa} } ) with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, P a CO 2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the P a O 2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  20. Wide housing space and chronic exercise enhance physical fitness and adipose tissue morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro Paulo Menezes; de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia; Torsoni, Adriana Souza; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; Beck, Wladimir Rafael; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2015-05-01

    The current cages commonly used in animal experiments can prevent rats from engaging in most forms of natural locomotion behaviors. These animals tend to exhibit sedentary habits. Here, we show that a combination of wide housing space and training exercise helps to reduce white adipose mass and to increase brown adipose mass. Thus, this combination is a useful strategy for truly enhancing the physical fitness of captive rats commonly used in exercise-related interventional studies and to maximize their welfare. PMID:25906078

  1. Maintenance Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Olson, Erin A.; Motl, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Exercise training has been demonstrated to enhance physical function and to have a protective effect against functional limitations and disability in older adults. Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the effects of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on functional performance and limitations were maintained 6-month postintervention termination. Methods. Follow-up assessments of functional performance and limitations were conducted in a sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 237) who participated in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Participants were initially randomized to a DVD-delivered exercise intervention or an attentional control condition. The Short Physical Performance Battery, measures of flexibility and strength, and functional limitations were assessed immediately before and after the intervention and then again 6 months later. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine changes in physical function between the two conditions at the end of the intervention to 6-month follow-up. Results. There were statistically significant adjusted group differences in the Short Physical Performance Battery (η2 = 0.03, p = .01), upper-body strength (η2 = 0.03, p = .005), and lower-body flexibility (η2 = 0.02, p = .05), indicating that gains brought about by the intervention were maintained 6 months later. Conclusions. A DVD-delivered exercise program specifically designed to target elements of functional fitness in older adults can produce clinically meaningful gains in physical function that are maintained beyond intervention cessation. PMID:25324220

  2. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  3. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Levada-Pires, A C; Sellitti, D F; Procopio, J; Curi, R; Pithon-Curi, T C

    2008-04-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Its primary source is skeletal muscle, from where it is released into the bloodstream and transported to a variety of tissues. Several studies have shown that glutamine is important for rat and human neutrophil function and that these cells utilize glutamine at high rates. Physical exercise has also been shown to induce considerable changes in neutrophil metabolism and function. As neutrophils represent 50-60% of the total circulating leukocyte pool and play a key role in inflammation, both physical exercise and glutamine might be expected to regulate the inflammatory process. In this review, the changes in neutrophil function induced by physical exercise and glutamine supplementation are compared. PMID:17928941

  4. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  5. Cognitive plasticity in older adults: effects of cognitive training and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Bherer, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive training, physical activity, and exercise have often been reported to improve cognitive performance in older adults. This paper reviews some seminal and recent studies using these approaches to improve cognition and physical functioning in healthy older adults and in patients suffering from non-neurological chronic medical conditions. Results from cognitive training studies suggest that despite performance improvement in trained tasks, transfer effects appeared very limited. Surprisingly though, computerized dual-task training has been shown to improve balance and postural control in tests of physical functioning, suggesting that broad transfer can sometimes be observed. Physical exercise intervention studies generally found significant and large improvements in physical capacity, in some cognitive domains, and in quality of life. The benefits seem to be equivalent between frail and nonfrail participants. Overall, results reviewed here support the notion that cognitive plasticity for attentional control, as induced by cognitive training or physical activity and exercise, is preserved in late adulthood. Moreover, results of studies with patients at risk of cognitive decline also suggest that cognitive training and exercise interventions are promising nonpharmaceutical tools to help improve cognition in older at-risk individuals. PMID:25773610

  6. The effects of physical exercises to mental state and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Acil, A A; Dogan, S; Dogan, O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of physical exercises programme on mental states and quality of life (QOL) of individuals with schizophrenia. The study involved 30 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia who were assigned randomly into aerobic exercise (n = 15) group and control (n = 15) group, participated to the study voluntarily. There were no personal differences such as age, gender, disorder duration, medication use between the both groups. An aerobic exercise programme was applied to the subject group, the periods of 10 weeks as 3 days in a week. Data were collected by using the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and to the both group before and after the exercise programme. After the 10-week aerobic exercise programmes the subjects in the exercise programme showed significantly decreases in the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory points and their World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Turkish Version points were increased than controls. These results suggest that mild to moderate aerobic exercise is an effective programme for decreasing psychiatric symptoms and for increasing QOL in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:19012672

  7. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    PubMed

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients. PMID:25831230

  8. Framing Honors Physical Geology around Critical Thinking and Communication Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The honors section of freshman geology at LSU has 20-35 highly motivated students with ACT scores above 30. They are usually non-majors and have had no exposure to geosciences in high school. Teaching geology in Louisiana is challenging because there are virtually no rocks exposed at the surface and students with creationist beliefs are common. In addition to exams, this course requires a series of projects: plate reconstruction, minerals in the home, a metaphor for geologic time, volcano research paper, group project on volcanoes, water resources, and a comparison essay on Hurricane Katrina and the 1927 flood of the Mississippi river. The purpose of the projects is to promote critical thinking and communication skills as well as allow students to explore in greater depth topics relevant to their every day lives such as hurricanes. Critical thinking skills emphasized are interrelated processes and systems, variable temporal/spatial scales, and analysis of controversial topics such as the age of the Earth. This course is certified by LSU's Communication across the Curriculum (CxC) program as communication intensive in written and visual communication. CxC certification requires that 40% of grading depend on communication activities. Written communication exercises focus on organization, audience, incorporation and coordination of visual elements, and proper citation of sources. Visual communication exercises include working with maps, charts and graphs, and a group project where they create a poster and/or stand alone slide presentation on volcanoes geared to a middle school audience. Topics such as origin and quality of tap water, how much copper ore is used to build their home, and local geoharzards such as the Baton Rouge Fault generate a higher interest level and higher retention of information. Preliminary assessment is positive including improved exam results, higher student evaluations, recruitment of geology majors, and anecdotal evidence of long term

  9. Influence of polyunsaturated fatty acid diet on the hemorrheological response to physical exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Nadaud, J F; Satabin, P; Leger, F; Lafargue, P

    1989-08-01

    Several studies have shown that hemorrheological parameters are modified by physical exercise and exposure to altitude hypoxia. These changes result in a decrease in red cell deformability (RCD). Similarly, it has been shown that a daily dietary fish oil supplement increases RCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of fish oil diet on RCD after exercise. Fourteen male subjects (19-38 years old) were divided into two groups. The first group ate a "standard diet" rich in saturated lipids; the second group received a daily amount of 6 g of MaxEPA fish oil for 6 weeks. Before the 6 weeks of experimental nutrition, and just after this period, both groups were submitted to two physical exercises of 1 h cycling at 70% of their VO2max. One test was performed at sea level, the other at a simulated altitude of 3000 m in a hypobaric chamber. Blood samples were drawn before and after exercise and used to evaluate: (1) RCD by filtration on polycarbonate membrane, (2) plasma viscosity, and (3) erythrocyte phospholipid composition. Energy charge of red cell was evaluated by ATP/AMP/ADP and two to three DPB assays. Gas liquid chromatography indicated an increase in n-3 PUFA membrane erythrocyte composition. In the control group, RCD decreased by an average of 53% after exercise under hypoxic conditions and was unchanged after the same exercise at sea level. MaxEPA diet suppresses the decrease in RCD observed after hypoxic exercise. These results indicate a decrease in RCD under the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia, which is prevented by 6 weeks of fish oil supplement. PMID:2606594

  10. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  11. Physical exercise and pancreatic islets: acute and chronic actions on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe N; Proença, André R G; Chimin, Patrícia; Marçal, Anderson C; Bessa-Lima, Fábio; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a great public health problem, which attacks part of the world population, being characterized by an imbalance in body glucose homeostasis. Physical exercise is pointed as a protective agent and is also recommended to people with DM. As pancreatic islets present an important role in glucose homeostasis, we aim to study the role of physical exercise (chronic adaptations and acute responses) in pancreatic islets functionality in Wistar male rats. First, animals were divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and aerobic trained (T). At the end of 8 weeks, half of them (S and T) were submitted to an acute exercise session (exercise until exhaustion), being subdivided as acute sedentary (AS) and acute trained (AT). After the experimental period, periepididymal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat pads, blood, soleus muscle and pancreatic islets were collected and prepared for further analysis. From the pancreatic islets, total insulin content, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, leucine, arginine and carbachol were analyzed. Our results pointed that body adiposity and glucose homeostasis improved with chronic physical exercise. In addition, total insulin content was reduced in group AT, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose was reduced in trained groups (T and AT) and insulin secretion stimulated by carbachol was increased in group AT. There were no significant differences in insulin secretion stimulated by arginine and leucine. We identified a possible modulating action on insulin secretion, probably related to the association of chronic adaptation with an acute response on cholinergic activity in pancreatic islets. PMID:22868676

  12. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  13. A Comparative Study Evaluating the Impact of Physical Exercise on Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Xhima, Kristiana; Aubert, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that physical exercise can serve as a preventive strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, much less is known about the impact of exercise when it is introduced after cognitive deficits are established. Using the TgCRND8 mouse model of amyloidosis, we compared the effects of exercise as an intervention strategy aimed at altering disease progression. Voluntary running for 1 month or 2 months was introduced in 3-month-old TgCRND8 mice, which exhibit amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque pathology and cognitive deficits at this age. Specifically, we examined Aβ plaque load, spatial memory, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. After 1 month of running, TgCRND8 mice spent more time in the novel arm of the Y-maze compared to the familiar arms, indicating improved memory. The levels of doublecortin (a marker of immature neurons) were increased in TgCRND8 mice running for 1 month, but with no significant difference in the number of new mature neurons or plaque burden. As the disease progressed, running prevented further deficits in the Y-maze performance and hippocampal neurogenesis and it reduced plaque load pathology in TgCRND8 mice running for 2 months, compared to non-running transgenics. Therefore, the impact of running on memory, neurogenesis, and amyloid pathology was of greater significance when sustained through later stages of the disease. PMID:27163797

  14. Physical Exercise is Associated with Less Neurocognitive Impairment Among HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Catherine A.; Marquine, Maria J.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Henry, Brook L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remains prevalent in HIV-infection. Randomized trials have shown that physical exercise improves NCI in non HIV-infected adults, but data on HIV-infected populations is limited. Community-dwelling HIV-infected participants (n=335) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery that was utilized to define both global and domain-specific NCI. Participants were divided into “Exercise” (n=83) and “No Exercise” (n=252) groups based on whether they self-reported engaging in any activity that increased heart rate in the last 72 hours or not. We also measured and evaluated a series of potential confounding factors, including demographics, HIV-disease characteristics, substance use and psychiatric comorbidities, and physical functioning. Lower rates of global NCI were observed among the Exercise group (15.7%) as compared to those in the No Exercise group (31.0%; p<.01). A multivariable logistic regression controlling for potential confounds (i.e., education, AIDS status, current CD4+ lymphocyte count, self-reported physical function, current depression) showed that being in the Exercise group remained significantly associated with lower global NCI (OR=2.63, p<.05). Similar models of domain-specific NCI showed that Exercise was associated with reduced impairment in working memory (p<.05) and speed of information processing (p<.05). The present findings suggest that HIV-infected adults who exercise are approximately half as likely to show NCI as compared to those who do not. Future longitudinal studies might be best suited to address causality and intervention trials in HIV-infected individuals will determine whether exercise can prevent or ameliorate NCI in this population. PMID:23934585

  15. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  16. Physical allergies and exercise. Clinical implications for those engaged in sports activities.

    PubMed

    Briner, W W

    1993-06-01

    There are several allergic responses that may occur in susceptible individuals as a result of exposure to physical stimuli. Most of these conditions are mediated by vasoactive substances and usually result in symptoms of urticaria and/or angioedema. There are 2 such conditions that may occur as a direct result from exercise. The first of these is cholinergic urticaria. Patients with cholinergic urticaria experience punctate (2 to 4mm) hives which occur reproducibly with exercise or with passive warming, such as might occur in a steam bath or hot pool. Life-threatening hypotension or angioedema usually do not occur with cholinergic urticaria. This condition usually responds well to oral hydroxyzine. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a form of physical allergy that has been recognised with increasing frequency in recent years. This syndrome typically presents with generalised pruritus, a flushing sensation, a feeling of warmth and the development of conventional (10 to 15mm) urticaria in association with vigorous physical exertion only. Symptoms tend to occur variably with exposure to exercise and do not typically occur with passive warming. During symptomatic attacks, cutaneous mast cells degranulate and serum histamine levels increase. Treatment is problematic. Cessation of exercise with onset of symptoms and self-administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) are recommended. Other physical allergies that may affect exercising individuals include cold urticaria, localised heat urticaria, symptomatic dermatographism (dermographism), delayed pressure urticaria (angioedema), solar urticaria and aquagenic urticaria. Management of these conditions may include patient education, selective avoidance, antihistamines and, in some cases, induction of tolerance. PMID:8341871

  17. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

    2014-03-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  18. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  19. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  20. Modified Delphi Investigation of Exercise Science in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi…

  1. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  2. From the Outside In: Getting Physical with Exercises Inspired by Stella Adler and Uta Hagen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that teaching students to find and play appropriate actions helps them tell the story of a play and create character better than if they focused on emotions. Discusses Stella Adler and Uta Hagen, two acting teachers who advocated this physical approach. Presents two exercises: "justify and connect," and "enter a room." (PM)

  3. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  4. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  5. State/Trait Anxiety and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine anxiolytic effects of acute physical exertions in relation to the initial anxiety state and trait in women. Material and methods: A group of 163 women aged 16-56 years, attending fitness clubs in Warsaw, participated in the study. They selected a single exercise to perform--strength, aerobic or mixed, lasting 30 to over 60…

  6. Guidelines for Undergraduate Exercise Physiology in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A course in Exercise Physiology is a common requirement among undergraduate students preparing for a career in physical education, adult fitness, or athletic training. Often, such courses are taught to an assortment of students from a variety of disciplines (Van Donselaar & Leslie, 1990) with an emphasis on physiological principles applied to…

  7. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  8. Use of Microscale Landforms to Teach Introductory Physical Geography: Planning a Local Field Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    States that firsthand observations of the dynamic process that shapes landforms are important to understanding physical geography. Posits that locally planned, short-duration field exercises to study miniature or fourth-order landforms will enhance instruction about these fundamental geographic concepts. (DB)

  9. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  10. Influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika; Langwald, Marta; Dudziak, Diana; Zaremba, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the research was to define the influence of a single physical exercise class on mood states of pregnant women and to establish the socio-demographic and personality predictors of mood changes. The sample was comprised of a total of 109 pregnant women aged 19-37 years. Of the group, 62 women participated in physical exercise for pregnant women (the experimental group) and 47 women participated in traditional childbirth education classes (the control group). Emotional states were assessed with the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist; personality traits were measured with the NEO-FFI, LOT-R and STAI questionnaires. Socio-demographic data were collected with a survey developed by the authors. A single physical exercise class improved the emotional state of pregnant women significantly more than a traditional childbirth education class. Within the experimental group, a significant improvement of mood was observed in all dimensions, while in the control group only hedonic tone increased. Greater improvements in mood can be expected in a group of women who are younger, less optimistic, and who evaluate their health better but physical fitness worse. As a single session of exercise helps improve the mood of pregnant women, this may be an effective strategy to prevent the deterioration of mood state during pregnancy. PMID:23646888

  11. Self-Regulation of Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Attitudes towards Exercise and Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in self-regulation of attitudes towards engaging in exercise and eating a healthy diet between physical education teacher education (PETE) students and general education (GE) students, and between male students and female students. Participants were university students (n = 194) at a university…

  12. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it’s potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry—brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  13. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  14. Exercising Your Rights: Eliminating Sex Bias in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    A module on sex stereotyping and its effect on physical education is described. This unit is a part of a series of instructional modules on sex-role stereotyping in education. Designed to be used independently or to supplement an existing instructional unit, the module is composed of a 25-minute tape, five transparency masters, three handouts, and…

  15. Fitness Load and Exercise Time in Secondary Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao Jun; Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effect of secondary school physical education on fitness load: the product of the mean heart rate above threshold (144 bpm) and the time duration of heart rate above that threshold. Highly and moderately skilled students achieved fitness load more frequently than their lower skilled colleagues. (GLR)

  16. Physical Education Curriculum Priorities: "Safe" Exercise Is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among America's youth is critical in helping to combat chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, finding the right sporting activities for the youth is important, as is making appropriate biomechanical adjustments or behavior modifications that create a safer means of participation. In this article, the…

  17. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  18. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  19. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    PubMed Central

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ2 = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ2/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 − .088). However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  20. Art of preserving health: studies on the medical supervision of physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Alan J

    2009-12-01

    To the ancient Greeks, physical exercise was an essential part of life, especially during adolescence and young adulthood. Long after the end of the Classical Greek era, Roman conquest brought a shift towards martial training, increased professionalism in athletic competition and a weak strand of restorative gymnastics kept barely intact by the likes of Galen. While the crux of these teachings was the use of exercise, among other things, to promote and maintain health, the emphasis began to shift to concerns about the health of athletes and the medical problems brought about by exercise. Fashions in athletic training began to change in the mid-nineteenth century, but the mystique associated with athletic training pervaded much of the thinking and still persists today where, in this modern scientific period of exercise and health, physiologists, physical educators and physicians have become involved in seeking to apply the scientific method to what has become known as exercise science. The modern concept of sports medicine tends to emphasize the training and welfare of the elite athlete. PMID:20003000

  1. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  2. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Mammalian Testis Function: Emerging Preclinical Protein Biomarker and Integrative Biology Insights.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mariana; Freitas, Maria João; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity have long been recognized for health promotion and to delay the onset of many pathological situations such as diabetes and cancers. Still, there appears to be an upper limit on the beneficial health effects regarding intensity and frequency of exercise training. In humans, the effect of exercise training in the male reproductive system has been studied mainly through the analysis of semen quality parameters, with inconsistent results. Less is known on molecular biomarkers of exercise-related changes in testis at the protein/proteome level. This review offers an in-depth analysis on the small scale protein studies available primarily from the preclinical studies and interprets their functional impact on the reproductive health with a view to humans. In all, exercise training in preclinical models seems to negatively modulate, in the course of health, critical functions that directly affect spermatogenesis, such as testosterone biosynthesis, energy supply, and antioxidant system components. Exercise training induces apoptosis, leading to the impairment of spermatogenesis and, consequently, to male infertility. In pathological conditions, an improvement in the testicular functions is observed by increases in steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant defenses, and reductions in activity of inflammatory pathways. Importantly, the mechanisms by which exercise training modulates the reproductive function are far from being fully understood. The analyses of the testis proteome in varying exercise conditions would inform the molecular mechanisms involved and identify putative theranostics opportunities. Such future research is a cornerstone for health promotion in the pursuit of reproductive health informed by omics systems sciences. PMID:26284990

  3. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established. PMID:9748099

  4. Patients' mental models and adherence to outpatient physical therapy home exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Within physical therapy, patient adherence usually relates to attending appointments, following advice, and/or undertaking prescribed exercise. Similar to findings for general medical adherence, patient adherence to physical therapy home exercise programs (HEP) is estimated between 35 and 72%. Adherence to HEPs is a multifactorial and poorly understood phenomenon, with no consensus regarding a common theoretical framework that best guides empirical or clinical efforts. Mental models, a construct used to explain behavior and decision-making in the social sciences, may serve as this framework. Mental models comprise an individual's tacit thoughts about how the world works. They include assumptions about new experiences and expectations for the future based on implicit comparisons between current and past experiences. Mental models play an important role in decision-making and guiding actions. This professional theoretical article discusses empirical research demonstrating relationships among mental models, prior experience, and adherence decisions in medical and physical therapy contexts. Specific issues related to mental models and physical therapy patient adherence are discussed, including the importance of articulation of patients' mental models, assessment of patients' mental models that relate to exercise program adherence, discrepancy between patient and provider mental models, and revision of patients' mental models in ways that enhance adherence. The article concludes with practical implications for physical therapists and recommendations for further research to better understand the role of mental models in physical therapy patient adherence behavior. PMID:25585516

  5. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial

  6. Free fall of a cat—freshman physics exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studnička, Filip; Šlégr, Jan; Štegner, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculation of the terminal velocity of falling cat, taking the air drag into account. The results show that a fall from the seventh floor is critical for the cat so we introduce a new quantity called the ‘coefficient of the cat’s fear’ during free fall. A subsequent experiment with a model of a cat carrying the accelerometer confirmed this conclusion. This calculation and experiment can act as a strong motivational factor during introductory physics courses.

  7. Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

  8. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  9. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted. PMID:25764792

  10. Oxidative Stress Is a Central Target for Physical Exercise Neuroprotection Against Pathological Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    García-Mesa, Yoelvis; Colie, Sandra; Corpas, Rubén; Cristòfol, Rosa; Comellas, Francesc; Nebreda, Angel R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is suggested for preventing or delaying senescence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined its therapeutic value in the advanced stage of AD-like pathology in 3xTg-AD female mice through voluntary wheel running from 12 to 15 months of age. Mice submitted to exercise showed improved body fitness, immunorejuvenation, improvement of behavior and cognition, and reduced amyloid and tau pathology. Brain tissue analysis of aged 3xTg-AD mice showed high levels of oxidative damage. However, this damage was decreased by physical exercise through regulation of redox homeostasis. Network analyses showed that oxidative stress was a central event, which correlated with AD-like pathology and the AD-related behaviors of anxiety, apathy, and cognitive loss. This study corroborates the importance of redox mechanisms in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise, and supports the theory of the crucial role of oxidative stress in the switch from normal brain aging to pathological aging and AD. PMID:25720862

  11. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Wender, Mariane Heckmann; Gonçalves, Andréa Kruger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira Dos; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population. PMID:27096016

  12. Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Josefsson, Torbjorn; Lindwall, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. PMID:25470398

  13. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  14. [MicroRNAs: circulating biomarkers in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Banoy, Nicolás; Mockus, Ismena

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules with a crucial function in the cell´s biologic regulation. Circulating levels of miRNAs may be useful biomarkers in metabolic diseases such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), which alters the circulating concentrations of several types of miRNA. Specific serum profiles of these molecules have been identified in high-risk patients before the development of DM2 and its chronic complications. Most importantly, these profiles can be modified with physical exercise, which is crucial in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Acute physical activity alone can induce changes in tissue specific miRNAs, and responses are different in aerobic or non-aerobic training. Muscle and cardiovascular miRNAs, which may play an important role in the adap tation to exercise, are predominantly altered. Even further, there is a correlation between serum levels of miRNAs and fitness, suggesting a role for chronic exercise in their regulation. Thus, miRNAs are molecules of growing importance in exercise physiology, and may be involved in the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of physical activity for patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:27299822

  15. Exploring the interaction of physical exercise load and pattern recall performance in female handball players.

    PubMed

    Schapschröer, M; Baker, J; Schorer, J

    2016-06-01

    Studies examining experts' superiority within domain-specific structured pattern recall tasks have typically had athletes perform them at rest, which is far different from how they are executed in their sport. The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing these tasks under different physical exercise intensities influenced pattern recall results of experts, advanced and novices. In two experiments, 68 participants (experiment 1: n = 33; experiment 2: n = 35) were tested using a handball-specific pattern recall task both at rest and during physical exercise. Physical exercises of 60 % heart rate reserve (constant workload: experiment 1) and of 86.5-90 % HRmax (handball-specific interval load: experiment 2) were induced. Results of both experiments revealed significant group differences with experts recalling patterns more accurately than novices but no significant within-subject differences for the two conditions and no interaction between both factors. Our findings replicate prior research concerning perceptual-cognitive expertise in structured specific pattern recall tasks. However, the lack of intergroup differences between the two conditions or interactions was surprising, suggesting sport-specific pattern recall skill is robust to changes in exercise stimuli. Future work is needed to further examine the impact of "physiological specificity" on perceptual-cognitive expertise. PMID:26873349

  16. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Wender, Mariane Heckmann; Gonçalves, Andréa Kruger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population. PMID:27096016

  17. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered. PMID:24154584

  18. Factors Influencing Adaptation and Performance at Physical Exercise in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases after Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bassareo, P. P.; Saba, L.; Solla, P.; Barbanti, C.; Marras, A. R.; Mercuro, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the last thirty years, steady progress in the diagnostic tools and care of subjects affected by congenital heart diseases (CHD) has resulted in a significant increase in their survival to adulthood, even for those affected by complex CHD. Based on these premises, a number of teenagers and adults affected by corrected (surgically or through interventional techniques) CHD ask to be allowed to undertake sporting activities, both at a recreational and competitive level. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms influencing the adaption at physical exercise of patients suffering from complex CHD. The conclusion is that even if there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood, and well-being should be emphasized. PMID:24822218

  19. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Henning; Othman, Ahmed; Mueckter, Sarah; Scheef, Lukas; Pensel, Max; Daamen, Marcel; Jankowski, Jakob; Schild, Hh; Tölle, Tr; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET) ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS) with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise. PMID:24198554

  20. Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation

    PubMed Central

    Kehn, Matthew; Kroll, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    Background While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and arthritis, yet this population is rarely a target for health promotion efforts. This paper examines the self-reported exercise experiences of people with SCI using a qualitative-exploratory design. Methods We enrolled 26 individuals with SCI (15 self-described 'exercisers' and 11 'non-exercisers') from a non-random pool of survey responders. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to record participants' experiences with exercise pre/post injury, barriers and facilitators to being active and perceived health impact. Results Regardless of exercise status, all participants reported physical activity prior to injury and expressed interest in becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Participants identified a range of both motivational and socio-environmental factors that were either facilitating or constraining of such a lifestyle. Non-exercisers identified barriers to exercise, including a perceived low return on physical investment, lack of accessible facilities, unaffordable equipment, no personal assistance and fear of injury. Exercisers identified facilitators, including personal motivation, independence, availability of accessible facilities and personal assistants, fear of health complications, and weight management. Exercisers associated a greater range of specific health benefits with being active than non-exercisers. Conclusion Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with SCI face many obstacles. Removal of barriers coupled with promotion of facilitating factors, is vital for enhancing opportunities for

  1. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N.; Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. Methods: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. Results: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p<0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p<0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. Conclusion: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo. PMID:25935179

  2. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  3. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  4. Physical exercise increases natural cellular-mediated tumor cytotoxicity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Crist, D M; Mackinnon, L T; Thompson, R F; Atterbom, H A; Egan, P A

    1989-01-01

    The influence of acute treadmill exercise on natural killer (NK) cell tumor cytotoxicity in vitro was studied in elderly women after participation in a program of physical exercise training (PET) (n = 7) or after participation in a paralleling nonexercise control (NEC) condition (n = 7). The two study groups were equated (p greater than 0.05) according to age, percent total body fat, functional status as measured by multi-inventory ranking, and exercise capacity. After the experimental period, the PET subjects had a greater basal level of NK activity than the NEC subjects (PET 38.2 percent specific lysis, %SL, vs. NEC 28.8 %SL; p less than 0.05). Both groups experienced an increase in NK activity after acute treadmill exercise (PET 38.2-57.4 %SL, p less than 0.01; NEC 28.8-37.8 %SL, p less than 0.05), but the increase in the PET subjects was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than that observed in the NEC subjects. We conclude that natural cellular-mediated tumor cytotoxicity is increased in response to acute exercise and long-term PET in elderly women. PMID:2792786

  5. [Effects of an optimized exercise therapy on physical performance of patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Rhodius, U; Posselt, S; Posselt, H G; Hofstetter, R; Leyk, D

    2002-09-01

    Regular exercise training can increase the physical performance of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, training is often hampered by negative factors such as infections, lack of time, etc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week-training-program performed under favourable conditions on physical performance and lung function of CF-patients: 17 patients daily trained at least 2,5 h under suspicious conditions at a sport hotel in Israel (Eilat). During the entire 3 weeks a comprehensive care was applied to the patients including intensive physical therapy and nutrition adapted to the individual demands. Testings of lung function and cycle ergometry ramp tests were performed a week before and after the training program. Additional control measurements were taken 7 months post training. After the 3-week-training vital capacity and FEV1 were increased by 7 % and 6 % (p > 0.05). The results of the cycle ergometry showed bigger and significant improvements in the maximal values of power (12 % - 20 %), oxygen uptake and ventilation. This findings were also valid for the submaximal exercise range indicated by a slower heart rate slope and a lower aerobic-anaerobic threshold. The present results suggest, that relatively large increases in physical performance can be obtained by short, but intensive exercise training including a comprehensive care. PMID:12215912

  6. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  7. Physical Exercise Improves The Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; dos Santos, Leonardo; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients. METHODS Forty-two patients of both sexes with heart failure of NYHA class II and III with different etiologies were randomly divided into untrained or trained groups. The six-month exercise program consisted of aerobic training, muscle strength training, agility and joint flexibility activities. Physical fitness was evaluated by testing the performance on these trained components. Quality of life was evaluated by scored answers to a standardized questionnaire involving multiple domains. RESULTS Baseline values did not differ between groups. Improvement in the trained group was identified in all components of functional capacity when compared to the untrained group (p < 0.001). Quality of life improved in the trained patients concerning physical, psychological, social and environmental domains (p < 0.001), whereas no significant change was found in the untrained patients. CONCLUSIONS Guided and monitored physical exercise is safe and has the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients with multiple etiologies. PMID:18719752

  8. Physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Hodson, Jacob A; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether different levels of hypoxia affect physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise or subsequent cardiovascular and perceptual responses. Twelve resistance-trained young men (age, 25.3 ± 4.3 years; height, 179.0 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 83.4 ± 9.1 kg) were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the back squat and deadlift. Following this, participants completed 3 separate randomized trials of 5 × 5 repetitions at 80% 1RM, with 3 minutes rest between sets, in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.21), moderate-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16), or high-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) by a portable hypoxic unit. Peak and mean force and power variables were monitored during exercise. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately following each set. No differences in force or power variables were evident between conditions. Similar trends were evident in these variables across each set and across the exercise session in each condition. SpO2 was lower in hypoxic conditions than in NORM, whereas HR was higher following sets performed in hypoxia. There were no differences between conditions in RPE. These results indicate that a hypoxic stimulus during high-intensity resistance exercise does not alter physical performance during repetitions and sets or affect how strenuous exercise is perceived to be. This novel training strategy can be used without adversely affecting the physical training dose experienced and may provide benefits over the equivalent training in NORM. PMID:25226332

  9. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  10. Australian perspective regarding recommendations for physical activity and exercise rehabilitation in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Robin; Jenkins, Sue; Maiorana, Andrew; Gain, Kevin; O’Driscoll, Gerry; Gabbay, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the opinion of health care professionals within Australia, regarding acceptable levels of exertion and symptoms, and referral for exercise rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Method In 2010, 76 health care professionals at a specialist pulmonary hypertension meeting in Australia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included case studies of patients with PAH in World Health Organization (WHO) functional classes II–IV. For each case study, respondents were asked to report their opinion regarding the acceptable level of exertion and symptoms during daily activities, and whether they would refer the patient for exercise rehabilitation. Three additional questions asked about advice in relation to four specific physical activities. Results The response rate was 70% (n = 53). Overall, 58% of respondents recommended patients undertake daily activities ‘as tolerated’. There was no consensus regarding acceptable levels of breathlessness or fatigue, but the majority of respondents considered patients should have no chest pain (73%) and no more than mild light-headedness (92%) during daily activities. Overall, 63% of respondents would have referred patients for exercise rehabilitation. There was little difference in opinion regarding the acceptable level of exertion or symptoms, or referral for exercise rehabilitation, according to functional class. However, the patients’ functional class did influence the advice given regarding the specific physical activities. Conclusion In 2010, there were inconsistencies between individual health care professionals within Australia regarding appropriate levels of physical exertion and acceptable symptoms during daily activities. Almost two-thirds of the respondents reported they would refer patients for exercise rehabilitation. PMID:22247620

  11. The improvement of exercise performance by physical training is related to increased hypothalamic neuronal activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Henrique P; Leite, Laura H R; Lima, Paulo Marcelo A; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of physical training on hypothalamic activation after exercise and their relationship with heat dissipation were investigated. Following 8 weeks of physical training, trained (TR, n = 9) and untrained (UN, n = 8) Wistar rats were submitted to a regimen of incremental running until fatigue while body and tail temperatures were recorded. After exercise, hypothalamic c-Fos immunohistochemistry analysis was performed. The workload, body-heating rate, heat storage and body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation were calculated. Physical training increased the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular, medial preoptic and median preoptic nucleus by 112%, 90% and 65% (P < 0.01) after exercise, respectively. In these hypothalamic regions, increased neuronal activation was directly associated with the increased workload performed by TR animals (P < 0.01). Moreover, a reduction of 0.6°C in the body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was shown by TR animals (P < 0.01). This reduction was possibly responsible for the lower body-heating rate (0.019 ± 0.002°C/min, TR vs 0.030 ± 0.005°C/min, UN, P < 0.05) and the decreased ratio between heat storage and the workload performed by TR animals (18.18 ± 1.65 cal/kg, TR vs 31.38 ± 5.35 cal/kg, UN, P < 0.05). The data indicate that physical training enhances hypothalamic neuronal activation during exercise. This enhancement is the central adaptation relating to better physical performance, characterized by a lower ratio of heat stored to workload performed, due to improved heat dissipation. PMID:26475529

  12. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  13. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health. PMID:26174783

  14. Previous physical exercise slows down the complications from experimental diabetes in the calcaneal tendon

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; da Silva Nery, Cybelle; de Castro Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza; de Mesquita, Gabriel Nunes; de Gomes Figueiredo, Thainá; Teixeira, Magno Felipe Holanda Barboza Inácio; de Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the complications caused by diabetes increase fragility in the muscle-tendon system, resulting in degeneration and easier rupture. To avoid this issue, therapies that increase the metabolism of glucose by the body, with physical activity, have been used after the confirmation of diabetes. We evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the calcaneal tendon and the metabolic parameters in rats induced to experimental diabetes and submitted to pre- and post-induction exercise. Methods 54-male-Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control Group (CG), Swimming Group (SG), Diabetic Group (DG), and Diabetic Swimming Group (DSG). The trained groups were submitted to swimming exercise, while unexercised groups remained restricted to the cages. Metabolic and biomechanical parameters were assessed. Results the clinical parameters of DSG showed no change due to exercise protocol. The tendon analysis of the DSG showed increased values for the elastic modulus (p<0.01) and maximum tension (p<0.001) and lowest value for transverse area (p<0.001) when compared to the SG, however it showed no difference when compared to DG. Conclusion the homogeneous values presented by the tendons of the DG and DSG show that physical exercise applied in the pre- and post-induction wasn’t enough to promote a protective effect against the tendinopathy process, but prevent the progress of degeneration. PMID:27331036

  15. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health. PMID:26174783

  16. We need to move more: Neurobiological hypotheses of physical exercise as a treatment for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato S; Cevada, Thais; Oliveira, Bruno R R; Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo M M; Carvalho, Alessandro; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in the world. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and chronic inflammation impair specific brain areas, which in turn result in lesser motor control, behavioral changes and cognitive decline. Nowadays, drug-treatments are the foremost approaches in treating PD. However, exercise has been shown to have powerful effects on PD, based on several neurobiological mechanisms. These effects may decrease the risk of developing PD by 33%. However, these mechanisms are unclear and little explored. Among several mechanisms, we propose two specific hypotheses: 1. Physical exercise reduces chronic oxidative stress and stimulates mitochondria biogenesis and up-regulation of authophagy in PD patients. Moreover, antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase) become more active and effective in response to physical exercise. 2. Exercise stimulates neurotransmitter (e.g. dopamine) and trophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, FGF-2, IGF-1, among others) synthesis. These neurochemical phenomena promote neuroplasticity, which, in turn, decreases neural apoptosis and may delay the neurodegeneration process, preventing or decreasing PD development and symptoms, respectively. PMID:26209418

  17. Effects of Home Exercise on Physical Function and Activity in Home Care Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Hideyuki; Tsushima, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of guidance in home exercise on physical function and the amount of activity in home care patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects and Methods] A 2-month home exercise intervention consisting of self-administered exercise by patients (self-exercise) and home visit exercise therapy guided by a physical therapist (home visit exercise) was conducted in 10 home care patients with PD to compare changes in physical function, activities of daily living, and postural status between before and after the intervention. [Results] A decreased number of chief complaints and alleviation of fear of falling were observed after the intervention. In terms of physical function, a significant increase in flexibility and muscle strength were observed, although no significant changes were found in activities of daily living, gait, and balance. Although there was no significant change in the total amount of daily physical activity, the analysis of daily posture changes revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of time spent lying down and a significant increase in the percentage of time spent sitting after the intervention. [Conclusion] Guidance in home exercise in home care patients with PD can be effective in making self-exercise a habit, improving range of motion and muscle strength, and reducing the time spent in a supine position. PMID:25435681

  18. Automated evaluation of physical therapy exercises using multi-template dynamic time warping on wearable sensor signals.

    PubMed

    Yurtman, Aras; Barshan, Billur

    2014-11-01

    We develop an autonomous system to detect and evaluate physical therapy exercises using wearable motion sensors. We propose the multi-template multi-match dynamic time warping (MTMM-DTW) algorithm as a natural extension of DTW to detect multiple occurrences of more than one exercise type in the recording of a physical therapy session. While allowing some distortion (warping) in time, the algorithm provides a quantitative measure of similarity between an exercise execution and previously recorded templates, based on DTW distance. It can detect and classify the exercise types, and count and evaluate the exercises as correctly/incorrectly performed, identifying the error type, if any. To evaluate the algorithm's performance, we record a data set consisting of one reference template and 10 test executions of three execution types of eight exercises performed by five subjects. We thus record a total of 120 and 1200 exercise executions in the reference and test sets, respectively. The test sequences also contain idle time intervals. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 93.46% for exercise classification only and 88.65% for simultaneous exercise and execution type classification. The algorithm misses 8.58% of the exercise executions and demonstrates a false alarm rate of 4.91%, caused by some idle time intervals being incorrectly recognized as exercise executions. To test the robustness of the system to unknown exercises, we employ leave-one-exercise-out cross validation. This results in a false alarm rate lower than 1%, demonstrating the robustness of the system to unknown movements. The proposed system can be used for assessing the effectiveness of a physical therapy session and for providing feedback to the patient. PMID:25168775

  19. [The effect of yoga exercise intervention on health related physical fitness in school-age asthmatic children].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting-Lan; Mao, Hsin-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Hsiu; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga exercise on the health-related physical fitness of school-age children with asthma. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design in which 31 voluntary children (exercise group 16; control group15) aged 7 to 12 years were purposively sampled from one public elementary school in Taipei County. The yoga exercise program was practiced by the exercise group three times per week for a consecutive 7 week period. Each 60-minute yoga session included 10 minutes of warm-up and breathing exercises, 40 minutes of yoga postures, and 10 minutes of cool down exercises. Fitness scores were assessed at pre-exercise (baseline) and at the seventh and ninth week after intervention completion. A total of 30 subjects (exercise group 16; control group 14) completed follow-up. Results included: 1. Compared with children in the general population, the study subjects (n = 30) all fell below the 50th percentile in all five physical fitness items of interest. There was no significant difference in scores between the two groups at baseline (i.e., pre-exercise) for all five fitness items. 2. Research found a positive association between exercise habit after school and muscular strength and endurance among asthmatic children. 3. Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed favorable outcomes in terms of flexibility and muscular endurance. Such favorable outcomes remained evident even after adjusting for age, duration of disease and steroid use, values for which were unequally distributed between the two groups at baseline. 4. There was a tendency for all item-specific fitness scores to increase over time in the exercise group. The GEE analysis showed that yoga exercise indeed improved BMI, flexibility, and muscular endurance. After 2 weeks of self-practice at home, yoga exercise continued to improve BMI, flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness. PMID:19319803

  20. Exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant dairy cows affects physical fitness and acid-base homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to determine if exercise training improves physical fitness of nonlactating, late-pregnant and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows and alters acid-base homeostasis during an exercise test on a treadmill. Twenty-six pairs (each pair having 1 late-pregnant and 1 nonpregnant) of cows were assigned to treatments of exercise training or no exercise. Exercise training was walking (1.25 to 1.5 h at 3.25 km/h) every other day in an outdoor mechanical walker for 70 d. Cows completed treadmill exercise tests on d 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment or about d 70, 40, and 10 before expected parturition of the pregnant cow of each pair. On d 0, physical fitness was similar among all cows based on durations of treadmill tests, heart rates, and acid-base measurements at given workloads (21.1 +/- 0.6 min; 144 +/- 2.2 beats per min; plasma lactate 3.1 +/- 1.9 mmol/L; and venous blood pH 7.44 +/- 0.0035, respectively). After 60 d of training, exercised cows walked longer during treadmill exercise tests compared with nonexercised cows (23.7 vs. 18.3 +/- 0.85 min, respectively), indicating greater physical fitness (pooled across pregnancy status). Heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations at given workloads were less (144 vs. 156 +/- 2.7 beats per min; and 1.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.24 mmol/L for exercised compared with nonexercised cows, respectively). Additionally, exercised cows more effectively maintained acid-base homeostasis during treadmill tests compared with nonexercised cows. Metabolic, endocrine, and nutritional demands associated with late pregnancy did not affect responses differently to exercise training for late-pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows. Overall, exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant cows for 60 d improved physical fitness. PMID:19164665

  1. Application of machine learning techniques to analyse the effects of physical exercise in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Juan; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Bataller, Manuel; Serrano, Antonio J; Such-Miquel, Luis; Vila-Francés, Joan; Guerrero, Juan F

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the application of machine learning techniques to analyse the influence of physical exercise in the physiological properties of the heart, during ventricular fibrillation. To this end, different kinds of classifiers (linear and neural models) are used to classify between trained and sedentary rabbit hearts. The use of those classifiers in combination with a wrapper feature selection algorithm allows to extract knowledge about the most relevant features in the problem. The obtained results show that neural models outperform linear classifiers (better performance indices and a better dimensionality reduction). The most relevant features to describe the benefits of physical exercise are those related to myocardial heterogeneity, mean activation rate and activation complexity. PMID:24480157

  2. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk-yu; Christie, Brian R.; So, Kwok-fai

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain. PMID:24818140

  3. Naloxone decreases the inhibitory effect of ethanol on the release of arginine-vasopressin induced by physical exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Coiro, Vittorio; Casti, A; Volta, E; Melani, A; Maffei, M L; Rubino, P; Vacca, P; Saccani-Jotti, G; Volpi, R; Chiodera, P

    2009-09-01

    To establish whether ethanol and/or endogenous opioids play a role in the control of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) response to physical exercise, six healthy men underwent six bicycle-ergometer tests until exhaustion [exercise control test; exercise plus ethanol (50 of 110 ml proof whiskey orally), exercise plus naloxone (2 mg injected plus 5 mg infused or 4 mg injected plus 10 mg infused intravenously] or exercise plus ethanol plus naloxone). Plasma AVP levels, physiological and biochemical variables were measured during tests. Physiological and biochemical variables were similar in all tests. During the control test, exercise significantly increased plasma AVP levels, with a peak value five times higher than baseline. The AVP response to exercise was similar in the presence of naloxone, whereas it was abolished by ethanol. When ethanol tests were repeated in the presence of naloxone, at both lower and higher dose, ethanol inhibition on AVP secretion was only partial, with mean peak responses 2.5 times higher than basal values. Results indicate an ethanol involvement in regulation of the AVP response to physical exercise. Furthermore, naloxone-sensitive endogenous opioids appear to play a role in the mechanism underlying ethanol inhibitory action, but not in mediation of the AVP response to physical exercise. PMID:19649691

  4. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour. PMID:26219268

  5. Brain Temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and Warm Environments

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain temperature (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or warm environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal temperature (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin temperature were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher temperatures (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal temperature differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a warm environment. PMID:27214497

  6. Brain Temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and Warm Environments.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira de; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain temperature (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or warm environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal temperature (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin temperature were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher temperatures (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal temperature differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a warm environment. PMID:27214497

  7. Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Veasey, Rachel C; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the impact of breakfast and exercise on postprandial metabolism, appetite and macronutrient balance. A sample of twelve (blood variables n 11) physically active males completed four trials in a randomised, crossover design comprising a continued overnight fast followed by: (1) rest without breakfast (FR); (2) exercise without breakfast (FE); (3) breakfast consumption (1859 kJ) followed by rest (BR); (4) breakfast consumption followed by exercise (BE). Exercise was continuous, moderate-intensity running (expending approximately 2·9 MJ of energy). The equivalent time was spent sitting during resting trials. A test drink (1500 kJ) was ingested on all trials followed 90 min later by an ad libitum lunch. The difference between the BR and FR trials in blood glucose time-averaged AUC following test drink consumption approached significance (BR: 4·33 (SEM 0·14) v. FR: 4·75 (SEM 0·16) mmol/l; P=0·08); but it was not different between FR and FE (FE: 4·77 (SEM 0·14) mmol/l; P=0·65); and was greater in BE (BE: 4·97 (SEM 0·13) mmol/l) v. BR (P=0·012). Appetite following the test drink was reduced in BR v. FR (P=0·006) and in BE v. FE (P=0·029). Following lunch, the most positive energy balance was observed in BR and least positive in FE. Regardless of breakfast, acute exercise produced a less positive energy balance following ad libitum lunch consumption. Energy and fat balance is further reduced with breakfast omission. Breakfast improved the overall appetite responses to foods consumed later in the day, but abrogated the appetite-suppressive effect of exercise. PMID:23340006

  8. The relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Cemal; Oguzoncul, A Ferdane

    2013-07-01

    We studied the relationship between smoking and exercise among physical education teachers in Turkey. An online questionnaire was used to collect data. The responses of 1,995 teachers who completed the questionnaire were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 31.0 +/- 4.7 years; 67.4% of the participants were male. The smoking rate was 65.2%. The mean age of onset of smoking was 16.6 +/- 2.6 years. The age of starting smoking increased with higher parental education level. There were no differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to gender. Of smokers, 51.2% were married; 52.4% were in the 30-39 year old age group. The most common reasons for starting smoking were the influence of friends and emulation. The most common reason for trying to quit smoking among men was future health concerns and among women was current health concerns. We found smoking was less common among participants who exercised regularly. The level of nicotine dependence was significantly lower among participants who exercised regularly compared to those who did not. This study suggests physical education teachers, who are role models for their students, have a high smoking rate. We believe urgent action is needed to reduce the smoking rate and increase the quit rate among physical education teachers. PMID:24050108

  9. Neurophysiological and epigenetic effects of physical exercise on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, Perla; Párrizas, Marcelina; Lalanza, Jaume F; Camins, Antoni; Escorihuela, Rosa Maria; Pallàs, Mercè

    2011-09-01

    Aging is a gradual process during which molecular and cellular processes deteriorate progressively, often leading to such pathological conditions as vascular and metabolic disorders and cognitive decline. Although the mechanisms of aging are not yet fully understood, inflammation, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, functional alterations in specific neuronal circuits and a restricted degree of apoptosis are involved. Physical exercise improves the efficiency of the capillary system and increases the oxygen supply to the brain, thus enhancing metabolic activity and oxygen intake in neurons, and increases neurotrophin levels and resistance to stress. Regular exercise and an active lifestyle during adulthood have been associated with reduced risk and protective effects for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, studies in animal models show that physical activity has positive physiological and cognitive effects that correlate with changes in transcriptional profiles. According to numerous studies, epigenetic events that include changes in DNA methylation patterns, histone modification and alterations in microRNA profiles seem to be a signature of aging. Hence, insight into the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the aging process and their modulation through lifestyle interventions such as physical exercise might open new avenues for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to treat aging-related diseases. PMID:21624506

  10. Understanding nutritional interventions and physical exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, R; Carbajo-Pescador, S; Mauriz, J L; Gonzalez-Gallego, J

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in adults and its prevalence is rising around the world. This pathology is characterized by accumulation of liver fat, which exceeds 5% of liver weight in absence of alcohol consumption, viral infection or other hepatic etiology. Since NAFLD has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or alteration of lipid profiles, it is considered as the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have not been clearly elucidated, but different events such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are involved. Modifications in lifestyle constitute the first line for the management of NAFLD. Nutritional interventions include low fat and carbohydrate diet with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion. Moreover, supplementation with antioxidant and cytoprotective agents could be useful to decrease oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Physical activity enables to reduce the expression of lipogenic genes, fat accumulation, or insulin resistance and improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Benefits have been found following both aerobic exercise and resistance training, and remain even after exercise cessation. However, more studies are required to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nutritional and physical intervention, and to define the volume of activity required and its association with weight loss. In this paper, we offer an updated overview of the mechanisms implicated in the progression of NAFLD, and analyze the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions and physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of this condition. PMID:25601465

  11. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  12. Effects of early-onset voluntary exercise on adult physical activity and associated phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Wendy; Meek, Thomas H; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early-life exercise on adult physical activity (wheel running, home-cage activity), body mass, food consumption, and circulating leptin levels in males from four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR) and their four non-selected control (C) lines. Half of the mice were given wheel access shortly after weaning for three consecutive weeks. Wheel access was then removed for 52 days, followed by two weeks of adult wheel access for all mice. A blood sample taken prior to adult wheel testing was analyzed for circulating leptin concentration. Early-life wheel access significantly increased adult voluntary exercise on wheels during the first week of the second period of wheel access, for both HR and C mice, and HR ran more than C mice. During this same time period, activity in the home cages was not affected by early-age wheel access, and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. Throughout the study, all mice with early wheel access had lower body masses than their sedentary counterparts, and HR mice had lower body masses than C mice. With wheel access, HR mice also ate significantly more than C mice. Early-life wheel access increased plasma leptin levels (adjusted statistically for fat-pad mass as a covariate) in C mice, but decreased them in HR mice. At sacrifice, early-life exercise had no statistically significant effects on visceral fat pad, heart (ventricle), liver or spleen masses (all adjusted statistically for variation in body mass). Results support the hypothesis that early-age exercise in mice can have at least transitory positive effects on adult levels of voluntary exercise, in addition to reducing body mass, and may be relevant for the public policy debates concerning the importance of physical education for children. PMID:26079567

  13. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05), with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05), while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05), and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05). In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05). In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. PMID:24009416

  14. Physical Exercise Performed Four Hours after Learning Improves Memory Retention and Increases Hippocampal Pattern Similarity during Retrieval.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Eelco V; Kersten, Ingrid H P; Wagner, Isabella C; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-07-11

    Persistent long-term memory depends on successful stabilization and integration of new memories after initial encoding [1, 2]. This consolidation process is thought to require neuromodulatory factors such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [3-7]. Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [3, 5, 6, 8]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidation-promoting factors in humans [9-14], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [15-17]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. Three groups of randomly assigned participants first encoded a set of picture-location associations. Afterward, one group performed exercise immediately, one 4 hr later, and the third did not perform any exercise. Participants otherwise underwent exactly the same procedures to control for potential experimental confounds. Forty-eight hours later, participants returned for a cued-recall test in a magnetic resonance scanner. With this design, we could investigate the impact of acute exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval-related neural processing. We found that performing exercise 4 hr, but not immediately, after encoding improved the retention of picture-location associations compared to the no-exercise control group. Moreover, performing exercise after a delay was associated with increased hippocampal pattern similarity for correct responses during delayed retrieval. Our results suggest that appropriately timed physical exercise can improve long-term memory and highlight the potential of exercise as an intervention in educational and clinical settings. PMID:27321998

  15. Physical exercise introduced after weaning enhances pancreatic islet responsiveness to glucose and potentiating agents in adult MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R A; Bonfleur, M L; Vanzela, E C; Zotti, A I; Scomparin, D X; Boschero, A C; Balbo, S L

    2014-08-01

    Physical exercise represents an alternative way to prevent and/or ameliorate chronic metabolic diseases. Disruption of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to adiposity in obese subjects. Here, we verified the preventive effect of swimming training upon adiposity, adrenal catecholamine storage, and pancreatic islet function in obese monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats. Male neonatal Wistar rats received MSG (4 mg/g body weight) during the first 5 days of life and, at weaning, half of the rats were submitted to swimming training, 30 min/day, 3 days a week, until 90 days of age (exercised rats: MSGex). Half of the rats were used as controls (sedentary group, MSGsd). Exercise training (ET) decreased insulinemia and fat deposition in MSGex, and increased adrenal catecholamine content, compared with MSGsd rats. Insulinemia during the ivGTT was lower in MSGex rats, despite a lack of difference in glycemia. Swimming training enhanced insulin release in islets challenged by 2.8-8.3 mmol/l glucose, whereas, at supraphysiological glucose concentrations (11.1-16.7 mmol/l), MSGex islets secreted less insulin than MSGsd. No differences in insulin secretion were observed following l-arginine (Arg) or K(+) stimuli. In contrast, islets from MSGex rats secreted more insulin when exposed to carbachol (100 μmol/l), forskolin (10 μmol/l), or IBMX (1 mmol/l) at 8.3 mmol/l glucose. Additionally, MSGex islets presented a better epinephrine inhibition upon insulin release. These results demonstrate that ET prevented the onset of obesity in MSG rats, probably by enhancing adrenal catecholamine levels. ET ameliorates islet responsiveness to several compounds, as well as insulin peripheral action. PMID:24554535

  16. Assessment of Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Stages of Change in College Students Using a Street-Based Survey Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.; Silver, Lorraine Wallace; White, Susan L.; Buckworth, Janet; Sherman, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Used a street-based survey to assess college students' physical activity level, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change for exercise behavior. A large proportion of respondents were not regularly active. Exercise self-efficacy was an important variable in exercise behavior. The low cost, ease of data collection, and short turnaround for…

  17. Nonexercise Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in the Midwest Exercise Trial 2

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Erik A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine compensatory changes in non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx) and non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) in response to an aerobic exercise training program. METHODS Ninety-two overweight/obese (BMI 25–39.9 kg·m−2) sedentary young adults (18–30 years) completed a 10-month randomized clinical efficacy trial of aerobic exercise 5 d·wk−1 at either 400 kcal·session−1 (n=37), 600 kcal·session−1 (n=37) or control (n=18). Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured at months 0 and 10. NEPA was measured by accelerometer at months 0, 3.5,7, and 10. NEEx was calculated by [(TDEE*0.9)–RMR]–net EEEx (EEEx–RMR). Mixed modeling was used to examine differences between groups (group effect), within groups (time effect) and group-by-time interaction for NEEx and NEPA. RESULTS Within the exercise groups, there were no significant effects (all p>0.05) of group, time, or group-by-time interaction for NEPA. Additionally, there were no significant within or between group differences for change in NEEx. However, activity cts·min−1 were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the 600 kcal·session−1 group (346 ± 141 min·d−1) vs. controls (290±106 min·d−1) at month 7 and significantly higher (p<0.001) in both the 600 kcal·session−1 (345 ± 163 min·d−1) and 400 kcal·session−1 groups (317 ± 146 min·d−1) vs. controls (277 ± 116 min·d−1) at 10 months. CONCLUSION A 10-month aerobic exercise training program in previously sedentary, overweight and obese young adults was not associated with compensatory decreases in NEEx or NEPA. Results suggest that overweight and obese individuals do not become less physically active or spend more time in sedentary pursuits in response to exercise. PMID:24694746

  18. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  19. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  20. An exploratory microdialysis study investigating the effect of repeated application of a diclofenac epolamine medicated plaster on prostaglandin concentrations in skeletal muscle after standardized physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Angela; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano; Mautone, Giuseppe; Leuratti, Chiara; Vaccani, Angelo; Crevenna, Richard; Keilani, Mohammad; Burian, Bernhard; Brunner, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Aim Muscle injuries and extensive exercise are associated with cyclo-oxygenase dependent formation of inflammatory prostaglandins. Since the effect of topical administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on local cyclo-oxygenase is unknown, the present exploratory, open label, non-randomized study set out to measure exercise induced release of prostaglandins before and after epicutaneous administration of diclofenac. Methods Microdialysis was used to determine the local interstitial concentration of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α as well as diclofenac concentrations in the vastus lateralis under rest, dynamic exercise and during recovery in 12 healthy subjects at baseline and after a treatment phase applying a total of seven plasters medicated with 180 mg of diclofenac epolamine over 4 days. Results At baseline PGE2 concentrations were 1169 ± 780 pg ml−1 at rest and 1287 ± 459 pg ml−1 during dynamic exercise and increased to 2005 ± 1126 pg ml−1 during recovery. After treatment average PGE2 concentrations were 997 ± 588 pg ml−1 at rest and 1339 ± 892 pg ml−1 during exercise. In contrast with the baseline phase no increase in PGE2 concentrations was recorded during the recovery period after treatment (PGE2 1134 ± 874 pg ml−1). 8-iso-PGF2α was neither affected by exercise nor by treatment with diclofenac. Local and systemic concentrations of diclofenac were highly variable but comparable with previous clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Conclusions We can hypothesize an effect of topical diclofenac epolamine plaster on limiting the increase of local concentrations of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2 induced in the muscle of healthy human subjects following standardized physical exercise. No effect of diclofenac treatment on 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations was observed, mainly since isoprostane is produced by a free radical-catalyzed lipid peroxidation mechanism independent of cyclo-oxygenases. PMID:23551197

  1. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  2. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  3. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  4. Mandatory physical exercise for the prevention of mental illness in medical students.

    PubMed

    Bitonte, Robert A; DeSanto, Donald Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Medical students experience higher rates of mental illness than the general population. With competition rising for success in medical school, and residency, increasing incidence of distress are leading this population to experience higher rates of thoughts of dropping out of school, and even suicide. Since many stigmas deter medical students from receiving mental health counseling, such as the perceived inability to handle the stresses of medical school, and the potential lack of competitiveness for residencies if reported, prevention of mental illness may be a better course to take in reducing prevalence in this population. Regular exercise has demonstrated a positive effect on not only promoting physical health, but also mental health. Exercise encourages a healthy mood, positive self esteem, and better cognition, while decreasing the chances of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Implementing exercise time into medical school curriculums, just like the basic sciences, albeit for less time in the day, could provide a feasible way to ensure that all students are taking time to partake in this important activity for their well being. Though medical schools are rigid with attempts to make changes in their curriculum, thirty minutes a day, three to five times a week of exercise of the students' choice not only is more cost effective than counseling, but it also reduces the chances that they will experience burnout, which if left untreated could transcend into a compromised training experience. PMID:25553235

  5. Physical Exercise during Encoding Improves Vocabulary Learning in Young Female Adults: A Neuroendocrinological Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Deusser, Marie; Thiel, Christian; Otterbein, Sascha; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Banzer, Winfried; Kaiser, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Acute physical activity has been repeatedly shown to improve various cognitive functions. However, there have been no investigations comparing the effects of exercise during verbal encoding versus exercise prior to encoding on long-term memory performance. In this current psychoneuroendocrinological study we aim to test whether light to moderate ergometric bicycling during vocabulary encoding enhances subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest and encoding after being physically active. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum which has been previously shown to correlate with learning performance. We also controlled for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. We found better vocabulary test performance for subjects that were physically active during the encoding phase compared to sedentary subjects. Post-hoc tests revealed that this effect was particularly present in initially low performers. BDNF in serum and BDNF genotype failed to account for the current result. Our data indicates that light to moderate simultaneous physical activity during encoding, but not prior to encoding, is beneficial for subsequent recall of new items. PMID:23700461

  6. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  7. PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF CONTROLLED TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, F.; Snyder-Mackler, L.; Zeni, J.

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the gold standard treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Most patients report successful long-term outcomes and reduced pain after TKA, but recovery is variable and the majority of patients continue to demonstrate lower extremity muscle weakness and functional deficits compared to age-matched control subjects. Given the potential positive influence of post-operative rehabilitation and the lack of established standards for prescribing exercise paradigms after TKA, the purpose of this study was to systematically review randomized, controlled studies to determine the effectiveness of post-operative outpatient care on short- and long-term functional recovery. Nineteen studies were identified as highly relevant for the review and four categories of post-operative intervention were discussed 1) Strengthening Exercises, 2) Aquatic Therapy, 3) Balance Training, and 4) Clinical Environment. Optimal outpatient physical therapy protocols should include: strengthening and intensive functional exercises given through land-based or aquatic programs, the intensity of which is increased based on patient progress. Due to the highly individualized characteristics of these types of exercises, outpatient physical therapy performed in a clinic under the supervision of a trained physical therapist may provide the best long-term outcomes after the surgery. Supervised or remotely supervised therapy may be effective at reducing some of the impairments following TKA, but several studies without direct oversight produced poor results. Most studies did not accurately describe the “usual care” or control groups and information about the dose, frequency, intensity and duration of the rehabilitation protocols were lacking from several studies. PMID:24172642

  8. Adolescent Physical Self-Perceptions, Sport/Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, N. D.; Cooke, C. B.; Mahoney, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Domain and sub-domain physical self-perceptions have been associated with adolescent moderate intensity physical activity although the association with different types of adolescent moderate intensity physical activity remains unclear. This study seeks to examine the relationship between personal self-perceptions and adolescent…

  9. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Angela A; Mattlage, Anna E; Ashenden, Abigail L; Rippee, Michael A; Billinger, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60-69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  10. Let's get physical: a contemporary review of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, Gordon J G; Fetzner, Mathew G; Deboer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper A J

    2013-04-01

    Research over the past few decades has focused on the therapeutic effects of physical exercise among those affected by mood disorders. Only recently has attention turned to maladaptive and persistent expressions of anxiety, with a growing body of evidence indicating promise for exercise as an effective treatment for some of the anxiety disorders. The current review provides a comprehensive account of contemporary research examining the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety disorders. We synthesize pertinent research regarding the effects of various types of exercise within the different anxiety disorders, consider impact of various types of exercise regimens on anxiety, and examine potential anxiolytic mechanisms responsible for positive mental health gains. We conclude with important considerations for implementing exercise as a treatment for clinically significant anxiety as well as future research directions. PMID:23300122

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  12. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  14. Effect of early programmes of high and low intensity exercise on physical performance after transmural acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Goble, A J; Hare, D L; Macdonald, P S; Oliver, R G; Reid, M A; Worcester, M C

    1991-01-01

    Does a programme of light exercise training after acute myocardial infarction produce the same improvement in treadmill performance as aerobic exercise training? Three hundred and eight men from a consecutive series of 479 men with transmural (Q wave) acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a single coronary care unit, were randomly allocated to eight weeks of group aerobic exercise training or group light exercise. Groups were well matched for all characteristics other than site of infarction, which did not significantly affect results. Mean (SD) physical working capacity (metabolic equivalents) determined by treadmill testing at the start of the study (in the third week after infarction) was 6.8 (2.2) v 6.7 (2.5) METs, at the end (in the eleventh week after infarction) 10.8 (2.3) v 9.9 (2.4) METs, and at 12 month review 10.8 (2.4) v 10.7 (1.9) METs for the exercise training group and the light exercise group respectively. The difference of 0.9 METs at the end of the study was the only significant difference between groups. There were no significant intergroup differences at any stage in resting and maximal heart rate, resting and maximal systolic blood pressure, or rate-pressure product. Apart from a small temporarily greater physical working capacity, the physical benefits of aerobic exercise training were equally well achieved by group light exercise. PMID:2015119

  15. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  16. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Singh, Amika S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10–13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  17. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  18. The Intervention Effects of Acupuncture on Fatigue Induced by Exhaustive Physical Exercises: A Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifeng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Naixia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antifatigue effects of acupuncture had been investigated at the metabolic level on the young male athletes with exhaustive physical exercises. After a series of exhaustive physical exercises and a short-term rest, the athletes either were treated with needling acupuncture on selected acupoints (TA group) or enjoyed an extended rest (TR group). NMR-based metabolomics analysis was then applied to depict the metabolic profiles of urine samples, which were collected from the athletes at three time points including the time before exercises, the time before and after the treatment of acupuncture, or taking the extended rest. The results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the recoveries of disturbed metabolites in the athletes treated with acupuncture were significantly faster than in those only taking rest. After the treatment with acupuncture, the levels of distinguished metabolites, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, dimethylglycine, choline, glycine, hippurate, and hypoxanthine were recovered at an accelerated speed in the TA group in comparison with the TR group. The above-mentioned results indicated that the acupuncture treatment ameliorated fatigue by backregulating the perturbed energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and attenuating the ROS-induced stress at an accelerated speed, which demonstrated that acupuncture could serve as an alternative fatigue-relieving approach. PMID:26442121

  19. Sleep-related movement disorder symptoms in SHR are attenuated by physical exercise and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Frank, Miriam Kannebley; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Lee, Kil Sun; Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Tufik, Sergio; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders has been hypothesized for humans, but the causes and mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated whether an alteration in blood pressure (BP) induced by physical exercise and/or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) could affect locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with emphasis on the dopaminergic system. We used SHR and normotensive Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups for each strain: control, physical exercise, enalapril and physical exercise+enalapril. Physical exercise was performed on a treadmill, and enalapril was administered by gavage, both for 8weeks. During this period, locomotor activity was evaluated in an open field test, and BP was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase levels at the striatum were evaluated by Western blotting. The control group of spontaneously hypertensive rats showed higher BP, increased activity in the open field test and lower levels of D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase compared with all other groups throughout the experimental period. In general, physical exercise and enalapril attenuated these alterations. This study suggested the existence of comorbidity between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physical exercise and enalapril conferred protection for both hypertension and the observed behavioral changes. In addition, these treatments led to changes in dopaminergic signaling in the striatal region (i.e., D2 receptor, TH and DAT). PMID:26650246

  20. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, P.; Martinsen, S.; Mannerkorpi, K.; Löfgren, M.; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.; Kosek, E.; Fransson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  1. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL. PMID:23239872

  2. Heart Rate Tracking using Wrist-Type Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Signals during Physical Exercise with Simultaneous Accelerometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boloursaz Mashhadi, Mahdi; Asadi, Ehsan; Eskandari, Mohsen; Kiani, Shahrzad; Marvasti, Farokh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the problem of casual heart rate tracking during intensive physical exercise using simultaneous 2 channel photoplethysmographic (PPG) and 3 dimensional (3D) acceleration signals recorded from wrist. This is a challenging problem because the PPG signals recorded from wrist during exercise are contaminated by strong Motion Artifacts (MAs). In this work, a novel algorithm is proposed which consists of two main steps of MA Cancellation and Spectral Analysis. The MA cancellation step cleanses the MA-contaminated PPG signals utilizing the acceleration data and the spectral analysis step estimates a higher resolution spectrum of the signal and selects the spectral peaks corresponding to HR. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/hour showed that the proposed algorithm achieves an average absolute error of 1.25 beat per minute (BPM). These experimental results also confirm that the proposed algorithm keeps high estimation accuracies even in strong MA conditions.

  3. Heart Rate Tracking using Wrist-Type Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Signals during Physical Exercise with Simultaneous Accelerometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boloursaz Mashhadi, Mahdi; Asadi, Ehsan; Eskandari, Mohsen; Kiani, Shahrzad; Marvasti, Farokh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the problem of heart rate tracking during intensive physical exercise using simultaneous 2 channel photoplethysmographic (PPG) and 3 dimensional (3D) acceleration signals recorded from wrist. This is a challenging problem because the PPG signals recorded from wrist during exercise are contaminated by strong Motion Artifacts (MAs). In this work, a novel algorithm is proposed which consists of two main steps of MA Cancellation and Spectral Analysis. The MA cancellation step cleanses the MA-contaminated PPG signals utilizing the acceleration data and the spectral analysis step estimates a higher resolution spectrum of the signal and selects the spectral peaks corresponding to HR. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/hour showed that the proposed algorithm achieves an average absolute error of 1.25 beat per minute (BPM). These experimental results also confirm that the proposed algorithm keeps high estimation accuracies even in strong MA conditions.

  4. Effectiveness of exercise at workplace in physical fitness: uncontrolled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Antônio José; Silva, Valter; Parra, Sérgio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise for employee health by means of health-related physical activity components. Methods: A randomized uncontrolled study with 20 workers was carried out during three months to evaluate a workplace exercise program. The selected outcomes were flexibility, body mass, fat percentage, lean mass, blood pressure, and heart rate. For statistical analysis, the paired t test and the intent-to-treat analysis were used. Results: There was a significant increase in weight, fat percentage, blood pressure, and heart rate. However the clinical significance was 10% in the size of the effect. Conclusion: The changes verified in the outcomes analyzed were not significant; the variables are within normality ranges proposed by academic organizations PMID:24728247

  5. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE FOR PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Achiron, Anat

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, perceived benefits and barriers to PTr in this population are reviewed. One of the primary aims of rehabilitation for patients with MS is to increase their levels of activity and independence. PTr is a central component in the rehabilitation process. Nonetheless, the use of PTr in the rehabilitation of patients with MS has been a controversial issue for years. Nowadays, strong evidence exists that aerobic training in individuals with MS has a positive effect on overall physical conditioning, gait speed, fatigue, depression and cognition. Unlike aerobic training, the number of studies that investigated strength training effects in this population is limited. However, the available data show that resistance training also has beneficial effects on MS patients. It is important to note, that PTr has no deleterious effects in MS patients. In the various studies, there was diversity with regard to the duration and the frequency of PTr, while intensity was often poorly described. It is recommended that individuals with MS engage in aerobic training (at 60-80% of maximal heart rate), strength training (1-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions), the range of motion, balance and ambulation exercises. Awareness of the benefits of physical activity and sense of achievement are not sufficient to promote exercise participation in persons with MS. Factors relating to physical exertion, sports facilities availability and self-efficacy play an important role in promoting exercise participation. PMID:27544990

  6. Effects of physical fitness on relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressor response.

    PubMed

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2013-11-01

    Fighter pilots are commonly recommended strength training as a means of improving the tolerance to withstand high gravitoinertial (G) loads. Previous studies on the effect of short-term strength-training regimens on G-endurance show equivocal results, with a majority of the studies suggesting improved G-endurance. The mechanisms underlying such improvement are unknown. Presumably, any change in G-tolerance induced by physical training habits should be manifest following long-term training. We also reasoned that during repeated straining maneuvers--as during certain G-endurance protocols--the relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressure response may play a significant role in maintaining adequate arterial pressure, and hence that different training modalities might alter G-endurance, by altering the exercise pressor response. Three groups of males were studied, long-term (>6 months) endurance-trained (E; n = 17), strength-trained (S; n = 16) and untrained (U; n = 17) individuals. The pressor response was studied during sustained (40 s) isometric knee extensions at 50 % of the maximal contraction level. Relaxed gradual onset-rate G-tolerance was determined. G-tolerance was similar in the E (4.6 ± 0.5 G), S (4.9 ± 0.8 G) and U (4.6 ± 0.8 G) groups. The mean arterial pressure increase during isometric exercise was higher in the S (36 ± 7 mmHg = mean ± SD) and U (35 ± 16 mmHg) groups than in the E group (28 ± 8 mmHg). The results suggest that relaxed G-tolerance is unaffected by physical training habits, and that the training modality affects the magnitude of the exercise pressor response. However, it seems that the response is blunted by endurance training rather than enhanced by strength training. PMID:23989489

  7. Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: Osteoarthritis Physical Activity and Exercise Net for Improving Physical Activity in Early Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney; Cibere, Jolanda; Crooks, Valorie A; Jones, Catherine A; Kopec, Jacek A; Lear, Scott A; Pencharz, James; Rhodes, Ryan E; Esdaile, John M

    2013-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines emphasize the use of exercise and weight reduction as the first line of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, less than half of the people with mild OA participate in moderate intensity physical activity. Given that physical activities have been shown to reduce pain, improve quality of life, and have the potential to reduce the progression of joint damage, many people with OA are missing the benefits of this inexpensive intervention. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a behavioral theory-informed Internet intervention called Osteoarthritis Physical Activity & Exercise Net (OPEN) for people with previously undiagnosed knee OA, and (2) to assess the efficacy of the OPEN website for improving physical activity participation through a proof-of-concept study. Methods OPEN was developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Efficacy of this online intervention is being assessed by an ongoing proof-of-concept, single-blind randomized controlled trial in British Columbia, Canada. We are currently recruiting participants and plan to recruit a total of 252 sedentary people with previously undiagnosed knee OA using a set of validated criteria. Half of the participants will be randomized to use OPEN and receive an OA education pamphlet. The other half only will receive the pamphlet. Participants will complete an online questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months about their participation in physical activities, health-related quality of life, and motivational outcomes. In addition, we will perform an aerobic fitness test in a sub-sample of participants (n=20 per study arm). In the primary analysis, we will use logistic regression to compare the proportion of participants reporting being physically active at or above the recommended level in the 2 groups, adjusting for baseline measurement, age, and sex. Results This study evaluates a theory-informed behavioral intervention at a time when people affected

  8. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  9. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  10. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  11. Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Witard, Oliver C; McGlory, Chris; Hamilton, D Lee; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-06-01

    The preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength with advancing age are, we propose, critical aspects of ageing with health and vitality. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition are known to accelerate the gradual age-related decline in muscle mass and strength-sarcopenia-however, both are subject to modification. The main purpose of this review is to present the latest, evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise, as well as diet for older adults that would help in preserving muscle mass and strength. We take the position that future physical activity/exercise guidelines need to make specific reference to resistance exercise and highlight the benefits of higher-intensity aerobic exercise training, alongside advocating older adults perform aerobic-based physical activity and household tasks (e.g., carrying groceries). In terms of dietary recommendations, greater emphasis should be placed on optimal rather than minimum protein intakes for older adults. Indeed, guidelines that endorse a daily protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg BM/day, which are levels 50-90 % greater than the current protein Recommendation Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg BM/day), are likely to help preserve muscle mass and strength and are safe for healthy older adults. Being cognisant of factors (e.g., reduced appetite) that may preclude older adults from increasing their total daily protein intake, we echo the viewpoint of other active researchers in advocating that protein recommendations for older adults be based on a per meal approach in order to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS). On this basis, assuming three meals are consumed daily, a protein dose of 0.4-0.5 g/kg BM should be contained in each meal. We are beginning to understand ways in which to increase the utilization of ingested protein for the stimulation of MPS, namely by increasing the proportion of leucine contained in a given dose of protein, co-ingesting other nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate and fat or

  12. Improving image quality in poor visibility conditions using a physical model for contrast degradation.

    PubMed

    Oakley, J P; Satherley, B L

    1998-01-01

    In daylight viewing conditions, image contrast is often significantly degraded by atmospheric aerosols such as haze and fog. This paper introduces a method for reducing this degradation in situations in which the scene geometry is known. Contrast is lost because light is scattered toward the sensor by the aerosol particles and because the light reflected by the terrain is attenuated by the aerosol. This degradation is approximately characterized by a simple, physically based model with three parameters. The method involves two steps: first, an inverse problem is solved in order to recover the three model parameters; then, for each pixel, the relative contributions of scattered and reflected flux are estimated. The estimated scatter contribution is simply subtracted from the pixel value and the remainder is scaled to compensate for aerosol attenuation. This paper describes the image processing algorithm and presents an analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the resulting enhanced image. This analysis shows that the SNR decreases exponentially with range. A temporal filter structure is proposed to solve this problem. Results are presented for two image sequences taken from an airborne camera in hazy conditions and one sequence in clear conditions. A satisfactory agreement between the model and the experimental data is shown for the haze conditions. A significant improvement in image quality is demonstrated when using the contrast enhancement algorithm in conjuction with a temporal filter. PMID:18267391

  13. Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2010-01-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past twenty-five years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium. PMID:19229096

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-03-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past 25 years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium.

  15. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  16. 12-Mo Intervention of Physical Exercise Improved Work Ability, Especially in Subjects with Low Baseline Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kettunen, Oili; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study’s objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy working adults. Methods: The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men) were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men) in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent). Results: During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016) and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p < 0.0001, in both), while WAI and CRF decreased in the control group (ANCOVA using age, sex and BMI as covariates, for WAI, p = 0.013 and for CRF, p = 0.008). The changes in WAI and CRF between the exercise group and control group were significantly different during the intervention (baseline vs. 12-months, p = 0.028 and p = 0.007) and after the follow-up (p = 0.001 and p = 0.040), respectively. A light positive correlation between the changes in WAI and in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01) existed. WAI improvement was the highest (13%, p < 0.0001) in the subgroup having poor/moderate WAI at baseline (ANCOVA, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The improvement of WAI associated with CRF. These results suggest that a physical exercise intervention may improve work ability. PMID:24714059

  17. Lack of adequate appreciation of physical exercise's complexities can pre-empt appropriate design and interpretation in scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Booth, F W; Laye, M J

    2009-12-01

    Two major issues are presented. First, a challenge is made by us that a misunderstanding of physiology has led to incomplete or wrong functional designations of genes in some cases. Normal physiological processes are dynamic, integrated and periodic, and, therefore, it is difficult to define normal physiological function by looking at a single time point or single process in a non-stressed subject. The ability of the organism to successfully respond to homeostatic disruptions defines normal physiology. Genes were selected for survival and to appropriately respond to stresses, such as physical activity. Omitting gene functions by restricting them to non-stressful conditions could lead to less than optimal primary preventions, treatments and cures for diseases. Physical exercise, as a stressor, should be used to better demonstrate the complete functional classifications of some genes. Second, the challenge from others of an 'exercise pill' as a mimetic of natural physical activity will be shown to be lacking a scientific basis. The concept of an 'exercise pill'/'exercise mimetic' demonstrates an inadequate appreciation of the complexities in integrating cell, tissue, organ and systems during both acute disruptions in homeostasis by a single bout of exercise, and longer-term chronic adaptations to different types of exercise such as resistance and endurance. It is our opinion that those promoting drugs targeting a single or few molecules should not redefine the term 'exercise' and exercise concepts in an attempt to sensationalize findings. Additionally, the scientific criteria that the authors demand to be met to legitimately use the terms 'exercise pill' and 'exercise mimetic' are presented. PMID:19723782

  18. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study. PMID:26542389

  19. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65–75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = −0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (β = −0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low. PMID:24904387

  20. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  1. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Hawley, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials. PMID:21762093

  2. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  3. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  4. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  5. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  6. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately. PMID:19437188

  7. Wii Fit™ exercise therapy for the rehabilitation of ankle sprains: Its effect compared with physical therapy or no functional exercises at all.

    PubMed

    Punt, I M; Ziltener, J-L; Monnin, D; Allet, L

    2016-07-01

    Lateral ankle sprains represent the most common sports-related injuries. The Nintendo Wii Fit™ could be useful in the treatment of ankle sprains. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of exercise training using the Wii Fit™ in ankle sprain patients: (a) with physical therapy; and (b) a control group not receiving any treatment. Ninety lateral ankle sprain patients were randomized to a Wii Fit™, physical therapy, or control group. We assessed the following outcome measures before, and 6 weeks after starting the allocated treatment: Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, pain during rest and walking, delay before return to sport, patient satisfaction, and effectiveness of the allocated treatment. Six weeks after the baseline measures, foot and ankle ability scores had improved in all groups, and pain had decreased during walking (P < 0.050). No between-group differences were detected between Wii Fit™ treatment, and both other groups (P > 0.050). In conclusion, the Wii Fit™ could be used as an exercise therapy to treat ankle sprain patients. However, Wii Fit™ was not more effective than only physical therapy, or no exercise therapy at all. Patients who did not receive treatment showed similar results as people who got any kind of exercise therapy. PMID:26076737

  8. Effect of regular circus physical exercises on lymphocytes in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Momesso dos Santos, Cesar Miguel; Sato, Fábio Takeo; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Guirado-Rodrigues, Silvia Helena; Caçula, Kim Guimaraes; Gonçalves Santos, Cristiane Cassoni; Hatanaka, Elaine; de Oliveira, Heloisa Helena; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Murata, Gilson; Borges-Silva, Cristina Neves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Gorjão, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Obesity associated with a sedentary lifestyle can lead to changes in the immune system balance resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to compare lymphocyte activation mechanisms between overweight children practicing regular circus physical exercises with non-exercised children. The study comprised 60 pubescent children randomly divided into 4 groups: Overweight Children (OWC) (10.67 ± 0.22 years old), Overweight Exercised Children (OWE) (10.00 ± 0.41 years old), Eutrophic Children (EC) (11.00 ± 0.29 years old) and Eutrophic Exercised Children (EE) (10.60 ± 0.29 years old). OWE and EE groups practiced circus activities twice a week, for 4.3 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 months, respectively. Percentage of T regulatory cells (Treg) and the expression of CD95 and CD25 in CD4+ lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation capacity was measured by [14C]-thymidine incorporation and mRNA expression of IL-35, TGF-beta, IL-2 and IL-10 by real-time PCR. Lymphocyte proliferation was higher in OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC (3509 ± 887; 2694 ± 560, and 1768 ± 208 cpm, respectively) and EE (2313 ± 111 cpm) groups. CD95 expression on lymphocytes was augmented in the EC (953.9 ± 101.2) and EE groups (736.7 ± 194.6) compared with the OWC (522.1 ± 125.2) and OWE groups (551.6 ± 144.5). CTLA-4 expression was also lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. Percentage of Treg, IL-35, and IL-10 mRNA expression were lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. In conclusion, overweight children present altered immune system balance characterized by elevated lymphocyte proliferation due to a decrease in T regulatory cell percentage. These effects were partially reverted by moderate physical exercise, as demonstrated by decreased lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:25826263

  9. Effect of Regular Circus Physical Exercises on Lymphocytes in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Momesso dos Santos, Cesar Miguel; Sato, Fábio Takeo; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Guirado-Rodrigues, Silvia Helena; Caçula, Kim Guimaraes; Gonçalves Santos, Cristiane Cassoni; Hatanaka, Elaine; de Oliveira, Heloisa Helena; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Murata, Gilson; Borges-Silva, Cristina Neves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Gorjão, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Obesity associated with a sedentary lifestyle can lead to changes in the immune system balance resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to compare lymphocyte activation mechanisms between overweight children practicing regular circus physical exercises with non-exercised children. The study comprised 60 pubescent children randomly divided into 4 groups: Overweight Children (OWC) (10.67 ± 0.22 years old), Overweight Exercised Children (OWE) (10.00 ± 0.41 years old), Eutrophic Children (EC) (11.00 ± 0.29 years old) and Eutrophic Exercised Children (EE) (10.60 ± 0.29 years old). OWE and EE groups practiced circus activities twice a week, for 4.3 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 months, respectively. Percentage of T regulatory cells (Treg) and the expression of CD95 and CD25 in CD4+ lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation capacity was measured by [14C]-thymidine incorporation and mRNA expression of IL-35, TGF-beta, IL-2 and IL-10 by real-time PCR. Lymphocyte proliferation was higher in OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC (3509 ± 887; 2694 ± 560, and 1768 ± 208 cpm, respectively) and EE (2313 ± 111 cpm) groups. CD95 expression on lymphocytes was augmented in the EC (953.9 ± 101.2) and EE groups (736.7 ± 194.6) compared with the OWC (522.1 ± 125.2) and OWE groups (551.6 ± 144.5). CTLA-4 expression was also lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. Percentage of Treg, IL-35, and IL-10 mRNA expression were lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. In conclusion, overweight children present altered immune system balance characterized by elevated lymphocyte proliferation due to a decrease in T regulatory cell percentage. These effects were partially reverted by moderate physical exercise, as demonstrated by decreased lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:25826263

  10. Enhancing lifestyle for individuals with haemophilia through physical activity and exercise: the role of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, K; Mulder, K

    2007-09-01

    For individuals with haemophilia, the benefits of many forms of physical activity outweigh their risks. Although activities with significant trauma risk should be avoided, persons who have haemophilia can participate in, enjoy and even excel in a variety of physical activities and sports. Both the National Hemophilia Foundation and the World Foundation of Hemophilia have produced documents to guide individuals with haemophilia and their healthcare professionals, coaches and parents in developing physical activity programmes and participation in sports. Physical activity guidelines for promoting health benefits exist worldwide and can be incorporated into individualized exercise programmes to ensure that a person with haemophilia is not only choosing appropriate activities, but also improving overall health and preparing the body to manage haemophilia better. Physiotherapy treatment is paramount in helping individuals prevent, manage and optimally recover from bleeds. Furthermore, the physical therapist, along with the haemophilia care team, can assist in preparing an individual to begin or progress to a physical activity programme that enhances fitness level, body composition and overall well-being. This article presents the unique role of the physiotherapist in facilitating safe participation in quality physical activity in the context of risks, benefits and activity recommendations. Participation in physical activity from an early age is ideal to facilitate the development of body awareness and capability and to foster the adoption of a physically active lifestyle; however, it is never too late to start. Consistent participation in quality physical activity beginning at any age is central to managing haemophilia and, equally important, to achieving overall health and well-being. PMID:17685922

  11. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  12. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  13. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers. PMID:24527440

  14. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers. PMID:24527440

  15. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  16. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-07-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia-dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

  17. Dietary nitrate reduces skeletal muscle oxygenation response to physical exercise: a quantitative muscle functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Rachel; Gray, Stuart R.; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael; He, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation (probably via conversion to nitrite) increases skeletal muscle metabolic efficiency. In addition, it may also cause hypoxia‐dependent vasodilation and this has the potential to augment oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle. However, direct evidence for the latter with spatial localization to exercising muscle groups does not exist. We employed quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) to characterize skeletal muscle oxygen utilization and replenishment by assessment of tissue oxygenation maximal change and recovery change, respectively. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled, of whom 9 (age 33.3 ± 4.4 years, five males) completed the study. Each subject took part in three MRI visits, with dietary nitrate (7cl concentrated beetroot juice) consumed before the third visit. During each visit fMRIs were conducted concurrently with plantar flexion exercise at workloads of 15% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). No significant changes were found between visits 1 and 2 in the fMRI measures. A decrease in maximal change was found at 15% MVC in soleus between visits 2 and 3 (5.12 ± 2.36 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.004) and between visits 1 and 3 (4.43 ± 2.12 to 2.55 ± 1.42, P = 0.043), but not at 25% MVC or within gastrocnemius. There was no difference in recovery change between visits. We found that dietary nitrate supplementation reduces tissue oxygenation alterations during physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This effect is more prominent in muscles with predominantly type 1 fibers and at lower workloads. This indicates that in healthy subjects dietary nitrate predominantly affects skeletal muscle energy efficiency with no change in oxygen delivery. PMID:25052493

  18. Experimental determination of the Boltzmann constant: An undergraduate laboratory exercise for molecular physics or physical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, H. M.; Boardman, B. M.; DeVore, T. C.; Havey, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    This article describes an undergraduate laboratory exercise that uses optical spectroscopy to determine the magnitude and the uncertainty of the Boltzmann constant kb. The more accurate approach uses photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure the Doppler-broadened line profile of individual spectral lines of N2O to extract kb. Measurements and estimates of the uncertainties in the quantities needed to calculate kb from the line profiles are then used to estimate the uncertainty in kb. This experiment is unusual in that it uses advanced laser-based spectroscopy techniques to emphasize standard practices of uncertainty analysis. The core instrumentation is modular and relatively affordable; it requires a tunable single-mode laser, photoreceiver, optical cell, and vacuum pump. If this instrumentation is not available, an alternate approach can be performed which uses the intensity of each rotational transition of an infrared band to measure kb. Although there is more uncertainty using the alternate approach, low concentrations of CO2, DCl, or N2O give reasonable results for the magnitude of kb. Student assessment results indicate retention and mastery of the concept of combined measurement uncertainty.

  19. Lack of adequate appreciation of physical exercise's complexities can pre-empt appropriate design and interpretation in scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    Booth, F W; Laye, M J

    2009-01-01

    Two major issues are presented. First, a challenge is made by us that a misunderstanding of physiology has led to incomplete or wrong functional designations of genes in some cases. Normal physiological processes are dynamic, integrated and periodic, and, therefore, it is difficult to define normal physiological function by looking at a single time point or single process in a non-stressed subject. The ability of the organism to successfully respond to homeostatic disruptions defines normal physiology. Genes were selected for survival and to appropriately respond to stresses, such as physical activity. Omitting gene functions by restricting them to non-stressful conditions could lead to less than optimal primary preventions, treatments and cures for diseases. Physical exercise, as a stressor, should be used to better demonstrate the complete functional classifications of some genes. Second, the challenge from others of an ‘exercise pill’ as a mimetic of natural physical activity will be shown to be lacking a scientific basis. The concept of an ‘exercise pill’/‘exercise mimetic’ demonstrates an inadequate appreciation of the complexities in integrating cell, tissue, organ and systems during both acute disruptions in homeostasis by a single bout of exercise, and longer-term chronic adaptations to different types of exercise such as resistance and endurance. It is our opinion that those promoting drugs targeting a single or few molecules should not redefine the term ‘exercise’ and exercise concepts in an attempt to sensationalize findings. Additionally, the scientific criteria that the authors demand to be met to legitimately use the terms ‘exercise pill’ and ‘exercise mimetic’ are presented. PMID:19723782

  20. Attitudes toward physical activity and exercise: comparison of memory clinic patients and their caregivers and prediction of activity levels.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra G

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons' Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers' attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients' participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E. PMID:24451476

  1. Comparison of different computed radiography systems: Physical characterization and contrast detail analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo; Acchiappati, Domenico

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: In this study, five different units based on three different technologies--traditional computed radiography (CR) units with granular phosphor and single-side reading, granular phosphor and dual-side reading, and columnar phosphor and line-scanning reading--are compared in terms of physical characterization and contrast detail analysis. Methods: The physical characterization of the five systems was obtained with the standard beam condition RQA5. Three of the units have been developed by FUJIFILM (FCR ST-VI, FCR ST-BD, and FCR Velocity U), one by Kodak (Direct View CR 975), and one by Agfa (DX-S). The quantitative comparison is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Noise investigation was also achieved by using a relative standard deviation analysis. Psychophysical characterization is assessed by performing a contrast detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images. Results: The most advanced units based on columnar phosphors provide MTF values in line or better than those from conventional CR systems. The greater thickness of the columnar phosphor improves the efficiency, allowing for enhanced noise properties. In fact, NPS values for standard CR systems are remarkably higher for all the investigated exposures and especially for frequencies up to 3.5 lp/mm. As a consequence, DQE values for the three units based on columnar phosphors and line-scanning reading, or granular phosphor and dual-side reading, are neatly better than those from conventional CR systems. Actually, DQE values of about 40% are easily achievable for all the investigated exposures. Conclusions: This study suggests that systems based on the dual-side reading or line-scanning reading with columnar phosphors provide a remarkable improvement when compared to conventional CR units and yield results in line with those obtained from most digital detectors for radiography.

  2. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. PMID:24438736

  3. Exercise and Physical Activity in Mental Disorders: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Gaudlitz, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that exercise (EX) and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay the onset of different mental disorders, and have therapeutic benefits when used as sole or adjunct treatment in mental disorders. This review summarizes studies that used EX interventions in patients with anxiety, affective, eating, and substance use disorders, as well as schizophrenia and dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Despite several decades of clinical evidence with EX interventions, controlled studies are sparse in most disorder groups. Preliminary evidence suggests that PA/EX can induce improvements in physical, subjective and disorder-specific clinical outcomes. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed, as well as implications for psychiatric research and practice. PMID:23412549

  4. Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Juarranz, M; Calle-Purón, M-E; González-Navarro, A; Regidor-Poyatos, E; Soriano, T; Martínez-Hernandez, D; Rojas, V-D; Guinee, V F

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate certain risk and protective factors for colon cancer in our population, we conducted a paired case-control study where cases were all people diagnosed with colon cancer who were registered at the Cancer Data Exchange Systems of the Community of Madrid between January 1995 and December 1996, and controls were randomly taken from electoral lists. The study population consisted of 424 persons. Using SPSS for Windows, variables were adjusted by multiple logistic regression. The results indicate that lack of physical exercise is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.21) as compared with moderate activity 1-2 days a week. The risk decreases linearly with increasing physical exercise, and this association remains after stratifying the analysis for the existence of constipation. The consumption of is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in constipated patients, with an OR of 0.094 (0.014-0.639), as is aspirin use, with an OR of 0.980 (0.898-0.999). These results were obtained after adjusting all the ORs for diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and educational level. PMID:12394244

  5. The Effects of Acute Intense Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Leineweber, Matthew J; Wyss, Dominik; Dufour, Sophie-Krystale; Gane, Claire; Zabjek, Karl; Bouyer, Laurent J; Maltais, Désirée B; Voisin, Julien I; Andrysek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of intense physical exercise on postural stability of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Center of pressure (CoP) was measured in 9 typically developing (TD) children and 8 with CP before and after a maximal aerobic shuttle-run test (SRT) using a single force plate. Anteroposterior and mediolateral sway velocities, sway area, and sway regularity were calculated from the CoP data and compared between pre- and postexercise levels and between groups. Children with CP demonstrated significantly higher pre-SRT CoP velocities than TD children in the sagittal (18.6 ± 7.6 vs. 6.75 1.78 m/s) and frontal planes (15.4 ± 5.3 vs. 8.04 ± 1.51 m/s). Post-SRT, CoP velocities significantly increased for children with CP in the sagittal plane (27.0 ± 1.2 m/s), with near-significant increases in the frontal plane (25.0 ± 1.5m/s). Similarly, children with CP evidenced larger sway areas than the TD children both pre- and postexercise. The diminished postural stability in children with CP after short but intense physical exercise may have important implications including increased risk of falls and injury. PMID:27623610

  6. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1-4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26504324

  7. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1–4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26504324

  8. Physical exercise ameliorates the toxic effect of fluoride on the insulin-glucose system.

    PubMed

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília A; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    Daily intake of water with fluoride concentrations >1.5 mg/l produces insulin resistance (IR). On the other hand, physical activity increases insulin sensitivity in the muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity on IR in rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=10/group): Control (drinking water without NaF), NaF (drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days), and Exercise (daily running on a treadmill for 60 min at 2.25 m/min and drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days). IR was evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index using fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin. IR increased in rats treated with 15 mg/l NaF in drinking water. A decrease in IR was observed in rats that performed physical activity and drank water with 15 mg/l NaF; the Exercise group also showed an increase in the amounts of bone fluoride. The variation in the HOMA-IR values could be the consequence of variation in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin or decrease in plasma fluoride levels due to bone fluoride intake. These findings indicate that the performance of daily physical activity could reduce the negative effects of the chronic ingestion of NaF on glucose homeostasis. PMID:23660080

  9. Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Vogel, Robert; Lavie, Carl J; Cordain, Loren

    2011-01-01

    A large proportion of the health woes beleaguering modern cultures are because of daily physical activity patterns that are profoundly different from those for which we are genetically adapted. The ancestral natural environment in which our current genome was forged via natural selection called for a large amount of daily energy expenditure on a variety of physical movements. Our genes that were selected for in this arduous and demanding natural milieu enabled our ancestors to survive and thrive, leading to a very vigorous lifestyle. This abrupt (by evolutionary time frames) change from a very physically demanding lifestyle in natural outdoor settings to an inactive indoor lifestyle is at the origin of many of the widespread chronic diseases that are endemic in our modern society. The logical answer is to replicate the native human activity pattern to the extent that this is achievable and practical. Recommendations for exercise mode, duration, intensity, and frequency are outlined with a focus on simulating the routine physical activities of our ancient hunter-gatherer ancestors whose genome we still largely share today. In a typical inactive person, this type of daily physical activity will optimize gene expression and help to confer the robust health that was enjoyed by hunter-gatherers in the wild. PMID:21545934

  10. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation. PMID:21558579

  11. The Effect of Walking Exercise on Physical Fitness and Serum Lipids in Obese Middle-aged Women: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Seo, Byoung-Do; Chung, Sang-Mi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to identify the effects of walking on the body composition, health-related physical fitness, and serum lipids as part of efforts to encourage middle-aged people to participate in walking as a regular and sustainable exercise. [Methods] This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest control group study. The study period was for 12 weeks from January to March 2010. The participants were 43 middle-aged women (age range: 40–55 years) with body fat rates over 30%. Subjects in the experiment group participated in the walking exercise (n = 38), the control group did not participate in the exercise (n = 23). [Results] In the exercise group, statistically significant reductions in weight and body fat were observed among the body composition measurement variables, and statistically significant increases in flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance were observed among the physical fitness measurement variables. TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in the serum lipid measurement variables showed a statistically significant reduction in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that 12 weeks of walking exercise influenced middle-aged women in a positive way by effecting changes in their body composition, physical fitness, and serum lipids. We believe that these positive changes result in positive effects on the factors for prevention of various adult diseases that can occur in middle-aged women. PMID:24409014

  12. Assessing the effects of physical and perceived luminance contrast on RT and TMS-induced percepts.

    PubMed

    Knight, Ramisha; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Simple reaction times (RTs) are inversely related to the luminance of a visual region, with RT increasing as luminance decreases, and decreasing as luminance increases. A potential discrepancy in the link between luminance and RT, however, stems from the perception of luminance itself. Here, we tested whether RT is modulated by a measureable amount of light (luminance) or perceptual amount of light (brightness), as two test regions having the same luminance can be perceived as having different brightness. The current study investigates the effects of brightness using probes and artificial percepts, i.e., transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced light and dark percepts. In Experiment 1, participants performed a RT task to light and dark probes presented over two backgrounds, one exhibiting a physical luminance and the other exhibiting perceptual brightness. Experiment 2 tested whether perceptual brightness could influence RT and frequency of artificial percepts. We found that while brightness contrast modulated RT to the dark probes, the frequency of artificial percepts was susceptible to both physical and perceived changes in luminance. These data suggest that some behavioral responses can be influenced by an illusion of brightness, wherein there is no actual change in luminance, as well as the perception of TMS-induced percepts. PMID:26314754

  13. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not been completely established. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students through a rigorous randomization, parallel-controlled design. Method/design We will conduct a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet the eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated into Baduanjin training or usual exercise control group. Baduanjin training will last 12 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lumbar proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, will be evaluated by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher-quality evidence to better inform the college students regarding their selection about whether to receive such exercise. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003329 Registration date

  14. The longitudinal effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults.

    PubMed

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period. PMID:20384010

  15. Effect of supervised exercise intervention on metabolic risk factors and physical fitness in Chinese obese children in early puberty.

    PubMed

    Chang, C; Liu, W; Zhao, X; Li, S; Yu, C

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of long-term supervised exercise-induced weight maintenance on metabolic risk factors and physical fitness in obese children in early puberty. A total of 49 obese children aged 12-14 years were divided into control and exercise groups. The children in the exercise group accepted exercise intervention supervised by a professional sports teacher for 9 of the 12 months. All participants in both groups received health education once every 3 months. Anthropometry and fasting serum lipids, glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at months 0, 3, 9, 12 of the intervention. Physical fitness was determined before and after intervention. After the intervention (i) BMI was reduced by 0.6 (P < 0.05) in the exercise group, but increased by 0.5 (P < 0.05) in the control group, compared with the pre-intervention level at the end of 9-month intervention; (ii) Triglyceride levels in the exercise group significantly decreased by 23.1% by 3 months (P < 0.05), and by 30.2% after 9 months (P < 0.05), but increased by 50% (P < 0.05) in the control group; high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased more by 35% (P < 0.05) in the controls than in the exercise group (P < 0.05); (iii) Fasting serum glucose, insulin level and HOMA-IR decreased, respectively, by 23.1%, 36.6% and 48.5% in the exercise group at 9 months (P < 0.05), whereas glucose levels increased by 10.9% (P < 0.05) in the control group; (iv) Exercise performance, such as upper- and lower-limb strength, flexibility and endurance, were enhanced by 17.9%, 12.3%, 22.3% and 20.4% (P < 0.01), respectively and (v) At 12 months, i.e. 3 months after terminating the supervised exercise, serum triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR level all returned to the pre-intervention level. Supervised decrement exercise can effectively slow the progress of obesity, improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic risk factors, but once

  16. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  17. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Physical activity and exercise training for adults in sickness and in health].

    PubMed

    Rauramaa, Rainer; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Arokoski, Jari; Hohtari, Hannele; Ketola, Eeva; Kettunen, Jyrki; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kujala, Urho; Laukkanen, Jari; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Savela, Salla; Savonen, Kai; Tikkanen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the guideline is to promote physical activity in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of diseases. Physical activity plays a key role in the management of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. In this guideline, the following diseases are discussed: endocrinological, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases, as well as depression and cancer. In addition, physical activity during pregnancy and in senior citizens is reviewed. Exercise counseling should be included as part of disease management and lifestyle guidance. PMID:27089621

  18. Physical exercise associated with NO production: signaling pathways and significance in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Dyakova, Elena Y.; Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Shylko, Victor G.; Popov, Sergey V.; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Here we review available data on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling in skeletal muscle during physical exercise. Nitric oxide modulates skeletal myocyte function, hormone regulation, and local microcirculation. Nitric oxide underlies the therapeutic effects of physical activity whereas the pharmacological modulators of NO-mediated signaling are the promising therapeutic agents in different diseases. Nitric oxide production increases in skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. This molecule can alter energy supply in skeletal muscle through hormonal modulation. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue are highly abundant and play a pivotal role in metabolism. Considering NO a plausible regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis that directly affects cellular respiration, we discuss the mechanisms of NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscle cells. We also review available data on myokines, the molecules that are expressed and released by the muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects. The article suggests the presence of putative interplay between NO-mediated signaling and myokines in skeletal muscle. Data demonstrate an important role of NO in various diseases and suggest that physical training may improve health of patients with diabetes, chronic heart failure, and even degenerative muscle diseases. We conclude that NO-associated signaling represents a promising target for the treatment of various diseases and for the achievement of better athletic performance. PMID:25883934

  19. Effects of physical exercise on the cartilage of ovariectomized rats submitted to immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Simas, José Martim Marques; Kunz, Regina Inês; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization. Methods We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, their tibias bilaterally removed and submitted to histological routine. Results There was significant increase in thickness of the articular cartilage (F(5;29)=13.88; p<0.0001) and epiphyseal plate (F(5;29)=14.72; p<0.0001) as the number of chondrocytes (F(5;29)=5.11; p=0.0021) in ovariectomized rats, immobilized and submitted to exercise. In the morphological analysis, degeneration of articular cartilage with subchondral bone exposure, loss of cellular organization, discontinuity of tidemark, presence of cracks and flocculation in ovariectomized, immobilized and free remobilization rats were found. In ovariectomized and immobilized remobilization ladder rats, signs of repair of the cartilaginous structures in the presence of clones, pannus, subcortical blood vessel invasion in the calcified zone, increasing the amount of isogenous groups and thickness of the calcified zone were observed. Conclusion Exercise climb ladder was effective in cartilaginous tissue recovery process damaged by immobilization, in model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26761556

  20. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770

  1. The effects of aging, physical training, and a single bout of exercise on mitochondrial protein expression in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bori, Zoltan; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Terzis, Gerasimos; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Sovatzidis, Apostolos; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Aging results in a significant decline in aerobic capacity and impaired mitochondrial function. We have tested the effects of moderate physical activity on aerobic capacity and a single bout of exercise on the expression profile of mitochondrial biogenesis, and fusion and fission related genes in skeletal muscle of human subjects. Physical activity attenuated the aging-associated decline in VO2 max (p<0.05). Aging increased and a single exercise bout decreased the expression of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), while the transcription factor A (TFAM) expression showed a strong relationship with VO2max and increased significantly in the young physically active group. Mitochondrial fission representing FIS1 was induced by regular physical activity, while a bout of exercise decreased fusion-associated gene expression. The expression of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) changed inversely in young and old groups and decreased with aging. The A2 subunit of cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was induced by a single bout of exercise in skeletal muscle samples of both young and old subjects (p<0.05). Our data suggest that moderate levels of regular physical activity increases a larger number of mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene expressions in young individuals than in aged subjects. Mitochondrial fission is impaired by aging and could be one of the most sensitive markers of the age-associated decline in the adaptive response to physical activity. PMID:22449457

  2. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  3. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  4. A comparison of attitudes and exercise habits of alumni from colleges with varying degrees of physical education activity programs.

    PubMed

    Adams, T M; Brynteson, P

    1992-06-01

    A survey of alumni attitudes about their college physical education activity (PEA) program and current exercise habits was sent to a representative sample (N = 3169) of alumni who had graduated between 1970 and 1984 from four private colleges. The percent returned was 48, 31, 43, and 41 from Colleges A-D, respectively. Three of the four colleges had required PEA programs. College A had an eight-credit-hour requirement, College B required four credit-hours, College C required two credits, and College D did not have a PEA requirement. Results indicated a significant difference among the four colleges in the alumni's perceived value of their college PEA program in terms of its contribution to their knowledge about fitness, attitude towards fitness, and current exercise habits. Additionally, alumni differed in their perception of the health value of exercise and in their frequency of weekly exercise. When alumni exercise behaviors were quantified by aerobic points and classified according to type of activity, no statistically significant differences were found. The conclusion of the study was that the attitudes and exercise behaviors of alumni are related to the type of college PEA requirement; however, aerobic points earned are not affected. Students graduating from colleges with higher PEA requirements demonstrate more positive exercise attitudes and behaviors. PMID:1585061

  5. Individual and Combined Effects of Physical Exercise and Methylphenidate on Orienting Behavior and Social Interaction in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Bucci, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the duration of exercise and amount of methylphenidate that is needed to affect attentional function and social behavior in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a commonly-used animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Attention was assessed by measuring the orienting response to repeated presentations of a non-reinforced visual cue. Social behavior was examined by allowing rats to freely explore a large arena containing an unfamiliar conspecific rat. Consistent with their hyper-responsive phenotype, non-exercising SHRs exhibited a high level of orienting behavior and little habituation, as well as hyper social behavior compared to normo-active rats. Exercise or methylphenidate decreased orienting behavior and social behavior in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, we found an additive effect of combining doses of exercise and methylphenidate that alone were ineffective in altering behavior. These data indicate that physical exercise and methylphenidate can reduce hyper-responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli and reduce hyper-social behavior in SHR. Moreover, sub-threshold doses of methylphenidate can be used in combination with moderate amounts of exercise to reduce distractibility, supporting the notion that exercise may be useful as an adjunctive or replacement therapy in ADHD. PMID:25150541

  6. Clinical trial to assess the effect of physical exercise on endothelial function and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a common maternal disease that complicates 5 to 10% of pregnancies and remains as the major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. Cost-effective interventions aimed at preventing the development of preeclampsia are urgently needed. However, the pathogenesis of PE is not well known. Multiple mechanisms such as oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may contribute to its development. Regular aerobic exercise recovers endothelial function; improves insulin resistance and decreases oxidative stress. Therefore the purpose of this clinical trial is to determine the effect of regular aerobic exercise on endothelial function, on insulin resistance and on pregnancy outcome. Methods and design 64 pregnant women will be included in a blind, randomized clinical trial, and parallel assignment. The exercise group will do regular aerobic physical exercise: walking (10 minutes), aerobic exercise (30 minutes), stretching (10 minutes) and relaxation exercise (10 minutes) in three sessions per week. Control group will do the activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, eating, and walking) without counselling from a physical therapist. Trial registration NCT00741312. PMID:19919718

  7. Physical Exercise and Weight Loss for Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis in Very Old Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintrec, Jean-Laurent Le; Verlhac, Bernard; Cadet, Christian; Bréville, Philippe; Vetel, Jean M; Gauvain, Jean B; Jeandel, Claude; Maheu, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background : Rheumatologic and geriatric scholarly organisations recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, which emphasise the usefulness of non-pharmacological therapies, are not scaled according to patient’s age and physical condition. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on exercise and weight loss in hip and knee osteoarthritis in very old patients. Methods : Electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL database, systematic search of the Cochrane Reviews, manual search in guidelines, meta-analyses and identified relevant articles. Results : We identified 83 trials, with only 2 on patients aged ≥ 75 years; we therefore lowered the mean age threshold to 70 years and found 15 trials, mainly performed in knee osteoarthritis and outpatients. Physical exercise (8 trials): was effective on pain and function (4 controlled trials), with a persistent effect only in case of self-rehabilitation. Aquatic exercise (5 trials): was as effective as land-based exercise. Weight loss (2 trials): only patients under diet + exercise had significant improvement on symptoms. Conclusion : Our systematic review confirms that international recommendations on exercise for knee osteoarthritis also apply to subjects aged 70-80 years. Long-term effectiveness requires a maintenance strategy. Specific trials on very old patients with various comorbidities are mandatory, given that these subjects are more exposed to drug-related iatrogenesis. PMID:25489352

  8. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  9. DNA injury is acutely enhanced in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Tarperi, Cantor; Montagnana, Martina; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Benati, Marco; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Bonaguri, Chiara; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Schena, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise. Fifteen adult and trained athletes performed four sequential trials with increasing running distance (5-, 10-, 21- and 42-km) in different periods of the year. The γ-H2AX foci parameters were analyzed before and 3h after the end of each trial. The values of all γ-H2AX foci parameters were enhanced after the end of each trial, with values gradually increasing from the 5- to the 42-km trial. Interestingly, a minor increase of γ-H2AX foci was still evident after 5- to 10-km running, but a much higher increase occurred when the running distance exceeded 21km. The generation of DNA injury was then magnified by running up to 42-km. The increase of each γ-H2AX foci parameter was then found to be associated with both running distance and average intensity. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the running distance was significantly associated with average intensity and post-run variation in the percentage of cells with γ-H2AX foci. We can hence conclude that aerobic exercise may generate an acute DNA damage in trained athletes, which is highly dependent upon running distance and average intensity. PMID:27374303

  10. Exercise and gene expression: physiological regulation of the human genome through physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Spangenburg, Espen E

    2002-01-01

    The current human genome was moulded and refined through generations of time. We propose that the basic framework for physiologic gene regulation was selected during an era of obligatory physical activity, as the survival of our Late Palaeolithic (50 000–10 000 BC) ancestors depended on hunting and gathering. A sedentary lifestyle in such an environment probably meant elimination of that individual organism. The phenotype of the present day Homo sapiens genome is much different from that of our ancient ancestors, primarily as a consequence of expressing evolutionarily programmed Late Palaeolithic genes in an environment that is predominantly sedentary. In this sense, our current genome is maladapted, resulting in abnormal gene expression, which in turn frequently manifests itself as clinically overt disease. We speculate that some of these genes still play a role in survival by causing premature death from chronic diseases produced by physical inactivity. We also contend that the current scientific evidence supports the notion that disruptions in cellular homeostasis are diminished in magnitude in physically active individuals compared with sedentary individuals due to the natural selection of gene expression that supports the physically active lifestyle displayed by our ancestors. We speculate that genes evolved with the expectation of requiring a certain threshold of physical activity for normal physiologic gene expression, and thus habitual exercise in sedentary cultures restores perturbed homeostatic mechanisms towards the normal physiological range of the Palaeolithic Homo sapiens. This hypothesis allows us to ask the question of whether normal physiological values change as a result of becoming sedentary. In summary, in sedentary cultures, daily physical activity normalizes gene expression towards patterns established to maintain the survival in the Late Palaeolithic era. PMID:12205177

  11. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  12. The Outcomes of Manipulation or Mobilization Therapy Compared with Physical Therapy or Exercise for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Josh; Kaplan, Leon; Fischer, Dena J.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Neck pain is a prevalent condition. Spinal manipulation and mobilization procedures are becoming an accepted treatment for neck pain. However, data on the effectiveness of these treatments have not been summarized. Objective To compare manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine to physical therapy or exercise for symptom improvement in patients with neck pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Database, and bibliographies of key articles, which compared spinal manipulation or mobilization therapy with physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. Articles were included based on predetermined criteria and were appraised using a predefined quality rating scheme. Results From 197 citations, 7 articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were no differences in pain improvement when comparing spinal manipulation to exercise, and there were inconsistent reports of pain improvement in subjects who underwent mobilization therapy versus physical therapy. No disability improvement was reported between treatment groups in studies of acute or chronic neck pain patients. No functional improvement was found with manipulation therapy compared with exercise treatment or mobilization therapy compared with physical therapy groups in patients with acute pain. In chronic neck pain subjects who underwent spinal manipulation therapy compared to exercise treatment, results for short-term functional improvement were inconsistent. Conclusion The data available suggest that there are minimal short- and long-term treatment differences in pain, disability, patient-rated treatment improvement, treatment satisfaction, health status, or functional improvement when comparing manipulation or mobilization therapy to physical therapy or exercise in patients with neck pain. This systematic review is limited by the variability of

  13. Is physical exercise harmful to liver transplantation recipients? Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Moya-Nájera, Diego; Borreani, Sebastien; Moya-Herraiz, Ángel; Calatayud, Joaquin; López-Andújar, Rafael; Colado, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment that significantly improves the patients' quality of life. However, we should be more ambitious and seek an improvement in their fitness through training protocols allowing them to fully return to daily activities. English and Spanish-language articles on PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched untill 2014. Articles were reviewed by 2 of the authors to determine if they were suitable for inclusion. It is shown a compilation of studies that included patients who have participated in aerobic, strength, or both combined training programs, without implying a risk for the graft function. There is a lack of studies with high scientific evidence that stablish a proper exercise program methodology, supervised by specialists in physical activity and sports. PMID:26476688

  14. Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1α activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein–protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1208–1246. PMID:22978553

  15. Recommendations on Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Taskforce Report.

    PubMed

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Morley, John E; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; H Pitkala, Kaisu; Weening-Djiksterhuis, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Barbagallo, Mario; Rosendahl, Erik; Sinclair, Alan; Landi, Francesco; Izquierdo, Mikel; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2016-05-01

    A taskforce, under the auspices of The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-Global Aging Research Network (IAGG-GARN) and the IAGG European Region Clinical Section, composed of experts from the fields of exercise science and geriatrics, met in Toulouse, in December 2015, with the aim of establishing recommendations of physical activity and exercise for older adults living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to the high heterogeneity in terms of functional ability and cognitive function that characterizes older adults living in LTCFs, taskforce members established 2 sets of recommendations: recommendations for reducing sedentary behaviors for all LTCF residents and recommendations for defining specific, evidence-based guidelines for exercise training for subgroups of LTCF residents. To promote a successful implementation of recommendations, taskforce experts highlighted the importance of promoting residents' motivation and pleasure, the key factors that can be increased when taking into account residents' desires, preferences, beliefs, and attitudes toward physical activity and exercise. The importance of organizational factors related to LTCFs and health care systems were recognized by the experts. In conclusion, this taskforce report proposes standards for the elaboration of strategies to increase physical activity as well as to prescribe exercise programs for older adults living in LTCFs. This report should be used as a guide for professionals working in LTCF settings. PMID:27012368

  16. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  17. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  18. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure. PMID:27042047

  19. Physical exercise regulates neural stem cells proliferation and migration via SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway in rats after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Hu, Xiquan; Zhang, Liying; Li, Lili; Zheng, Haiqing; Li, Menglin; Zhang, Qingjie

    2014-08-22

    Physical exercise is beneficial to functional recovery after stroke. But its underling mechanism is still unknown. It is reported that neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation, migration and differentiation play an important role in recovery following stroke, furthermore, stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) regulate NSCs migration. This study is aimed to examine whether physical exercise improves functional recovery by enhancing NSCs proliferation, migration and differentiation through SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in rats after ischemic stroke. Rats that sustained transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were treated with physical exercise after MCAO. AMD3100 (an antagonist of CXCR4) was used to confirm the effect of SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis on exercise-mediated NSCs mobilization. We found that physical exercise improved functional recovery and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (Dcx)-positive cells in the ipsilateral SVZ and BrdU/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive cells in the ipsilateral striatum were increased by physical exercise. Simultaneously, SDF-1α-positive cells were significantly higher in physical exercise group than those in control group. Our results indicate that physical exercise improves functional recovery in ischemic rats possibly by enhancement of NSCs proliferation, migration in the SVZ and differentiation in the damaged striatum. Moreover, SDF-1α/CXCR4 pathway involves in exercise-mediated NSCs proliferation and migration but not differentiation. PMID:25010020

  20. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks. PMID:27478640

  1. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Christopher; Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks. PMID:27478640

  2. A field study of data analysis exercises in a bachelor physics course using the internet platform VISPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Glaser, Christian; Klingebiel, Dennis; Krause, Raphael; Kuempel, Daniel; Müller, Gero; Rieger, Marcel; Steggemann, Jan; Urban, Martin; Walz, David; Weidenhaupt, Klaus; Winchen, Tobias; Weltermann, Birgitta

    2014-05-01

    Bachelor of physics lectures on ‘Particle Physics and Astrophysics’ were complemented by exercises related to data analysis and data interpretation at the RWTH Aachen University recently. The students performed these exercises using the internet platform VISPA, which provides a development environment for physics data analyses. We describe the platform and its application within the physics course, and present the results of a student survey. The students’ acceptance of the learning project was positive. The level of acceptance was related to their individual preference for learning with a computer. Furthermore, students with good programming skills favour working individually, while students who attribute themselves as having low programming abilities favour working in teams. The students appreciated approaching actual research through the data analysis tasks.

  3. Comparing Levels of Anti-Fat Bias between American and Mexican Athletes and Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda, Miriam Wood; Whitehead, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatization consequent to anti-fat bias (AFB) may affect the services people who are obese receive from health professionals, including physical education and exercise science (PEX) professionals. In this study, we compared AFB levels of American and Mexican PEX students and Mexican athletes. We also investigated if socially desirable (SD)…

  4. Impact of a Six-Month Empowerment-Based Exercise Intervention Programme in Non-Physically Active Adolescent Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…

  5. A Mixed Method Evaluation of an Undergraduate Physical Education and Exercise Science Program as It Relates to Professional Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolciato, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being held more and more accountable for outcomes. Therefore, it is important that a college knows how its curriculum truly prepares individual students for their desired field of employment. This study was completed to determine the extent to which graduates of a physical education and exercise science program…

  6. Physical exercise and burnout facets predict injuries in a population-based sample of French career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Vaulerin, Jérôme; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Emile, Mélanie; Colson, Serge S

    2016-05-01

    Although firefighting is known to engender a high rate of injury, few studies have examined the contribution of physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies to firefighting-related injuries. Data were collected from a population-based sample of 220 male firefighters. In a descriptive study, the nature and site of the injuries and the relationships among firefighter injuries, physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies were examined. Sprains were the most prevalent type of injury (98%), followed by tendinitis (40%) and muscle tears (30%). More than two thirds of these injuries were located at the ankle. Weekly hours of physical exercise, cognitive weariness at work, social support seeking, problem-focused coping and emotional exhaustion were significantly related to these injuries. The findings suggest that physical exercise and cognitive weariness can be considered as risk factors for French firefighter injuries, whereas problem-focused coping can be seen as a protective factor. More research is needed to explain the relationship between social support seeking and injury. PMID:26851472

  7. Changes of Motivational Variables in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in an Exercise Intervention: Associations between Physical Performance and Motivational Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Geertz, Wiebke; Dechow, Anna-Sophie; Patra, Stefan; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M.; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the effects of a standardized fitness training on motivational factors such as the intention to be physically active, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support in patients with progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the relation of these factors to physical performance. Methods. Moderately disabled patients with secondary or primary progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale of 4–6) were randomized to a training group or a waitlist control group. Patients completed on average 20 sessions of training tailored to their individual fitness at baseline over a course of 8–12 weeks. Motivational variables (stage of change according to the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support) were assessed via questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Results. Forty patients completed the trial. We found significant effects on stages of change (p = .016) and self-efficacy (p = .014) and a trend in counterstrategies (p = .08). Significant correlations between change of physical performance during the exercise training and change in the TTM, perceived barriers, and counterstrategies were detected. Conclusion. This study indicates that tailored individual endurance training could stabilize self-efficacy and increase exercise motivation in patients with progressive MS. Motivational variables were related to the physical performance. PMID:26246692

  8. Effects of Fitness Test Type, Teacher, and Gender on Exercise Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Self-worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    A study of seventh and eighth graders in the southwest compared effects on exercise-intrinsic motivation and physical self-worth of taking either the President's Challenge or the Fitnessgram fitness test battery. Results did not support the premise that fitness test batteries would produce different motivational and self-perception outcomes. (SM)

  9. The Effect of a Virtual Reality Exercise Program on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality exercise program (VREP) on physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in hemodialysis (HD) patients with end-stage renal failure. [Subjects and Methods] A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Forty-six HD patients were divided into exercise (n=23) and control groups (n=23); while waiting for their dialyses, the exercise group followed a VREP, and the control group received only their usual care. The VREP was accomplished using Nintendo’s Wii Fit Plus for 40 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks during the period of May 27 to July 19, 2013. Physical fitness (muscle strength, balance, flexibility), body composition (skeletal muscle mass, body fat rate, arm and leg muscle mass), and fatigue were measured at baseline and after the intervention. [Results] After the VREP, physical fitness and body composition significantly increased, and the level of fatigue significantly decreased in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a VREP improves physical fitness, body composition, and fatigue in HD patients. Based on the findings, VREPs should be used as a health promotion programs for HD patients. PMID:25364137

  10. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high

  11. Effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance after 20 days bed rest in young persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kashihara, H.; Takenaka, K.; Kawakubo, K.; Makita, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikawa, S.; Gunji, A.

    To investgate the effects of daily mild supine exercise on physical performance capacity identified as maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO 2max) after 20 days bed-rest, 3 male students performed a supine pedaling at 40 % intensity of VO 2max for one hour every day, while 6 male and 5 female students were control. Before and after the bed-rest, muscle mass and strength of exercising leg and cardio-vascular responses during -40 mmHg lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and moderate upright cycling exercise were measured. Despite the exercise programme VO 2max was similarly decreased to the control subjects after the bed-rest. The delta VO 2max was correlated to delta % left ventricular fractional shortening during LBNP, and also % delta VO 2max to % delta stroke volume of the moderate exercise (both p<0.05). The exercise programme should be too weak to maintain cardiovascular functions and thus to present the decrease in VO 2max against pro-longed bed-rest as well as weightlessness stress.

  12. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of aging and exercise: physical ability and trainability decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew J H; Zerulla, Tanja C; Tierney, Keith B

    2014-02-01

    A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organization level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to mitigate the effects of aging has not been studied in zebrafish. We investigated the effects of aging and intermittent exercise on swimming performance, kinematics and behavior. Young, middle-aged and old zebrafish (20-29, 36-48 and 60-71% of average lifespan, respectively) were exercised to exhaustion in endurance and sprint swimming tests once a week for four weeks. Both endurance and sprint performance decreased with increased age. Swimming performance improved with exercise training in young and middle-aged zebrafish, but not in old zebrafish. Tail-beat amplitude, which is akin to stride length in humans, increased for all age groups with training. Zebrafish turning frequency, which is an indicator of routine activity, decreased with age but showed no change with exercise. In sum, our results show that zebrafish exhibit a decline in whole-organism performance and trainability with age. These findings closely resemble the senescence-related declines in physical ability experienced by humans and mammalian aging models and therefore support the use of zebrafish as a model for human exercise and aging. PMID:24316042

  13. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  14. Physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with moderate COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Patel, Anant R C; Mackay, Alex J; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about changes in physical activity during moderate (out-patient managed) exacerbations.6-min walking distance (6MWD) was measured during 50 exacerbations when the patients were stable, and at 3 and 7 days post-exacerbation presentation. At similar time points, quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC) was measured during 47 different exacerbations. Physical activity (SenseWear; Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) was recorded over 2 consecutive-week periods post-presentation.6MWD fell from a median 422 m when stable to 373 m on day 3 (p=0.001). Similarly, QMVC fell from 32.6 versus 29.7 kg (p=0.026). Falls in 6MWD were associated with a rise in C-reactive protein (r= -0.364; p=0.041) and increased Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) (r= -0.44; p=0.013). Light physical activity was 2.18 h·day(-1) during the first week post-exacerbation and was less over week 2 (1.98 h·day(-1); p=0.009). Patients who had attended pulmonary rehabilitation had smaller changes in 6MWD than those who had not attended (-35.0 versus -114.9 m; p=0.013). Falls in physical activity were correlated with higher depression scores (rho= -0.51; p=0.006).These findings indicate that exercise capacity and muscle strength fall at exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients who are treated at home and are free to maintain normal activity. PMID:27126688

  15. Prediction of VO[subscript 2]max in Children and Adolescents Using Exercise Testing and Physical Activity Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nate E.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a treadmill walk-jog-run exercise test previously validated in adults and physical activity questionnaire data to estimate maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2]max) in boys (n = 62) and girls (n = 66) aged 12 to 17 years old. Methods: Data were collected from Physical Activity…

  16. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer). Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n = 18) or vigorous-intensity (n = 18) center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7 ± 219.7 kcal·d−1) was higher (P = .011) than on days without exercise (450.7 ± 140.5 kcal·d−1); however, the difference (127.0 ± 188.1 kcal·d−1) was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6 ± 153.6 kcal·d−1) was lower (P = .047) than on days without exercise (519.2 ± 127.4 kcal·d−1). Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity. PMID:20847895

  17. Impact of CPAP on physical exercise tolerance and sympathetic-vagal balance in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Hugo V.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida M.; Reis, Michel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) leads to exercise intolerance. However, non-invasive ventilation is able to improve functional capacity of patients with CHF. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on physical exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Method : Seven men with CHF (62±8 years) and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±8% were submitted to an incremental symptom-limited exercise test (IT) on the cicloergometer. On separate days, patients were randomized to perform four constant work rate exercise tests to maximal tolerance with and without CPAP (5 cmH2O) in the following conditions: i) at 50% of peak work rate of IT; and ii) at 75% of peak work rate of IT. At rest and during these conditions, instantaneous heart rate (HR) was recorded using a cardiofrequencimeter and HRV was analyzed in time domain (SDNN and RMSSD indexes). For statistical procedures, Wilcoxon test or Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc were used accordingly. In addition, categorical variables were analysed through Fischer's test (p<0.05). Results: There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance at 75% of peak work rate of IT with CPAP (405±52 vs. 438±58 s). RMSSD indexes were lower during exercise tests compared to CPAP at rest and with 50% of peak work rate of IT. Conclusion: These data suggest that CPAP appears to be a useful strategy to improve functional capacity in patients with CHF. However, the positive impact of CPAP did not generate significant changes in the HRV during physical exercises. PMID:25003274

  18. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment

    PubMed Central

    Kunstetter, A.C.; Wanner, S.P.; Madeira, L.G.; Wilke, C.F.; Rodrigues, L.O.C.; Lima, N.R.V.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that brain temperature (Tbrain) provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in Tbrain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min) until the onset of volitional fatigue. Tbrain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in Tbrain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of Tbrain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar Tbrain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C). There were negative correlations between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in Tbrain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in Tbrain and performance. At volitional fatigue, Tbrain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the Tbrain resulting from constant exercise (39.3±0.3 vs 40.3±0.1°C; P<0.05), and no association between the rate of Tbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of Tbrain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol. PMID:25003543

  19. Beta-endorphin (1-31) in the plasma of male volunteers undergoing physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Harbach, H; Hell, K; Gramsch, C; Katz, N; Hempelmann, G; Teschemacher, H

    2000-08-01

    beta-Endorphin is an opioid peptide representing the C-terminal 31 amino acid residue fragment of proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The release of beta-endorphin from the pituitary into the cardiovascular compartment under physical or emotional stress has been frequently reported. However, besides beta-endorphin (1-31), nine acetylated or non-acetylated beta-endorphin analogues exist - in addition to N-terminally elongated beta-endorphin derivatives such as beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH). Since conventional radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and even commercially available two site-RIAs pick up at least some of those beta-endorphin derivatives, only "beta-endorphin immunoreactive materials" and not authentic beta-endorphin have been determined in those studies. We have developed a highly specific two site-RIA for beta-endorphin (1-31), which does not cross-react with all beta-endorphin derivatives known to occur as yet. Using this RIA as well as further assays for determination of beta-endorphin (1-31), beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (IRM), ACTH and Cortisol in the plasma of 14 volunteers upon intensive physical exercise, we found authentic beta-endorphin only in about 50% of the plasma samples, representing therein only a minor portion of the beta-endorphin IRM. PMID:10840168

  20. Endostatin and physical exercise in young female and male athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    Sponder, M; Sepiol, K; Lankisch, S; Priglinger, M; Kampf, S; Litschauer, B; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2014-12-01

    It was suggested that endostatin, an angiogenic mediator, is influenced by physical exercise. We performed bicycle stress testing in 88 healthy non-smoking female and male individuals, divided into athlete and non-athlete groups. Serum endostatin and norepinephrine were measured at rest, after reaching maximum workload and after 20 min of recovery. At baseline, both female and male controls showed significant lower levels compared to female and male athletes (89.39±15.32 resp. 93.39±15.00 ng/ml; p<0.001 vs. 128.81±20.84 resp. 147.52±27.72; p<0.001). An increase in endostatin levels in both groups and sexes was associated with bicycle stress testing (p for all groups<0.001). The extent of endostatin increase was comparable in both groups and sexes and varied between 23-27%. Significance was obscured when the performance was entered as covariate. Acutely induced physical strain leads to an increase in endostatin levels in athletes and controls of both sexes, the extent of increase depending on the extent of workload. An athletic lifestyle with >3 h of endurance training/week seems to lead to higher long-term endostatin levels which might play a role in the connection between sports and cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25009962

  1. Contribution of nitric oxide to exercise-induced changes in healthy volunteers: effects of acute exercise and long-term physical training.

    PubMed

    Poveda, J J; Riestra, A; Salas, E; Cagigas, M L; López-Somoza, C; Amado, J A; Berrazueta, J R

    1997-11-01

    Endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of regional blood flow through the release of certain vasoactive substances. We conducted this study to test whether an increase in the production of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and plasma and intraplatelet cyclic guanosine 3':5' monophosphate (cGMP) is involved in the adaptation to chronic exercise in physically trained people and in the vasodilatation induced by acute physical exercise. We studied one group of 10 trained athletes and another group of 10 untrained people. We measured plasma levels of nitrites, nitrates and cGMP and intraplatelet levels of cGMP, as an indicator of intracellular guanylate cyclase activity, and ANP before and after a maximal treadmill test. Resting cardiac rate (CR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were lower in the athlete group than in the control group (73.8 +/- 3.6 vs. 92 +/- 5.9; P < 0.02 and 110 +/- 2.58 vs. 118 +/- 3.27; P < 0.02 respectively). SBP did not show differences between groups after the exercise test. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at rest was lower in the athlete group (71 +/- 1.79 vs. 80.5 +/- 3.53; P < 0.03) and the decrease after maximal exercise was more pronounced in this group (64 +/- 2.67 vs. 74.5 +/- 3.2; P < 0.02). Basal plasma nitrites were 4.9 +/- 0.8 in the athlete group and 1.9 +/- 0.3 in the control group (P < 0.05). After exercise, test differences between groups remained (P < 0.05). Nitrates were significantly higher in the group of athletes and did not show exercise-related changes. Plasma levels of cGMP and ANP increased in both groups after the treadmill test, with no differences between groups. Among the athletes, cGMP increased from 1.11 +/- 0.1 to 2.6 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.001), whereas in the untrained group plasma cGMP rose from 1.14 +/- 0.09 to 1.86 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the increases in plasma cGMP and the atrial natriuretic peptide in both groups (r = 0.91, P < 0

  2. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Stevens, David J; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions-a control group, a group that exercised for 15 min prior to the statistical learning task, and a group that exercised for 30 min prior to the statistical learning task. The participants in the exercise groups cycled at 60% of their respective V˙O2 max. Each group demonstrated significant statistical learning, with similar levels of learning among the three groups. Contrary to previous research that has shown that a prior bout of exercise can affect performance on explicit cognitive tasks, the results of the current study suggest that the physiological stress induced by moderate-intensity exercise does not affect implicit cognition as measured by statistical learning. PMID:26084984

  3. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults. PMID:24966113

  4. Two Year Exercise Program Improves Physical Function in Parkinson’s Disease: the PRET-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Rafferty, Miriam; David, Fabian J.; Poon, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David E.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Leurgans, Sue; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Robichaud, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive resistance exercise (PRE) in Parkinson’s disease trial (PRET-PD) showed that PRE improved the motor signs of PD compared to a modified Fitness Counts (mFC) program. It is unclear how long-term exercise affects physical function in these individuals. Objective To examine the effects of long-term PRE and mFC on physical function outcome measures in individuals with PD. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 38 patients with idiopathic PD who completed the PRET-PD trial. Participants were randomized into PRE or mFC groups and exercised 2 days/week up to 24 months. Blinded assessors obtained functional outcomes on and off medication at baseline, 6 and 24 months with the Modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT), five times sit to stand test (STS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6 minute walk test (6MWT), and 50ft walking speed (walk speed). Results The groups did not differ on any physical function measure at 6 or 24 months (p’s > 0.1). Across time, all physical function measures improved from baseline to 24 months when tested on medication (p’s < .0001), except for 6MWT(p = .068). Off medication results were similar except that the 6MWT was now significant. Conclusions 24 months of supervised and structured exercise (either PRE or mFC) is effective at improving functional performance outcomes in individuals with moderate PD. Clinicians should strive to include structured and supervised exercise in the long-term plan of care for individuals with PD. PMID:24961994

  5. Physical exercise affects the epigenetic programming of rat brain and modulates the adaptive response evoked by repeated restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Kashimoto, R K; Toffoli, L V; Manfredo, M H F; Volpini, V L; Martins-Pinge, M C; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics has recently been linked to molecular adaptive responses evoked by physical exercise and stress. Herein we evaluated the effects of physical exercise on global DNA methylation and expression of the Dnmt1 gene in the rat brain and also verified its potential to modulate responses evoked by repeated restraint stress (RRS). Wistar rats were classified into the following experimental groups: (1) physically active (EX): animals submitted to swimming during postnatal days 53-78 (PND); (2) stress (ST): animals submitted to RRS during 75-79PND; (3) exercise-stress (EX-ST): animals submitted to swimming during 53-78PND and to RRS during 75-79PND, and (4) control (CTL): animals that were not submitted to intervention. Samples from the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus were obtained at 79PND. The global DNA methylation profile was assessed using an ELISA-based method and the expression of Dnmt1 was evaluated by real-time PCR. Significantly increased methylation was observed in the hypothalamus of animals from the EX group in comparison to CTL. Comparative analysis involving the EX-ST and ST groups revealed increased global DNA methylation in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus of EX-ST, indicating the potential of physical exercise in modulating the responses evoked by RRS. Furthermore, decreased expression of the Dnmt1 gene was observed in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of animals from the EX-ST group. In summary, our data indicate that physical exercise affects DNA methylation of the hypothalamus and might modulate epigenetic responses evoked by RRS in the hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus. PMID:26342282

  6. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos têm demonstrado a acurácia diagnóstica e o valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse f

  7. [No sports = no exercise?--sports, overweight and physical activity in the 50-70 age group in Baden-Württemberg].

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Zimmermann-Stenzel, M

    2009-02-01

    Sporting activity is proven to decline with advancing age. But do older adults replace sporting activity with physical activity like walking and cycling for transportation purposes, and are people with a history of sporting activity more likely to integrate physical activity in their day-today lives? There is a proven negative correlation between sporting activity and overweight, a major risk factor for numerous diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between walking/cycling for transportation and sporting activity/overweight, while controlling other variables. This representative study, which includes 50 to 70 year old people from Baden-Württemberg, is sponsored by the Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg (N=2002). People who say they use a bicycle for transportation on a regular basis, and those who go for walks on a regular basis, are significantly more likely to engage in sports than people who do not go for walks or cycle regularly. The correlation applies after controlling sociodemographic and lifestyle relevant variables. With regard to the correlation between physical activity and overweight, the results show that older adults who go for walks regularly are more likely to be overweight than those who do not. In contrast, those who use a bicycle for transportation on a regular basis are significantly less likely to be overweight. Older adults who do not work out do not compensate for this by physical activity in their day-today lives, i.e., no work out = no physical activity. In recognition of the biological and medical role of sporting activity and exercise for preserving health, exercising and doing sports is of special importance especially for older adults. PMID:18787874

  8. The Importance of Exercise in the Well-Rounded Physician: Dialogue for the Inclusion of a Physical Fitness Program in Neurosurgery Resident Training.

    PubMed

    Fargen, Kyle M; Spiotta, Alejandro M; Turner, Raymond D; Patel, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Exercise, diet, and personal fitness programs are essentially lacking in modern graduate medical education. In the context of long hours and alternating shift and sleep cycles, the lack of exercise and poor dietary choices may have negative consequences on physician physical and mental health. This opinion piece aims to generate important dialogue regarding the scope of the problem, the literature supporting the health benefits of exercise, potential solutions to enhancing diet and exercise among resident trainees, and possible pitfalls to the adoption of exercise programs within graduate medical education. PMID:27001240

  9. Health professionals’ perspectives on exercise referral and physical activity promotion in primary care: Findings from a process evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Din, Nafees U; Moore, Graham F; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians’ experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals’ perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) in Wales. Design: Qualitative semi-structured group interviews. Setting: General practice premises. Methods: Nine semi-structured group interviews involving 46 health professionals were conducted on general practice premises in six local health board areas. Purposive sampling taking into account area deprivation, practice size and referral rates was employed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework method of thematic analysis. Results: Health professionals described physical activity promotion as important, although many thought it was outside of their expertise and remit, and less important than other health promotion activities such as smoking cessation. Professionals linked decisions on whether to advise physical activity to patients to their own physical activity levels and to subjective judgements of patient motivation. While some described ERS as a holistic alternative to medication, with potential social benefits, others expressed concerns regarding their limited reach and potential to exacerbate inequalities. Barriers to referral included geographic isolation and uncertainties about patient selection criteria, medico-legal responsibilities and a lack of feedback about patient progress. Conclusion: Clinicians’ concerns about expertise, priority setting and time constraints should be addressed to enhance physical activity promotion in primary care. Further research is needed to fully understand decision making relating to provision of physical activity advice and use of ERS. PMID:26527835

  10. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. PMID:25829377

  11. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C.W.; Scheewe, Thomas W.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. PMID:25829377

  12. INTEGRATING ACUPUNCTURE WITH EXERCISE-BASED PHYSICAL THERAPY FOR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, LX; Mao, JJ; Fernandes, S; Galantino, ML; Guo, W; LaRiccia, P; Teal, V; Bowman, MA; Schumacher, HR; Farrar, JT

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee OA is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity and economic cost. The efficacy of acupuncture in addition to traditional physical therapy has received little study. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of integrating a standardized true acupuncture protocol versus non-penetrating acupuncture into exercise-based physical therapy (EPT). Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial at 3 physical therapy centers in Philadelphia, PA. We studied 214 patients (66% African-American) with at least 6 months of chronic knee pain and X-ray confirmed Kellgren scores of 2 or 3. Patients received 12 sessions of acupuncture directly following EPT over 6–12 weeks. Acupuncture was performed at the same 9 points dictated by the Traditional Chinese “Bi” syndrome approach to knee pain, using either standard needles or Streitberger non-skin puncturing needles. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least a 36% improvement in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Results Both treatment groups showed improvement from combined therapy with no difference between true (31.6%) and non-penetrating acupuncture (30.3%) in WOMAC response rate (p=0.5) or report of minor adverse events. A multivariable logistic regression prediction model identified an association between a positive expectation of relief from acupuncture and reported improvement. No differences were noted by race, sex, or age. Conclusion Puncturing acupuncture needles did not perform any better than non-puncturing needles integrated with EPT. Whether EPT, acupuncture, or other factors accounted for any improvement noted in both groups could not be determined in this study. Expectation for relief was a predictor of reported benefit. PMID:23965480

  13. Effect of physical exercise and age on knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fernando; Oliveira, José

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that knee position sense declines with age and that regular exercise can attenuate that decline. This cross-sectional study encompassed 69 older and 60 young adults divided in four groups (exercised-old, N=31; non-exercised-old, N=38; exercised-young, N=35; non-exercised-young, N=25) according to chronological age and exercise practice in the past year. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning and is reported as the absolute and relative angular error. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of videotape images using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. Compared to their non-exercised counterparts, exercised-young and -old showed lower absolute and relative angular errors. The absolute (1.62+/-0.71 degrees) and relative errors (0.02+/-1.65 degrees) for exercised-young were lower than all other groups (p<0.001). The absolute and relative errors of exercised-old (4.27+/-2.49 degrees and 5.51+/-3.42 degrees) were similar to non-exercised-young (4.74+/-2.67 degrees and 4.18+/-3.40 degrees). The non-exercised-old exhibited higher absolute (9.35+/-4.34 degrees) and relative errors (9.73+/-5.15 degrees) than all other groups (p<0.001). The present data indicates that age has deleterious effects on knee position sense although regular exercise can attenuate that age-related decline. PMID:19716189

  14. Physical activity, cognitive function, and brain health: what is the role of exercise training in the prevention of dementia?

    PubMed

    Gregory, Sara M; Parker, Beth; Thompson, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Tor preventive measures are necessary to attenuate the increased economic and social burden of dementia. This review will focus on the potential for physical activity and exercise training to promote brain health and improve cognitive function via neurophysiological changes. We will review pertinent animal and human research examining the effects of physical activity on cognitive function and neurophysiology. We will discuss cross-sectional and longitudinal studies addressing the relationship between neurocognitive health and cardiorespiratory fitness or habitual activity level. We will then present and discuss longitudinal investigations examining the effects of exercise training on cognitive function and neurophysiology. We will conclude by summarizing our current understanding of the relationship between physical activity and brain health, and present areas for future research given the current gaps in our understanding of this issue. PMID:24961266

  15. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  16. The Relationship between Age and Change in Physical Functions after Exercise Intervention. Trainability of Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Obuchi, Shuichi; Kojima, Motonaga; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yuko; Inaba, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between age and changes in physical measurements after exercise intervention and to investigate the trainability of the older elderly. Two hundred seventy-six community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older practiced exercise intervention for 3 months. The measurements of physical functions were one-legged standing with eyes open and closed (OLS-O, OLS-C), functional reach test (FR), timed up and go test (TUG), maximum walking velocity, flexibility, and muscle strength. We evaluated the associations between age and the changes in these physical measurements. All measurements except for OLS-C significantly improved after intervention. The magnitude of the changes in hand-grip strength and FR after the intervention showed weak negative correlations with the subject's age, but other measurements showed no correlations. In addition, there were no differences between younger elderly persons and older elderly persons with regard to changes in any measurements. These results suggested that the exercise intervention we applied could improve physical fitness in community-dwelling older people, regardless of their age. The older elderly were comparable to the younger elderly in trainability to improve physical fitness. PMID:25792887

  17. Risk of Severe Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis in Relation to Level of Physical Exercise: A Prospective Cohort Study of Long-Distance Skiers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Byberg, Liisa; Ahlbom, Anders; Melhus, Håkan; Farahmand, Bahman Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background To complete long-distance ski races, regular physical exercise is required. This includes not only cross-country skiing but also endurance exercise during the snow-free seasons. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of physical exercise is associated with future risk of severe osteoarthritis independent of previous diseases and injuries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a cohort that consisted of 48 574 men and 5 409 women who participated in the 90 km ski race Vasaloppet at least once between 1989 and 1998. Number of performed races and finishing time were used as estimates of exercise level. By matching to the National Patient Register we identified participants with severe osteoarthritis, defined as arthroplasty of knee or hip due to osteoarthritis. With an average follow-up of 10 years, we identified 528 men and 42 women with incident osteoarthritis. The crude rate was 1.1/1000 person-years for men and 0.8/1000 person-years for women. Compared with racing once, participation in ≥5 races was associated with a 70% higher rate of osteoarthritis (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33 to 2.22). The association was dose-dependent with an adjusted HR of 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13 for each completed race. A faster finishing time, in comparison with a slow finishing time, was also associated with an increased rate (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.01). Contrasting those with 5 or more ski races and a fast finish time to those who only participated once with a slow finish time, the adjusted HR of osteoarthritis was 2.73, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.18. Conclusions/Significance Participants with multiple and fast races have an increased risk of subsequent arthroplasty of knee and hip due to osteoarthritis, suggesting that intensive exercise may increase the risk. PMID:21479136

  18. Contributing Factors in Students' Choice of a Physical Therapist Assistant Career: A Contrast with the Physical Therapist Career Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mele, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    The health care professions have gained significant notoriety as one of the fastest growing career opportunities in the country. In particular, physical therapy has gained a reputation as a vital and significant member of the health care team. The physical therapy field has struggled to provide adequate services to meet patients' needs due to the…

  19. High-intensity physical exercise disrupts implicit memory in mice: involvement of the striatal glutathione antioxidant system and intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A S; Boemer, G; Rial, D; Cordova, F M; Mancini, G; Walz, R; de Bem, A F; Latini, A; Leal, R B; Pinho, R A; Prediger, R D S

    2010-12-29

    Physical exercise is a widely accepted behavioral strategy to enhance overall health, including mental function. However, there is controversial evidence showing brain mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and decreased neurotrophin levels after high-intensity exercise, which presumably worsens cognitive performance. Here we investigated learning and memory performance dependent on different brain regions, glutathione antioxidant system, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT), cAMP response element binding (CREB) and dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32 signaling in adult Swiss mice submitted to 9 weeks of high-intensity exercise. The exercise did not alter the animals' performance in the reference and working memory versions of the water maze task. On the other hand, we observed a significant impairment in the procedural memory (an implicit memory that depends on basal ganglia) accompanied by a reduced antioxidant capacity and ERK1/2 and CREB signaling in this region. In addition, we found increased striatal DARPP-32-Thr-75 phosphorylation in trained mice. These findings indicate an increased vulnerability of the striatum to high-intensity exercise associated with the disruption of implicit memory in mice and accompanied by alteration of signaling proteins involved in the plasticity of this brain structure. PMID:20888397

  20. Enhancing exercise tolerance and physical activity in COPD with combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions: PHYSACTO randomised, placebo-controlled study design

    PubMed Central

    Troosters, Thierry; Bourbeau, Jean; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with exercise limitation and physical inactivity, which are believed to have significant long-term negative health consequences for patients. While a number of COPD treatments and exercise training programmes increase exercise capacity, there is limited evidence for their effects on physical activity levels, with no clear association between exercise capacity and physical activity in clinical trials. Physical activity depends on a number of behaviour, environmental and physiological factors. We describe the design of the PHYSACTO trial, which is investigating the effects of bronchodilators, either alone or with exercise training, in combination with a standardised behaviour-change self-management programme, on exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. It is hypothesised that bronchodilators in conjunction with a behaviour-change self-management programme will improve physical activity and that this effect will be amplified by the addition of exercise training. Methods and analysis Patients are being recruited from 34 sites in Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada and Europe. Patients receiving a multicomponent intervention designed to support behaviour change related to physical activity are randomised to four treatment arms: placebo, tiotropium, tiotropium+olodaterol, and tiotropium+olodaterol+exercise training. The primary outcome is improvement in exercise capacity after 8 weeks, measured by endurance time during a shuttle walk test. The secondary outcome is improvement in physical activity, including objective accelerometer assessment and patient-reported functioning using the Functional Performance Inventory—Short Form and the novel hybrid PROactive instrument. Additionally, the influence of moderating variables (ie, factors influencing a patient's choice to be physically active) on increases in physical activity is also explored. Ethics and dissemination The

  1. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Claudia; di Cagno, Alessandra; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Giombini, Arrigo; Fagnani, Federica; Borrione, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT) (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years),the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST) (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years), and a control group (C) (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years) receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01) and group-training interaction (p < 0.05). CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease) of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people. PMID:24185842

  2. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system. PMID:26556068

  3. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

  4. The Cutting Edge in Physical Education and Exercise Science Research. American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 20. Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (58th, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 7-8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Physical Education, Washington, DC.

    Ten papers that address the theoretical advances being made in various areas of specialization in physical education and exercise science are included in this volume of American Academy of Physical Education Papers. General trends are reviewed in selected areas, including the social sciences, the biological sciences, motor learning, curriculum and…

  5. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  6. Effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations of cardiac and skeletal muscle to exercise.

    PubMed

    Motta-Santos, Daisy; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Oliveira, Marilene; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Poglitsch, Marko; Mosienko, Valentina; Kappes Becker, Lenice; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose; M Penninger, Joseph; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is related to physiological adaptations induced by exercise. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a major regulator of the RAS in tissues, as it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations induced by voluntary running. Physical performance, body composition and plasma angiotensin levels, as well as tissue morphology and gene expression of RAS components in the left ventricle (LV) and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), were evaluated in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) and wild-type (ACE2(+/y)) mice after 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running. ACE2(-/y) mice run less than ACE2(+/y) mice (19±4.7 vs. 26±12.6 revolutions per day × 100, P<0.01). The ACE2(+/y) group presented a lower fat mass (15±1.1%) and higher muscle mass (76.6±1.6%) after 6 weeks of voluntary running compared with the sedentary control group (fat mass: 18.3±2.1%; muscle mass: 72.7±2.2). However, no change in body composition was observed in ACE2(-/y) mice after exercise. Heart and skeletal muscle hypertrophy was observed only in trained ACE2(+/y) mice. Besides a small decrease in Ang I in ACE2(-/y) mice, plasma levels of angiotensin peptides remained unchanged by exercise or ACE2 deficiency. In the LV of trained animals, AT2 gene expression was higher in ACE2(+/y) compared with ACE2(-/y) mice. ACE2 deficiency leads to an increase in AT1 gene expression in skeletal muscle. ACE expression in soleus was increased in all exercised groups. ACE2 deficiency affects physical performance and impairs cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. PMID:27053009

  7. A Context-Aware Application to Increase Elderly Users Compliance with Physical Rehabilitation Exercises at Home via Animatronic Biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gamecho, Borja; Silva, Hugo; Guerreiro, José; Gardeazabal, Luis; Abascal, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Biofeedback from physical rehabilitation exercises has proved to lead to faster recovery, better outcomes, and increased patient motivation. In addition, it allows the physical rehabilitation processes carried out at the clinic to be complemented with exercises performed at home. However, currently existing approaches rely mostly on audio and visual reinforcement cues, usually presented to the user on a computer screen or a mobile phone interface. Some users, such as elderly people, can experience difficulties to use and understand these interfaces, leading to non-compliance with the rehabilitation exercises. To overcome this barrier, latest biosignal technologies can be used to enhance the efficacy of the biofeedback, decreasing the complexity of the user interface. In this paper we propose and validate a context-aware framework for the use of animatronic biofeedback, as a way of potentially increasing the compliance of elderly users with physical rehabilitation exercises performed at home. In the scope of our work, animatronic biofeedback entails the use of pre-programmed actions on a robot that are triggered in response to certain changes detected in the users biomechanical or electrophysiological signals. We use electromyographic and accelerometer signals, collected in real time, to monitor the performance of the user while executing the exercises, and a mobile robot to provide animatronic reinforcement cues associated with their correct or incorrect execution. A context-aware application running on a smartphone aggregates the sensor data and controls the animatronic feedback. The acceptability of the animatronic biofeedback has been tested on a set of volunteer elderly users, and results suggest that the participants found the animatronic feedback engaging and of added value. PMID:26319272

  8. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Lain, S; Webster, A L; Cañete, S; San Juan, A F; López Mojares, L M; Pérez, M; Lucia, A; Chicharro, J L

    2007-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in diseased populations. We chose to examine the effects of eight weeks of IMT on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly individuals. Eighteen moderately active elderly subjects (68.1 +/- 6.8 years [mean +/- SD]; range 58 - 78 years) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) in a double-blind manner. All subjects underwent inspiratory muscle testing, treadmill exercise testing and a four-day measurement period of spontaneous physical activity (using accelerometry) both pre- and post-intervention. The experimental group underwent eight weeks of incremental IMT using a pressure threshold device, while the control group underwent sham training using identical devices. After IMT training, inspiratory muscle strength (mean + 21.5 cm H (2)O; 95 % CI: 9.3, 33.7; p = 0.002), V.O (2peak) (+ 2.8 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); 95 % CI: 0.5, 5.2; p = 0.022), time to exhaustion during a fixed workload treadmill test (+ 7.1 min; 95 % CI: 1.8, 2.4; p = 0.013) and time engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+ 59 min; 95 % CI: 15, 78; p = 0.008) improved. Except for a decline in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, no significant changes were seen in the control group. Therefore, IMT may be a useful technique for positively influencing exercise capacity and physical activity in elderly individuals. PMID:17534784

  9. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks. PMID:25763518

  10. Cureton's Basic Principles of Physical Fitness Work (Rules for Conducting Exercise).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This document is an annotated list of 20 rules for conducting exercise. Among the rules described are the warm-up rule, the rule for regulation of exercise dosage, recuperation rule, posture rule, glandular fitness rule, maximum respiration rule, and maximum circulation rule. The time of workout and procedures for taking cool baths are…

  11. The potential role of physical exercise in the treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Schachter, Steven C; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effects of exercise for people with epilepsy, including reduction of seizure susceptibility, improvement of quality of life, reduction of anxiety and depression, and better social integration, have increasingly been reported. We present data from human and animal studies supporting the role of exercise as a therapy for epilepsy complementary to standard treatments. PMID:20159660

  12. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY/EXERCISE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES: A CONSENSUS STATEMENT FROM THE AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For decades, exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes management, along with diet and medication. However, high-quality evidence on the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes was lacking until recent years. The present document summarizes the most clinically-relevant recent a...

  13. Effects of Passive Physical Exercise on Peripheral Vision in Muscular Dystrophic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickelberg, Warren; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The effects of passive exercise of the extremities on peripheral vision of muscular dystrophic children aged 9 to 13 years was investigated. Compared to control subjects, those who experienced six minutes of passive exercise evidenced increased peripheral vision. Curriculum revisions for muscular dystrophic children indicate the importance of…

  14. Fetal and maternal cardiac responses to physical activity and exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda E; Allen, John J B; Gustafson, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers have studied the influence of exercise during pregnancy on offspring heart development. With the knowledge and current evidence of fetal programming effects, research has demonstrated that exercise is safe and beneficial for mother, fetus, and neonate. Predominantly, research has focused on maternal and fetal cardiac adaptations related to aerobic exercise during pregnancy; less is known regarding the effects of resistance or combination (aerobic and resistance) training during pregnancy. Ongoing research is focusing on fetal responses to different intensity, duration and modes of maternal exercise throughout pregnancy. This article will summarize our current state of knowledge regarding the influence of exercise intensity, duration, and modes during pregnancy on maternal and fetal cardiac responses. PMID:26805461

  15. A comparison of physiologic and physical discomfort responses between exercise modalities.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Williams, Alison B; Williford, Amy L; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2010-03-01

    To determine differences in physiologic responses and perceived discomfort during maximal and submaximal exercise with 2 common exercise modalities, the elliptical cross-trainer (ECT) and the arc trainer (ARC) were used, which undergoes an excursion of motion using an arc pathway. Eighteen subjects (10 male and 8 female; age = 24.7 +/- 2.6 yr, height = 172.2 +/- 10.3 cm, mass = 69.8 +/- 14.9 kg, %fat = 22.5 +/- 8.1%; mean +/- SD) performed maximal exercise protocols on a treadmill (TML), the ECT, and ARC. Subjects also performed 3 10-minute submaximal exercise bouts on the ECT and ARC at 55%, 65%, and 75% of TML maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in which heart rate (HR), VO2, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and hip, knee, and low-back discomfort were monitored. All testing on the ECT and ARC were performed in a counterbalanced order. The VO2max was greater during TML exercise compared with ECT (p = 0.007) but similar to the ARC. Both ECT and ARC elicited lower maximal HR values compared with maximal TML exercise (p = 0.0001). No difference was observed between ECT and ARC for VO2 during the submaximal exercise bouts (p > 0.05). However, HR was greater during submaximal ECT exercise (p < 0.0001). Perception of discomfort was not different between ECT and ARC for knees (p > 0.05) and lower back (p > 0.05) but different for the hips (p = 0.02). Similar VO2max values were observed with ARC and TML modalities. Greater perceptions of discomfort were observed with ECT compared with ARC at similar submaximal exercise intensities, suggesting individuals with, or at risk for, lower-extremity joint pathology may benefit from exercise with modalities other than the ECT. PMID:20093957

  16. Physical exercise modulates the level of serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giganti, Maria Gabriella; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Sorge, Roberto; Melchiorri, Giovanni; Triossi, Tamara; Masuelli, Laura; Lido, Paolo; Albonici, Loredana; Foti, Calogero; Modesti, Andrea; Bei, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exhibit an important function in extracellular matrix degradation. MMPs modulate the activation of growth factors, cytokines and metastasis. At present, the effect of exercise on serum levels of MMP-2 and −9 remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various physical activities on the circulating levels of MMP-2 and −9 in breast cancer (BC) survivors and healthy subjects. A total of 66 female subjects were enrolled in the present study. The cohort included 46 BC survivors and 20 healthy subjects divided into 5 groups: Group A (17 BC survivors, participating in recreational dragon boat paddling), group B (14 BC survivors, participating in recreational physical activity), group C (15 sedentary BC survivors), group D (10 healthy subjects, participating in recreational physical activity) and group E (10 sedentary healthy subjects). ELISA assays revealed a significant increase in the level of circulating MMP-2 in group B compared with all other groups. Recreational physical activity increased the levels of MMP-9 in healthy subjects (group D vs. E), however, the differences were not statistically significant, while in the BC survivor groups the results were opposite, with exercise reducing MMP-9 levels (group B vs. C). Furthermore, a significant increase in MMP-2 was observed in group B lymph node metastasis-positive (N+) subjects compared with group A and C N+ subjects. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that various physical activities modulate the levels of circulating MMP-2 and −9 in BC survivors, and the same exercise program induces a different effect when undertaken by healthy subjects and BC survivors. These results may have important implications with regard to the selection of appropriate physical activities for BC survivors, leading to improvements to their survival and prevention of recurrence, as well as amelioration of physical function, quality of life and fatigue. PMID

  17. Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors, and physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In humans, there are large individual differences in the levels of vagal modulation of resting heart rate (HR). High levels are a recognized index of cardiac health, whereas low levels are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several factors are thought to contribute significantly to this inter-individual variability. While regular physical exercise seems to induce an increase in resting vagal tone, chronic life stress, and psychosocial factors such as negative moods and personality traits appear associated with vagal withdrawal. Preclinical research has been attempting to clarify such relationships and to provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying vagal tone impairment/enhancement. This paper focuses on rat studies that have explored the effects of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise on vagal modulation of resting HR. Results are discussed with regard to: (i) individual differences in resting vagal tone, cardiac stress reactivity and arrhythmia vulnerability; (ii) elucidation of the neurobiological determinants of resting vagal tone. PMID:24715877

  18. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  19. Physical modelling of a surface-wave survey over a laterally varying granular medium with property contrasts and velocity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Bodet, Ludovic; Socco, Laura Valentina; Mourgues, Régis; Tournat, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory experiments using laser-based ultrasonic techniques can be used to simulate seismic surveys on highly controlled small-scale physical models of the subsurface. Most of the time, such models consist in assemblies of homogeneous and consolidated materials. To enable the physical modelling of unconsolidated, heterogeneous and porous media, the use of granular materials is suggested here. We describe a simple technique to build a two-layer physical model characterized by lateral variations, strong property contrasts and velocity gradients. We use this model to address the efficiency of an innovative surface-wave processing technique developed to retrieve 2-D structures from a limited number of receivers. A step by step inversion procedure of the extracted dispersion curves yields accurate results so that the 2-D structure of the physical model is satisfactorily reconstructed. The velocity gradients within each layer are accurately retrieved as well, confirming current theoretical and experimental studies regarding guided surface acoustic modes in unconsolidated granular media.

  20. Contrastive Semantics of Physical Activity Verbs: "Cutting" and "Chopping" in English, Polish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the contrastive lexical semantics of verbs comparable to "cut" and "chop" in three languages (English, Polish, and Japanese), using the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) technique of semantic analysis. It proposes a six-part semantic template, and argues that this template can serve as a basis for a lexical typology of…

  1. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  2. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise. PMID:25153683

  3. Effects of an over-the-counter vented mouthguard on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and physical agility.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen P; Willauer, Thomas J; Balilionis, Gytis; Wilson, Laura E; Salley, John T; Bailey, Elizabeth K; Strickland, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Many athletes avoid using mouthguards because they believe that they impair their ability to breath and negatively affect performance. Recently, some manufacturers have developed "vented" mouthguards (VentMGs) to address this concern. The purposes of this investigation were to describe the impact of a commercially available "vented" boil-and-bite mouthguard on the physiological responses to graded exercise and to determine whether the use of the same mouthguard influences performance during traditional physical agility tests. Recreationally trained males (n = 15) (age = 24 ± 1 year; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 43.5 ± 1.9 ml·kg·min; body mass index = 25.2 ± 0.9) completed 3 randomly assigned trials where they wore no mouthguard (control), a traditional mouthguard (TradMG), or a VentMG. During each trial, subjects completed a modified maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a series of physical agility tests (40-m dash, vertical leap, broad jump, 3-cone drill, and shuttle run). No differences were seen between control and the TradMG in any cardiorespiratory measures at any time during the maximal exercise test. Ventilation and blood lactate were lower (p ≤ 0.05) during VentMG at 200 W and at MAX; however, no differences in (Equation is included in full-text article.)were observed. Although TradMG had no impact on physical agility, VentMG produced a higher (1.9 cm; p = 0.03) vertical leap than control. Both mouthguard conditions negatively affected perceptions of breathability, comfort, and ability to communicate, but no differences existed between the 2 conditions. These findings confirm that TradMG has no negative impact on physiological function during exercise and physical agility; however, VentMG may have a positive impact at higher workload and on vertical leap. PMID:25264671

  4. Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, I; Santos-Alves, E; Balça, M M; Rizo-Roca, D; Moreira, P I; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-20

    We here investigate the effects of two exercise modalities (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) on the brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics, permeability transition pore (mPTP), oxidative stress, as well as on proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and quality control. Eighteen male rats were assigned to sedentary-SED, TM and FW groups. Behavioral alterations and ex vivo brain mitochondrial function endpoints were assessed. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, including the adenine nucleotide translocator), oxidative stress markers and regulatory proteins (SIRT3, p66shc, UCP2, carbonyls, MDA, -SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD), as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, TFAM) were evaluated. Apoptotic signaling was measured through quantifying caspase 3, 8 and 9-like activities, Bax, Bcl2, CypD, and cofilin expression. Mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1/2, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (LC3II, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, p62)-related proteins were also measured by Western blotting. Only the TM exercise group showed increased spontaneous alternation and exploratory activity. Both exercise regimens improved mitochondrial respiratory activity, increased OXPHOS complexes I, III and V subunits in both brain subareas and decreased oxidative stress markers. Increased resistance to mPTP and decreased apoptotic signaling were observed in the brain cortex from TM and in the cerebellum from TM and FW groups. Also, exercise increased the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and fusion, simultaneous with decreased expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein DRP1. In conclusion, physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial function, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptotic related markers. It is also possible that favorable alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy signaling induced by exercise

  5. Effects of acute physical exercise on hepatocyte volume and function in rat.

    PubMed

    Latour, M G; Brault, A; Huet, P M; Lavoie, J M

    1999-05-01

    The goal of the present experiment was to measure the volume of the different compartments in liver of exercised rats and to get some insights into the appropriate working of the hepatic function following exercise. Hence, livers from male rats were isolated and perfused after treadmill exercise or rest. This procedure was performed on rats that were overnight semifasted (50% food restriction) or well fed. To evaluate the hepatocyte cell volume, the multiple-indicator dilution curve technique was used after 40 min of perfusion. Radioactive tracers for red blood cells, sucrose, and water were used to measure liver vascular space, liver interstitial space, and water cellular space, respectively. The hepatocyte function was assessed by taurocholate and propanolol clearance. Oxygen consumption, intrahepatic resistance, bile secretion, and lactate dehydrogenase release estimated liver viability. Liver viability and hepatocyte function were not changed following exercise either in the fed or in the semifasted animals. As expected, liver glycogen levels were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in the food-restricted rats. Consequently, liver glycogen levels following exercise were decreased significantly (P < 0.01) only in the fed rats. Despite this, exercise decreased the hepatocyte water space in both food-restricted and fed groups ( approximately 15%; P < 0.01) without altering the sinusoidal and interstitial space. The present data show that acute exercise decreased the hepatocyte volume and that this volume change is not entirely linked to a decrease in hepatic glycogen level. PMID:10233015

  6. The effect of physical exercise on orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and its role on long-term feeding control.

    PubMed

    Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Putt, David A; Santos, Júlia Matzenbacher

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, life-styles changing have led to exacerbated food and caloric intake and a reduction in energy expenditure. Obesity, main outcome of these changes, increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, the leading cause of death in adult and middle age population. Body weight and energy homeostasis are maintained via complex interactions between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides that take place predominantly in the hypothalamus. Overeating may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, by decreasing the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and increasing orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which leads to a disturbance in appetite control and energy balance. Studies have shown that regular physical exercise might decrease body-weight, food intake and improve the metabolic profile, however until the currently there is no consensus about its effects on the expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides expression. Therefore, we propose that the type and length of physical exercise affect POMC/αMSH and NPY/AgRP systems differently and plays an important role in feeding behavior. Moreover, based on the present reports, we hypothesize that increased POMC/αMSH overcome NPY/AgRP expression decreasing food intake in long term physical exercise and that results in amelioration of several conditions related to overweight and obesity. PMID:27372853

  7. Assessment of Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Stages of Change in College Students Using a Street-Based Survey Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.; Silver, Lorraine Wallace; White, Susan L.; Buckworth, Janet; Sherman, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change for exercise behavior among college students at a large midwestern university using a street-based survey method. The 50% response rate produced 925 student responses comprising 95% as young ([less than or equal to]24 years of age), 53% female, and 79%…

  8. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  9. High contrast Kr gas jet Kα x-ray source for high energy density physics experimentsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugland, N. L.; Neumayer, P.; Döppner, T.; Chung, H.-K.; Constantin, C. G.; Girard, F.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kemp, A.; Niemann, C.

    2008-10-01

    A high contrast 12.6keV Kr Kα source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility using strongly clustering Kr gas jet targets. The contrast ratio (Kα to continuum) is 65, with a competitive ultrashort pulse laser to x-ray conversion efficiency of 10-5. Filtered shadowgraphy indicates that the Kr Kα and Kβ x rays are emitted from a roughly 1×2mm2 emission volume, making this source suitable for area backlighting and scattering. Spectral calculations indicate a typical bulk electron temperature of 50-70eV (i.e., mean ionization state 13-16), based on the observed ratio of Kα to Kβ. Kr gas jets provide a debris-free high energy Kα source for time-resolved diagnosis of dense matter.

  10. Physical characteristics of lanthanide complexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-02-01

    Rapid water exchange is normally considered a prerequisite for efficient Gd 3+-based MRI contrast agents. Yet recent measures of exchange rates in some Gd 3+ complexes have shown that water exchange can become limiting when such complexes are attached to larger macromolecular structures. A new class of lanthanide complexes that display unusually slow water exchange (bound water lifetimes ( τM298) > 10 μs) has recently been reported. This apparent disadvantage may be taken advantage of by switching the metal ion from gadolinium(III) to a lanthanide that shifts the bound water resonance substantially away from bulk water. Given appropriate water exchange kinetics, one can then alter the intensity of the bulk water signal by selective presaturation of this highly shifted, Ln3+-bound water resonance. This provides the basis of a new method to alter MR image contrast in tissue. We have synthesized a variety of DOTA-tetra(amide) ligands to evaluate as potential magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents and found that the bound water lifetimes in these complexes are sensitive to both ligand structure (a series of Eu 3+ complexes have τM298 values that range from 1 to 1300 μs) and the identity of the paramagnetic Ln3+ cation (from 3 to 800 μs for a single ligand). This demonstrates that it may be possible either to fine-tune the ligand structure or to select proper lanthanide cation to create an optimal MT agent for any clinical imaging field.

  11. Both Physical Exercise and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Reduce the Facing-the-Viewer Bias in Biological Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide

  12. Proteomic responses of skeletal and cardiac muscle to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regular exercise is effective in the prevention of chronic diseases and confers a lower risk of death in individuals displaying risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Thus, knowledge of the molecular responses to exercise provides a valuable contrast for interpreting investigations of disease and can highlight novel therapeutic targets. While exercise is an everyday experience and can be conceptualized in simple terms, exercise is a complex physiological phenomena and investigation of exercise responses requires sophisticated analytical techniques and careful standardization of the exercise stimulus. Proteomic investigation of exercise is in its infancy but the ability to link changes in function with comprehensive changes in protein expression and post-translational modification holds great promise for advancing physiology. This review highlights recent pioneering work investigating the effects of exercise in skeletal and cardiac muscle that has uncovered novel mechanisms underling the benefits of physical activity. PMID:21679117

  13. Inductive plethysmography potential as a surrogate for ventilatory measurements during rest and moderate physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Pantoni, Camila B. F.; Mendes, Renata G.; Trimer, Renata; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Portable respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) systems have been validated for ventilatory assessment during resting conditions and during incremental treadmill exercise. However, in clinical settings and during field-based exercise, intensity is usually constant and submaximal. A demonstration of the ability of RIP to detect respiratory measurements accurately during constant intensity conditions would promote and validate the routine use of portable RIP devices as an alternative to ergospirometry (ES), the current gold standard technique for ventilatory measures. Objective: To investigate the agreement between respiratory variables recorded by a portable RIP device and by ES during rest and constant intensity exercise. Method: Tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (VE) were concurrently acquired by portable RIP and ES in seven healthy male volunteers during standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise. Results: Significant agreement was found between RIP and ES acquisitions during the standing rest position and constant intensity treadmill exercise for RR and during the standing rest position for VE. Conclusion: Our results suggest that portable RIP devices might represent a suitable alternative to ES during rest and during constant submaximal exercise. PMID:26982454

  14. Comparing and contrasting different methods for probing student epistemology and epistemological development in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaskey, Timothy L.

    In this dissertation, I perform and compare three different studies of introductory physics students' epistemological views -- their views about the nature of knowledge and how it is learned. Physics education research (PER) shows that epistemological views affect how students learn, so they are important to understand and diagnose. The first study uses a Likert-scale instrument, adapted from the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey, designed to assess to what extent students see physics knowledge as coherent (rather than piecemeal), conceptual (rather than just formulas), and constructed (rather than absorbed). Using this survey, I documented several results, including that (i) a large lecture class can produce favorable changes in students' epistemological views, at least in the context of the class, and (ii) teaching a rushed modern physics unit at the end of an introductory sequence can lead to negative epistemological effects. The second study uses the Force Concept Inventory with modified instructions: students indicated both the answer they think a scientist would give and the answer that makes the most sense to them personally. A "split" between these two answers shows that the student does not think she has reconciled her common sense with the formal physics concepts. This study showed that attention to reconciliation in a course allows students to see initially-counterintuitive ideas as making sense. Finally, I did a detailed study of one student by (i) watching video of her in tutorial, where she and three other students answered a structured series of conceptual and quantitative physics questions, (ii) formulating interviews based largely on what I observed in the video, and (iii) interviewing her while the tutorial was still fresh in her head. I repeated this cycle every week for a semester. I found that her tendency to focus on the multiple and ambiguous meanings of words like "force" hampered her ability to reconcile physics concepts with common sense

  15. Development of an exercise intervention to improve cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia: Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) Trial, registration ISRCTN32612072.

    PubMed

    Brown, Deborah; Spanjers, Katie; Atherton, Nicky; Lowe, Janet; Stonehewer, Louisa; Bridle, Chris; Sheehan, Bart; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    More than 800000 people in the UK have dementia, and it is a government priority to improve dementia care. Drug treatment options are relatively limited. The Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) study is a randomised trial which targets cognition in people with dementia, using an exercise programme. There is evidence to suggest that both aerobic and resistance exercise may be useful in improving cognition. Hence the intervention comprises a supervised part of twice-weekly exercise classes of one hour duration for 4 months, including aerobic exercise at moderate intensity on static bicycles, and resistance (weight training) exercise using weight vests, weight belts and dumbbells. Thereafter participants progress to unsupervised, independent exercise. Aids to behaviour modification have been incorporated into the intervention. The DAPA intervention has been designed to maximise likelihood of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and for delivery in the UK National Health Service. PMID:25724322

  16. Spatial contrasts of seasonal and intraflock broiler litter trace gas emissions, physical and chemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive mitigation strategies for gaseous emissions from broiler operations require knowledge of litter physical and chemical properties, gas evolution, bird effects as well as broiler house management and type of structure. This research estimated broiler litter surface gas flux for ammonia ...

  17. Contrasting Effects of Physical Wear on Elution of Two Antibiotics from Orthopedic Cement

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, S.; Akid, R.; Stephenson, J.; Nichol, T.; Banerjee, R. D.; Stockley, I.; Townsend, R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as a supplement to bone cement for the purposes of providing a local release of antibiotics is common practice in arthroplasty surgery and the kinetics of elution of the antibiotics in such systems have been investigated previously. However, in these previous studies no account was taken of the potential effects that wear may have on the elution kinetics of the antibiotic. Here, we have modified an existing wear testing rig to allow the simultaneous study of the elution kinetics of bone cement samples containing antibiotics being subjected to immersion only and immersion and conjoint wear. The results show contrasting effects with two commonly used antibiotics. Bone cement containing daptomycin showed no substantial change in antibiotic elution due to wear, while cement containing gentamicin (the most commonly used antibiotic in this application) in contrast demonstrated a substantial reduction in the rate of antibiotic elution when wear was applied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a possible explanation for these diverse results, due to wear-induced “sealing” of the surface in conjunction with the crystal morphology of the antibiotic. PMID:22155831

  18. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on pain in healthcare workers: study protocol for a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal pain is considerable among healthcare workers, allegedly due to high physical work demands of healthcare work. Previous investigations have shown promising results of physical exercise for relieving pain among different occupational groups, but the question remains whether such physical exercise should be performed at the workplace or conducted as home-based exercise. Performing physical exercise at the workplace together with colleagues may be more motivating for some employees and thus increase adherence. On the other hand, physical exercise performed during working hours at the workplace may be costly for the employers in terms of time spend. Thus, it seems relevant to compare the efficacy of workplace- versus home-based training on musculoskeletal pain. This study is intended to investigate the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain among healthcare workers. Methods/Design This study was designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial performed at 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Clusters are hospital departments and hospital units. Cluster randomization was chosen to increase adherence and avoid contamination between interventions. Two hundred healthcare workers from 18 departments located at three different hospitals is allocated to 10 weeks of 1) workplace based physical exercise performed during working hours (using kettlebells, elastic bands and exercise balls) for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions, or 2) home based physical exercise performed during leisure time (using elastic bands and body weight exercises) for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Both intervention groups will also receive ergonomic instructions on patient handling and use of lifting aides etc. Inclusion criteria are female healthcare workers working at a hospital. Average pain intensity (VAS scale 0-10) of the back, neck and shoulder

  19. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Neil A.; Ford, Matthew P.; Standaert, David G.; Watts, Ray L.; Bickel, C. Scott; Moellering, Douglas R.; Tuggle, S. Craig; Williams, Jeri Y.; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P < 0.05) to exercise training in PD included myofiber hypertrophy (type I: +14%, type II: +36%), shift to less fatigable myofiber type profile, and increased mitochondrial complex activity in both subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar fractions (I: +45–56%, IV: +39–54%). These adaptations were accompanied by a host of functional and clinical improvements (P < 0.05): total body strength (+30–56%); leg power (+42%); single leg balance (+34%); sit-to-stand motor unit activation requirement (−30%); 6-min walk (+43 m), Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQ-39, −7.8pts); Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total (−5.7 pts) and motor (−2.7 pts); and fatigue severity (−17%). Additionally, PD subjects in the pretraining state were compared with a group of matched, non-PD controls (CON; did not exercise). A combined assessment of muscle tissue phenotype and neuromuscular function revealed a higher distribution and larger cross-sectional area of type I myofibers and greater type II myofiber size heterogeneity in PD vs. CON (P < 0.05). In conclusion, persons with moderately advanced PD adapt to high-intensity exercise training with favorable changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception. PMID:24408997

  20. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group). After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0), 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1), and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2). The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance and satisfaction with the

  1. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2009-09-21

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360 degrees arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution. PMID:19700816

  2. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  3. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity on Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rebecca; Bloxham, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a major health issue in Western countries and 60%–80% of adults are likely to experience low back pain. This paper explores the impact of back pain on society and the role of physical activity for treatment of non-specific low back pain. A review of the literature was carried out using the databases SPORTDiscuss, Medline and Google Scholar. A general exercise programme that combines muscular strength, flexibility and aerobic fitness is beneficial for rehabilitation of non-specific chronic low back pain. Increasing core muscular strength can assist in supporting the lumbar spine. Improving the flexibility of the muscle-tendons and ligaments in the back increases the range of motion and assists with the patient’s functional movement. Aerobic exercise increases the blood flow and nutrients to the soft tissues in the back, improving the healing process and reducing stiffness that can result in back pain. PMID:27417610

  4. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A S R; Kunstetter, A C; Damasceno, W C; Wanner, S P

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training. PMID:27191606

  5. Involvement of the TRPV1 channel in the modulation of spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance and physical exercise-induced physiological responses

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, A.S.R.; Kunstetter, A.C.; Damasceno, W.C.; Wanner, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise triggers coordinated physiological responses to meet the augmented metabolic demand of contracting muscles. To provide adequate responses, the brain must receive sensory information about the physiological status of peripheral tissues and organs, such as changes in osmolality, temperature and pH. Most of the receptors involved in these afferent pathways express ion channels, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are usually activated by more than one type of stimulus and are therefore considered polymodal receptors. Among these TRP channels, the TRPV1 channel (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 or capsaicin receptor) has well-documented functions in the modulation of pain sensation and thermoregulatory responses. However, the TRPV1 channel is also expressed in non-neural tissues, suggesting that this channel may perform a broad range of functions. In this review, we first present a brief overview of the available tools for studying the physiological roles of the TRPV1 channel. Then, we present the relationship between the TRPV1 channel and spontaneous locomotor activity, physical performance, and modulation of several physiological responses, including water and electrolyte balance, muscle hypertrophy, and metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory responses. Altogether, the data presented herein indicate that the TPRV1 channel modulates many physiological functions other than nociception and thermoregulation. In addition, these data open new possibilities for investigating the role of this channel in the acute effects induced by a single bout of physical exercise and in the chronic effects induced by physical training. PMID:27191606

  6. Physical exercise and sarcopenia in older people: position paper of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Medicine (OrtoMed)

    PubMed Central

    Iolascon, Giovanni; Di Pietro, Gioconda; Gimigliano, Francesca; Mauro, Giulia Letizia; Moretti, Antimo; Giamattei, Maria Teresa; Ortolani, Sergio; Tarantino, Umberto; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. It is a major clinical problem for older people and research in understanding of pathogenesis, clinical consequences, management, and socioeconomic burden of this condition is growing exponentially. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial, including inflammation, insulin resistance, changing endocrine function, chronic diseases, nutritional deficiencies and low levels of physical activity. Operational definition of sarcopenia combines assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be based on having a low appendicular fat free mass in combination with low handgrip strength or poor physical functioning. Imaging techniques used for estimating lean body mass are computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, the latter considered as the preferred method in research and clinical use. Pharmacological interventions have shown limited efficacy in counteracting the age-related skeletal muscle wasting. Recent evidence suggests physical activity and exercise, in particular resistance training, as effective intervention strategies to slow down sarcopenia. The Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Medicine (Or-toMed) provides this position paper to present the update on the role of exercise on sarcopenia in the elderly. PMID:25568656

  7. Exercise Improves Physical Function and Mental Health of Brain Cancer Survivors: Two Exploratory Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Levin, Gregory T; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Singh, Favil; Tsoi, Daphne; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Background Malignant brain tumors are unpredictable and incurable, with 5-year survival rates less than 30%. The poor prognosis combined with intensive treatment necessitates the inclusion of complementary and supportive therapies that optimize quality of life and reduce treatment-related declines in health. Exercise therapy has been shown to be beneficial in other cancer populations, but no evidence is available for brain cancer survivors. Therefore, we report results from 2 preliminary cases. Methods Two female patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendroglioma participated in a structured and supervised 12-week exercise program. The program consisted of two 1-hour resistance and aerobic exercise sessions per week and additional self-managed aerobic sessions. Outcome measures of strength, cardiovascular fitness, and several psychological indicators (depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were recorded at baseline, after 6 weeks and at the conclusion of the intervention. Results Exercise was well tolerated; both participants completed all 24 sessions and the home-based component with no adverse effects. Objective outcome measures displayed positive responses relating to reduced morbidity. Similar positive responses were found for psychological outcomes. Scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale showed clinically meaningful improvements in depression and total distress. Conclusion These findings provide initial evidence that, despite the difficulties associated with brain cancer treatment and survivorship, exercise may be safe and beneficial and should be considered in the overall management of patients with brain cancer. PMID:26276806

  8. Epigenetic alterations in hippocampus of SAMP8 senescent mice and modulation by voluntary physical exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Alvarez-López, María J.; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F.; Bayod, Sergi; Sanfeliu, Coral; Pallàs, Merce; Escorihuela, Rosa M.; Kaliman, Perla

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse model displays features of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. With the purpose of identifying potential epigenetic markers involved in aging and neurodegeneration, here we analyzed the expression of 84 mature miRNAs, the expression of histone-acetylation regulatory genes and the global histone acetylation in the hippocampus of 8-month-old SAMP8 mice, using SAMR1 mice as control. We also examined the modulation of these parameters by 8 weeks of voluntary exercise. Twenty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed between sedentary SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and seven miRNAs were responsive to exercise in both strains. SAMP8 mice showed alterations in genes involved in protein acetylation homeostasis such as Sirt1 and Hdac6 and modulation of Hdac3 and Hdac5 gene expression by exercise. Global histone H3 acetylation levels were reduced in SAMP8 compared with SAMR1 mice and reached control levels in response to exercise. In sum, data presented here provide new candidate epigenetic markers for aging and neurodegeneration and suggest that exercise training may prevent or delay some epigenetic alterations associated with accelerated aging. PMID:24688469

  9. Epigenetic alterations in hippocampus of SAMP8 senescent mice and modulation by voluntary physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Alvarez-López, María J; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Bayod, Sergi; Sanfeliu, Coral; Pallàs, Merce; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Kaliman, Perla

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse model displays features of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. With the purpose of identifying potential epigenetic markers involved in aging and neurodegeneration, here we analyzed the expression of 84 mature miRNAs, the expression of histone-acetylation regulatory genes and the global histone acetylation in the hippocampus of 8-month-old SAMP8 mice, using SAMR1 mice as control. We also examined the modulation of these parameters by 8 weeks of voluntary exercise. Twenty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed between sedentary SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and seven miRNAs were responsive to exercise in both strains. SAMP8 mice showed alterations in genes involved in protein acetylation homeostasis such as Sirt1 and Hdac6 and modulation of Hdac3 and Hdac5 gene expression by exercise. Global histone H3 acetylation levels were reduced in SAMP8 compared with SAMR1 mice and reached control levels in response to exercise. In sum, data presented here provide new candidate epigenetic markers for aging and neurodegeneration and suggest that exercise training may prevent or delay some epigenetic alterations associated with accelerated aging. PMID:24688469

  10. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  11. Evidence for the involvement of the CXCL12 system in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth. PMID:27237374

  12. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. PMID:27012392

  13. Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling and Myocardial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, C.; Gimenes, R.; Rosa, C. M.; Xavier, N. P.; Campos, D. H. S.; Fernandes, A. A. H.; Cezar, M. D. M.; Guirado, G. N.; Cicogna, A. C.; Takamoto, A. H. R.; Okoshi, M. P.; Okoshi, K.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on cardiac remodeling and myocardial function in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary diabetes (DM-Sed), and exercised diabetes (DM-Ex). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats exercised for 9 weeks in treadmill at 11 m/min, 18 min/day. Myocardial function was evaluated in left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles and oxidative stress in LV tissue. Statistical analysis was given by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis. Echocardiogram showed diabetic groups with higher LV diastolic diameter-to-body weight ratio and lower posterior wall shortening velocity than controls. Left atrium diameter was lower in DM-Ex than DM-Sed (C-Sed: 5.73 ± 0.49; C-Ex: 5.67 ± 0.53; DM-Sed: 6.41 ± 0.54; DM-Ex: 5.81 ± 0.50 mm; P < 0.05 DM-Sed vs C-Sed and DM-Ex). Papillary muscle function was depressed in DM-Sed compared to C-Sed. Exercise attenuated this change in DM-Ex. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower in diabetics than controls and higher in DM-Ex than DM-Sed. Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in DM-Sed than C-Sed and DM-Ex. Conclusion. Low intensity exercise attenuates left atrium dilation and myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction in type 1 diabetic rats. PMID:26509175

  14. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  15. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  16. Effects of a physical exercise session on state body image: The influence of pre-experimental body dissatisfaction and concerns about weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Vocks, S; Hechler, T; Rohrig, S; Legenbauer, T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of a physical exercise session on state body image and mood were examined. In a cross-over design, participants were randomised to two groups starting either with physical exercise (PE; experimental condition) or with reading a newspaper (RN; control condition). Before and after PE and RN, participants (N = 65) rated their body dimensions using a digital photo distortion technique and indicated their attitudinal body image and mood. Participants' judgements of their 'felt' body dimensions and attitudes toward their own body were affected differently by PE and RN, indicating that participants felt slightly slimmer and were more satisfied with their bodies after PE. Exercise-induced changes in body perception were greater, the higher the pre-experimental drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concerns were. Especially in those participants with higher body image disturbances, physical exercise can have a reinforcing effect on immediate body image and mood improvement. PMID:20205022

  17. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  18. The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical